An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.
A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
Kynuramine is a biologically active compound that results from the metabolism of tryptophan by the enzyme kynurenine monooxygenase, and it plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmission and immune responses.
Propylamines are organic compounds consisting of an amino group (-NH2) attached to a propyl group (CH3CH2CH2-), which can act as central nervous system stimulants, local anesthetics, or vasopressors, depending on their specific chemical structure.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, formed in the body through the catabolic breakdown of this neurotransmitter by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase and then further metabolized in the liver before excretion in urine.
A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Semicarbazides are organic compounds containing a functional group with the structure NH2-NH-CO-NH2, which are commonly used as reagents in chemical reactions to form semicarbazones, and can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
D-Amino-Acid Oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide, playing a crucial role in the metabolism of non-proteinogenic D-amino acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Butylamines are a class of organic compounds where a butyl group is attached to an amine functional group, with the general structure (C4H9)NHR or (C4H9)NR'R", commonly used as stimulants, entactogens, and psychedelics.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE which includes an Amazonian psychoactive plant that contains the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Picolinic acid is an organic compound that belongs to the class of pyridine derivatives, acting as a chelating agent in mammals, primarily found in the liver and kidneys, and playing a significant role in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
Benzyl compounds are organic substances that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional structure consisting of a carbon atom attached to a phenyl ring and a methylene group (-CH2-).
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Hydrazines are organic compounds containing the functional group R-NH-NH2, where R represents an organic group, and are used in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and rocket fuels, but can be highly toxic and carcinogenic with potential for environmental damage.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Pyruvate oxidase is an enzyme complex located within the mitochondrial matrix that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, thereby linking glycolysis to the citric acid cycle and playing a crucial role in cellular energy production.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.
An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, a crucial step in the synthesis of catecholamines within the adrenal glands and central nervous system.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS formerly used for depression but was withdrawn worldwide in September 1983 because of the risk of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME associated with its use. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p385)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.

Sensitivity of [11C]phenylephrine kinetics to monoamine oxidase activity in normal human heart. (1/952)

Phenylephrine labeled with 11C was developed as a radiotracer for imaging studies of cardiac sympathetic nerves with PET. A structural analog of norepinephrine, (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and stored in vesicles. PHEN is also a substrate for monoamine oxidase (MAO). The goal of this study was to assess the importance of neuronal MAO activity on the kinetics of PHEN in the normal human heart. MAO metabolism of PHEN was inhibited at the tracer level by substituting deuterium atoms for the two hydrogen atoms at the alpha-carbon side chain position to yield the MAO-resistant analog D2-PHEN. METHODS: Paired PET studies of PHEN and D2-PHEN were performed in six normal volunteers. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were measured in venous samples taken during the 60 min dynamic PET study. Myocardial retention of the tracers was regionally quantified as a retention index. Tracer efflux between 6 and 50 min after tracer injection was fit to a single exponential process to obtain a washout half-time for all left ventricular regions. RESULTS: Although initial heart uptake of the two tracers was similar, D2-PHEN cleared from the heart 2.6 times more slowly than PHEN (mean half-time 155+/-52 versus 55+/-10 min, respectively; P < 0.01). Correspondingly, heart retention of D2-PHEN at 40-60 min after tracer injection was higher than PHEN (mean retention indices 0.086+/-0.018 versus 0.066+/-0.011 mL blood/ min/mL tissue, respectively; P < 0.003). CONCLUSION: Efflux of radioactivity from normal human heart after uptake of PHEN is primarily due to metabolism of the tracer by neuronal MAO. Related mechanistic studies in the isolated rat heart indicate that vesicular storage of PHEN protects the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO, suggesting that MAO metabolism of PHEN leaking from storage vesicles leads to the gradual loss of PHEN from the neurons. Thus, although MAO metabolism influences the rate of clearance of PHEN from the neurons, MAO metabolism is not the rate-determining step in the observed efflux rate under normal conditions. Rather, the rate at which PHEN leaks from storage vesicles is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the observed efflux rate.  (+info)

Influence of vesicular storage and monoamine oxidase activity on [11C]phenylephrine kinetics: studies in isolated rat heart. (2/952)

