A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.
A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE, but with more antihistaminic and sedative properties.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Propylamines are organic compounds consisting of an amino group (-NH2) attached to a propyl group (CH3CH2CH2-), which can act as central nervous system stimulants, local anesthetics, or vasopressors, depending on their specific chemical structure.
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Acetophenones are organic compounds that contain a ketone functional group (carbonyl, >C=O) attached to a phenyl ring, making them a subclass of aromatic ketones with the general formula C6H5COCH3.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
Hydrazines are organic compounds containing the functional group R-NH-NH2, where R represents an organic group, and are used in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and rocket fuels, but can be highly toxic and carcinogenic with potential for environmental damage.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Kynuramine is a biologically active compound that results from the metabolism of tryptophan by the enzyme kynurenine monooxygenase, and it plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmission and immune responses.
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, formed in the body through the catabolic breakdown of this neurotransmitter by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase and then further metabolized in the liver before excretion in urine.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Semicarbazides are organic compounds containing a functional group with the structure NH2-NH-CO-NH2, which are commonly used as reagents in chemical reactions to form semicarbazones, and can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.

Influence of vesicular storage and monoamine oxidase activity on [11C]phenylephrine kinetics: studies in isolated rat heart. (1/574)

[11C]Phenylephrine (PHEN) is a radiolabeled analogue of norepinephrine that is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and taken up into storage vesicles localized within the nerve varicosities by the vesicular monoamine transporter. PHEN is structurally related to two previously developed sympathetic nerve markers: [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine and [11C]epinephrine. To better characterize the neuronal handling of PHEN, particularly its sensitivity to neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, kinetic studies in an isolated working rat heart system were performed. METHODS: Radiotracer was administered to the isolated working heart as a 10-min constant infusion followed by a 110-min washout period. Two distinctly different approaches were used to assess the sensitivity of the kinetics of PHEN to MAO activity. In the first approach, oxidation of PHEN by MAO was inhibited at the enzymatic level with the MAO inhibitor pargyline. In the second approach, the two hydrogen atoms on the a-carbon of the side chain of PHEN were replaced with deuterium atoms ([11C](-)-alpha-alpha-dideutero-phenylephrine [D2-PHEN]) to inhibit MAO activity at the tracer level. The importance of vesicular uptake on the kinetics of PHEN and D2-PHEN was assessed by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter-mediated storage into vesicles with reserpine. RESULTS: Under control conditions, PHEN initially accumulated into the heart at a rate of 0.72+/-0.15 mL/min/g wet. Inhibition of MAO activity with either pargyline or di-deuterium substitution did not significantly alter this rate. However, MAO inhibition did significantly slow the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during the washout phase of the study. Blocking vesicular uptake with reserpine reduced the initial uptake rates of PHEN and D2-PHEN, as well as greatly accelerated the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during washout. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that PHEN kinetics are sensitive to neuronal MAO activity. Under normal conditions, efficient vesicular storage of PHEN serves to protect the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO. However, it is likely that leakage of PHEN from the storage vesicles and subsequent metabolism by MAO lead to an appreciable clearance of radioactivity from the heart.  (+info)

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. (2/574)

The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy.  (+info)

Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. (3/574)

The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders.  (+info)

Effect of low-dose treatment with selegiline on dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and amphetamine-induced dopamine release in vivo. (4/574)

1. Chronic treatment with low doses of the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitors selegiline [(-)-deprenyl] and rasagiline, causes elevation in extracellular level of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) in the rat striatum in vivo (Lamensdorf et al., 1996). The present study was carried out to determine whether this effect of selegiline could be the result of an inhibition of the high-affinity dopamine neuronal transport process. 2. Changes in activity of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in vivo following selegiline treatment were evaluated indirectly by microdialysis technique in the rat, from the change in striatal dopamine extracellular concentration following systemic amphetamine administration (4 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Striatal levels of the DAT molecule were determined by immunoblotting. Uptake of [3H]-dopamine was determined in synaptosomes from selegiline-treated animals. 3. Amphetamine-induced increase in striatal extracellular dopamine level was attenuated by one day and by chronic (21 days) treatment with selegiline (0.25 mg kg(-1), s.c.). 4. Striatal levels of DAT were elevated after 1 and 21 days treatment with selegiline, but were not affected by clorgyline, rasagiline, nomifensine or amphetamine. 5. The increase in DAT expression, and attenuation of amphetamine-induced dopamine release, were not accompanied by a change in [3H]-dopamine uptake in synaptosomes of selegiline-treated animals. 6. The results suggest that a reversible inhibition of dopamine uptake occurs following chronic low dose selegiline treatment in vivo which may be mediated by an increase in endogenous MAO-B substrates such as 2-phenylethylamine, rather than by the inhibitor molecule or its metabolites. Increased DAT expression appears to be a special property of the selegiline molecule, since it occurs after one low dose of selegiline, and is not seen with other inhibitors of MAO-A or MAO-B. The new DAT molecules formed following selegiline treatment appear not to be functionally active.  (+info)

Treatment of atypical depression with cognitive therapy or phenelzine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (5/574)

BACKGROUND: Patients with atypical depression are more likely to respond to monoamine oxidase inhibitors than to tricyclic antidepressants. They are frequently offered psychotherapy in the absence of controlled tests. There are no prospective, randomized, controlled trials, to our knowledge, of psychotherapy for atypical depression or of cognitive therapy compared with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Since there is only 1 placebo-controlled trial of cognitive therapy, this trial fills a gap in the literature on psychotherapy for depression. METHODS: Outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder and atypical features (N = 108) were treated in a 10-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing acute-phase cognitive therapy or clinical management plus either phenelzine sulfate or placebo. Atypical features were defined as reactive mood plus at least 2 additional symptoms: hypersomnia, hyperphagia, leaden paralysis, or lifetime sensitivity to rejection. RESULTS: With the use of an intention-to-treat strategy, the response rates (21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score, < or =9) were significantly greater after cognitive therapy (58%) and phenelzine (58%) than after pill placebo (28%). Phenelzine and cognitive therapy also reduced symptoms significantly more than placebo according to contrasts after a repeated-measures analysis of covariance and random regression with the use of the blind evaluator's final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score. The scores between cognitive therapy and phenelzine did not differ significantly. Supplemental analyses of other symptom severity measures confirm the finding. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive therapy may offer an effective alternative to standard acute-phase treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor for outpatients with major depressive disorder and atypical features.  (+info)

Selegiline effects on cocaine-induced changes in medial temporal lobe metabolism and subjective ratings of euphoria. (6/574)

To test the effect of selegiline, a specific monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, on the cerebral metabolic and euphorigenic effects of cocaine in experienced users, eight cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects were evaluated using a within-subjects design. Each subject participated in two pairs of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) scans (baseline scan followed 24 h later by a second scan obtained in conjunction with a 40-mg cocaine infusion) performed before and after a 1-week period of daily treatment with 10 mg selegiline administered orally. The hippocampus and amygdala were evaluated because of their hypothesized involvement in the addiction process, and the thalamus was evaluated as a comparison region. Following 7 days of selegiline treatment, the magnitude of the subjective euphoria ("high") produced by cocaine infusion was reduced by 40% (cocaine by selegiline interaction F = 7.15, df = 1.21, p = .014). Selegiline treatment also altered glucose utilization (normalized against whole brain counts) in the two limbic regions, but not the thalamus. In the amygdala, the effects of cocaine differed, depending upon whether or not patients were being treated with selegiline (cocaine by selegiline interaction F = 4.67, df = 1,19.8, p = .043). A different effect was observed in the hippocampus, where selegiline treatment decreased metabolic activity irrespective of whether cocaine was given (main effect F = 7.70, df = 1.20, p = .012). The concomitant changes in both the subjective experience of the "high" and normalized amygdala glucose utilization after selegiline treatment, suggest that a relationship exists between cocaine-induced euphoria and limbic metabolism. The data suggest that selegiline may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of cocaine dependence.  (+info)

