Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Glucose in blood.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
Abstaining from all food.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The pocket structure is beneficial for recognition of monosaccharide like glucose. The cleft is allows for binding of sugars to ... The tunnel allows for the enzyme to attach to polysaccharide and then release product while still attached to the sugar. The ... Depending on the what the enzyme is reacting with the end product will be one or two glucose molecules. Humans are unable to ... In the case of the Christmas Island red crab beta glucosidase not only produces glucose, but also removes cellobiose. This is ...
Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Monosaccharides include glucose, ... Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... of total body glucose consumption. The brain uses mostly glucose for energy; if glucose is insufficient however, it switches to ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ...
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... Dietary fibre is a carbohydrate (polysaccharide or oligosaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in some animals. Proteins are ... A few amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis; this ...
A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide as is fructose. When combined in the way that the image to the right depicts, sucrose ... The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide which contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio under a ...
Important polysaccharides, links of many monosaccharides, are cellulose, starch, and chitin. Cellulose is a polysaccharide made ... Common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and ribose. When linked together monosaccharides can form disaccharides, ... Starch is also a polysaccharide made up of glucose monomers; however, they are connected via an alpha 1-4 linkage instead of ... oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides: the nomenclature is dependent on the number of monosaccharides linked together. Common ...
... and most importantly glucose. Monosaccharides can be linked together to form polysaccharides in almost limitless ways. The two ... simple organic acids can be converted into monosaccharides such as glucose and then used to assemble polysaccharides such as ... Polysaccharides and glycans are made by the sequential addition of monosaccharides by glycosyltransferase from a reactive sugar ... as well as glycoside hydrolases that digest polysaccharides into simple sugars known as monosaccharides Microbes simply secrete ...
Glucose is a hexose: a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms. The two glucose units are in the pyranose form and are ... Carbohydrates are generally divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides depending on the number of ... Like glucose, maltose is a reducing sugar, because the ring of one of the two glucose units can open to present a free aldehyde ... is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose ...
... beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 ... In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble because of its (1→4)-beta-D- ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ...
... glucose) units linked together. However, disaccharides, as well as longer polysaccharides (up to nine glucose units), are also ... The majority of oligosaccharides found in IMO consist of three to six monosaccharide ( ... In fact, it has been shown that these IMO preparations behave similarly to glucose syrup with respect to blood glucose ... Nondigestible oligo-and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): Their physiology and role in human health and food. Compr Rev Food Sci ...
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ... Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of ...
The hydrolysis of polysaccharides to soluble sugars can be recognized as saccharification. Malt made from barley is used as a ... Monosaccharides can be linked together by glycosidic bonds, which can be cleaved by hydrolysis. Two, three, several or many ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... Ruminants such as cows are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria that ...
Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars", the most important being glucose. Most monosaccharides have a formula that ... Longer chains of monosaccharides are not regarded as sugars, and are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Starch is a ... Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6. They have five ... Glucose syrup is a liquid form of glucose that is widely used in the manufacture of foodstuffs. It can be manufactured from ...
The monosaccharides are "single sugars", such as glucose and fructose. The disaccharides are two monosaccharides joined ... The vast majority of polysaccharides are polymers of glucose, and are of two types: starch and cellulose. Starch is the white ... Table sugar (cane sugar) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. The polysaccharides are made from many monosaccharids ...
Cellulases break down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides ("simple sugars") such as beta-glucose, or shorter ... polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. These simple sugars are not harmful to the environment and are in fact are a useful ...
Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms. For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers ( ... Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may ... Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Examples are ... converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose, using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not ...
Commonly, fungi grow on carbon-rich substrates like monosaccharides (such as glucose) and polysaccharides (such as amylose). ... including glucose oxidase, lysozyme, and lactase. In these instances, the culture is rarely grown on a solid substrate, ...
... glucose, galactose and mannose. Glucuronic acid, a carbohydrate with a similar structure to glucose, is located specifically in ... The monosaccharide glucosamine was found only in the intracellular regions of M. plumbeus. Mucor plumbeus has the ability to ... A range of polysaccharides have been found in the extracellular and intracellular compartments of M. plumbeus including fucose ...
Similarly, most polysaccharides have only one reducing end. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars because they either have an ... The common dietary monosaccharides galactose, glucose and fructose are all reducing sugars. Disaccharides are formed from two ... All monosaccharides are reducing sugars, along with some disaccharides, some oligosaccharides, and some polysaccharides. The ... In glucose polymers such as starch and starch-derivatives like glucose syrup, maltodextrin and dextrin the macromolecule begins ...
... and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex polysaccharides) forms what are called glycosidic bonds. The glycosidic bond ... is a disaccharide made by condensation of one molecule of each of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose, whereas the ... The joining of monosaccharides into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a ... This results in neither monosaccharide being left with a hemiacetal unit that is free to act as a reducing agent. Sucrose and ...
... and polysaccharides are cleaved first to smaller monosaccharides by enzymes called glycoside hydrolases. The monosaccharide ... Monosaccharides are the major fuel source for metabolism, being used both as an energy source (glucose being the most important ... Monosaccharides can be linked together into what are called polysaccharides (or oligosaccharides) in a large variety of ways. ... Two joined monosaccharides are called a disaccharide and these are the simplest polysaccharides. Examples include sucrose and ...
Photosynthesis or gluconeogenesis → monosaccharidespolysaccharides (cellulose, chitin, glycogen etc.) Acetate pathway → ... He also succeeded to make synthetically in the laboratory in a variety of carbohydrates, including glucose and mannose. After ... In addition, polysaccharides formed from simpler carbohydrates are important structural components of many organisms such the ... This triose in turn may be converted into glucose (a six carbon atom containing sugar) or a variety of pentoses (five carbon ...
EC 2.4 transferases that is involved in biosynthesis of disaccharides and polysaccharides through transfer of monosaccharides ... Its primary action is to produce lactose from glucose and UDP-galactose. This occurs via the following pathway: UDP-β-D- ... In 1953, the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was shown to be a transferase, when it was found that it could reversibly ... galactose + D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + lactose. EC 2.5 relates to enzymes that transfer alkyl or ...
... monosaccharides (e.g., glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose) and the disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, maltose, lactose). Glucose ... There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose), ... The reaction of glucose with oxygen releasing energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important ... For the glucose molecule to oxidize into pyruvate, an input of ATP molecules is required. This is known as the investment phase ...
... such as glucose tablets. Since the drug will prevent the digestion of polysaccharides (or non-monosaccharides), non- ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. Acarbose also blocks pancreatic alpha-amylase in ... monosaccharides) by alpha-glucosidase enzymes present on cells lining the intestine, enabling monosaccharides to be absorbed ...
The most simple carbohydrates are single sugar residues called monosaccharides like glucose, our body's energy delivery ... Oligosaccharides (up to 10 residues) and polysaccharides (up to about 50,000 residues) consist of saccharide residues bonded in ... This is exemplified in sucrose (table sugar) which contains a linkage that is alpha to glucose and beta to fructose. Generally ...
