Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Mice, Inbred BALB CBinding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Melanoma-Specific Antigens: Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Cell SeparationPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Antibody types. The antibodies used for specific detection can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are ... Monoclonal antibodies. Main article: Monoclonal antibody therapy. Many proteins shown to be highly upregulated in ... Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies are ... while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. The secondary antibody is ...
Monoclonal antibodies/ADCs. MMAE has been tested with various monoclonal antibodies (usually forming an antibody-drug ... Because of its toxicity, it cannot be used as a drug itself; instead, it is linked to a monoclonal antibody (MAB) which directs ... The linker to the monoclonal antibody is stable in extracellular fluid, but is cleaved by cathepsin once the conjugate has ... "AGS67E, an Anti-CD37 Monomethyl Auristatin E Antibody-Drug Conjugate as a Potential Therapeutic for B/T-Cell Malignancies and ...
humanized monoclonal antibody HER2/neu (erbB2) antagonist ustekinumab Stelara psoriasis humanized monoclonal antibody IL-12 and ... Monoclonal antibodies. These are similar to the antibodies that the human immune system uses to fight off bacteria and viruses ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist alefacept Amevive chronic plaque psoriasis immunoglobin G1 fusion protein incompletely ... monoclonal antibody TNF antagonist trastuzumab Herceptin breast cancer ...
Monoclonal antibodies. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody to HER2 (a cell receptor that is especially active in some breast ... Monoclonal antibodies, or other immune-modulating treatments, may be administered in certain cases of metastatic and other ... but HER2+ cancer cells respond to drugs such as the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (in combination with conventional ... a monoclonal antibody that targets this protein and improves the prognosis significantly. ...
by monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibody therapy. *by urine: urine therapy (some scientific forms; many prescientific or ... by humoral immune factors: antibody therapy *by whole serum: serotherapy, including antiserum therapy ...
Other anti-CD20 monoclonals. The efficacy and success of Rituximab has led to some other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ... McGinley, MP; Moss, BP; Cohen, JA (January 2017). "Safety of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis". ...
Antibody specific to select immune components can be added to immunosuppressive therapy. The monoclonal anti-T cell antibody ... Antibody. Secreted by an activated B cell, then called plasma cell, an antibody molecule is a soluble immunoglobulin (Ig ... Galili, U (Dec 2005). "The alpha-gal epitope and the anti-Gal antibody in xenotransplantation and in cancer immunotherapy". ... At secondary exposure, these crossreactive antibody molecules interact with aspects of innate immunity-soluble immune proteins ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Ecromeximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody being developed for the treatment of malignant melanoma. ...
Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies *Infliximab. *Adalimumab. *Certolizumab pegol. *Golimumab. References. *^ Feldmann M, ... It fuses the TNF receptor to the constant end of the IgG1 antibody. First, the developers isolated the DNA sequence that codes ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Farletuzumab (MORAb-003) is a monoclonal antibody which is being investigated for the treatment of ovarian cancer. ...
... (formerly EMD 72000) is a humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. It binds to the epidermal growth ... Murthy, U.; Basu, A; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M.; Ross, A.H.; Das, M. (1987). "Binding of an antagonistic monoclonal antibody to an ... Schmiedel, J.; Blaukat, A.; Li, S.; Knochel, T.; Ferguson, K.M. (2008). "A molecular view of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibody ... 2004). "Phase I study of the humanized antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody EMD72000 in patients with ...
Difficulty in producing monoclonal antibodies. Main article: Monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are ... Any monoclonal antibody or group of monoclonal antibodies that does not react with known surface molecules of lymphocytes, but ... These antibodies are monoclonal antibodies, since they derive from clones of the same parent cell. A polyclonal response is one ... The heterogeneous polyclonal antibodies are distinct from monoclonal antibody molecules, which are identical and react against ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Briakinumab (ABT-874) is a human monoclonal antibody being developed by Abbott Laboratories for the treatment of rheumatoid ... The candidate drug was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology in collaboration with Abbott. ... This is the second candidate from a deal with Cambridge Antibody Technology that Abbott have taken to late-stage clinical ...
... , sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis. ... "Repeated subcutaneous injections of IL12/23 p40 neutralising antibody, ustekinumab, in patients with relapsing-remitting ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Mavrilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ( ... Agent that Targets GM-CSF Shows Promise in RA - Novel monoclonal antibody was rapidly effective in mild-to-moderate disease. ... a human monoclonal antibody targeting GM-CSF receptor-α, in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Ruplizumab (trade name Antova) is a humanized monoclonal antibody intended for the treatment of rheumatic diseases like ...
... but is not a monoclonal antibody (it is instead a fusion of TNF-receptor and an antibody constant region). ... They are monoclonal antibodies and have identical structures and affinities to the target. Because they are a combination of ... Other monoclonal antibodies targeting TNF-α are golimumab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol. Etanercept also binds and ... Infliximab is a purified, recombinant DNA-derived chimeric human-mouse IgG monoclonal antibody that consists of mouse heavy and ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with the PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1) ...
This monoclonal antibody-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Burosumab (INN, trade name Crysvita) known as KRN23 is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of X-linked ...