Cellular and molecular remodeling in a heart failure model treated with the beta-blocker carteolol. (7/574)

Broad-breasted white turkey poults fed furazolidone developed dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) characterized by ventricular dilatation, decreased ejection fraction, beta1-receptor density, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase, myofibrillar ATPase activity, and reduced metabolism markers. We investigated the effects of carteolol, a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, by administrating two different dosages (0.01 and 10.0 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 wk to control and DCM turkey poults. At completion of the study there was 59% mortality in the nontreated DCM group, 55% mortality in the group treated with the low dose of carteolol, and 22% mortality in the group treated with the high dose of carteolol. Both treated groups showed a significant decrease in left ventricle size and significant restoration of ejection fraction and left ventricular peak systolic pressure. Carteolol treatment increased beta-adrenergic receptor density, and the high carteolol dose restored SR Ca2+-ATPase and myofibrillar ATPase activities, along with creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and ATP synthase activities, to normal. These results show that beta-blockade with carteolol improves survival, reverses contractile abnormalities, and induces cellular remodeling in this model of heart failure.  (+info)

Selegiline in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a long-term randomized placebo-controlled trial. Czech and Slovak Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type Study Group. (8/574)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of the type B monoamine oxidase inhibitor selegiline (also known as I-deprenyl) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Seven cities (1 or 2 nursing homes in each city) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. PATIENTS: A total of 173 nursing-home residents fulfilling the DSM-III criteria for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. INTERVENTIONS: Selegiline (10 mg per day) or placebo (both including 50 mg ascorbic acid) administered for 24 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical Global Impressions scale and Nurses Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation at baseline and at weeks 6, 12 and 24; Clock Drawing Test at baseline and 24 weeks, results of which were evaluated as normal or pathologic, and quantitatively on a modified 6-point scale; Sternberg's Memory Scanning test at baseline and at weeks 6, 12 and 24; Mini Mental State Examination, and electroencephalogram at baseline and 24 weeks; Structured Adverse Effects Rating Scale; physical, laboratory, hematological and electrocardiographic examinations at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. RESULTS: A total of 143 subjects completed enough of the trial to be entered in the analysis. Subjects were analyzed by 2 subgroups depending on whether they had a normal or pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test. Analysis of variance showed significant improvement with selegiline versus placebo among those with a normal result of the Clock Drawing Test on the Mini Mental Status Examination (total score and orientation-place subscale) and among those with a pathologic result of the Clock Drawing Test of Sternberg's Memory Scanning test (for both speed and accuracy), on the Clinical Global Impressions scale as well as in terms of the dominant frequency on electroencephalograms. CONCLUSION: Selegiline has a long-term beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease on memory modalities that reflect the function of the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are rich in dopamine receptors. The delayed appearance of differences between selegiline and placebo supports the notion that the mechanism of action is through neuronal rescue or neuroprotection. The differential response of patients with normal and pathologic results of the Clock Drawing Test may reflect the fact that the evaluation methods' sensitivity to change depends on the severity of dementia.  (+info)

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Phenelzine is a type of medication known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which breaks down certain chemicals in the brain such as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine). This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine is primarily used off-label for the treatment of depression that has not responded to other antidepressant medications. It is also used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like phenelzine have several dietary restrictions and potential serious drug interactions due to their mechanism of action. Therefore, they are typically considered a last resort when other antidepressants have failed.

Tranylcypromine is a type of antidepressant known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Tranylcypromine is used primarily for the treatment of major depressive disorder that has not responded to other antidepressants. It is also used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like tranylcypromine have several dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential to cause serious or life-threatening reactions when combined with certain foods or medications. Therefore, careful monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary while taking this medication.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Nialamide is not typically considered in modern medical definitions as it is an older, first-generation monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that has largely been replaced by newer and safer medications. However, for the sake of completeness:

Nialamide is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the availability of these neurotransmitters, which can help to elevate mood in individuals with depression.

It's important to note that MAOIs like Nialamide have significant dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential for serious and life-threatening interactions with certain foods and medications. Their use is generally reserved for treatment-resistant cases of depression and other psychiatric disorders, when other treatment options have been exhausted.

Clorgyline is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps to break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Clorgyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and other medications. It may be used in some cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful, or in research settings to study the role of monoamine oxidase in various physiological processes.

It's important to note that MAOIs like clorgyline require careful monitoring by a healthcare provider and should only be used under close medical supervision due to the risk of serious side effects and interactions.

Selegiline is a selective, irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, which is primarily used in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), an enzyme responsible for breaking down dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in movement regulation. By inhibiting MAO-B, selegiline increases the availability of dopamine in the brain, thereby helping to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and spasms.

Selegiline is also available under the brand name Eldepryl, Zelapar, and Emsam. In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, selegiline has been explored for its potential benefits in treating depression, dementia, and other neurological disorders. However, its use in these conditions is still considered off-label and requires careful consideration of the potential risks and benefits.

It is important to note that MAO inhibitors like selegiline can have serious interactions with certain foods and medications, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a dangerous increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis). Therefore, it is crucial to follow strict dietary restrictions and medication guidelines when taking selegiline or any other MAO inhibitor.

Isocarboxazid is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which is primarily used in the treatment of depression. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. By inhibiting this enzyme, Isocarboxazid helps to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

It is important to note that MAOIs like Isocarboxazid have significant potential for serious side effects and drug interactions, and their use must be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Patients taking Isocarboxazid must follow strict dietary restrictions and avoid certain medications and foods that can interact with the drug and cause dangerous elevations in blood pressure or other adverse reactions.

Iproniazid is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drug that was initially used as an antitubercular agent but later found to have antidepressant properties. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, in the brain which helps to elevate mood and improve symptoms of depression. However, its use is limited due to the risk of serious side effects, including hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome, when taken with certain foods or other medications.

Moclobemide is a type of antidepressant known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA). It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which helps to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Moclobemide is specifically designed to inhibit only monoamine oxidase A, which metabolizes neurotransmitters in the brain, and not monoamine oxidase B, which is found in other parts of the body. This selectivity reduces the risk of serious side effects associated with non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as hypertensive crisis caused by interactions with tyramine-rich foods or certain medications.

Moclobemide is used to treat major depressive disorders and may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as social anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets and oral solution, and is typically taken two to three times a day. As with any medication, moclobemide should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and monitor for potential side effects.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

Bufotenin is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound that can be found in certain plants and animals, including some species of toads. Its chemical name is 5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-HO-DMT) and it is a type of tryptamine alkaloid.

Bufotenin has been used in various traditional medicinal and shamanic practices for its psychoactive effects, which can include altered states of consciousness, changes in perception, and feelings of euphoria or relaxation. However, it can also have adverse effects such as nausea, agitation, and increased heart rate.

In the medical field, bufotenin is sometimes studied for its potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential benefits and risks.

Methoxydimethyltryptamines are a group of synthetic psychedelic tryptamine compounds that contain methoxy groups. These substances are not well-researched and their pharmacological properties, including their safety and potential therapeutic uses, are not well understood. They are considered to be controlled substances in many countries and their use is not authorized for medical or recreational purposes. It's important to note that the use of these substances can carry significant risks, including psychological distress, dangerous behavior, and legal consequences.