[11C]Phenylephrine (PHEN) is a radiolabeled analogue of norepinephrine that is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and taken up into storage vesicles localized within the nerve varicosities by the vesicular monoamine transporter. PHEN is structurally related to two previously developed sympathetic nerve markers: [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine and [11C]epinephrine. To better characterize the neuronal handling of PHEN, particularly its sensitivity to neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, kinetic studies in an isolated working rat heart system were performed. METHODS: Radiotracer was administered to the isolated working heart as a 10-min constant infusion followed by a 110-min washout period. Two distinctly different approaches were used to assess the sensitivity of the kinetics of PHEN to MAO activity. In the first approach, oxidation of PHEN by MAO was inhibited at the enzymatic level with the MAO inhibitor pargyline. In the second approach, the two hydrogen atoms on the a-carbon of the side chain of PHEN were replaced with deuterium atoms ([11C](-)-alpha-alpha-dideutero-phenylephrine [D2-PHEN]) to inhibit MAO activity at the tracer level. The importance of vesicular uptake on the kinetics of PHEN and D2-PHEN was assessed by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter-mediated storage into vesicles with reserpine. RESULTS: Under control conditions, PHEN initially accumulated into the heart at a rate of 0.72+/-0.15 mL/min/g wet. Inhibition of MAO activity with either pargyline or di-deuterium substitution did not significantly alter this rate. However, MAO inhibition did significantly slow the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during the washout phase of the study. Blocking vesicular uptake with reserpine reduced the initial uptake rates of PHEN and D2-PHEN, as well as greatly accelerated the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during washout. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that PHEN kinetics are sensitive to neuronal MAO activity. Under normal conditions, efficient vesicular storage of PHEN serves to protect the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO. However, it is likely that leakage of PHEN from the storage vesicles and subsequent metabolism by MAO lead to an appreciable clearance of radioactivity from the heart.  (+info)

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. (3/952)

The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy.  (+info)

Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. (4/952)

The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders.  (+info)

Excess of high activity monoamine oxidase A gene promoter alleles in female patients with panic disorder. (5/952)

A genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of panic disorder has been demonstrated by clinical genetic studies. Molecular genetic studies have focused on candidate genes suggested by the molecular mechanisms implied in the action of drugs utilized for therapy or in challenge tests. One class of drugs effective in the treatment of panic disorder is represented by monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Therefore, the monoamine oxidase A gene on chromosome X is a prime candidate gene. In the present study we investigated a novel repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene for association with panic disorder in two independent samples (German sample, n = 80; Italian sample, n = 129). Two alleles (3 and 4 repeats) were most common and constituted >97% of the observed alleles. Functional characterization in a luciferase assay demonstrated that the longer alleles (3a, 4 and 5) were more active than allele 3. Among females of both the German and the Italian samples of panic disorder patients (combined, n = 209) the longer alleles (3a, 4 and 5) were significantly more frequent than among females of the corresponding control samples (combined, n = 190, chi2 = 10.27, df = 1, P = 0.001). Together with the observation that inhibition of monoamine oxidase A is clinically effective in the treatment of panic disorder these findings suggest that increased monoamine oxidase A activity is a risk factor for panic disorder in female patients.  (+info)

Schizophrenia, monoamine oxidase activity, and cigarette smoking. (6/952)

Reduced monoamine oxidase activity has been proposed as a marker for vulnerability to schizophrenia. Reduced monamine oxidase activity has also been shown to occur in cigarette smokers. This study compared monamine oxidase activity level in a matched group of patients with schizophrenia who smoked with a group who did not. Lower levels of monoamine oxidase activity were found in the smokers and this is the likely explanation for the low levels hypothesized as a marker for schizophrenia.  (+info)

Cerebral cortical blood flow maps are reorganized in MAOB-deficient mice. (7/952)

Cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) was measured autoradiographically in conscious mice without the monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene (KO, n=11) and the corresponding wild-type animals (WILD, n=11). Subgroups of animals of each genotype received a continuous intravenous infusion over 30 min of phenylethylamine (PEA), an endogenous substrate of MAOB, (8 nmol g-1 min-1 in normal saline at a volume rate of 0.11 microl g-1 min-1) or saline at the same volume rate. Maps of relative CBF distribution showed predominance of midline motor and sensory area CBF in KO mice over WILD mice that received saline. PEA enhanced CBF in lateral frontal and piriform cortex in both KO and WILD mice. These changes may reflect a differential activation due to chronic and acute PEA elevations on motor and olfactory function, as well as on the anxiogenic effects of this amine. In addition to its effects on regional CBF distribution, PEA decreased CBF globally in KO mice (range -31% to -41% decrease from control levels) with a lesser effect in WILD mice. It is concluded that MAOB may normally regulate CBF distribution and its response to blood PEA.  (+info)

Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behavior. (8/952)

Cloning of MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B has demonstrated unequivocally that these enzymes are made up of different polypeptides, and our understanding of MAO structure, regulation, and function has been significantly advanced by studies using their cDNA. MAO A and B genes are located on the X-chromosome (Xp11.23) and comprise 15 exons with identical intron-exon organization, which suggests that they are derived from the same ancestral gene. MAO A and B knock-out mice exhibit distinct differences in neurotransmitter metabolism and behavior. MAO A knock-out mice have elevated brain levels of serotonin, norephinephrine, and dopamine and manifest aggressive behavior similar to human males with a deletion of MAO A. In contrast, MAO B knock-out mice do not exhibit aggression and only levels of phenylethylamine are increased. Mice lacking MAO B are resistant to the Parkinsongenic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine. Both MAO A and B knock-out mice show increased reactivity to stress. These knock-out mice are valuable models for investigating the role of monoamines in psychoses and neurodegenerative and stress-related disorders.  (+info)

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Clorgyline is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps to break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Clorgyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and other medications. It may be used in some cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful, or in research settings to study the role of monoamine oxidase in various physiological processes.

It's important to note that MAOIs like clorgyline require careful monitoring by a healthcare provider and should only be used under close medical supervision due to the risk of serious side effects and interactions.

Selegiline is a selective, irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, which is primarily used in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), an enzyme responsible for breaking down dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in movement regulation. By inhibiting MAO-B, selegiline increases the availability of dopamine in the brain, thereby helping to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and spasms.

Selegiline is also available under the brand name Eldepryl, Zelapar, and Emsam. In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, selegiline has been explored for its potential benefits in treating depression, dementia, and other neurological disorders. However, its use in these conditions is still considered off-label and requires careful consideration of the potential risks and benefits.

It is important to note that MAO inhibitors like selegiline can have serious interactions with certain foods and medications, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a dangerous increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis). Therefore, it is crucial to follow strict dietary restrictions and medication guidelines when taking selegiline or any other MAO inhibitor.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tranylcypromine is a type of antidepressant known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Tranylcypromine is used primarily for the treatment of major depressive disorder that has not responded to other antidepressants. It is also used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like tranylcypromine have several dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential to cause serious or life-threatening reactions when combined with certain foods or medications. Therefore, careful monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary while taking this medication.

Phenelzine is a type of medication known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which breaks down certain chemicals in the brain such as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine). This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine is primarily used off-label for the treatment of depression that has not responded to other antidepressant medications. It is also used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like phenelzine have several dietary restrictions and potential serious drug interactions due to their mechanism of action. Therefore, they are typically considered a last resort when other antidepressants have failed.

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. There are two main isoforms of VMATs, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and function.

VMAT1 (also known as SLC18A1) is primarily found in neuroendocrine cells and is responsible for transporting monoamines into large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 (also known as SLC18A2), on the other hand, is mainly expressed in presynaptic neurons and is involved in the transport of monoamines into small synaptic vesicles.

Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 are integral membrane proteins that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of monoamines against their concentration gradient, allowing for their storage and subsequent release during neurotransmission. Dysregulation of VMAT function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.

NADPH oxidase is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell types. The primary function of NADPH oxidase is to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen, resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. This enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including two membrane-bound components (gp91phox and p22phox) and several cytosolic components (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and rac1 or rac2). Upon activation, these subunits assemble to form a functional enzyme complex that generates ROS, which serve as important signaling molecules in various cellular processes. However, excessive or uncontrolled production of ROS by NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

Nialamide is not typically considered in modern medical definitions as it is an older, first-generation monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that has largely been replaced by newer and safer medications. However, for the sake of completeness:

Nialamide is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the availability of these neurotransmitters, which can help to elevate mood in individuals with depression.

It's important to note that MAOIs like Nialamide have significant dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential for serious and life-threatening interactions with certain foods and medications. Their use is generally reserved for treatment-resistant cases of depression and other psychiatric disorders, when other treatment options have been exhausted.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Iproniazid is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drug that was initially used as an antitubercular agent but later found to have antidepressant properties. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, in the brain which helps to elevate mood and improve symptoms of depression. However, its use is limited due to the risk of serious side effects, including hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome, when taken with certain foods or other medications.