Human monoclonal antibodies. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1984, 62 (2): 109-20. PMID 6087121. doi:10.1007/BF00223301.. ... 抗體（antibody），又稱免疫球蛋白（immunoglobulin，簡稱Ig），是一種主要由漿細胞分泌，被免疫系統用來鑑別與中和外來物質如細菌、病毒等病原體的大型Y形蛋白質，僅被發現存在於脊椎動物的血液等體液中，及
monoclonal antibody against EGFR: *cetuximab (Erbitux)[unreliable medical source?]. *Inhibitors of vascular endothelial ...
treatment with monoclonal antibodies which target cancer cells. *cancer vaccines. Areas of current research and controversies[ ... These proteins can be stained with fluorescent dye labeled antibodies and detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection ...
... production and clinical testing of monoclonal antibodies (including antibodies to Clostridium difficile), antibodies now ... primarily monoclonal antibodies), and the clinical research underpinning their use. It has introduced into general use vaccines ... 80-million facility for monoclonal-antibody production. Co-developed with India-based - Serum Institute of India, it invented a ... Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0907635 ...
"Anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies in migraine: current perspectives". Internal and Emergency Medicine. 11 (8): 1045-1057. doi: ... Research as of 2016 is looking at CGRP monoclonal antibodies, of which four are in phase II development, three targeting CGRP ...
Berditchevski F, Chang S, Bodorova J, Hemler M (1997). "Generation of monoclonal antibodies to integrin-associated proteins. ... Berditchevski F, Chang S, Bodorova J, Hemler ME (1997). "Generation of monoclonal antibodies to integrin-associated proteins. ... It is hoped that by developing antibodies to the parasite ligand for Basigin, Rh5, a better vaccine for malaria might be found. ...
Antibodies. *Antibody *Monoclonal antibodies. *Polyclonal antibodies. *Autoantibody. *Microantibody. *Polyclonal B cell ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. Unlike their ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ... The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as ...
... and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent ... monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to ... a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody ... propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, ...
These antibodies show extremely intense coarsely granular staining. No other nuclear staining or cytoplasmic staining can b, ... Immediate Early Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3G9.2 from CHEMICON,Reacts with an early protein. Can detect ... Ab-1 Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lab Vision. 10. Rat Anti-Mouse F4 / 80 Antigen Monoclonal Antibody, Biotin ... Mouse Anti-HLA, Class II Antigen-DR+DP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 236-14240 from Meridian Life Science, Inc.. 4. ...
... the procedure developed by George Kohler and Cesar Milstein for immortalizing antibody producing B-lymphocytes (1) is ... the antibodies are monoclonal It is this property, together with the ability to produce unlimited amounts of antibody, that has ... Anderson, D V, Tucker, E M, Powell, J R, and Porter, P (1987) Bovine monoclonal antibodies to the FS (K99) pilus antigen of E ... Waldmann, H and Cobbold, S (1993) The use of monoclonal antibodies to achieve lmmunological tolerance Immunol Today 14, 247-251 ...
... hybridoma technology to the study of human mammary carcinoma resulted in the generation of a variety of monoclonal antibodies ... Monoclonal antibodies to human breast cancer. In "Monoclonal Antibodies 82" - Elsevier Press, 1982.Google Scholar ... 1984) Monoclonal Antibodies Against Breast Cancer. In: Aaronson S.A., Frati L., Verna R. (eds) Genetic and Phenotypic Markers ... Nuti M., Teramoto Y.A., Mariani-Costantini R., Horan Hand P., Colcher D., Schlom J.: A monoclonal antibody (B.72.3) defines ...
Toward this end, we have produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize specific phosphorylation sites within human PR ... monoclonal antibody western blot phosphorylation site specific target dna mab p190 human pr kinetics suggests functional role ... Toward this end, we have produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize specific phosphorylation sites within human PR ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor. G L Greene, C Nolan, J P Engler, and E V Jensen ... These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful in the study of estrogen receptors of human reproductive tissues, in particular ... expanded in suspension culture and as ascites tumors in athymic mice to provide substantial quantities of monoclonal antibodies ... By growing the clone from Sp2/0 in the presence of [35S]methionine, radiolabeled monoclonal IgG has been prepared. ...
Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ... Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ...
Learn more about treating cancer with monoclonal antibodies here. ... Some cancers can be treated with monoclonal antibodies made in ... Different types of monoclonal antibodies are used in cancer treatment.. Naked monoclonal antibodies. Naked mAbs are antibodies ... Monoclonal antibodies are used to treat many diseases, including some types of cancer. To make a monoclonal antibody, ... Conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) joined to a chemotherapy drug or to a radioactive particle are ...
... the present invention is drawn to antibodies or antigen-binding fragments thereof that bind to a vertebrate high mobility group ... The term "monoclonal antibody" or "monoclonal antibody composition", as used herein, refers to a population of antibody ... an anti-HMGB2 antibody, an anti-HMGB1/2 monoclonal antibody, or particular anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibodies (e.g., 2E11 HMGB1 ... Inhibition of TNF Release by Anti-HMGB1 Monoclonal Antibodies. The ability of particular HMGB1 monoclonal antibodies to inhibit ...
The result of monoclonal antibody quantification in serum is an important indicator of the drugs pharmacokinetic properties ... Monoclonal Antibody Quantification. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/whitepaper/20190722/Monoclonal-Antibody- ... The growing market of biologic drugs, pushed by a flurry of success with monoclonal antibodies, creates a need for standard ... Antibody-directed competitive assay. Antigen. Serum with labeled competition antibody. SA-HRP. Low background. Additional ...