NADPH oxidase is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell types. The primary function of NADPH oxidase is to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen, resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. This enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including two membrane-bound components (gp91phox and p22phox) and several cytosolic components (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and rac1 or rac2). Upon activation, these subunits assemble to form a functional enzyme complex that generates ROS, which serve as important signaling molecules in various cellular processes. However, excessive or uncontrolled production of ROS by NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that arises from excessive serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. It is typically caused by the interaction of medications, illicit substances, or dietary supplements that increase serotonin levels or enhance serotonin receptor sensitivity.

The diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome include:

1. Presence of a serotonergic medication or drug known to cause the syndrome
2. Development of neuromuscular abnormalities, such as hyperreflexia, myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, or akathisia
3. Autonomic dysfunction, including diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and hyperthermia
4. Mental status changes, such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, or coma
5. Symptoms that develop rapidly, usually within hours of a change in serotonergic medication or dosage

Serotonin syndrome can range from mild to severe, with the most severe cases potentially leading to respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and death. Treatment typically involves discontinuation of the offending agent(s), supportive care, and pharmacologic interventions such as cyproheptadine or cooling measures for hyperthermia.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methyltyrosines" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or biochemistry. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or typo in your question.

If you are referring to "3-Methoxytyrosine" or "3-MT," it is a metabolite of dopamine, which is formed in the body by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). 3-MT can be measured in various biological samples, such as urine or plasma, to evaluate the activity of COMT and assess the exposure to drugs that inhibit this enzyme.

If you meant something else by "Methyltyrosines," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give a more accurate answer.

Trimipramine is a type of antidepressant known as a tricyclic, which is used primarily to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to regulate mood.

Trimipramine also has sedative properties and is sometimes used off-label for the treatment of insomnia or anxiety. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally.

As with all medications, trimipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, and weight gain. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as heart rhythm abnormalities, seizures, or increased suicidal thoughts or behaviors in some individuals, particularly in children and adolescents.

It is important to take trimipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, and to discuss any potential risks or benefits with them before starting treatment.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

The nictitating membrane, also known as the third eyelid, is a thin, translucent or transparent partial eyelid located in the inner corner of the eye in many animals. It moves horizontally across the eye and serves to clean, moisten, and protect the eye, especially during sleep or when the animal's eyes are closed. This membrane is present in some birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including seals and dogs, but is typically absent or poorly developed in primates, including humans.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. There are two main isoforms of VMATs, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and function.

VMAT1 (also known as SLC18A1) is primarily found in neuroendocrine cells and is responsible for transporting monoamines into large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 (also known as SLC18A2), on the other hand, is mainly expressed in presynaptic neurons and is involved in the transport of monoamines into small synaptic vesicles.

Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 are integral membrane proteins that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of monoamines against their concentration gradient, allowing for their storage and subsequent release during neurotransmission. Dysregulation of VMAT function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.

Propylamines are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a propylamine group, which is a functional group consisting of a propyl chain (-C3H7) attached to an amino group (-NH2). Propylamines can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of organic substituents attached to the nitrogen atom.

In a medical context, propylamines may refer to certain drugs that contain this functional group and have pharmacological activity. For example, some local anesthetics, such as procaine (Novocain), are derivatives of propylamine. Procaine is a ester of p-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol, where the amino group is part of a propylamine chain.

It's important to note that not all compounds containing propylamines have medical applications or uses, as this functional group can also be found in various chemicals with different properties and applications.

Tryptamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a tryptamine skeleton, which is a combination of an indole ring and a ethylamine side chain. They are commonly found in nature and can be synthesized in the lab. Some tryptamines have psychedelic properties and are used as recreational drugs, such as dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Others have important roles in the human body, such as serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Tryptamines can also be found in some plants and animals, including certain species of mushrooms, toads, and catnip.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Acetophenones are organic compounds that consist of a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group replaced by a hydrogen atom) bonded to an acetyl group (a carbonyl group bonded to a methyl group). The chemical structure can be represented as CH3COC6H5.

Acetophenones are aromatic ketones and can be found in essential oils of various plants, as well as in some synthetic fragrances. They have a characteristic sweet, fruity odor and are used in the perfume industry. In addition to their use as fragrances, acetophenones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, more research is needed before they can be considered safe and effective for medical use.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, which is the last step in purine metabolism. It's a type of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) during its reaction mechanism.

The enzyme exists in two interconvertible forms: an oxidized state and a reduced state. The oxidized form, called xanthine oxidase, reduces molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, while the reduced form, called xanthine dehydrogenase, reduces NAD+ to NADH.

Xanthine oxidase is found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and milk. An overproduction of uric acid due to increased activity of xanthine oxidase can lead to hyperuricemia, which may result in gout or kidney stones. Some medications and natural compounds are known to inhibit xanthine oxidase, such as allopurinol and febuxostat, which are used to treat gout and prevent the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys.

Harmane, also known as harmaline, is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in several plants, including the seeds of the Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and the bark of the African pinwheel cactus (Adenium obesum). It is an alkaloid with beta-carboline structure.

In a medical context, harmaline has been studied for its potential effects on the central nervous system. It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which means it can increase the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing their breakdown. This property has led to some research into its use as a treatment for depression and other neurological disorders, although it is not currently approved for medical use in this capacity due to potential side effects and toxicity concerns.

It's important to note that harmaline can have dangerous interactions with certain medications and foods, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Therefore, its use should only be under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Hydrazines are not a medical term, but rather a class of organic compounds containing the functional group N-NH2. They are used in various industrial and chemical applications, including the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, some hydrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to high levels of hydrazines can be toxic and may cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, medical professionals should be aware of the potential health hazards associated with hydrazine exposure.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

'Onium compounds' is a general term used in chemistry and biochemistry to describe a class of organic compounds that contain a positively charged functional group. The name 'onium' refers to the positive charge, which is usually located on a nitrogen or phosphorus atom.

The most common onium compounds are ammonium compounds (positive charge on a nitrogen atom) and phosphonium compounds (positive charge on a phosphorus atom). Other examples include sulfonium compounds (positive charge on a sulfur atom) and oxonium compounds (positive charge on an oxygen atom).

In the context of medical research, onium compounds may be studied for their potential use as drugs or diagnostic agents. For example, certain ammonium compounds have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and are used in some disinfectants and sanitizers. Phosphonium compounds have been investigated for their potential use as anti-cancer agents, while sulfonium compounds have been studied for their potential as enzyme inhibitors.

It's worth noting that onium compounds can also be found in nature, including in some biological systems. For example, certain enzymes and signaling molecules contain onium groups that are important for their function.

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic or stimulate the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates various automatic physiological functions in the body. The sympathetic nervous system's primary function is to prepare the body for the "fight-or-flight" response, which includes increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolism while decreasing digestive activity.

Sympathomimetic drugs can exert their effects through various mechanisms, including directly stimulating adrenergic receptors (alpha and beta receptors) or indirectly causing the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from nerve endings. These drugs are used in various clinical settings to treat conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, low blood pressure, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of sympathomimetic drugs include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, albuterol, pseudoephedrine, and methylphenidate.

It is important to note that sympathomimetic drugs can also have adverse effects, particularly when used in high doses or in individuals with certain medical conditions. These adverse effects may include anxiety, tremors, palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmias, and seizures. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Imidazoline receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. They were initially identified through their ability to bind imidazoline compounds, but it is now known that they also bind a variety of other structurally diverse ligands.