... facilitates the hydrolysis of polysaccharides into simpler sugars called Monosaccharides. Maltase reduces maltose ... γ-Amylase will cleave the last α(1-4)glycosidic linkages at the nonreducing end of amylose and amylopectin, yielding glucose. " ... into glucose: C12H22O11 + H2O → 2C6H12O6 Maltose + Water → α-Glucose α-amylase breaks starch down into maltose and dextrin, by ... Carbohydrases are produced in the pancreas, salivary glands and small intestine, breaking down polysaccharides. This is because ...
... and of the monosaccharide glucose. In terms of nitrogen-rich sources, saprotrophs require combined protein for the creation of ... dead and organic matter provide rich sources of disaccharides and polysaccharides such as maltose and starch, ... Cellulose, a major portion of plant cells, and therefore a major constituent of decaying matter is broken down into glucose ...
These side chains contain three monosaccharide residues. Xanthan lyase is produced by bacteria that degrade this polysaccharide ... glucose) residues. ... Xanthan is a polysaccharide secreted by several different ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. Xanthan lyase ...
... is not an essential nutrient; it can be produced in the human body from glucose, or converted into glucose. Mannose ... Mannose is a dominant monosaccharide in N-linked glycosylation, which is a post-translational modification of proteins. It is ... The digestion of many polysaccharides and glycoproteins yields mannose, which is phosphorylated by hexokinase to generate ... Mannose differs from glucose by inversion of the C-2 chiral center. Mannose displays a 4 C 1 {\displaystyle ^{4}C_{1}} pucker ...
... such as glucose, which can be transported to other cells, or packaged for storage as insoluble polysaccharides such as starch. ... combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, ... glucose (6-carbon). Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate occurs as a ...
Sang Ki Rhee; Alexander Steinbüchel (2005). Polysaccharides and Polyamides in the Food Industry: Properties, Production, and ... Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize ( ... glucose.[4] Glucose syrup is used in foods to sweeten, soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn ... High-maltose glucose syrups[edit]. Main article: High maltose corn syrup. By using β-amylase or fungal α-amylase, glucose ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... Some β-glucan molecules have branching glucose side-chains attached to other positions on the main D-glucose chain, which ... D-glucose polysaccharides are categorized as β-glucans.[4] Cellulose is not conventionally considered a β-glucan, as it is ...
Halimbawa, ang asukal ng dugo ang monosaccharide glucose, ang asukal na panghapagkainan ang disaccharide sucrose at ang asukal ... at polysaccharide. Sa pangkalahatan, ang mga monosaccharides at disaccharide na mga mas maliit(may mas mababang timbang na ... Ang mga polysaccharides ay nagsisilbi para sa pag-iimbak ng enerhiya(e.g., starch at glycogen) at bilang istaktural na bahagi(e ... Ang mga carbohydrate o saccharide ay nahahati sa apat na mga kemikal na pagpapangkat: monosaccharide, disaccharide, ...
Monosaccharides: single sugar e.g. glucose , fructose. *Disaccharides: two saccharides. e.g. sucrose, lactose ... Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. Their function is ...
... beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 ... In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble because of its (1→4)-beta-D- ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ...
A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide as is fructose. When combined in the way that the image to the right depicts, sucrose ... The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide which contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio under a ...
... s break down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides ("simple sugars") such as beta-glucose, or shorter ... Dyed polysaccharide substrates[24][edit]. These substrates can be subdivided into two classes- ... Nelson N (1944). "A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose". J. Biol. Chem. 153: 375-80. ... Cellobiases (EC or beta-glucosidases hydrolyse the exocellulase product into individual monosaccharides. ...
Free monosaccharides are present in mature brown to yellow-green coffee beans. The free part of monosaccharides contains ... In arabica green coffee beans, the content of free glucose was 30 to 38 mg/100g, free fructose 23 to 30 mg/100g; free galactose ... Mature brown to yellow coffee beans contain fewer residues of galactose and arabinose at the side chain of the polysaccharides ... The carbohydrate fraction of green coffee is dominated by polysaccharides, such as arabinogalactan, galactomannan, and ...
Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides.[1]:11 Because monosaccharides have ... Raspberry ellagitannin, a tannin composed of core of glucose units surrounded by gallic acid esters and ellagic acid units ... Polysaccharides perform numerous roles in living organisms, acting as energy stores (e.g. starch) and as structural components ... e.g. chitin in arthropods and fungi). Many carbohydrates contain modified monosaccharide units that have had functional groups ...
PolysaccharidesEdit. Sucrose. The glycoside bond is represented by the central oxygen atom, which holds the two monosaccharide ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... The hydrolysis of polysaccharides to soluble sugars is called "saccharification". Malt made from barley is used as a source of ... Monosaccharides can be linked together by glycosidic bonds, which can be cleaved by hydrolysis. Two, three, several or many ...
ಅನೇಕ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸಕ್ಕರೆಯ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅತೀವವಾಗಿ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಐರೋಪ್ಯ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟ, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಗಳು, ಜಪಾನ್‌‌ ಮತ್ತು ಅನೇಕ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಶೀಲ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸ್ವದೇಶಿ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ ಮತ್ತು ಆಮದುಗಳ ಮೇಲಿನ ಉನ್ನತ ಸುಂಕಪಟ್ಟಿಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ಈ ದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಸಕ್ಕರೆ ಬೆಲೆಗಳು ಅನೇಕವೇಳೆ ಅಂತರರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಬೆಲೆಗಳನ್ನು ಮೂರು ಪಟ್ಟುಗಳಷ್ಟರವರೆಗೆtoday[update] ಮೀರಿಸಿವೆ; ಇಂದು, ವಿಶ್ವ ...
Carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some ... The cells of these yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which helps to prevent them from being recognised ... into more fermentable monosaccharides. Top- and bottom-cropping and cold- and warm-fermenting distinctions are largely ... Yeast is used in winemaking, where it converts the sugars present (glucose and fructose) in grape juice (must) into ethanol. ...
Others, such as maltodextrins or cellodextrins, result from the microbial breakdown of larger polysaccharides such as starch or ... All N-linked Oligosaccharides are pentasaccharides: five monosaccharides long. In N-glycosylation for eukaryotes, the ... of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can have many functions including cell recognition and cell binding.[6] ... where monosaccharide units are added to a complete polypeptide chain. Cell surface proteins and extracellular proteins are O- ...
Polysaccharides are relatively more complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides. They are very ... Cellulose is a polymer made with repeated glucose units. Humans and many other animals do not digest cellulose. Certain animals ... Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ... When all the constituent monosaccharides are of the same type they are termed homopolysaccharides; when more than one type of ...
Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Monosaccharides include glucose, ... Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ...
In humans, dietary starches are composed of glucose units arranged in long chains called amylose, a polysaccharide. During ... Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Most digestive enzymes ... resulting in progressively smaller chains of glucose. This results in simple sugars glucose and maltose (2 glucose molecules) ... Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide lactose to its component parts, glucose and galactose. Glucose and ...
Complex sugars consumed by the organism can be broken down into simpler sugar molecules called monosaccharides such as glucose ... The capsule may be polysaccharide as in pneumococci, meningococci or polypeptide as Bacillus anthracis or hyaluronic acid as in ... Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP),[4] a molecule that possesses readily ... typically pertaining to glucose) to generate ATP. Mitochondria multiply by binary fission, like prokaryotes. Chloroplasts can ...