New treatment hope: monoclonal antibodies targeting CGRP Hopes are currently being placed in monoclonal antibodies that target ... Migraine prevention: Monoclonal antibodies could become additional therapy option. Published Wednesday 1 June 2016 Published ... "Migraine prevention: Monoclonal antibodies could become additional therapy option." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 1 ... According to studies published to date, the new monoclonal antibody against CGRP, or its receptor, appears to be better ...
Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic agents for cancer.. Harris M1.. Author information. 1. Murdoch Childrens Research ... Positive results for other antibodies in various stages of clinical development provide hope that anticancer antibodies will ... At the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) conference in 2003, data for the antibodies bevacizumab and cetuximab ...
Molecular recognition of lysozyme by monoclonal antibodies.. Smith-Gill SJ1.. Author information. 1. Division of Basic Sciences ... Mutations of either antibody or antigen which lower affinity appear to do so primarily by increasing dissociation rates, and ... Antibody complex formation with HEL is enthalpically driven, and is accompanied by an unfavorable entropy change. ... The current availability of six structurally defined antibody-lysozyme complexes presents excellent opportunities for ...
The monoclonal antibody has a continuous amino acid sequence, and a binding affinity for the P-glycoprotein which manifests in ... A monoclonal antibody that recognises a structurally continuous and extracellularly-located epitope of human P-glycoprotein is ... Surprisingly, compared with the known monoclonal antibodies, the monoclonal antibody MM4.17 has a very high degree of affinity ... are used to screen for the desired monoclonal antibodies.. Monoclonal antibodies may be prepared from the hybridoma cell lines ...
Monoclonal Antibody News and Research. RSS Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are produced from a single B cell clone and can bind to ... Understanding Monoclonal Antibody Unfolding and Aggregation A therapeutic monoclonal antibody and its Fab and Fc fragments were ... IONTAS Limited, a leader in antibody discovery and optimization of human monoclonal antibody libraries, today announced an ... MAbs are homogenous antibodies that cannot form lattices with monomeric proteins as they can bind to only a single epitope on ...
Monoclonal antibodies are proteins manufactured in the laboratory that can target specific disease cells or antigens. The ... NIST researchers have demonstrated the most precise method yet to measure the structural configuration of monoclonal antibodies ... Mapping monoclonal antibody structure by 2D 13C NMR at natural abundance. Analytical Chemistry, 87: 3556-3561 (2015). DOI: ... The monoclonal antibody used in this experiment is NISTmAb, an immunoglobulin G type 1 donated by MedImmune and being developed ...
... in evaluating the performance of methods for determining physicochemical and biophysical attributes of monoclonal antibodies. ... Image info NOW AVAILABLE The NIST monoclonal antibody (NISTmAb) reference material, RM 8671, is intended for use ... The NIST monoclonal antibody reference material is, quite possibly, the most widely characterized publicly available monoclonal ... A vial of RM 8671 contains 800 µL of 10 mg/mL IgG1κ monoclonal antibody in 12.5 mmol/L L-histidine, 12.5 mmol/L L-histidine HCl ...
... including neutralizing antisera for strain typing and monoclonal antibodies. ... Antisera and Monoclonal Antibodies * Human echovirus 9 (ATCC® VR-1051PI/MK™) ATCC® Number: VR-1051PI/MK™ Classification: ... Mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to domain III of the envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus type 1 was purified from ... Product Format: frozen Each vial of VR-3206 contains approximately 122.0µg of purified monoclonal antibody in PBS. ...
... including neutralizing antisera for strain typing and monoclonal antibodies. ... Antisera and Monoclonal Antibodies * Human Coxsackievirus A 22 (ATCC® VR-1030AS/MK™) ATCC® Number: VR-1030AS/MK™ Classification ... Mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to domain III of the envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus type 1 was purified from ... Product Format: frozen Each vial of VR-3217 contains approximately 130.0µg of purified monoclonal antibody in PBS. ...
... including neutralizing antisera for strain typing and monoclonal antibodies. ... Antisera and Monoclonal Antibodies * Human coxsackievirus A3 (ATCC® VR-1007AS/MK™) ATCC® Number: VR-1007AS/MK™ Classification: ... Mouse monoclonal antibody prepared against the envelope glycoprotein of Dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3) was purified from clone E7 ... Monoclonal Anti-Dengue virus type 3 envelope protein, Clone E7 (produced in vitro) (ATCC® VR-1688™) ATCC® Number: VR-1688™ ...
... Nanci E Donacki captainnanci at earthlink.net Wed Sep 11 15:46:47 EST 2002 *Previous message: Mouse ... I would like to know if it is possible to raise a mouse monoclonal antibody , , against a protein/peptide of rat. The thing is ... Yes, you will get antibodies to the protein as well, but you need to make sure your screening assays are specific for the ... highly antigenic carrier protein but then I will get an antibody against the , , carrier and not the peptide....Any suggestions ...
An antibody produced by cultured cells that have their origin in a single antibody-producing cell and which is therefore of a ... single molecular type, in contrast to the polyclonal antibodies normally found in the serum of an immunized animal. ...
... antibody‐producing cells from immunised animals with cells that confer immortality and high‐yield antibody production) or by ... Monoclonal antibodies are protein molecules madein the laboratory from hybridoma cells (stable cell lines derived by fusing ... Monoclonal antibodies can mediate antibody‐mediated cytotoxicity by linking the target cells to cytotoxic cells through their ... a) Murine antibody; (b) chimaeric antibody (human C domains and murine V domains); (c) humanised antibody (murine ...