There are three subtypes of imidazoline receptors: I1, I2, and I3. The I1 receptor is found in the brain and has been shown to play a role in regulating blood pressure, nociception (pain perception), and neuroprotection. The I2 receptor is also found in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of dopamine release and the sleep-wake cycle. The I3 receptor is primarily located in the peripheral nervous system and has been shown to play a role in regulating insulin secretion and glucose metabolism.

Imidazoline receptors have attracted interest as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of conditions, including hypertension, pain, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed to fully understand their functions and therapeutic potential.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression. The name "tricyclic" comes from the chemical structure of these drugs, which contain three rings in their molecular makeup. TCAs were first developed in the 1950s and remained a popular choice for treating depression until the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the late 1980s.

TCAs work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between nerve cells. By increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters, TCAs can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Some common examples of tricyclic antidepressants include amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline. While TCAs are effective in treating depression, they can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and drowsiness. In addition, TCAs can be dangerous in overdose and may increase the risk of suicide in some individuals. As a result, they are typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Overall, tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression but have largely been replaced by newer drugs due to their side effects and potential risks.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Idazoxan is not a medication that is commonly used in clinical practice, so it may not have a widely accepted "medical definition." However, I can provide some information about what idazoxan is and how it's been studied.

Idazoxan is an investigational drug that belongs to a class of medications called alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonists. These drugs work by blocking the action of certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters, which can affect mood, behavior, and various physiological functions.

Idazoxan has been studied for its potential use in treating a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. It has also been investigated as a tool for studying certain aspects of brain function and neurotransmitter systems. However, it has not been approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any specific medical use.

It's worth noting that while idazoxan may have potential therapeutic uses, it is not without risks and side effects. Like many medications, it can interact with other drugs and may cause adverse reactions in some people. As such, it should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Allopurinol is a medication used to treat chronic gout and certain types of kidney stones. It works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, which is the substance that can cause these conditions when it builds up in high levels. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, meaning it blocks an enzyme called xanthine oxidase from converting purines into uric acid. By doing this, allopurinol helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the body and prevent the formation of new kidney stones or gout attacks.

It is important to note that allopurinol can have side effects, including rash, stomach upset, and liver or kidney problems. It may also interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of any other drugs you are taking before starting allopurinol. Your healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and monitoring schedule based on your individual needs and medical history.

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Phenethylamines are a class of organic compounds that share a common structural feature, which is a phenethyl group (a phenyl ring bonded to an ethylamine chain). In the context of pharmacology and neuroscience, "phenethylamines" often refers to a specific group of psychoactive drugs, including stimulants like amphetamine and mescaline, a classic psychedelic. These compounds exert their effects by modulating the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. It is important to note that many phenethylamines have potential for abuse and are controlled substances.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

Superoxides are partially reduced derivatives of oxygen that contain one extra electron, giving them an overall charge of -1. They are highly reactive and unstable, with the most common superoxide being the hydroxyl radical (•OH-) and the superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxides are produced naturally in the body during metabolic processes, particularly within the mitochondria during cellular respiration. They play a role in various physiological processes, but when produced in excess or not properly neutralized, they can contribute to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, potentially leading to the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen, including peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. They are naturally produced as byproducts of normal cellular metabolism in the mitochondria, and can also be generated by external sources such as ionizing radiation, tobacco smoke, and air pollutants. At low or moderate concentrations, ROS play important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis, but at high concentrations, they can cause significant damage to cell structures, including lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to oxidative stress and potential cell death.

Tetrabenazine is a prescription medication used to treat conditions associated with abnormal involuntary movements, such as chorea in Huntington's disease. It works by depleting the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce the severity and frequency of these movements.

Here is the medical definition:

Tetrabenazine is a selective monoamine-depleting agent, with preferential uptake by dopamine neurons. It is used in the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. Tetrabenazine inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), leading to depletion of presynaptic dopamine and subsequent reduction in post-synaptic dopamine receptor activation. This mechanism of action is thought to underlie its therapeutic effect in reducing chorea severity and frequency.

(Definitions provided by Stedman's Medical Dictionary and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Kynurenine aminotransferase (also known as Kynuramine transaminase) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, which is a neuroprotective compound.

Kynurenine and kynurenic acid are both important components of the kynurenine pathway, which is a major metabolic route for tryptophan in mammals. The kynurenine pathway plays a role in various physiological processes, including the immune response and the regulation of neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, understanding the enzymes involved in this pathway, including kynuramine transaminase, is important for gaining insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and for developing potential therapeutic strategies.

Oxypurinol is not exactly a medical term itself, but it's the main metabolite (a substance that your body makes when it breaks down another substance) of allopurinol, which is a medication commonly used to treat gout and kidney stones. Allopurinol works by reducing the production of uric acid in your body, and oxypurinol helps to continue this effect even after the allopurinol has been metabolized.

So, in a broader medical context, you could define Oxypurinol as:

The primary active metabolite of allopurinol, a medication used to lower uric acid levels in the body, preventing gout attacks and kidney stone formation. Oxypurinol inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for the production of uric acid, thereby reducing the risk of gout and kidney stones.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase (PLOX) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of specific lysine residues in proteins, resulting in the formation of lysine-6-aldehydes, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including the regulation of protein function, modification of extracellular matrices, and the maintenance of copper homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding PLOX have been associated with certain diseases, such as Menkes disease, a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by copper deficiency and neurological symptoms.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the human body. It is formed in the body when an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) breaks down dopamine. HVA can be measured in body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma to assess the activity of dopamine and the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Increased levels of HVA are associated with certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, while decreased levels may indicate dopamine deficiency or other conditions affecting the nervous system.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (3,4-DOPAC) is a major metabolite of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain. Dopamine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase to form dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized to 3,4-DOPAC by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.

3,4-DOPAC is found in the urine and can be used as a marker for dopamine turnover in the brain. Changes in the levels of 3,4-DOPAC have been associated with various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Additionally, 3,4-DOPAC has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting against oxidative stress in the brain.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Aldehyde oxidase is an enzyme found in the liver and other organs that helps to metabolize (break down) various substances, including drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins. It does this by catalyzing the oxidation of aldehydes, which are organic compounds containing a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bond to an oxygen atom. Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase family, which also includes xanthine oxidase and sulfite oxidase. These enzymes all contain a molybdenum cofactor that plays a critical role in their catalytic activity.

Aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme in the metabolism of many drugs, as it can convert them into more water-soluble compounds that can be easily excreted from the body. However, variations in the activity of this enzyme between individuals can lead to differences in drug metabolism and response. Some people may have higher or lower levels of aldehyde oxidase activity, which can affect how quickly they metabolize certain drugs and whether they experience adverse effects.

In addition to its role in drug metabolism, aldehyde oxidase has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, elevated levels of aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation have been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation, which can contribute to the progression of these conditions. Aldehyde oxidase may also play a role in the detoxification of environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which have been associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Overall, aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme that plays a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other substances, as well as in the development of various diseases. Understanding its activity and regulation may help to develop new strategies for treating or preventing these conditions.

Glucose oxidase (GOD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1,5-lactone, while reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide in the process. This reaction is a part of the metabolic pathway in some organisms that convert glucose into energy. The systematic name for this enzyme is D-glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase.

Glucose oxidase is commonly found in certain fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, and it has various applications in industry, medicine, and research. For instance, it's used in the production of glucose sensors for monitoring blood sugar levels, in the detection and quantification of glucose in food and beverages, and in the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring.