Polysaccharides. Glucose/Glucan: Glycogen · Starch (Amylose, Amylopectin) · Cellulose · Dextrin/Dextran · Beta-glucan (Zymosan ... Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase ഫ്രക്ടോസ് 6-ഫോസ്ഫേറ്റ് phosphofructokinase-1 Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose-bisphosphate ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Glucose എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ... Monosaccharides. Dioses. Aldodiose (Glycolaldehyde). Trioses. Ketotriose (Dihydroxyacetone) · Aldotriose (Glyceraldehyde). ...
ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Polysaccharide). ମନୋସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Monosaccharide)[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]. ଦ୍ରାକ୍ଷାଶର୍କରା (Glucose) ଉଭୟ ସରଳ ଶିକୁଳି କିମ୍ବା ମୁଦ୍ରିତ ... ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Polysaccharide)[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]. ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (ପଲି ବା poly = ଅନେକ ଓ ସାକାରନ୍ ବା saccharon = ଶର୍କରା) ଅନେକ ଗୁଡ଼ିଏ ... ଦ୍ରାକ୍ଷାଶର୍କରା (Glucose), ଫଳଶର୍କରା (Fructose) ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସରଳ ଶ୍ୱତସାର ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଚୟାପଚୟ (Metabolic) ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାରେ ... ମଣ୍ଡଦ (Starch) ଓ ଗ୍ଲାଇକୋଜେନ୍ (Glycogen) ସଞ୍ଚୟ ଶ୍ରେଣୀର ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ମଣ୍ଡଦ (Starch) ଏକ ...
Polysaccharides. Glucose/Glucan: Glycogen · Starch (Amylose, Amylopectin) · Cellulose · Dextrin/Dextran · Beta-glucan (Zymosan ... Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. ഫ്രക്ടോസ് 6-ഫോസ്ഫേറ്റ്. phosphofructokinase-1. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Fructose-bisphosphate ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Glucose എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്.. ...
For instance, an open-chain molecule of D-glucose rotated so that that the horizontal bonds with C2 are slanted toward the ... "Sugars & Polysaccharides". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07- ... However, when creating a Fischer projection for a monosaccharide with more than three carbons, there's no way to orient the ... Fischer projections are most commonly used in biochemistry and organic chemistry to represent monosaccharides. They can also be ...
Hence the citric acid cycle can start at acetyl-CoA when fat is being broken down for energy if there is little or no glucose ... In the saccharolipids, a monosaccharide substitutes for the glycerol backbone present in glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids ... in extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis (for instance, peptidoglycan polymerization in bacteria), and in eukaryotic ... "Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis". Nature. 444 (7121): 847-53. doi:10.1038/nature05483. PMC ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
In humans and other mammals, sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, by sucrase or ... The glucans and levans (fructose polysaccharides) produced by the plaque bacteria also act as a reserve food supply for the ... It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants ... The rapidity with which sucrose raises blood glucose can cause problems for people suffering from defective glucose metabolism ...
Monosaccharides *Hexoses. *Pentoses. *Polysaccharides *Beta-glucan *Chitin. *Lentinan. *Fructan *Inulins. *Lignin. *Pectin ...
Monosaccharides polymerize to yield polysaccharides. Glucose is a typical monosaccharide. It has two important types of ... This is what you need to know about glucose, not its detailed structure.. Glucose exists mostly in ring structures. ( 5-OH adds ... Monosaccharides can polymerize by elimination of the elements of water. between the anomeric hydroxyl and a hydroxyl of another ... Since most monosaccharides have more than one hydroxyl, branches are possible, and are common. Branches result in a more ...
... and polysaccharides.. Monosaccharides. This is the smallest possible sugar unit. Examples include glucose, galactose, or ... Polysaccharide molecule chains may consist of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides.. Glycogen is a polysaccharide that ... the digestive system breaks some of them down into glucose.This glucose enters the blood and raises blood sugar, or glucose, ... Monosaccharides and disaccharides are simple carbohydrates, and polysaccharides are complex.. Simple carbohydrates are sugars. ...
Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides (simple sugars): ... Monosaccharides are the simplest of all sugars and are a base for all other carbohydrates. Monosaccharides include Glucose, ... Glucose is the most common monosaccharide, and it plays a major role in nutrition because it is a readily available source of ... Polysaccharides: are very large moleculeswhich are formed from many monosaccharides joined together. The four most important ...
Monosaccharides. Disaccharides. Polysaccharides. Glucose. Small, soluble sweet and crystalline. Provides energy via respiration ... glucose and fructose). Glucose. ααα. a-glucose ----- OH at C1 is below the plane of the ring. B-glucose ---- OH at C1 is above ... a-glucose can be broken down, B-glucose cannot. (By plants an animals with enzymes). Stores of potential energy. two a-glucose ... 3-carbon monosaccharides - triose sugars. 5-carbon monosaccharides - pentose sugars. 6-carbon monosaccharides - hexose sugars. ...
the monosaccharides glucose & fructose. *the disaccharide sucrose. *several polysaccharides, such as cellulose and glycogen ... The sugar found in milk, lactose, is a compound sugar which is made from two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Lactase is ...
1. Glucose is a:. A. monosaccharide. B. polypeptide. C. lipid. D. polysaccharide. 2. Which of the following is not a protein?. ... monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monomers called monosaccharides or simple sugars. Polymers called polysaccharides. (5). (7 ... Monosaccharides or polysaccharides? How do you know?. A. Sucrose. B. Glucose. C. Fructose. Examples. Structure. Function. ... 2) Which structures are monosaccharides?. 3) Which structures are polysaccharides?. (8). Short- term or quick energy. ie. ...
A. Carbohydrates --, polysaccharides --, monosaccharide (glucose)*. B. Lipids --, --, glycerol * + fatty acids*. C. Proteins ...
Glucose is a monosaccharide. Maltose is a disaccharide. A chain of glucose units can be combined to make a polysaccharide ... Now, there are six carbon atoms in your basic monosaccharide. But, some Monosaccharides contain only five carbon atoms, four of ... If the sugar is a one-ring system, it is a monosaccharide. If it is a double ring structure, it is a disaccharide. More complex ... One of them, exactly like glucose except for the missing carbon atom and its associated side groups, is called ribose. Another ...
In vivo studies demonstrated that RBPP-P markedly ameliorated insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver steatosis in ... Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by 13C-NMR and ... These findings demonstrated that bee pollen polysaccharide alleviated liver steatosis and insulin resistance by promoting ... Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD ...
Carbohydrates consist of monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides.. 12. Examples of disaccharides are maltose, glucose ... Carbohydrates, often referred to as carbs, are used to make glucose. Glucose is responsible… ...
... glucose (original SZP) or ,90% glucose with no detectable mannose (MP β-glucan). With either of these polysaccharides, ... Monosaccharide analysis 39 of various SZP preparations indicated a homogenous-sized polysaccharide of 5-10 kDa made up of ... Polysaccharides and monosaccharides. A soluble yeast β-glucan (∼20 kDa), both labeled with FITC and unlabeled, was purchased ... Murine and human CR3 exhibited the same specificity for certain polysaccharides containing mannose and NADG, as well as glucose ...