RP complex from a plasma or commercial concentrate source of factor VIII onto agarose beads bound to a monoclonal antibody ... A. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody to VIII:RP. The monoclonal antibody to VIII:RP which is subsequently bound to the ... Monoclonal antibodies useful in deodorizing skin and antibody fragments thereof. US5259951 *. 11. Juni 1991. 9. Nov. 1993. ... Monoclonal antibodies to factor VIIIC. US4749780 *. 4. M rz 1986. 7. Juni 1988. Kabivitrum Ab. Biologically active fragments of ...
Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
MAbsProteinsAntigensIsotypeMyeloma cells2019CytotoxicityTherapeuticsMoleculesMake a monoclonal antibodyOverview of monoclonal antibodyQuantities of monoclonal antibodiesEfficacyCharacterizationTumorsHuman antibodyReagentsPotentChemotherapyHybridoma cellsDetectionCD20RecognizeMultiple MyelomaAffinityFragmentsProductionCancer immunotherapyExtracellular domainMouseTherapy1984TargetsHYBRIDOMASCell
- Toward this end, we have produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize specific phosphorylation sites within human PR including a basal site at Ser 190 (MAb P190) and a hormoneinduced site at Ser 294 (MAb P294). (psu.edu)
- The growing market of biologic drugs, pushed by a flurry of success with monoclonal antibodies, creates a need for standard high-throughput assays to assess the content of mAbs in serum samples. (news-medical.net)
- These are known as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (cancer.org)
- Naked mAbs are antibodies that work by themselves. (cancer.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) joined to a chemotherapy drug or to a radioactive particle are called conjugated monoclonal antibodies . (cancer.org)
- Conjugated mAbs are also sometimes referred to as tagged , labeled , or loaded antibodies. (cancer.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are produced from a single B cell clone and can bind to a single type of antigen binding site. (news-medical.net)
- MAbs are homogenous antibodies that cannot form lattices with monomeric proteins as they can bind to only a single epitope on the antigen. (news-medical.net)
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) researchers at the Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research (IBBR) have demonstrated the most precise method yet to measure the structural configuration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), an important factor in determining the safety and efficacy of these biomolecules as medicines. (eurekalert.org)
- According to our report, "Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies Market Forecast to 2017", market for cancer mAbs is anticipated to reach US$ 34 Billion by 2017. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The most significant recent advances in the application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to oncology have been the introduction and approval of bevacizumab (Avastin), an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and of cetuximab (Erbitux), an anti-epidermal growth factor antibody. (nih.gov)
- There are currently 17 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved by the FDA in the US. (google.co.uk)
- The paradigm shift of Inovio's technology is that the DNA for a monoclonal antibody is encoded in a DNA plasmid, delivered directly into cells of the body using electroporation, and the mAbs are "manufactured" by these cells. (cnbc.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (MABs) have become a mainstay of MS treatment and they are likely to continue to be developed for the treatment of this disease. (mdpi.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are one of the preferred treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) due to their target specificity and usually high efficacy [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Reactions to murine MABs were soon associated with the development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) against the murine-based protein with repeated exposures [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
- In order to reduce the potential immunogenicity of murine MABs, chimeric mouse-human antibodies were developed ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
- The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for cancer therapy is one of the major contributions of tumor immunology to advances in treating oncology patients. (uspharmacist.com)
- An important discovery in the development of antibodies was a technique for producing mAbs in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. (uspharmacist.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent one of the fastest growing classes of drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. (genengnews.com)
- This industry includes establishments that produce anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies to prevent metastasis by reducing cell proliferation, immunological monoclonal anti-bodies, neuropharmacological monoclonal anti-bodies, anti-infective monoclonal antibodies and other mAbs for human beings and animals. (adlandpro.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies are proteins manufactured in the laboratory that can target specific disease cells or antigens (proteins that trigger an immune reaction) for removal from the body. (eurekalert.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies are proteins with high specificity towards targets. (els.net)
- Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can be engineered to be more human‐like proteins, to increase their affinity, reduce their immunogenicity and increase their half‐life in the circulation, and can be conjugated with toxin for better lytic effect. (els.net)
- Choose from a list of proteins below to further refine your search results or use the faceting options on the left to select the attributes you want in your antibody. (cellsignal.com)
- A hybridoma cell line is disclosed that secretes monoclonal antibodies which serve as a high titer, reproducible, biological reagent useful in biological/medical research for isolating and identifying phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. (google.ca)
- 1. A monoclonal antibody of the class IgG or IgM, derived from the fusion of a murine myeloma cell and a murine antibody-producing lymphoid cell, demonstrating specific reactivity to a phosphotyrosine moiety on phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. (google.ca)
- 2. The monoclonal antibody of claim 1 wherein the antibody demonstrates positive detection of antigenic determinants of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins by immunosorbent and electrophoretic assays. (google.ca)