It's worth noting that while glucose oxidase has many applications, it should not be confused with glutathione peroxidase, another enzyme involved in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Benzylamines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring attached to an amine group. The amine group (-NH2) can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the nitrogen atom. Benzylamines are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds. They have a variety of biological activities and can act as central nervous system depressants, local anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, some benzylamines can also be toxic or carcinogenic, so they must be handled with care.

Dihydroxyphenylalanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that is often referred to in the context of biochemistry and neuroscience. It is also known as levodopa or L-DOPA for short.

L-DOPA is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. In the brain, L-DOPA is converted into dopamine through the action of an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase.

L-DOPA is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain gradually degenerate, leading to a deficiency of dopamine. By providing L-DOPA as a replacement therapy, doctors can help alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease.

It is important to note that L-DOPA has potential side effects and risks, including nausea, dizziness, and behavioral changes. Long-term use of L-DOPA can also lead to motor complications such as dyskinesias (involuntary movements) and fluctuations in response to the medication. Therefore, it is typically used in combination with other medications and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. It is not a medication or a treatment, but rather a toxin that can damage the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.

MPTP itself is not harmful, but it is metabolized in the body into a toxic compound called MPP+, which accumulates in and damages dopaminergic neurons. MPTP was discovered in the 1980s when a group of drug users in California developed parkinsonian symptoms after injecting a heroin-like substance contaminated with MPTP.

Since then, MPTP has been used as a research tool to study Parkinson's disease and develop new treatments. However, it is not used clinically and should be handled with caution due to its toxicity.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Semicarbazides are organic compounds that contain the functional group -NH-CO-NH-NH2. They are derivatives of hydrazine and carbamic acid, with the general structure (CH3)NHCSNH2. Semicarbazides are widely used in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including heterocyclic compounds, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

In a medical context, semicarbazides themselves do not have any therapeutic use. However, they can be used in the preparation of certain drugs or drug intermediates. For example, semicarbazones, which are derivatives of semicarbazides, can be used to synthesize some antituberculosis drugs.

It is worth noting that semicarbazides and their derivatives have been found to have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties in some studies. Therefore, they should be handled with care in laboratory settings, and exposure should be minimized to reduce potential health risks.

Phenylhydrazines are organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydrogen atom substituted by a hydroxy group) and a hydrazine group (-NH-NH2). They are aromatic amines that have been used in various chemical reactions, including the formation of azos and hydrazones. In medicine, phenylhydrazines were once used as vasodilators to treat angina pectoris, but their use has largely been discontinued due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is synthesized in the body from the amino acid tyrosine. Norepinephrine plays important roles in various physiological functions such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and central nervous system. MHPG is formed when norepinephrine is metabolized by enzymes called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO).

MHPG is primarily found in the urine, and its levels can be measured to assess norepinephrine turnover in the body. Changes in MHPG levels have been associated with various medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, the clinical utility of measuring MHPG levels is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the redox reaction between NADH or NADPH and various electron acceptors. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by transferring electrons from NADH or NADPH to other molecules, which is essential for many biochemical reactions.

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) are coenzymes that act as electron carriers in redox reactions. They consist of a nicotinamide ring, which undergoes reduction or oxidation by accepting or donating electrons and a proton (H+).

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are classified based on their structure and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. Dehydrogenases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing an organic substrate. Examples include lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase.
2. Oxidases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O). Examples include NADH oxidase and NADPH oxidase.
3. Reductases: These enzymes catalyze the reduction of various electron acceptors using NADH or NADPH as a source of electrons. Examples include glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and nitrate reductase.

Overall, NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are essential for maintaining the redox balance in cells and play a critical role in various metabolic pathways, including energy production, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as norepinephrine transporters (NET), are membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and preventing excessive stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.

The norepinephrine transporter is a member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and functions as an antiporter, exchanging one intracellular sodium ion for two extracellular sodium ions along with the transport of norepinephrine. This sodium gradient provides the energy required for the active transport process.