Moclobemide is a type of antidepressant known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA). It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which helps to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Moclobemide is specifically designed to inhibit only monoamine oxidase A, which metabolizes neurotransmitters in the brain, and not monoamine oxidase B, which is found in other parts of the body. This selectivity reduces the risk of serious side effects associated with non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as hypertensive crisis caused by interactions with tyramine-rich foods or certain medications.

Moclobemide is used to treat major depressive disorders and may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as social anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets and oral solution, and is typically taken two to three times a day. As with any medication, moclobemide should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and monitor for potential side effects.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Phenethylamines are a class of organic compounds that share a common structural feature, which is a phenethyl group (a phenyl ring bonded to an ethylamine chain). In the context of pharmacology and neuroscience, "phenethylamines" often refers to a specific group of psychoactive drugs, including stimulants like amphetamine and mescaline, a classic psychedelic. These compounds exert their effects by modulating the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. It is important to note that many phenethylamines have potential for abuse and are controlled substances.

Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, which is the last step in purine metabolism. It's a type of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) during its reaction mechanism.

The enzyme exists in two interconvertible forms: an oxidized state and a reduced state. The oxidized form, called xanthine oxidase, reduces molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, while the reduced form, called xanthine dehydrogenase, reduces NAD+ to NADH.

Xanthine oxidase is found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and milk. An overproduction of uric acid due to increased activity of xanthine oxidase can lead to hyperuricemia, which may result in gout or kidney stones. Some medications and natural compounds are known to inhibit xanthine oxidase, such as allopurinol and febuxostat, which are used to treat gout and prevent the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys.

Tetrabenazine is a prescription medication used to treat conditions associated with abnormal involuntary movements, such as chorea in Huntington's disease. It works by depleting the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce the severity and frequency of these movements.

Here is the medical definition:

Tetrabenazine is a selective monoamine-depleting agent, with preferential uptake by dopamine neurons. It is used in the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. Tetrabenazine inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), leading to depletion of presynaptic dopamine and subsequent reduction in post-synaptic dopamine receptor activation. This mechanism of action is thought to underlie its therapeutic effect in reducing chorea severity and frequency.

(Definitions provided by Stedman's Medical Dictionary and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)

Kynurenine aminotransferase (also known as Kynuramine transaminase) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, which is a neuroprotective compound.

Kynurenine and kynurenic acid are both important components of the kynurenine pathway, which is a major metabolic route for tryptophan in mammals. The kynurenine pathway plays a role in various physiological processes, including the immune response and the regulation of neurotransmission.

Abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, understanding the enzymes involved in this pathway, including kynuramine transaminase, is important for gaining insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and for developing potential therapeutic strategies.

Propylamines are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a propylamine group, which is a functional group consisting of a propyl chain (-C3H7) attached to an amino group (-NH2). Propylamines can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of organic substituents attached to the nitrogen atom.

In a medical context, propylamines may refer to certain drugs that contain this functional group and have pharmacological activity. For example, some local anesthetics, such as procaine (Novocain), are derivatives of propylamine. Procaine is a ester of p-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol, where the amino group is part of a propylamine chain.

It's important to note that not all compounds containing propylamines have medical applications or uses, as this functional group can also be found in various chemicals with different properties and applications.

Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase (PLOX) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of specific lysine residues in proteins, resulting in the formation of lysine-6-aldehydes, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including the regulation of protein function, modification of extracellular matrices, and the maintenance of copper homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding PLOX have been associated with certain diseases, such as Menkes disease, a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by copper deficiency and neurological symptoms.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the human body. It is formed in the body when an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) breaks down dopamine. HVA can be measured in body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma to assess the activity of dopamine and the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Increased levels of HVA are associated with certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, while decreased levels may indicate dopamine deficiency or other conditions affecting the nervous system.

Bufotenin is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound that can be found in certain plants and animals, including some species of toads. Its chemical name is 5-hydroxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-HO-DMT) and it is a type of tryptamine alkaloid.

Bufotenin has been used in various traditional medicinal and shamanic practices for its psychoactive effects, which can include altered states of consciousness, changes in perception, and feelings of euphoria or relaxation. However, it can also have adverse effects such as nausea, agitation, and increased heart rate.