- 5. The antibody of claim 1 wherein the antibody demonstrates positive reactivity with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from animal cells. (google.ca)
- 7. A murine hybridoma cell line characterized by its production of monoclonal antibodies of the class IgG or IgM demonstrating specific reactivity to a a phosphotyrosine moiety on phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. (google.ca)
- 8. The cell line of claim 7 wherein the antibodies demonstrate positive detection of antigenic determinants of phosphotyrosine containing proteins by immunosorbent and electrophoretic assays. (google.ca)
- 11. The cell line of claim 7 wherein the antibodies demonstrate positive reactivity with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from animal cells. (google.ca)
- Monoclonal antibodies mimic natural proteins found in the body to specifically and effectively target abnormal cells. (myeloma.org.uk)
- Monoclonal antibodies are genetically engineered chimeric murine-human immunoglobulins directed against proteins involved in cell cycle initiation. (medscape.com)
- Your body of the rabbit recognized the international protein and made antibodies - these antibodies were specific to individual proteins. (dailystrength.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies target various proteins that influence cell activity such as receptors or other proteins present on the surface of normal and cancer cells. (prospecbio.com)
- Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
- The application of classical hybridoma technology to the study of human mammary carcinoma resulted in the generation of a variety of monoclonal antibodies that identify several antigens associated with this type of tumor (1-3). (springer.com)
- Horan-Hand P., Nuti M., Colcher D., Schlom J.: Definition of antigenic heterogeneity and modulation among human mammary carcinoma cell populations using monoclonal antibodies to tumor associated antigens. (springer.com)
- The monoclonal antibodies of this invention are antibodies that specifically recognize human Integrin Associated Protein, and the antigens that induce apoptosis of nucleated blood cells having human Integrin Associated Protein. (google.com)
- However, while one cell line of the splenic stromal cells has been established (CF-1 cells) and its cytological characteristics have been studied, specific antibodies that recognize the surface antigens of these cells have never been prepared, nor have their characteristics been elucidated yet in any way. (google.com)
- To understand how this therapy works, you must understand what antigens and antibodies are. (lymphomainfo.net)
- Antibodies are designed to bind to antigens, like fitting two puzzle pieces together. (lymphomainfo.net)
- In monoclonal antibody therapy, doctors inject patients with antibodies that bind to the antigens on cancer cells. (lymphomainfo.net)
- The antibodies will only bind to one type of antigen, and antigens are cell specific. (lymphomainfo.net)
- They are large Protein molecules bright cells.Antibodies made by the immune system in the response to the presence of antigens in the human body. (dailystrength.org)
- In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induced a specific humoral response in infected animals, primarily against a 70-kDa molecule, indicating a possible role of specific antibodies against this molecule in infection control. (frontiersin.org)
- Monoclonal Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens in order to discriminate between specific epitopes which provides protection against disease organisms. (prospecbio.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies are artificially produced against a specific antigen in order to bind to their target antigens. (prospecbio.com)
- PeproTech's monoclonal antibodies are raised against full-length recombinant antigens and have been thoroughly screened for performance in a variety of applications. (peprotech.com)
- The principal objectives of this study is to produce a panel of high quality of monoclonal antibodies specific to individual O antigens and cholera toxin. (sbir.gov)
- This can be achieved by preparation of purified antigens from V. cholerae, immunization of mice with purified antigens, fusion of the splenocytes of immunized mice with myeloma cells to generate hybrids, screening of antibody producing clones from these hybrids and characterization of these monoclonal antibodies. (sbir.gov)
- Antigens can also be part of the host itself, in the case of an autoimmune disease, and upon attacking the body, they are "targeted" by the antibodies. (uspharmacist.com)
- The road to individualized therapy goes through detecting specific targets (e.g., antigens), suitable for influence, and their selective targeting by using specially designed molecules (e.g., antibodies). (intechopen.com)
- Rat/mouse hybrid antibodies can be engineered with binding sites for two different antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Anti-MBP Monoclonal Antibody (HRP-conjugated) is a murine anti-maltose binding protein antibody, isotype IgG2a, that is covalently linked to horseradish peroxidase. (neb.com)
- Anti-MBP Monoclonal Antibody (HRP conjugated) is a murine anti-maltose binding protein antibody, isotype IgG2a. (neb.com)
- The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen-Friedenreich) and hematological (CD20) cancer indications. (mdpi.com)
- The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post-immunization human peripheral blood lymphocytes with nonsecretor mouse myeloma cells is described. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The key idea was to use a line of myeloma cells that had lost their ability to secrete antibodies, come up with a technique to fuse these cells with healthy antibody producing B-cells and be able to select for the successfully fused cells. (mdanderson.org)
- Fusion of cell culture myeloma cells with mammalian spleen cells antibodies result in hybrid cells/hybridomas which produces large amounts of monoclonal antibody. (prospecbio.com)
- These single-parent cells are derived from hybrid antibody-expressing cells (Hybridomas), typically made by fusing myeloma cells with spleen cells from a host which has been immunized with the target antigen. (peprotech.com)
- The B cells have antibody-production capability, while the myeloma cells enable hybridomas to divide indefinitely and grow well in culture. (uspharmacist.com)
- Typically, monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse and recently, as a result of advances, from rabbit B-cells. (sciencephoto.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies can mediate antibody‐mediated cytotoxicity by linking the target cells to cytotoxic cells through their binding sites and Fc sites. (els.net)