Dysregulation of norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these transporters is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: ... monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as effective antidepressants, especially for ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A). ... Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) are a ... Lotufo-Neto F, Trivedi M, Thase ME (March 1999). "Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A ...
Volz HP, Gleiter CH (November 1998). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A perspective on their use in the elderly". Drugs & Aging. ... Isocarboxazid (Marplan, Marplon, Enerzer) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine ... "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurones in the rat brain by irreversible inhibitors". Biochemical ... and the monoamine neurotransmitters. In combination with other drugs that increase the levels of the monoamine ...
... acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and increases levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain. At typical ... Dopamine reuptake inhibitors, Enantiopure drugs, Euphoriants, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Neuroprotective agents, Nootropics ... Monoamine oxidase B Inhibitors. 2 (4, Supplement): S27-S31. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2012.06.003. ISSN 2210-5336. Gillman PK (October ... September 2004). "Monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors in early Parkinson's disease: meta-analysis of 17 randomised trials ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Advised not to be started until at least 2 weeks after stopping MAOIs. MAOIs are advised ... Lofepramine is a strong inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake and a moderate inhibitor of serotonin reuptake. It is a weak- ... Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Prodrugs, Serotonin receptor antagonists, Tricyclic antidepressants). ... "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters". European Journal of ...
Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, an older class of antidepressants, have been plagued by potentially life-threatening ... another monoamine, in depression. Lastly, increased activity of monoamine oxidase, which degrades monoamines, has been ... The safety profile is different with reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as moclobemide, where the risk of serious ... Krishnan KR (2007). "Revisiting monoamine oxidase inhibitors". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 68 (Suppl 8): 35-41. PMID ...
Krishnan KR (2007). "Revisiting monoamine oxidase inhibitors". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 68 (Suppl 8): 35-41. PMID ... ECT versus tricyclics and ECT versus monoamine oxidase inhibitors." Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a standard psychiatric ... July 2007). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and routine specialist care with and without cognitive behaviour ... Anderson IM (April 2000). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of ...
"Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)". Mayo Clinic. 12 September 2019. Tisserand R, Young R (2014). "Kinetics and dosing". ... Myristicin is additionally known to be a weak inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme in humans that metabolizes ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Phenylpropenes, O-methylated phenylpropanoids, O-methylated natural phenols, Benzodioxoles, Allyl ... Truitt EB, Duritz G, Ebersberger EM (March 1963). "Evidence of monoamine oxidase inhibition by myristicin and nutmeg". ...
"Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-08-08. "Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)". Mayo Clinic. ... through research on treating tuberculosis and yielded the class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO ... SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most frequently used antidepressant. These drugs share many ... Only two MAO inhibitors remain on the market in the United States because they alter the metabolism of the dietary amino acid ...
Eberson LE, Persson K (July 1962). "Studies on Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. I. The Autoxidation of β-Phenylisopropylhydrazine ... "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurones in the rat brain by irreversible inhibitors". Biochemical ... is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine chemical class that was used as an ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Withdrawn drugs, Phenethylamines, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors. For shock due to loss of blood or fluid, give fluid replacement therapy ... Severe hypertension may occur with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and possibly tricyclic antidepressants. Additive ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Bender, KJ; Walker, SE (8 October 2012). "Irreversible Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Revisited". Psychiatric Times. Psychiatric ... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. The serotonin created by the brain ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are widely used antidepressants that specifically block the ...
One piece with which Milne was pleased was his clarification of the tyramine monoamine-oxidase inhibitor interaction (the " ... London, D. R.; Milne, M. D. (1962). "Dangers of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors". British Medical Journal. 2 (5321): 1752. doi: ...
... acts as a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Regarding the isoforms of monoamine ... is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). More specifically, tranylcypromine acts as nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of ... CYP2D6 inhibitors, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Substituted amphetamines, Substances ... Gillman PK (2016). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review concerning dietary tyramine and drug interactions" (PDF). ...
Fookes C. "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Drugs.com. Retrieved June 6, 2022. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) - ... MAOI antidepressants block the actions of monoamine oxidase enzymes. Monoamine oxidase enzymes are responsible for breaking ... Many people who have PTSD take antidepressants and inhibitors to help cope with sleeping disorders, panic attacks, depression, ... SSRIs stands for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. SSRIs are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major ...
... can also act as a competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that removes neurotransmitters from the ... Mitsui N, Noro T, Kuroyanagi M, Miyase T, Umehara K, Ueno A (February 1989). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Cinchonae ... As an MAO inhibitor, it has potential to serve as a treatment for individuals with psychological disorders similar to ... CYP2D6 inhibitors, Hepatotoxins, Phenol ethers, Quinoline alkaloids, Quinuclidine alkaloids, Secondary alcohols, Vinyl ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor Hydrazine (antidepressant) World Health Organization (2011). "The use of stems in the selection of ... Boissier JR, Ratouis R, Dumont C, Lesbros J (1966). "Synthesis of new monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Chimica Therapeutica (5-6 ... Cimemoxin (INN), or cyclohexylmethylhydrazine, is a hydrazine monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant which was never ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (RIMA) of both MAO-A and MAO-B subtypes, with five-fold preference for the ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in neurological diseases. New York: M. Dekker. 1994. ISBN 0-8247-9082-0. Moretti A, Caccia C, ... a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor, on the pressor response to oral tyramine in man". British Journal of Clinical ... a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor, on the pressor response to intravenous tyramine in man". British Journal of Clinical ...
He is the discoverer of both monoamine oxidase (MAO) B inhibitors l-deprenyl (Selegiline) and rasagiline (Azilect) as anti- ... He is a discoverer of the anti-Parkinson drugs selelgiline (l-deprenyl) and developer of monoamine oxidase B inhibitor ... Youdim, Moussa B H; Bakhle, Y S (2006). "Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson's disease and depressive ... "The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 7 (4): 295-309. doi:10.1038/nrn1883. ...
... monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Growth hormone, sodium oxybate, opioids and steroids ... Tort S, Urrútia G, Nishishinya MB, Walitt B (April 2012). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for fibromyalgia syndrome". The ... Tentative evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as pirlindole and moclobemide are moderately ... Supporting the monoamine related theories is the efficacy of monoaminergic antidepressants in fibromyalgia. Glutamate/creatine ...
Brown, Candace S.; Bryant, Stephen G. (March 1988). "Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Safety and Efficacy Issues". Drug ... in tyramine and thus should be avoided in the diet of people being treated with an antidepressant monoamine oxidase inhibitor. ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, GABA transaminase inhibitors, Hepatotoxins, Phenethylamines, Hydrazines, Withdrawn drugs). ... Phenelzine, sold under the brand name Nardil, among others, is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor ( ... Fiedorowicz JG, Swartz KL (July 2004). "The role of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in current psychiatric practice". Journal of ... Quitkin FM, McGrath P, Liebowitz MR, Stewart J, Howard A (March 1981). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in bipolar endogenous ...
Monoamine oxidase A inhibitors have been typically used in the treatment of depression, and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors are ... Nagatsu T, Sawada M (2006). "Molecular mechanism of the relation of monoamine oxidase B and its inhibitors to Parkinson's ... Strydom B, Bergh JJ, Petzer JP (August 2011). "8-Aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase". Eur ... Nolen WA, Hoencamp E, Bouvy PF, Haffmans PM (1993). "Reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors in resistant major depression". ...
Gillman PK (October 2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Designer drugs, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Serotonin receptor agonists, ... Originally believed to exert its effects predominantly via monoamine oxidase inhibition, α-ethyltryptamine was developed during ... Its central stimulant activity is probably not due to its monoamineoxidase inhibition activity, but appears to stem from its ...
αMT has been shown as a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) in-vitro and in-vivo. In rats the potency of ... Arai Y, Toyoshima Y, Kinemuchi H (June 1986). "Studies of monoamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. II. ... "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434-441. doi: ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Psychedelic tryptamines, Russian drugs, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, ...
Kong, LD; Cheng, CH; Tan, RX (2001). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from rhizoma of Coptis chinensis". Planta Medica. 67 (1): 74 ... It binds and noncompetitively inhibits monoamine oxidase (IC50 = 4 μM for MAO-A and 62 μM for MAO-B) It interferes with ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and thiazide diuretics may also accentuate the orthostatic hypotension experienced by ... Gillman PK (October 2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of ... Chlorprozamine is also a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a substrate for CYP2D6, and hence can inhibit its own metabolism. It ... Likewise, CYP2D6 inhibitors such as paroxetine or fluoxetine can reduce chlorpromazine clearance, increasing serum levels of ...
Gillman PK (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". Br J Anaesth. 95 (4): 434-41. doi: ... It is a type of monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI); other types of MRIs include dopamine reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine ... For a list of SRIs that act at multiple MATs, see other monoamine reuptake inhibitor pages such as SNRI and SNDRI. Citalopram ( ... A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5- ...
A potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor. J Med Chem. 1966 Nov;9(6):830-2. doi: 10.1021/jm00324a009. PMID: 5972038. Youdim MB, ... Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson's disease and depressive illness. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1( ... Rasagiline (Azilect, Azipron) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Antiparkinsonian agents, 1-Aminoindanes, Propargyl compounds, Orphan drugs). ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Nootropics, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Phenol ethers, Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A, ... "Can our knowledge of monoamine oxidase (MAO) help in the design of better MAO inhibitors?". Amine Oxidases: Function and ... Bifemelane acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of both isoenzymes, with competitive (reversible) inhibition of MAO-A ( ... Kovel'man IR, Tochilkin AI, Gorkin VZ (1991). "Structure and action of reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (review)". ...
... has major contraindications with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). At least one study also found increased ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors taken within two weeks of cyclobenzaprine may result in serious, life-threatening side effects. ... It must not be used with an MAO inhibitor. How it works is unclear. Cyclobenzaprine was approved for medical use in the United ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: ... monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as effective antidepressants, especially for ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A). ... Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) are a ... Lotufo-Neto F, Trivedi M, Thase ME (March 1999). "Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A ...
encoded search term (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity) and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity What to Read ... Inhibitors of Type B Monoamine Oxidase, and Role of Monoamine Oxidases in Synucleinopathies. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 21. 23 (19 ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity. Updated: Oct 25, 2023 * Author: Eddie Garcia, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Miller, ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressants that have largely fallen out of favor for the treatment of ...
Current Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Publication Type : ... HomePublicationsCurrent Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors ... and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitors. The review has leanings towards the molecular determinants and structure-activity ... "Current Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors", ChemistrySelect, vol. 6 ...
Monoamine oxidase as a target for drug action by. Drozak J, Kozlowski M. Zaklad Regulacji Metabolizmu, Instytut Biochemii, ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4), a flavine-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines, is located ... However, for many years MAO inhibitors were considered useless in therapy due to the serious side effects induced by these ... Fifty years ago the first generation of MAO inhibitors was developed and applied in therapy as anti-depressive compounds. ...
Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1992 18(4):399-409 ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, like other antidepressants, generally are considered free of risk for abuse. There is, however, ... "Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors" Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1992;18(4):399-409. ...
To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in older adults ... Objective - To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in ... Current prescription patterns and safety profile of irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a population-based cohort study ...
... ... N.T. Tzvetkov, et al., "(Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective ... Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. ... BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors And Tricyclic Antidepressants. Advair Diskus should be administered with extreme caution to ... patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of ... Inhibitors Of Cytochrome P450 3A4. Fluticasone propionate and salmeterol, the individual components of Advair Diskus, are ... The use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI). [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ... take a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with PROZAC or within 5 weeks of ... Switching A Patient To Or From A Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended To Treat Psychiatric Disorders. At least 14 days ...
7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 7.2 Effect of CYP2D6 Inhibitors on Atomoxetine 7.3 Antihypertensive Drugs and Pressor Agents ... 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. With other drugs that affect brain monoamine concentrations, there have been reports of ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) 4.3 Narrow Angle Glaucoma 4.4 Pheochromocytoma 4.5 Severe Cardiovascular Disorders 5 ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI). Atomoxetine should not be taken with an MAOI, or within 2 weeks after discontinuing an ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO) are drugs that enhance the effect of dopamine by preventing enzymes from breaking them down ... COMT inhibitors include entacapone and tolcapone. Tolcapone has been known to cause serious liver problems and has been ... Some studies suggest that MAO inhibitors may slow the progression of Parkinsons disease but this has not been proven in the ...
Existence of isoforms monoamine oxidase A and B was established after separate gene sequences encode two enzymes. These ... Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in neurotransmitter metabolism ... Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase enzyme increase the monoamine neurotransmitter availability, decreasing the production, low ... Monoamine Oxidases. Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in ...
The present invention concerns the use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the protection or rescue of normal cells from ... The present invention concerns the use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the protection or rescue of normal cells from ... Deprenyl is a particularly preferred MAO inhibitor.[origin: WO9840102A1] ... CYTOPROTECTIVE AGENTS COMPRISING MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS - [origin: WO9840102A1] ...
7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 7.2 Effect of CYP2D6 Inhibitors on Atomoxetine 7.3 Antihypertensive Drugs and Pressor Agents ... 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors With other drugs that affect brain monoamine concentrations, there have been reports of ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. (4.2,7.1). *CYP2D6 Inhibitors - Concomitant use may increase atomoxetinesteady-state plasma ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) 4.3 Narrow Angle Glaucoma 4.4 Pheochromocytoma 4.5 Severe Cardiovascular Disorders 5 ...
Copyright © 2023 Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells. Powered by WordPress and ... Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporters described the development of metabolically stable and potent apelin analogs that can be used ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. CONCERTA® is contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and also ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. *Serious Cardiovascular Events [see WARNINGS AND ... is taking or has taken within the past 14 days an antidepression medicine called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor or MAOI. ... MAO Inhibitors. CONCERTA® should not be used in patients being treated (currently or within the preceding 2 weeks) with MAO ...
... ... 3-phenylcoumarin; 3D-QSAR models; molecular docking; molecular dynamics; monoamine oxidase B inhibitors; trans-6-styrylcoumarin ... Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are attractive targets in drug design. The inhibition of one of the isoforms (A or B) is responsible ... Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are attractive targets in drug design. The inhibition of one of the isoforms (A or B) is responsible ...
MAO - monoamine oxidase inhibitors. We include here non-selective tranylcypromine (with a wider effect and therefore more side ... SNRI - selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. This group includes venlafaxine and duloxetine. They have an ... SSRIs - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. They inhibit the reuptake of serotonin by neurons. Increasing the ... These medications include prescription MAO inhibitors (antidepressants), lithium salts and sumatriptan (anti-migraine ...
Our results suggest that inhibitors of MAO-A, already in clinical use to treat depression, may have potential application as ... an MAO-A inhibitor, induces secretory differentiation of normal prostate cells. We examined the effects of clorgyline on the ... a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal ... Anti-oncogenic and pro-differentiation effects of clorgyline, a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor, on high grade prostate cancer ...
Copyright © 2023 Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells. Powered by WordPress and ... Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells ...
Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors versus other dopaminergic agents in early Parkinsons disease answers are found in the Evidence- ... inhibitors_versus_other_dopaminergic_agents_in_early_Parkinsons_disease. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors versus other ... inhibitors_versus_other_dopaminergic_agents_in_early_Parkinsons_disease. Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors Versus Other ... "Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors Versus Other Dopaminergic Agents in Early Parkinsons Disease." Evidence-Based Medicine ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). Clinical Impact:. Concomitant use of SSRIs, including Lexapro, and MAOIs increases the ... are taking, or have stopped taking within the last 14 days, a medicine called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), including ... Switching Patients To Or From A Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Antidepressant. At least 14 days should elapse between ... CYP3A4 And CYP2C19 Inhibitors. In vitro studies indicated that CYP3A4 and -2C19 are the primary enzymes involved in the ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be prescribed for people who dont experience good ... A new class of MAOIs, called reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), have a lower impact and are more selective ... MAOIs function by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. The enzyme is responsible for a reaction which ... Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are newer than both ...
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors If you take any of the above medicines, check with your health care provider before the ...
... oxidase inhibitorsMonoamine oxidase inhibitorsMechanism of action MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. 34 related questions found What does monoamine oxidase do?. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is ... Is monoamine oxidase a drug?. Asked by: Miss Betty Predovic. Score: 4.4/5 (18 votes) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Monoamine ... Is monoamine oxidase addictive?. Abuse of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not common but there are a few cases of addiction in ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications are used to treat depression. Taking these drugs while using albuterol ...
recent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. *an allergy or hypersensitivity to stimulant drugs ...
Tricyclic and monamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants.. *Illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine, and opioids ...
N2 - The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less ... AB - The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less ... The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less ... abstract = "The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had ...
... or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (MAOBI) is uncertain. We aimed to establish which of these three classes of drug, as ... Monoamine Oxidase, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Parkinson Disease, Treatment Outcome ... Long-term effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with levodopa as initial treatment for ... Long-term effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with levodopa as initial treatment for ...
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as effective antidepressants, especially for treatment-resistant depression and atypical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) are a subclass of MAOIs that selectively and reversibly inhibit the MAO-A enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their reversibility, they are safer in single-drug overdose than the older, irreversible MAOIs, and weaker in increasing the monoamines important in depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressants that have largely fallen out of favor for the treatment of depression. (medscape.com)