Which chemical group does glucose best fit into? A. monosaccharides B. disaccharides C. polysaccharides D. glycoproteins E. ... Which is a correct description of nucleic acids? A. They are polymers of subunits containing glucose an an amino acids. B. They ... When multiple repeating simple sugar molecules combine to form a larger molecule, it is called a polysaccharide. TRUE ... are polymers of subunits containing glucose, a phosphate group, and an amino acid. C. They are polymers of subunits containing ...
The structure and configuration of glucose. Anomeric forms of monosaccharides. Glycosides. Disaccharides. Polysaccharides. ... Blood Glucose Level Measurement from Breath Analysis. Tayyab Hassan, Talha Rehman, Qasim Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Salman ... Causal Modeling of the Glucose-Insulin System in Type-I Diabetic Patients. J. Fernandez, N. Aguilar, R. Fernandez de Canete, J ... Linear Prediction System in Measuring Glucose Level in Blood. Intan Maisarah Abd Rahim, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali ...
The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Each simple sugar has a cyclic structure and is composed of ... Polysaccharides * Nucleotides Monosaccharides The word monosaccharide is derived from mono, meaning "one", and saccharide, ... Glucose Glucose is the main sugar metabolized by the body for energy. The D-isomer of glucose predominates in nature and it is ... Both galactose and glucose are very stable in solution because they are able to adopt chair and boat conformations. Figure %: ...
1. Monosaccharides. 2. Oligosaccharides. 3. Polysaccharides 1 Two epimers of D-Glucose ... 3. Glucose is polymerized into Dextran which helps attach bacteria to tooth enamel. 4. Dextran can be broken down into glucose ... 1. S. Mutans can cleave Sucrose into Fructose & Glucose. 2. Fructose is used by the bacteria as a source of anaerobic energy. ... It is formed when OH group attached on an Anomeric carbon condenses with a group on another monosaccharide ...
Animations show condensation reactions of amino acids to proteins, fatty acids and glycerol to lipids, and glucose to ... Glucose. A type of sugar: a mono saccharide with 6 carbon atoms (a hexose sugar). ... or polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates often composed of hundreds or thousands of units which form macromolecules). ... Monosaccharides. Single sugars units usually containing 3, 5 or 6 carbon atoms eg glucose ...
... for storage of glucose. 4. Groups of two monomers are called ____ and include _____. 5. These types of molecules are typically ... the answers out Word Bank maltose long-term storage monomers fat polymers immediate energy starch transported polysaccharides ... glucose disaccharides genetic information monosaccharides 1. Carbohydrates exist as either ____ or ____, long chains of ____ ... polysaccharides glucose disaccharides genetic information monosaccharides 1. Carbohydrates exist as either ____ or ____, long ...
When monosaccharides such as glucose, which affects the osmotic pressure of the culture liquid to be stirred, are used in ... polysaccharides, such as dextrin and amylopectin; oligosaccharides, such as maltose and sucrose; and monosaccharides, such as ... Depending on the growth speed of matsutake fungi, matsutake has a period in which monosaccharides such as glucose are ... monosaccharides such as glucose are used. The amount of nitrogen source to be used is in nitrogen equivalent, preferably 0.005 ...
Especially preferred monosaccharides include glucose and fructose. Preferred polysaccharides include sucrose, lactose, maltose ... During glycolysis, glucose or glycogen is first converted to glucose-6-phosphate, requiring phosphorus, and ultimately to ... Such carbohydrates thus include digestible mono-saccharides and polysaccharides. ... Glycolysis is defined as the ATP generation via conversion of glucose or glycogen to lactate. A enhancement of the AWC ...
Monosaccharides or hexoses. glucose, fructose, galactose: energy. Polysaccharides: Starch (plant); Glycogen (animal); energy ...
List three examples for each of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides *Monosaccharide: Glucose, Fructose and ... Disaccharide: Maltose (Glucose + Glucose) and Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose), and lactose.. *Polysaccharide: Starch (made of ... Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides ... Glucose is organic compound that is sometimes used in cell respiration. Chemical reactions break Glucose into a simpler ...
Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part ... The way glucose molecules link together makes them digestible (starch) or non-digestible (fiber). Polysaccharides include the ... Chains of more than ten monosaccharides linked together are called polysaccharides. They may be hundreds and even thousands of ... The body can store just a limited amount of glucose, so when the glycogen stores are full, extra glucose is stored as fat and ...
Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose,... ... Digestible Polysaccharides. The only digestible polysaccharide is starch, which is a large molecule composed simply of glucose ... "Poly" means "many"; polysaccharides are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. Some are digestible by human enzymes, ... Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides ...
Monosaccharide. disaccharide. polysaccharide 14 What is a monosaccharide? Simplest sugar. Glucose. usually cyclic ...
Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms. For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers ( ... Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may ... Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Examples are ... converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose, using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not ...
Carbohydrate molecules include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch).. ... Nutritionally, polysaccharides are favored over monosaccharides because they are more complex and therefore take longer to ... or vitamin H helps the body metabolize proteins and process glucose. It plays a role in the health of the nails, skin, and hair ...
The pocket structure is beneficial for recognition of monosaccharide like glucose. The cleft is allows for binding of sugars to ... The tunnel allows for the enzyme to attach to polysaccharide and then release product while still attached to the sugar. The ... Depending on the what the enzyme is reacting with the end product will be one or two glucose molecules. Humans are unable to ... In the case of the Christmas Island red crab beta glucosidase not only produces glucose, but also removes cellobiose. This is ...
The monosaccharides are "single sugars", such as glucose and fructose. The disaccharides are two monosaccharides joined ... The vast majority of polysaccharides are polymers of glucose, and are of two types: starch and cellulose. Starch is the white ... Table sugar (cane sugar) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. The polysaccharides are made from many monosaccharids ...
A chain of monosaccharides forms a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... the general formula of a monosaccharide is CnH2nOn, where n is a minimum of 3. Glucose and fructose are examples of ... The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, made up of molecules in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms ... Each molecule of sucrose is made up of a combination of one glucose and one fructose molecule. ...
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of Cx ... When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or ... polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units, whereas oligosaccharides contain three to ten monosaccharide units ... Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the ...