- When antibodies are afucosylated the effect is to increase antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, H3v-47 also engages Fcγ receptor and mediates antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (rcsb.org)
- Comprehensive analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics is no easy task. (nist.gov)
- These molecules embody various complex attributes, the characterization of which is a long and arduous process, yet monoclonal antibody therapeutics have taken residence as perhaps one of the most influential therapeutic classes of our time. (nist.gov)
- The NISTmAb case study provides a comprehensive overview of monoclonal antibody therapeutics, using the NISTmAb as a vehicle for highlighting the characterization stages of product development. (nist.gov)
- Monoclonal antibodies have a clear regulatory path for their approval as therapeutics. (els.net)
- They also suggest antibody-based therapeutics may have a broader utility against other infectious diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
- Sartorius offers information-rich solutions for development of antibody therapeutics that enable tracking of complex biological processes at unprecedented speed, depth, and scale. (sartorius.com)
- 4. The isolated cell of claim 3 , wherein said isolated cell is selected from the group consisting of an immortalized B cell, a hybridoma and a recombinant cell comprising one or more exogenous nucleic acid molecules that encode said antibody or antigen-binding fragment of said antibody. (google.ca)
- To date, it's been assumed that 2D NMR could not be practically applied to monoclonal antibodies because it's too insensitive, too time intensive and too expensive for analyzing anything other than much smaller drug molecules," Brinson explains. (eurekalert.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies are protein molecules made in the laboratory from hybridoma cells (stable cell lines derived by fusing antibody‐producing cells from immunised animals with cells that confer immortality and high‐yield antibody production) or by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology. (els.net)
- The antibodies, which have demonstrated affinity for a variety of molecules containing o-phosphotyrosine residues, were prepared using a synthetic analog, p-azobenzyl phosphonate (ABP) covalently linked to a carrier protein, as the antigen. (google.ca)
- In a recently published article, Inovio demonstrated that a single administration in mice of a highly optimized dMAb ® DNA, which targets HIV, generated antibody molecules in the bloodstream that possessed desirable functional activity including high antigen-binding and HIV-neutralization capabilities against diverse strains of HIV viruses. (cnbc.com)
- Using this newly patented approach, Inovio published that a single administration of a highly optimized DNA-based monoclonal antibody targeting HIV virus in mice generated antibody molecules in the bloodstream possessing desirable functional activity including high antigen-binding and HIV-neutralization capabilities against diverse strains of HIV viruses. (cnbc.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules engineered to enhance or mimic the immune system's attack on cancer cells. (uspharmacist.com)
- To mount a successful monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based discovery and development program for cancer, whether developing therapeutic antibodies or antibody drug conjugates, you need technologies that allow rapid identification and characterization of candidate molecules to identify those with superior target reactivity and optimized functionality. (sartorius.com)
- In this article we will give an overview of monoclonal antibody patenting, briefly review the Janssen case, discuss the 'antibody exception,' and then provide some possible strategic directions for antibody patenting going forward, focusing on the critical issue of the interplay between the post-Janssen antibody exception and the recently enacted America Invents Act. (fenwick.com)
- After cloning by limiting dilution, three hybridoma lines secreting antiestrophilin were expanded in suspension culture and as ascites tumors in athymic mice to provide substantial quantities of monoclonal antibodies that recognize mammalian but not avian estrophilin and that show different degrees of reactivity with receptor from nonprimate sources. (pnas.org)
- The hybridoma cells are placed into media that can help them grow and produce the bulk quantities of monoclonal antibodies. (prospecbio.com)
- Two recently approved monoclonal antibodies-evolocumab and alirocumab-are injected subcutaneously either biweekly or monthly and have demonstrated favorable safety profiles, in addition to efficacy in lowering LDL-C. A third monoclonal antibody is currently being investigated. (uspharmacist.com)
- ADCC is important in the efficacy of cancer antibodies, but with many approved cancer antibodies there is less ADCC that could be desired due to nonspecific IgG competing with the drugs for binding to FcγIIIa on natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Monoclonal reagents with selected specificities are therefore available in increasing number, and their potential for applications in the diagnosis and characterization of breast cancer is under investigation. (springer.com)
- It is expected that a panel of high quality of monoclonal antibodies will be developed in Phase I and can be used for further characterization in Phase II. (sbir.gov)
- Download now to learn about innovative solutions for rapid candidate characterization of that streamline and advance antibody therapeutic discovery. (sartorius.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies penetrate bulky tumors poorly after intravenous administration, in part because of specific binding to the target antigen. (pnas.org)
- Since the antibodies will automatically bind the cancer cells, the radiation is delivered to tumors and the damage to healthy cells is minimized. (lymphomainfo.net)
- These characteristics make the humanized antibodies of the present invention attractive agents for the treatment and detection of tumors expressing PSCA. (google.co.uk)
- Therapeutic antibodies have recently emerged as one of the most successful immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of both hematologic cancers and solid tumors. (sartorius.com)
- Our previous study has proved that anti-DKK2 antibody 5F8 suppressed the growth of colorectal carcinoma with APC mutations, illustrating a new target agent of APC-mutated tumors. (nature.com)
- c) humanised antibody (murine complementarity‐determining regions on a human framework) and (d) completely human antibody. (els.net)