In the medical field, bufotenin is sometimes studied for its potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential benefits and risks.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (3,4-DOPAC) is a major metabolite of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain. Dopamine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase to form dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized to 3,4-DOPAC by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.

3,4-DOPAC is found in the urine and can be used as a marker for dopamine turnover in the brain. Changes in the levels of 3,4-DOPAC have been associated with various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Additionally, 3,4-DOPAC has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting against oxidative stress in the brain.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

Aldehyde oxidase is an enzyme found in the liver and other organs that helps to metabolize (break down) various substances, including drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins. It does this by catalyzing the oxidation of aldehydes, which are organic compounds containing a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bond to an oxygen atom. Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase family, which also includes xanthine oxidase and sulfite oxidase. These enzymes all contain a molybdenum cofactor that plays a critical role in their catalytic activity.

Aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme in the metabolism of many drugs, as it can convert them into more water-soluble compounds that can be easily excreted from the body. However, variations in the activity of this enzyme between individuals can lead to differences in drug metabolism and response. Some people may have higher or lower levels of aldehyde oxidase activity, which can affect how quickly they metabolize certain drugs and whether they experience adverse effects.

In addition to its role in drug metabolism, aldehyde oxidase has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, elevated levels of aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation have been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation, which can contribute to the progression of these conditions. Aldehyde oxidase may also play a role in the detoxification of environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which have been associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Overall, aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme that plays a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other substances, as well as in the development of various diseases. Understanding its activity and regulation may help to develop new strategies for treating or preventing these conditions.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Glucose oxidase (GOD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1,5-lactone, while reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide in the process. This reaction is a part of the metabolic pathway in some organisms that convert glucose into energy. The systematic name for this enzyme is D-glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase.

Glucose oxidase is commonly found in certain fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, and it has various applications in industry, medicine, and research. For instance, it's used in the production of glucose sensors for monitoring blood sugar levels, in the detection and quantification of glucose in food and beverages, and in the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring.

It's worth noting that while glucose oxidase has many applications, it should not be confused with glutathione peroxidase, another enzyme involved in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water.

Isocarboxazid is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which is primarily used in the treatment of depression. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. By inhibiting this enzyme, Isocarboxazid helps to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

It is important to note that MAOIs like Isocarboxazid have significant potential for serious side effects and drug interactions, and their use must be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Patients taking Isocarboxazid must follow strict dietary restrictions and avoid certain medications and foods that can interact with the drug and cause dangerous elevations in blood pressure or other adverse reactions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Methoxydimethyltryptamines are a group of synthetic psychedelic tryptamine compounds that contain methoxy groups. These substances are not well-researched and their pharmacological properties, including their safety and potential therapeutic uses, are not well understood. They are considered to be controlled substances in many countries and their use is not authorized for medical or recreational purposes. It's important to note that the use of these substances can carry significant risks, including psychological distress, dangerous behavior, and legal consequences.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Benzylamines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring attached to an amine group. The amine group (-NH2) can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the nitrogen atom. Benzylamines are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds. They have a variety of biological activities and can act as central nervous system depressants, local anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, some benzylamines can also be toxic or carcinogenic, so they must be handled with care.

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. It is not a medication or a treatment, but rather a toxin that can damage the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.

MPTP itself is not harmful, but it is metabolized in the body into a toxic compound called MPP+, which accumulates in and damages dopaminergic neurons. MPTP was discovered in the 1980s when a group of drug users in California developed parkinsonian symptoms after injecting a heroin-like substance contaminated with MPTP.

Since then, MPTP has been used as a research tool to study Parkinson's disease and develop new treatments. However, it is not used clinically and should be handled with caution due to its toxicity.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Semicarbazides are organic compounds that contain the functional group -NH-CO-NH-NH2. They are derivatives of hydrazine and carbamic acid, with the general structure (CH3)NHCSNH2. Semicarbazides are widely used in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including heterocyclic compounds, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

In a medical context, semicarbazides themselves do not have any therapeutic use. However, they can be used in the preparation of certain drugs or drug intermediates. For example, semicarbazones, which are derivatives of semicarbazides, can be used to synthesize some antituberculosis drugs.

It is worth noting that semicarbazides and their derivatives have been found to have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties in some studies. Therefore, they should be handled with care in laboratory settings, and exposure should be minimized to reduce potential health risks.

Tryptamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a tryptamine skeleton, which is a combination of an indole ring and a ethylamine side chain. They are commonly found in nature and can be synthesized in the lab. Some tryptamines have psychedelic properties and are used as recreational drugs, such as dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Others have important roles in the human body, such as serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Tryptamines can also be found in some plants and animals, including certain species of mushrooms, toads, and catnip.

Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is synthesized in the body from the amino acid tyrosine. Norepinephrine plays important roles in various physiological functions such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and central nervous system. MHPG is formed when norepinephrine is metabolized by enzymes called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO).

MHPG is primarily found in the urine, and its levels can be measured to assess norepinephrine turnover in the body. Changes in MHPG levels have been associated with various medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, the clinical utility of measuring MHPG levels is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as norepinephrine transporters (NET), are membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and preventing excessive stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.

The norepinephrine transporter is a member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and functions as an antiporter, exchanging one intracellular sodium ion for two extracellular sodium ions along with the transport of norepinephrine. This sodium gradient provides the energy required for the active transport process.

Dysregulation of norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these transporters is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

D-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of D-amino acids in various organisms, including humans. In humans, DAAO is primarily expressed in the brain and contributes to the regulation of neurotransmitter levels and other physiological processes. Genetic variations and dysregulation of DAAO have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Deamination is a biochemical process that refers to the removal of an amino group (-NH2) from a molecule, especially from an amino acid. This process typically results in the formation of a new functional group and the release of ammonia (NH3). Deamination plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, as it helps to convert them into forms that can be excreted or used for energy production. In some cases, deamination can also lead to the formation of toxic byproducts, which must be efficiently eliminated from the body to prevent harm.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

The nictitating membrane, also known as the third eyelid, is a thin, translucent or transparent partial eyelid located in the inner corner of the eye in many animals. It moves horizontally across the eye and serves to clean, moisten, and protect the eye, especially during sleep or when the animal's eyes are closed. This membrane is present in some birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including seals and dogs, but is typically absent or poorly developed in primates, including humans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methyltyrosines" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or biochemistry. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or typo in your question.

If you are referring to "3-Methoxytyrosine" or "3-MT," it is a metabolite of dopamine, which is formed in the body by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). 3-MT can be measured in various biological samples, such as urine or plasma, to evaluate the activity of COMT and assess the exposure to drugs that inhibit this enzyme.

If you meant something else by "Methyltyrosines," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give a more accurate answer.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. COMT mediates the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a catechol functional group in these molecules, resulting in the formation of methylated products that are subsequently excreted.

The methylation of catecholamines by COMT regulates their concentration and activity in the body, and genetic variations in the COMT gene can affect enzyme function and contribute to individual differences in the metabolism of these neurotransmitters. This has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Butylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a butyl group (a chain of four carbon atoms) attached to an amine functional group, which consists of nitrogen atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. The general structure of a primary butylamine is R-NH2, where R represents the butyl group.

Butylamines can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. Some of them have important uses in industry as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, or building blocks for pharmaceuticals. However, some butylamines are also known to have psychoactive effects and may be used as recreational drugs or abused.

It is worth noting that the term "butylamine" can refer to any of several specific compounds, depending on the context. For example, n-butylamine (also called butan-1-amine) has the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2, while tert-butylamine (also called 2-methylpropan-2-amine) has the formula (CH3)3CNH2. These two compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to their structural differences.

In a medical context, butylamines may be encountered as drugs of abuse or as components of pharmaceuticals. Some examples of butylamine-derived drugs include certain antidepressants, anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, it is important to note that these compounds are often highly modified from their parent butylamine structure, and may not resemble them closely in terms of their pharmacological properties or toxicity profiles.

Dihydroxyphenylalanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that is often referred to in the context of biochemistry and neuroscience. It is also known as levodopa or L-DOPA for short.

L-DOPA is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. In the brain, L-DOPA is converted into dopamine through the action of an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase.

L-DOPA is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain gradually degenerate, leading to a deficiency of dopamine. By providing L-DOPA as a replacement therapy, doctors can help alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease.