  • Examples include glucose, galactose, or fructose. (
  • Bonding one glucose molecule with a galactose molecule produces lactose. (
  • Monosaccharides include Glucose, Fructose and Galactose, and share the chemical formula C6 H12 O6. (
  • The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. (
  • While galactose and glucose are composed of six-membered rings, fructose has only five carbon atoms bonded to each other in ring form. (
  • Galactose is nearly identical to glucose in structure except for one hydroxyl group on carbon atom number four of the six-sided sugar. (
  • Since it differs in only one position about all six asymmetric centers in the linear form of the sugar, galactose is known as an epimer of glucose. (
  • Galactose is not normally found in nature in large quantities, however it combines with glucose to form lactose in milk. (
  • After being absorbed by the body, galactose is converted into glucose by the liver so that it can be used to provide energy for the body. (
  • Both galactose and glucose are very stable in solution because they are able to adopt chair and boat conformations. (
  • CERC-801 is an ultra-pure, oral, crystalline formulation of D-galactose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in dairy products and fruit. (
  • Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose, also known as simple carbohydrates, or sugars. (
  • Other common monosaccharides include galactose and fructose. (
  • Three aldohexoses, d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-galactose, are common in plants, either in the free state or as components of polysaccharide molecules. (
  • Monosaccharides (meaning one saccharide molecule) include fructose, glucose, and galactose. (
  • Example of monosachharides are fructose, glucose and galactose. (
  • E.g. glucose, galactose,ribose 2- Oligosaccharides (oligo = few): contain from two to ten monosaccharide units joined in glycosidic bonds. (
  • The major examples of these are glucose , galactose and fructose . (
  • Glucose and galactose are absorbed via active transport, while fructose is absorbed via facilitated diffusion. (
  • These monosaccharides then enter the capillaries and travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein where hepatocytes metabolize fructose and galactose. (
  • On the other hand, when other carbohydrates are consumed they get broken down into their most elementary form called monosaccharides, which are smaller units of sugar like glucose, fructose, and galactose. (
  • The liver converts fructose and galactose to glucose. (
  • 8. You should be able to draw glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose in Haworth and Fischer projections. (
  • Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharide molecules such as glucose, fructose, and galactose. (
  • Using protocols that were previously established for extraction and analysis of C. neoformans GXM, we recovered a P. brasiliensis glycan fraction composed of mannose and galactose, in addition to small amounts of glucose, xylose and rhamnose. (
  • They are made from monomer monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose, and galactose.Starch is a storage molecule and it can store large amounts of energy. (
  • The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. (
  • SGLT1 is the sodium dependent glucose/galactose transporter on the brush border membrane (BBM). (
  • GLUT2 on the BLM transports glucose, galactose and fructose out of the cell. (
  • Galactose is the least common of monosaccharides and is only found linked to glucose in the disaccharide lactose. (
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, can contain free galactose as part of their carbohydrates because the addition of the enzyme lactase breaks down the lactose into the two monosaccharides it comprises. (
  • When digesting foodstuffs - polysaccharides and disaccharides (complex carbohydrates) are broken down to become monosaccharides (simple sugars - glucose, fructose, galactose). (
  • Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a molar ratio of 223:48:1. (
  • Simple sugar A monomer of a more complex carbohydrate Examples Glucose, fructose, galactose. (
  • a carbohydrate that cannot be broken down to simpler substances by hydrolysis, e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose. (
  • Disaccharides such as sucrose, which are composed of two monosaccharide units, are also sugars. (
  • The disaccharide sucrose (table sugar or cane sugar), for example, consists of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule bound together (see Figure 2). (
  • Each molecule of sucrose is made up of a combination of one glucose and one fructose molecule. (
  • Fruit contains monosaccharides (typically glucose and fructose), a limited amount of the disaccharide sucrose, as well as fiber and some starch. (
  • example for each includes: glucose (monosaccharides), sucrose (disaccharides) and starch (polysaccharides). (
  • Nu, een fructose-molecuul in zijn ringvorm, omdat de meeste suikers in waterige oplossingen zitten, kan zich combineren met een glucose-molecuul, en door middel van dehydratatiesynthese vormen de twee monosachariden een disacharide, zoals sucrose, de gewone zoetstof tafelsuiker. (
  • 2. Any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. (
  • Sucrose, however, is a nonreducing sugar in which the linkage of glucose and fructose masks the potential aldehyde group of glucose and the potential ketone group of fructose, so that no reduction occurs in the Fehling's and Benedict's tests. (
  • Chemically, the term sugars includes sucrose and other disaccharides (maltose, lactose) and also the simple sugars, the monosaccharides (pentoses, hexoses). (
  • Sucrose (subunits of glucose AND fructose) is a disaccharide. (
  • For example, the enzyme sucrase breaks down the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose. (
  • The identities of five carbohydrates-starch, glucose, fructose, lactose and sucrose-have been scrambled. (
  • Unlike sucrose, which is made of both a glucose and fructose sugar molecule, a simple sugar is either glucose or fructose respectively. (
  • Believe it or not, when you eat sugar (or sucrose), you are immediately tasting sweetness because the sucrose is so simple in chemical structure, that it only takes a water molecule and an enzyme in your saliva to break it down quickly into the simple sugars of glucose and fructose. (
  • The term "sugars" includes all monosaccharides and disaccharides,and the term "sugar" may refer specifically to sucrose. (
  • If these monosaccharides are stuck together in pairs, so-called disaccharides, such as sucrose, they cannot be absorbed. (
  • The monosaccharide fructose can also be part of the disaccharide sucrose, which is made of a glucose attached to a fructose. (
  • The monosaccharide glucose is also found in most types of sugar as part of the disaccharides sucrose as well as in the various types of polysaccharides that are starches. (
  • For instance, [[sucrose]] is formed when fructose and glucose molecules are joined together. (
  • The enzyme cleaves sucrose by breaking the β-glycosidic bond, thereby releasing glucose and fructose. (
  • Reducing groups of glucose and fructose are involved in glycosidic bond formation due to this sucrose is a non reducing sugar. (
  • Sucrose is dextrorotatory but after hydrolysis gives dextrorotatory glucose and laevorotatory fructose. (
  • Starch is stored in granules of plants and is broken down to glucose for use as energy. (
  • Cellulose is similar to starch but is structurally and nutritionally different because of the way the glucose molecules are joined together. (
  • Sources of glucose include starch, the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants. (
  • Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen and galactogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. (
  • Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin. (
  • Starch is a glucose polymer in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. (
  • The way glucose molecules link together makes them digestible (starch) or non-digestible (fiber). (
  • Starch is a series of long chains of bound glucose molecules. (
  • I have read the section numerous times but I still cannot fill the answers out Word Bank maltose long-term storage monomers fat polymers immediate energy starch transported polysaccharides glucose disaccharides genetic information monosaccharides 1. (
  • The only digestible polysaccharide is starch, which is a large molecule composed simply of glucose. (
  • All the starch that is absorbed into the body is in the form of individual glucose molecules, which are delivered to the cells by the blood for energy. (
  • Cellulose, like starch, is composed purely of glucose molecules, but the bonds are such that human enzymes can't break them. (
  • The three principal polysaccharides - starch , glycogen , and cellulose , which play an essential role in the metabolism of all terrestrial organisms and, in the case of cellulose, the structure of plants - contain many more than this minimum number of carbon atoms. (
  • Polysaccharides are insoluble and may serve as a store of energy, as in the case of starch and glycogen , or as a structural component, as in the case of cellulose which is found in the cell walls of plants. (
  • Dextrin is a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (carbohydrate) that is formed as an intermediate product in the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase. (