- This occurs by inserting the antigen-specific variable domain of a mouse antibody on the constant domains of a human antibody, producing antibodies that are up to 65% humanized [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The human immune system would clear out these foreign antibodies quickly, so when they had identified a potent antibody, scientists at Macrogenics clipped out the genetic material that controls the antibody's targeting and cloned it into a human antibody. (rxpgnews.com)
- In a placebo-controlled, randomized study, the monoclonal antibody PRO 140 had a prolonged, potent, and dose-dependent antiviral effect, Jeffrey Jacobson, M.D., of Drexel University in Philadelphia, reported at the Interscience Conference on Anti-microbial Agents and Chemotherapy here. (medpagetoday.com)
- Here, we report a human V H 1-69 gene-encoded monoclonal antibody (mAb) designated H3v-47 that exhibits potent cross-reactive neutralization activity against human and swine H3N2 viruses that circulated since 1989. (rcsb.org)
- The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. (mdpi.com)
- Monoclonal Antibody - Mediated Chemotherapy , Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugate Therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor From Related Chapters II. (tripdatabase.com)
- In addition, the anti-HER2/neu antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), in combination with standard adjuvant chemotherapy, has been shown to reduce relapses and prolong disease-free and overall survival in high-risk patients after definitive local therapy for breast cancer. (nih.gov)
- Laboratroy produced Hybridoma cells replicate much faster than normal antibody producing cells, and the individual hybridomas produce the specific antibodies for an indefinite period of time. (prospecbio.com)
- Hybridoma cells manufacture the specific monoclonal antibody that was originally produced by the B-Lymphocyte cell. (prospecbio.com)
- For serum antibody detection , three widely known ELISA setups with their common advantages and disadvantages are listed in the table below. (news-medical.net)
- 11. An immunological diagnostic kit containing as specific reagent a monoclonal antibody according to either of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 for the detection of human multidrug-resistant cells or human P-glycoprotein. (google.com)
- A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. (medindia.net)
- The detection of cytokeratin 5 in myoepithelial cells with this antibody may also be used to aid in the determination of breast and prostate malignancies. (roche.com)
- The degree of environmental contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in experimental model aerosols. (cdc.gov)
- Accordingly, they are useful as antibodies that recognize human Integrin. (google.com)
- In light of the aforementioned findings relating to splenic stromal cells and the results of prior research, the present inventors have earnestly made further research aiming at developing specific antibodies that can recognize the splenic stromal cells, made efforts to prepare monoclonal antibodies using the aforementioned splenic stromal cell line as a sensitizing antigen, and finally succeeded in obtaining novel monoclonal antibodies. (google.com)
- Normally, during an attack, the immune system will generate a large group of antibodies that recognize several epitopes of a particular antigen. (uspharmacist.com)
- The big surprise for us was that all of the potently neutralizing antibodies appear to recognize the same general region of this domain. (rxpgnews.com)
- NEW YORK-The best treatment for young, fit, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma patients is three, not four drugs, but the incorporation of new monoclonal antibodies into four-drug regimens has myeloma experts talking about a potential cure, according to experts at the Lymphoma & Myeloma International Conference here. (lww.com)
- Mutations of either antibody or antigen which lower affinity appear to do so primarily by increasing dissociation rates, and also appear to be accompanied by entropy/enthalpy compensation. (nih.gov)
- The main focus of the facility is to produce high-affinity antibodies in a high-throughput and effective manner, while concentrating on quality of product and service, as well as saving time and money for potential users. (mdanderson.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies, shown here binding to a cell, are monospecific antibodies (these are antibodies that have an affinity for the same antigen) - mAB or moAb, as they are abbreviated, are the same because they are created by identical immune cells that are clones of a unique parent cell. (sciencephoto.com)
- A therapeutic monoclonal antibody and its Fab and Fc fragments were recently investigated using differential scanning fluorimetry, temperature-ramped dynamic light scattering, and turbidity measurements. (news-medical.net)
- To make the 2D NMR method more accessible to the lower-strength magnetic field instruments found in most analytical research labs, the IBBR team narrowed the analysis by dividing its sample antibody into two structural fragments. (eurekalert.org)
- Whole antibody and fragments retaining the antigen‐binding site. (els.net)
- The stem -mab is used for monoclonal antibodies as well as for their fragments, as long as at least one variable domain (the domain that contains the target binding structure) is included. (wikipedia.org)
- Taylor-Papadimitriou J., Peterson J.A., Arklie J., Burchell J., Ceriani R.L., Bodmer W.F.: Monoclonal antibodies to epithelium-specific components of the human milk fat globule membrane: production and reaction with cells in culture. (springer.com)
- The Monoclonal Antibody Facility (MABF) provides custom monoclonal antibody production and purification to researchers at MD Anderson and beyond. (mdanderson.org)
- Laboratory production of monoclonal antibodies is produced from clones of only 1 cell which means that every monoclonal antibody produced by the cell is the same. (prospecbio.com)
- The source of abnormal production of monoclonal antibody is a small population of plasma cells in the bone marrow. (prospecbio.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies are produced by cells expanded from a single parent cell, resulting in the production of a homogenous antibody preparation. (peprotech.com)
- The Core adds to his expertise in improving and developing new technologies in antibody production. (mdanderson.org)
- However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. (mdpi.com)
- The feasibility of good manufacturing practice was shown by the production of 11 g IgA within 35 days in a one liter perfusion bioreactor, and IgA antibodies in high purity were obtained after purification. (mdpi.com)
- IgA antibodies have great potential to improve the functional diversity of current IgG antibody-based cancer immunotherapy options. (mdpi.com)
- Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. (mdpi.com)
- Splenic lymphocytes from the immunized rat were fused with cells of two different mouse myeloma lines (P3-X63-Ag8 and Sp2/0-Ag14) to yield hybridoma cultures, 2% of which produced antibodies to estrophilin. (pnas.org)
- 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. A continuous cell line which produces human anit-tetanus toxin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a tetanus toxin-immunized or toxoid-immunized human peripheral blood lymphocyte and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the anitbodies are capable of neutralizing tetanus toxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The present invention discloses humanized 1G8 antibodies in which the majority of the mouse-derived epitopes have been removed. (google.co.uk)
- The original B-Lymphocyte cell will produce the Monoclonal antibody depending on the kind of antigen that was injected into the mouse just prior to the harvesting of the B-Lymphocyte cells. (prospecbio.com)
- Scientists initially produced a panel of many West Nile virus antibodies from mouse cells. (rxpgnews.com)
- 7. Mouse monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma ATCC CRL 8027. (epo.org)
- Thus, the human/mouse chimeric antibody basiliximab ends in -ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. (wikipedia.org)
- AIDS Clinical Trials Group (1997) MSL‐109 adjuvant therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: the monoclonal antibody cytomegalovirus retinitis trial. (els.net)
- The future of four-drug regimens has brightened with the introduction of monoclonal antibodies in myeloma therapy, he continued. (lww.com)
- Monoclonal Antibody (mAB) Therapy is a type of immunotherapy . (lymphomainfo.net)
- To our knowledge, these experiments are the first successful demonstration of the use of a humanized antibody as a post-exposure therapy against a viral disease," says senior investigator Michael Diamond, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular microbiology, pathology and immunology and of medicine. (rxpgnews.com)
- The use of afucosylated monoclonal antibodies in therapy was pioneered by two major pharma companies - Kyowa Hakko Kirin and Roche. (wikipedia.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe active Crohn disease or fistulizing disease that is unresponsive to other medical therapy. (medscape.com)
- Brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris ® ) , an antibody that targets the CD30 antigen (found on lymphocytes), attached to a chemo drug called MMAE . (cancer.org)
- Obinutuzumab, approved in 2013 by the FDA as a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia AstraZeneca's MEDI-551 antibody is an afucosylated antibody that targets CD19 GlaxoSmithKline's GSK2831781 monoclonal antibody for autoimmune diseases is afucosylated. (wikipedia.org)
- Seattle Genetics is working on SEA-CD40, an afucosylated antibody that targets CD40. (wikipedia.org)
- 3. An isolated cell that produces the 6E6 HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by the murine hybridoma deposited as ATCC Accession Number PTA-5433. (google.ca)
- An antibody produced by cultured cells that have their origin in a single antibody-producing cell and which is therefore of a single molecular type, in contrast to the polyclonal antibodies normally found in the serum of an immunized animal. (jax.org)
- By definition, 'monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. (mdanderson.org)
- It is important to remember that an antibody designed to mark a certain type of cell - a B-cell, let's say - will not work on a T-cell cancer. (lymphomainfo.net)
- 9. The cell line of claim 7 wherein the antibodies each have a molecular weight of about 150,000 daltons and are classified as γ 1 K antibodies. (google.ca)
- 13. An antibody-producing cell line having the identifying characteristics of ATCC HB 8190. (google.ca)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were a transformational scientific innovation designed to enhance the immune system's ability to regulate cell functions. (cnbc.com)
- Monoclonal Antibodies are cells derived by cell division from a single ancestral cell. (prospecbio.com)
- Those antibodies are named monoclonal because they come from only 1 type of cell, which is the hybridoma cell. (prospecbio.com)
- The cell fusion resulted in two different types of cells, one with the ability to grow continually, and the other with ability to produce bulk amounts of purified antibody. (prospecbio.com)
- Each antibody is secreted by a different antibody-producing plasma cell, and since the antibodies found in serum are collectively produced by many plasma cells (clones), they are described as polyclonal antibodies . (uspharmacist.com)
- Antibodies typically work by attaching to a piece of a foreign cell or substance, which causes immune system cells known as macrophages to pick up the substance and clear it from the body. (rxpgnews.com)
- Roche manufactures afucosylated monoclonal antibodies in CHO cells lines, where the cell has been engineered to overexpress an enzyme called GnTIII. (wikipedia.org)
- New Drug Application Approval for POTELIGEO (Mogamulizumab) Injection in Japan, a Therapeutic Antibody for Adult T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATL)" (Press release). (wikipedia.org)
- This antibody exhibits a cytoplasmic staining pattern and may be used to aid in the identification of squamous cell carcinoma and in distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinomas. (roche.com)
- I. European patent No. 0 033 578 with the title 'Hybrid cell line for producing monoclonal antibody to a human T cell antigen, antibody, and methods' was granted with 19. (epo.org)
- This study aimed to investigate the potential of applying anti-DKK2 antibody to non-small cell lung cancer with APC mutations. (nature.com)
- VANCOUVER, WASHINGTON (November 14, 2017) - Newly published research provides preclinical proof-of-concept for the ability of PRO 140, a humanized anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody under development by CytoDyn Inc. (OTC.QB: CYDY), to effectively block the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a potentially lethal complication of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) transplantation. (eurekalert.org)
- The antigen defined by a rat monoclonal antibody directed to a Burkitt lymphoma cell line was identified as globotriaosylceramide [Gal alpha (1 leads to 4)-Gal beta (1 leads to 4)-Glc beta (1 leads to 1)-ceramide]. (sciencemag.org)
- Immunofluorescence staining in HeLa cell line with Anti-TUFM monoclonal antibody, showing distinct mitochondrial staining in green and microtubule and nuclear probes stained in red and blue respectively. (bioscience.co.uk)