  • Second- and third-generation MAOIs tend to be specific inhibitors of either MAO-A or MAO-B. Specific MAO-A inhibitors are not commonly used, but have been studied in the treatment of depression. (medscape.com)
  • When the inhibitory effects of MAOIs are amplified by overdose, drug-drug interactions, or drug-food interactions, the resulting increase of active monoamines is directly responsible for the manifestations of MAOI toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Objective - To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in older adults over the past decade. (ices.on.ca)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be prescribed for people who don't experience good results with any other type of antibiotic. (brighthub.com)
  • MAOIs function by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. (brighthub.com)
  • A new class of MAOIs, called reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), have a lower impact and are more selective in the way they work. (brighthub.com)
  • MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase , thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. (moviecultists.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants , treating different forms of depression and other nervous system disorders such as panic disorder, social phobia, and depression with atypical features. (moviecultists.com)
  • Although SSRIs are the current frontline treatment for depression, MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) were the first antidepressants developed. (moviecultists.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are an extremely strong class of antidepressants that treat depression by preventing the breakdown of the brain chemicals serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. (moviecultists.com)
  • SSRIs are second-generation antidepressants, which means they are newer than first-generation medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). (moviecultists.com)
  • The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Older antidepressant medications include tricyclics, tetracyclics, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a pure MAOI overdose, the ability of the neuron to degrade monoamines is severely diminished. (medscape.com)
  • Lexapro is not considered a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). (moviecultists.com)
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are newer than both tricyclics and SSRIs, and work on both norepinephrine and serotonin. (brighthub.com)
  • Two further types of antidepressants are noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs), and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs). (brighthub.com)
  • Desvenlafaxine belongs to the class of antidepressant medications known as selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). (medbroadcast.com)
  • Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are similar to SSRIs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Currently, the class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed. (brighthub.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are some of the most commonly prescribed antidepressants available. (moviecultists.com)
  • The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Heterocyclic (including tricyclic) antidepressants Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed type of antidepressant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PROZAC ® (fluoxetine capsules, USP) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for oral administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Prozac is the brand name of the drug fluoxetine , a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (moviecultists.com)
  • Recently, MAO and its inhibitors are again in the center of scientific and pharmacological interest, providing new drugs for the therapy of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various types of depression. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • The inhibition of monoamine oxidase enzyme suggests the significant target for the regulation of depression and Parkinson's disease. (biomedres.us)
  • Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in neurotransmitter metabolism thus involved in some neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. (biomedres.us)
  • Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/EBMG/454994/all/Monoamine_oxidase_B_inhibitors_versus_other_dopaminergic_agents_in_early_Parkinson's_disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are a class of one such naturally occurring compounds that have been clinically developed as an antidepressant and as a treatment for social anxiety and Parkinson's disease (Youdim et al. (moviecultists.com)
  • Long-term effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD MED): a large, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Whether initial treatment for Parkinson's disease should consist of levodopa, dopamine agonists, or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (MAOBI) is uncertain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • M onoamine oxidase (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4), a flavine-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines, is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and exhibited in virtually all tissues of mammals. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal human prostatic epithelium and in poorly differentiated (Gleason grades 4 and 5), aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, or serotonin) and norepinephrine [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is involved in removing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine from the brain . (moviecultists.com)
  • moreover, dietary modifications are not usually necessary when taking a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (i.e., moclobemide) or low doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors (e.g., selegiline 6 mg/24 hours transdermal patch). (wikipedia.org)
  • MAO-B inhibitors include pargyline and selegiline. (medscape.com)
  • The current studies were based on the identification of potent scaffold from several known inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and marketed inhibitors of MAO-B namely selegiline, rasagiline and safinamide were retrieved from Zinc database and database was prepared. (biomedres.us)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, like other antidepressants, generally are considered free of risk for abuse. (erowid.org)
  • These medications include prescription MAO inhibitors (antidepressants), lithium salts and sumatriptan (anti-migraine medications), and over-the-counter cough suppressants with dextromethorphan. (nhforge.org)
  • Deprenyl is a particularly preferred MAO inhibitor. (epo.org)
  • This study assessed the effects of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor deprenyl in Daphnia magna locomotor activity. (url.edu)
  • Modulation of the D. magna monoamine system was accomplished by 24 h exposure to two model psychotropic pharmaceuticals with antagonistic and agonistic serotonin signalling properties: 10 mg/L of 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) and 1 mg/L of deprenyl, respectively. (url.edu)
  • Deprenyl exposure inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and increased the concentrations of serotonin, dopamine and the dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine in whole D. magna extracts. (url.edu)
  • Specific MAO-B inhibitors have been studied in the treatment of both depression and neurodegenerative disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Our results suggest that inhibitors of MAO-A, already in clinical use to treat depression, may have potential application as therapeutic PCa drugs by inhibiting oncogenic pathway activity and promoting differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lotufo-Neto, F , Trivedi, M & Thase, ME 1999, ' Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression ', Neuropsychopharmacology , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 226-247. (elsevierpure.com)
  • seoulensis: A potent and selective reversible inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase A. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monoamine neurotransmitters (eg, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) are stored in vesicles at the pre-synaptic nerve terminals and released through the plasma membrane into the synaptic cleft. (medscape.com)
  • When released into the synaptic space, neurotransmitters are either reabsorbed into the proximal nerve and metabolized by intracellular monoamine oxidase (MAO) or destroyed by catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) in the synaptic cleft. (medscape.com)
  • Monoamine Oxidases (MAOs) as Privileged Molecular Targets in Neuroscience: Research Literature Analysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are attractive targets in drug design. (unica.it)
  • Concomitant Use of Potent CYP2D6 Inhibitors or Use in patients known to be CYP2D6 PMs - Dose adjustment of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Capsules may be necessary. (nih.gov)
  • CYP2D6 Inhibitors - Concomitant use may increase atomoxetinesteady-state plasma concentrations in EMs. (nih.gov)
  • Fifty years ago the first generation of MAO inhibitors was developed and applied in therapy as anti-depressive compounds. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Moreover, a beneficial pharmacological action of currently available MAO inhibitors, extending far beyond the MAO-B inhibitory properties, encourages investigators to search for new compounds exhibiting no side effects.This article gives a brief overview of the physiological importance of MAO and the biochemical and pharmacological potential of its inhibitors, with a consideration of their importance in the therapy of various disorders in humans. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Potent inhibition of human tyrosinase inhibitor by verproside from the whole plant of Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. (bvsalud.org)
  • Existence of isoforms monoamine oxidase A and B was established after separate gene sequences encode two enzymes. (biomedres.us)
  • Tzvetkov NT, Stammler H-G, Hristova S, Atanasov AG, Antonov L. (Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY , vol. 162, 2019, pp. 793-809. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This review mainly focuses the recent and current progresses in quinazoline derivatives as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitors. (amrita.edu)
  • These findings may help for future studies in order to design the potent and selective inhibitors of MAO-B. Furthermore, the current studies suggested new findings for MAO-B inhibitors, especially for aging based neurodegenerative diseases. (biomedres.us)
  • Chaetoquadrin H was isolated from the ascomycete Chaetomium quadrangulatum and exhibits potent mouse liver monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Ingested monoamines, such as tyramine, are metabolized by MAO-A in the GI tract and liver. (medscape.com)
  • However, for many years MAO inhibitors were considered useless in therapy due to the serious side effects induced by these drugs. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (nih.gov)
  • AUSTEDO is the first and only vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in adults for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia and for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. (businesswire.com)
  • AUSTEDO is the only vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor with 3-year data that is indicated in adults for both TD and HD chorea indications. (businesswire.com)
  • The reversible MAO-B inhibitor 14 (NTZ-2020) exhibits a neuroprotective effect on cortical neuron survival and induces neurite network outgrowth. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Gordon Baumbacher, M.D., Mary Susan Hansen, M.D.. "Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors" Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse . (erowid.org)
  • Is monoamine oxidase a drug? (moviecultists.com)
  • WO9840102A1 ] The present invention concerns the use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the protection or rescue of normal cells from the toxic side effects caused by irradiation or the administration of chemotherapeutic agents such as certain anti-cancer agents. (epo.org)
  • Our findings indicate that D. magna is a sensitive and useful nonvertebrate model for assessing the effects of short-term exposure to chemicals that alter monoamine signalling changes. (url.edu)
  • Clorgyline, an MAO-A inhibitor, induces secretory differentiation of normal prostate cells. (biomedcentral.com)