  • Malt sugar obtained from starch, contains an alpha glycosidic bond (glucose + glucose). (
  • Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all polymers of D-glucose. (
  • In contrast to amylopectin, which comprises 70 to 90 percent of natural starch, α -amylose is a branching polysaccharide. (
  • The most common polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin. (
  • Some examples of polysaccharides are starch, glycogen and cellulose. (
  • Oligosaccharides are made of 3-9 monosaccharides and polysaccharides are composed of more than 9 monosaccharides linked together, such as starch. (
  • They are composed of more than ten monosaccharide units e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose. (
  • A polysaccharide is a sugar made up of repeating units of glucose, such as cellulose, starch, and glycogen. (
  • Alpha-amylase briefly acts on dietary carbohydrates in the mouth to hydrolyze starch into simple sugars such as glucose. (
  • Energy (ATP), initially in the form of glucose (monosaccharide) is later formed by condensation reaction into starch (polysaccharide). (
  • Carbohydrates can be monosaccharides (sugars), disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (starch). (
  • Therefore the formation of a polypeptide from amino acids and that of the polysaccharide starch from the monosaccharide glucose are both condensation reactions. (
  • Thus polypeptides can be hydrolysed into amino acids, and starch can be hydrolysed into glucose. (
  • Finally they can form more complex structures called polysaccharides and the best example is starch. (
  • A cracker was made with some kind of flour, which contains a carbohydrate known as starch--a polysaccharide. (
  • This means that many glucose monomers are joined to form a complex polymer which is in fact, starch. (
  • Therefore, once starch is digested by hydrolytic enzymes in the body, it breaks down to the simple monosaccharide glucose. (
  • Neither can polysaccharides (a long chain of monosaccharides stuck together) such as starch. (
  • Starch is the most commonly known polysaccharide and is a storage carbohydrate found in cereals, rice, potatoes and other root vegetables. (
  • We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D . officinale stems. (
  • This result indicated that the major polysaccharides in D . officinale stems were non-starch polysaccharides, which might be mannan polysaccharides. (
  • The polysaccharides formed granules and were stored in plastids similar to starch grains, were localized in D . officinale stems by semi-thin and ultrathin sections. (
  • It has two important types of functional group: a carbonyl group (an aldehyde in glucose, some other sugars have a ketone group instead. (
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest of all sugars and are a base for all other carbohydrates. (
  • Glucose is obtained from food, through the digestion and absorption of sugars and starches. (
  • The cleft is allows for binding of sugars to form polysaccharides. (
  • This carbohydrate can react with water (hydrolysis) using amylase enzymes as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars (monosaccharides, or oligosaccharides). (
  • They are usually classified as monosaccharides (single sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (several sugars: 3-9 units) or polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates often composed of hundreds or thousands of units which form macromolecules). (
  • hexose sugars (n=6) e.g. glucose, a key molecules in cellular respiration and photosynthesis (e.g. (
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into a simpler form. (
  • A major division of carbohydrates is between sugars and polysaccharides . (
  • Monosaccharides, also known as simple sugars, have the general formula (CH 2 O) n . (
  • A disaccharide is any of a group of sugars the molecules of which are derived by the condensation of two monosaccharide molecules so that they are connected by an oxygen bridge. (
  • The monosaccharides are "single sugars", such as glucose and fructose . (
  • The most common monosaccharides are the sugars fructose and glucose, and these typically take on a ring-shaped structure. (
  • Polysaccharides are known for their ability to store energy and are made up of long chains of sugars. (
  • 1. A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms that are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose. (
  • The name glucose comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), meaning 'sweet', plus the suffix '-ose' which denotes a sugar 4 chiral centers give 24 = the 16 stereoisomer s of hexose sugars. (
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION: 1- Monosaccharides (simple sugars): They can not be hydrolyzed into simpler units. (
  • 9. 2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group): - Aldo sugars: aldoses: Contain aldehyde group e.g. glucose, ribose, erythrose and glyceraldehydes. (
  • Monosaccharides are also called simple sugars. (
  • One of the simplest sugars is glucose. (
  • The principal categories of sugars are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • Simple sugars, also referred to as monosaccharides, are the basic unit of carbohydrates. (
  • Complex sugars, or polysaccharides, are present in foods like vegetables and whole grains. (
  • Pure simple sugars, in fact it is half fructose and half glucose. (
  • These simple sugars cannot be broken down or hydrolyzed into a simpler form (glucose). (
  • Carbohydrate digestion is finished when the mucosal lining of the upper jejunum and duodenum absorb the bulk of the dietary sugars in the form of monosaccharides. (
  • They are enzymatically synthesised from activated monosaccharide precursors, nucleotide sugars. (
  • Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. (
  • Note: Many sugars sold as fructose and glucose are not pure and have other sugars added (and so are not suitable for the carbohydrate specific diet). (
  • Major dietary carbohydrates can be divided into three classes: sugars, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. (
  • Monosaccharides are the building blocks of other longer chain sugars. (
  • Most sugars are disaccharides -- made of two molecules -- and starches and fibers are polysaccharides, made of multiple molecules attached together. (
  • These simple sugars are absorbed in the small intestine and then transport to the liver - some glucose is utilised by cells for energy - some is stored in the liver as glycogen. (
  • Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. (
  • however, most organisms cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans. (
  • A single cellulose chain may contain as many as 10,000 units of glucose . (
  • Like α -amylose, cellulose is a linear polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose. (
  • However, in cellulose the glucose residues occur in β (1 → 4) linkage rather than α (1 → 4) (see Figure 1). (
  • The glucose molecules in cellulose are alternately inverted (every other one inverted) such that each chain has a highly extended and rigid conformation. (
  • Structurally, chitin is very similar to cellulose, except that its basic monosaccharide is N-acetylglucosamine. (
  • In plaats daarvan, als glucose met veel glucosemoleculen zou binden, kunnen verschillende polysachariden zoals cellulose, of het zetmeel amylose, worden gevormd. (
  • Some polysaccharides, such as cellulose, are resistant to chemical breakdown so they pass through the intestinal tract undigested. (
  • Cellulose is an organic compound, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. (
  • or complex chains of molecules called polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose). (
  • An important structural polysaccharide is cellulose . (
  • There can be thousands of glucose subunits in one large molecule of cellulose. (
  • Cellulose is a polysaccharide (a sugar). (
  • Cellulose is composed of several hundred glucose molecules bound in this chain. (
  • Cellulose is a straight chain polysaccharide composed only of β-D-glucose units which are joined by glycosidic linkage between C1 of one glucose unit and C4 of the next glucose unit. (
  • CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A ( CSLA ) family members encode mannan synthases that catalyze the formation of mannan polysaccharides. (
  • Upon consumption, fructose is absorbed and converted into glucose by the liver in the same manner as lactose. (
  • 12. Examples of disaccharides are maltose, glucose and lactose. (
  • Disaccharides are made of two monosaccharides linked together, such as lactose. (
  • Grains like wheat, rice, and root vegetables like potato are the primary source of complex carbs (polysaccharides) along with table sugar (disaccharides), and milk (lactose). (
  • is a complex carbohydrate and is a polymer of glucose produced by plants. (
  • The function of carbohydrates includes the glucose and the fibre in the carbohydrate foods. (
  • The simplest carbohydrate - monosaccharide. (
  • Polysaccharides (/ˌpɒliˈsækəraɪd/), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrate found in food. (
  • Is Glucose a Carbohydrate? (
  • Glucose is a form of carbohydrate known as a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. (
  • The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, made up of molecules in which carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen atoms are in the ratio 1:2:1. (