It is important to note that L-DOPA has potential side effects and risks, including nausea, dizziness, and behavioral changes. Long-term use of L-DOPA can also lead to motor complications such as dyskinesias (involuntary movements) and fluctuations in response to the medication. Therefore, it is typically used in combination with other medications and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the electron transport chain where it functions as an electron carrier in oxidation-reduction reactions. FAD is composed of a flavin moiety, riboflavin or vitamin B2, and adenine dinucleotide. It can exist in two forms: an oxidized form (FAD) and a reduced form (FADH2). The reduction of FAD to FADH2 involves the gain of two electrons and two protons, which is accompanied by a significant conformational change that allows FADH2 to donate its electrons to subsequent components in the electron transport chain, ultimately leading to the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Imidazoline receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. They were initially identified through their ability to bind imidazoline compounds, but it is now known that they also bind a variety of other structurally diverse ligands.

There are three subtypes of imidazoline receptors: I1, I2, and I3. The I1 receptor is found in the brain and has been shown to play a role in regulating blood pressure, nociception (pain perception), and neuroprotection. The I2 receptor is also found in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of dopamine release and the sleep-wake cycle. The I3 receptor is primarily located in the peripheral nervous system and has been shown to play a role in regulating insulin secretion and glucose metabolism.

Imidazoline receptors have attracted interest as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of conditions, including hypertension, pain, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed to fully understand their functions and therapeutic potential.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Ascorbate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to dehydroascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen. This reaction also results in the production of water and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. Ascorbate oxidase plays a significant role in regulating the levels of ascorbic acid in plants, where it is primarily found. It belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidoreductases. The enzyme's active site contains two copper ions that facilitate the electron transfer during the catalytic process. Ascorbate oxidase is not considered essential for human health since humans do not produce ascorbic acid and must obtain it through dietary sources.

Allylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-NH2. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Allylamine is used as a building block in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

In the medical field, allylamine derivatives are used as antifungal agents. These drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase, which is necessary for the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. By blocking the production of ergosterol, allylamine derivatives disrupt the integrity of fungal cell membranes and prevent the growth of fungi. Examples of allylamine antifungal drugs include terbinafine and naftifine.

"Indans" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in the field of medicine or pharmacology. It's possible that you may be referring to "indanes," which are chemical compounds that contain a indane ring structure, consisting of two benzene rings fused in an angular arrangement. Some indane derivatives have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, it's important to note that the medical use and efficacy of these compounds can vary widely and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

Galactose oxidase is an enzyme with the systematic name D-galactose:oxygen oxidoreductase. It is found in certain fungi and bacteria, and it catalyzes the following reaction:

D-galactose + O2 -> D-galacto-hexodialdose + H2O2

In this reaction, the enzyme oxidizes the hydroxyl group (-OH) on the sixth carbon atom of D-galactose to an aldehyde group (-CHO), forming D-galacto-hexodialdose. At the same time, it reduces molecular oxygen (O2) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

Galactose oxidase is a copper-containing enzyme and requires the cofactor molybdenum for its activity. It has potential applications in various industrial processes, such as the production of D-galacto-hexodialdose and other sugar derivatives, as well as in biosensors for detecting glucose levels in biological samples.

Harmane, also known as harmaline, is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in several plants, including the seeds of the Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and the bark of the African pinwheel cactus (Adenium obesum). It is an alkaloid with beta-carboline structure.

In a medical context, harmaline has been studied for its potential effects on the central nervous system. It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which means it can increase the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing their breakdown. This property has led to some research into its use as a treatment for depression and other neurological disorders, although it is not currently approved for medical use in this capacity due to potential side effects and toxicity concerns.

It's important to note that harmaline can have dangerous interactions with certain medications and foods, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Therefore, its use should only be under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Nomifensine is a medication that was previously used in the treatment of depression, but it is no longer available in many countries due to safety concerns. It is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that works by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline, which helps to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain and improve mood.

The medical definition of Nomifensine is:

"Nomifensine is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that is a potent inhibitor of dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake, with minimal effects on serotonin reuptake. It was used in the treatment of depression but has been withdrawn from the market due to safety concerns."

It's important to note that Nomifensine should only be taken under the supervision of a medical professional, and it is not available in many countries due to its potential for causing serious side effects such as liver toxicity and the risk of developing a rare but potentially fatal condition called hemolytic anemia.