  • Monosaccharide (one sugar), carbohydrate. (
  • A basic unit of carbohydrate is known as a monosaccharide (CH 2 O). Two examples of monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. (
  • Polysaccharides are essentially carbohydrate structures formed from repeated units bonded chemically. (
  • Well, you can break the category of carbohydrates down into a more global separation to match with nutritional labels by using the terms "simple sugar" (mono or disaccharide) and "complex carbohydrate" (polysaccharide). (
  • a simple form of CARBOHYDRATE , formed of MONOSACCHARIDE units. (
  • By blocking the enzyme, you block the breakdown of the carbohydrate which affects absorption of the monosaccharide. (
  • Monosaccharides are the only way in which carbohydrate can be absorbed. (
  • It is a long chain carbohydrate consisting only of glucose molecules linked together. (
  • Fructose is a type of monosaccharide carbohydrate. (
  • Carbohydrate metabolism is mainly concerned with glucose metabolism which is the body's preferred source of glucose. (
  • Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response after consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food relative to a carbohydrate containing reference food, typically glucose or white bread. (
  • Thus glycemic load (GL), a product of GI and quantity of carbohydrate eaten provides an indication of glucose available for energy or storage following a carbohydrate containing meal. (
  • They include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • 11. Carbohydrates consist of monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides. (
  • Monosaccharides are sweet-tasting, cannot be broken down by hydrolysis , and combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. (
  • Identify the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides common in nutrition and list their major food sources. (
  • The three types of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. (
  • The three main types of carbohydrates to be concerned about are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. (
  • However, depending on their length and complexity carbohydrates can be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • Important dietary carbohydrates consist of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • This diet removes all carbohydrates made of disaccharides and polysaccharides, but allows monosaccharides, such as free fructose and glucose. (
  • Some monosaccharides contain only three carbons ('triose' types such as glyceraldehyde) others contain five carbons ('pentose' types such as the deoxyribose sugar of DNA ), but those with six carbons ('hexose' types such as glucose) are the most important since they can be joined together by CONDENSATION REACTIONS (loss of water) to form DISACCHARIDES and POLYSACCHARIDES . (
  • Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers. (
  • A polysaccharide is any of a group of polymers made from monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds . (
  • Polysaccharides are long polymers of monosaccharides and their derivatives. (
  • Unlike proteins or nucleic acids, these polymers can be either linear or branched, and they can contain only one type of monosaccharide (homopolysaccharides), or more than one (heteropolysaccharides). (
  • N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (D-GlcNAc) is a derivitized glucose monomer found in polymers of bacterial cell walls, chitin, hyaluronic acids and various glycans. (
  • Mannan polysaccharides are a sub-group of non-cellulosic polymers that play an important role in higher plants. (
  • The point is, a monosaccharide can therefore be thought of as having polarity, with one end consisting of the anomeric carbon, and the other end consisting of the rest of the molecule. (
  • Polysaccharide molecule chains may consist of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides. (
  • They are formed by a condensation reaction where one molecule of water condenses or is released during the joining of two monosaccharides. (
  • Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules, and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made of several thousand glucose units (every chain of 24-30 glucose units is one unit of Amylopectin). (
  • Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. (
  • Extra glucose is reassembled into the starchlike molecule called glycogen to be stored between meals in the liver and the muscles. (
  • Polysaccharides are generally not sweet, are insoluble in water, and contain more than 18 carbon atoms in each molecule . (
  • A pentose is a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms in the molecule. (
  • A hexose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms in the molecule (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). (
  • Extracellular vesicle fractions of P. brasiliensis also reacted with a GXM-binding mAb, suggesting that the polysaccharide-like molecule is exported to the extracellular space in secretory vesicles. (
  • If there is only one sugar molecule, it is called a monosaccharide. (
  • Monosaccharides, or carbohydrates made of a single molecule, are not as common but can also be found in some foods. (
  • The two monosaccharides are joined together by an oxide linkage formed by the loss of a water molecule. (
  • Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. (
  • In their simplest form, glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆), they are readily soluble and transported around the body to be oxidised back to carbon dioxide and water and used as energy for cellular metabolic processes. (
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. (
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have separate and overlapping functions in maintaining good colon health and energy. (
  • Analytical standards and certified reference materials/pharmaceutical reference standards of different carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) for analytical testing in pharmaceutical and food and beverage industries. (
  • Carbohydrates exist in different forms such as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. (
  • Involves breaking down of food items into smaller organic molecules with the help of digestive enzymes like carbs to monosaccharides, proteins to amino acids, and lipids to fatty acids and glycerol. (
  • 3. Combinations of the names are possible - fructose is a ketohexose, glucose is an aldohexose, ribose is an aldopentose. (
  • Polysaccharides (meaning many saccharide molecules) include starches and most types of dietary fiber. (
  • Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides and oligosaccharides, with release of glucose. (
  • The purpose of the reaction is to remove the residues from disaccharide cellobiose to produce glucose during the hydrolysis of biomass. (
  • Glycosidic bonds are broken in a hydrolysis reaction to produce two monosaccharides. (
  • Upon hydrolysis, disaccharides yield the corresponding monosaccharides. (
  • Glucose is derived from the breakdown or hydrolysis of carbohydrates that are consumed. (
  • Disaccharides on hydrolysis with dilute acids or enzymes yield two molecules of either the same or different monosaccharides. (
  • The stories for proteins, monosaccharides and nucleotides are just variations on the same theme. (
  • Fructose that is made available from the digestion of dietary sources is taken up by the intestinal cells (enterocytes) through the proteins called '''glucose transporters''' (GluT). (
  • Polysaccharides and disaccharides may also be broken down into monosaccharides once they enter the digestive system. (
  • Once dietary carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, they are absorbed by the cells of the small intestine. (
  • Here in the intestine, the di and trisaccharides are further broken down into monosaccharides by brush border enzymes of the intestinal microvilli. (
  • Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. (
  • Monosaccharides glucose (a hexose) a fructose (a pentose), shown in both open-chain ( left ) and hemiacetal-ring ( right ) forms. (
  • Almost all naturally-occurring polysaccharides are made up of hexose units. (
  • Monosaccharides can be characterized as to how many carbons they have: triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose. (
  • The commonest monosaccharide in the body is GLUCOSE , which is a hexose, with six carbons. (
  • SZP preparations containing primarily mannose or glucose bound to CR3, and the binding of 125 I-labeled β-glucan to CR3 was competitively inhibited by β-glucans from barley or seaweed, but not by yeast α-mannan. (
  • CERC-802 is an ultra-pure formulation of D-mannose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide commonly found in animals, microorganisms, and plants, including edible fruits and herbs. (
  • According to the test method, 6 samples were hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid to hydrolyse dextran and mannan on the cell wall to monosaccharides (glucose and mannose). (
  • The most abundant natural monosaccharides are the hexoses, C 6 H 12 O 6 (including glucose ), and the pentoses (including xylose). (
  • In order for the body to use polysaccharides, these compounds must be broken down into a simpler monosaccharide form. (
  • Digestion helps break them into much smaller monosaccharides compounds, like glucose. (
  • Glycans are monosaccharides linked together by glycosidic bonds in chain-like structures. (
  • These alpha-glucose units are attached together by glycosidic bonds. (
  • It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, changing the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. (
  • If a monosaccharide contains an aldehyde group, it is known as an aldose and if it contains a keto group, it is known as a ketose. (
  • The free aldehyde group can be produced at C1 of second glucose in solution and it shows reducing properties so it is a reducing sugar. (
  • The sugar on your dinner table is made of glucose and another monosaccharide called fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). (
  • Through ''dehydration synthesis'', a [[monosaccharide]], such as ''fructose'', binds to another monosaccharide with the release of water and the subsequent formation of a glycosidic bond. (
  • In this regard, fructose joins with another monosaccharide to form a disaccharide. (
  • Dextrose, a sugar found at most health food stores as a white powder, is 100 percent glucose. (
  • Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. (
  • Polysaccharides are known as macromolecules and feature a number of different properties such as a repositioning of atoms and possible insolubility in water. (
  • Chains of more than ten monosaccharides linked together are called polysaccharides. (
  • Fiber is also long chains of glucose molecules, but they are bound in a way we cannot digest. (
  • 1. polysaccharides or dissacharides, long chains of monosaccharides bonded together. (
  • polysaccharides are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. (
  • Any excess glucose, however, is converted into glycogen (an animal polysaccharide characterized by long, branching chains of glucose) in the liver and muscle cells. (
  • Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are polysaccharides composed of long chains of glucose. (
  • They are long chain polymeric carbohydrates composed of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages. (
  • 2. Single monomers are called monosaccharides and include glucose. (
  • Their molecular structure varies from complex polysaccharides to simpler disaccharides and monosaccharides. (
  • Plants produce glucose through photosynthesis, and humans consume it in the f. (
  • In plant cells, chloroplasts perform photosynthesis, a process that converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose. (
  • Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is created by photosynthesis and used in cellular respiration. (
  • citation needed] Even though these complex polysaccharides are not very digestible, they provide important dietary elements for humans. (
  • The arrangement of the atoms in monosaccharide molecules is complex due to the arrangement of the carbon bonds. (
  • These more complex carbohydrates can be hydrolyzed to give their constituent monosaccharides. (
  • Polysaccharides are referred to as complex carbohydrates. (
  • Digestion resumes in the duodenum of the small intestine, where pancreatic alpha-amylase and brush border enzymes of the microvilli convert complex carbohydrates to monosaccharides. (
  • It's such a complex polysaccharide (which makes up the cell wall of plants, aka our fruits and veggies! (
  • Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. (
  • Pentoses also make up various plant polysaccharides, such as pectin and gum arabic. (
  • Glucose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, as it requires no digestion. (
  • polysaccharide digestion starts. (
  • During digestion polysaccharides and disaccharides must be broken down to monosaccharides for absorption. (
  • Glycaemic carbohydrates - It is important to distinguish between carbohydrates which do or do not directly provide glucose as an energy source following the process of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. (
  • When your blood glucose drops, as it does when you're sleeping or fasting, the liver will break down glycogen (glycogenolysis) and release glucose into your blood. (
  • Your body will grab protein from your diet (if available), skeletal muscles and organs and convert its amino acids into glucose (gluconeogenesis) for energy and to maintain normal blood glucose levels. (
  • That's how critical it is to maintain normal blood glucose levels to feed parts of your body and your brain. (
  • Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations. (
  • The pancreas is a specialized organ that secretes insulin into the blood to control blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. (
  • If the pancreas is unable to perform this task properly, blood glucose levels will be consistently elevated and may lead to many of the same ill effects seen in diabetic humans. (
  • More recent recommendations regarding the potential of low GI and GL diets to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and to treat conditions other than diabetes, should be interpreted in the light of the individual variation in blood glucose levels and other methodological issues relating to measurement of GI and GL. (
  • in the early 1980s as a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their immediate impact on blood glucose levels. (
  • Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called disaccharides. (
  • Soluble zymosan polysaccharide (SZP) or pure β-glucans labeled with FITC or 125 I bound in a saturable and reversible manner to neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells. (
  • Gellan gum is a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas elodea, a bacterium. (
  • Their soluble and monosaccharide composition is mainly glucose. (
  • We separated the soluble sugar of 6 samples, and then hydrolysed it into monosaccharide with hydrochloric acid. (
  • Figure 3 - Monosaccharide detection results (glucose) of soluble sugar in cell wall samples of S. cerevisiae produced by 6 different raw materials. (
  • The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). (
  • If there are no enzymes to digest them, there is no absorption and instead these di and polysaccharides become available for fermentation by micro-organisms in the gut. (
  • 8. MONOSACCHARIDES CLASSIFICATION OF MONOSACCHARIDES 1- According to the number of carbon atoms: .Trioses, contain 3 carbon atoms. (
  • Monosaccharides are further classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms and the functional group present in them. (
  • The latter, which are uncommon in nature, consist of between 3 and 6 (or up to 10, depending on the definition) monosaccharide molecules linked together. (
  • UGDH has been proposed to have a regulatory role in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides. (
  • Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale play an important role in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides. (
  • When a compound for this biomolecule is collected, it is known as a monosaccharide. (
  • When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans. (
  • When the repeating units in the polymer backbone are six-carbon monosaccharides, as is often the case, the general formula simplifies to (C6H10O5)n, where typically 40 ≤ n ≤ 3000. (
  • Once glucose enters the cell, a series of metabolic reactions convert it to carbon dioxide, water and ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate), the energy currency of the cell. (
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (
  • For instance, if the hydroxyl (-OH) group on carbon number five points to the right, we speak of D-Glucose, if it points to the left, it is L-Glucose. (
  • It's a process that involves the chloroplasts to synthesize glucose molecules from carbon dioxide and water. (
  • Method of treatment of diseases caused by retroviruses which comprises administering therapeutically effective amount of a natural or synthetic oligo- or polysaccharide having at least one S-oxoacid group attached to the saccharic carbon atom through a linking group of lower molecular weight or a pharmaceutically. (
  • Glucose is a simple monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for every cell in the human body. (
  • Amylopectin is in a branching structure and can contain upto 100 000 glucose units. (
  • The structure of glycogen is very similar to amylopectin but has more branching occuring every 10 - 15 glucose units. (
  • Although amylopectin, like α -amylose, is composed entirely of α -glucose, its α -glucose residues are joined not only in α (1 → 4) linkages but also at α (1 → 6) branch points. (
  • Like amylopectin, it consists of α -glucose residues in α (1 → 4) linkage, with α (1 → 6) branch points. (
  • D-glucose is a monosaccharide and is the most abundant organic compound. (
  • Alone or in combination, glucose is probably the most abundant organic compound on the earth. (
  • Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. (
  • Glucose is the most common monosaccharide, and it plays a major role in nutrition because it is a readily available source of energy. (
  • Fructose is another common monosaccharide. (
  • Glucose can also be obtained from amino acids only when other sources fail, the glucose is transported to the cells of the body via the bloodstream. (
  • Different polysaccharides act as food stores in plants and animals. (
  • Polysaccharides are for plants and the glucose molecules join together. (