Harmine is defined medically as an alpha-carboline derivative that is present in various plants including the seeds of Peganum harmala and the bark of Banisteriopsis caapi. It functions as an monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and has been used in traditional medicine for its psychoactive properties. It has also been studied for potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

Urate oxidase, also known as uricase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin. This reaction is an essential part of purine metabolism in many organisms, as allantoin is more soluble and easier to excrete than uric acid. In humans, urate oxidase is non-functional due to mutations in the gene encoding it, which leads to the accumulation of uric acid and predisposes to gout and kidney stones. Urate oxidase is found in some bacteria, fungi, and plants, and can be used as a therapeutic agent in humans to lower serum uric acid levels in conditions such as tumor lysis syndrome and gout.

Flavins are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain a characteristic isoalloxazine ring, which is a tricyclic aromatic structure. The most common and well-known flavin is flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which plays a crucial role as a coenzyme in various biological oxidation-reduction reactions. FAD accepts electrons and hydrogens to form the reduced form, flavin adenine dinucleotide hydride (FADH2). Another important flavin is flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which is derived from FAD and functions similarly as a coenzyme. Flavins are yellow in color and can be found in various biological systems, including animals, plants, and microorganisms. They are involved in several metabolic pathways, such as the electron transport chain, where they contribute to energy production.

Banisteriopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malpighiaceae, native to tropical America. The most well-known species is Banisteriopsis caapi, which is used to prepare a psychoactive beverage called ayahuasca, also known as yage. Ayahuasca is traditionally used for spiritual and religious purposes by indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin.

The active components in Banisteriopsis caapi are harmala alkaloids, including harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine, which act as reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOIs). When combined with DMT-containing plants, such as Psychotria viridis, the MAOIs allow the DMT to be orally active, resulting in a powerful psychedelic experience.

It is important to note that the use of ayahuasca and other substances containing DMT and MAOIs can have serious health consequences and should only be undertaken under the guidance of experienced practitioners in a safe and controlled setting.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Picolinic acid is not specifically classified as a medical term, but it is a type of organic compound that belongs to the class of molecules known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are carboxylic acids derived from pyridine by the substitution of a hydrogen atom with a carboxyl group.

Picolinic acid, specifically, is a pyridine derivative with a carboxyl group at the 2-position of the ring. It is naturally produced in the body and can be found in various tissues and fluids, including the brain, where it plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly tryptophan.

In addition to its physiological functions, picolinic acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, and may also play a role in heavy metal chelation and neuroprotection. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical significance of this compound.

Idazoxan is not a medication that is commonly used in clinical practice, so it may not have a widely accepted "medical definition." However, I can provide some information about what idazoxan is and how it's been studied.

Idazoxan is an investigational drug that belongs to a class of medications called alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonists. These drugs work by blocking the action of certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters, which can affect mood, behavior, and various physiological functions.

Idazoxan has been studied for its potential use in treating a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. It has also been investigated as a tool for studying certain aspects of brain function and neurotransmitter systems. However, it has not been approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any specific medical use.

It's worth noting that while idazoxan may have potential therapeutic uses, it is not without risks and side effects. Like many medications, it can interact with other drugs and may cause adverse reactions in some people. As such, it should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Acyl-CoA oxidase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fatty acids within the body. It is located in the peroxisomes, which are small organelles found in the cells of living organisms. The primary function of acyl-CoA oxidase is to catalyze the initial step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that involves the sequential removal of two-carbon units from fatty acid molecules in the form of acetyl-CoA.

The reaction catalyzed by acyl-CoA oxidase is as follows:

acyl-CoA + FAD → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + FADH2 + H+

In this reaction, the enzyme removes a hydrogen atom from the fatty acyl-CoA molecule and transfers it to its cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This results in the formation of trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA, FADH2, and a proton. The FADH2 produced during this reaction can then be used to generate ATP through the electron transport chain, while the trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA undergoes further reactions in the beta-oxidation pathway.

There are two main isoforms of acyl-CoA oxidase found in humans: ACOX1 and ACOX2. ACOX1 is primarily responsible for oxidizing straight-chain fatty acids, while ACOX2 specializes in the breakdown of branched-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the genes encoding these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and Refsum disease.

Benzyl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom attached to a CH3 group (methyl group) and an aromatic ring, usually a phenyl group. The benzyl group can be represented as -CH2-C6H5.

Benzyl compounds have various applications in different fields such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, dyes, and polymers. In pharmaceuticals, benzyl compounds are used as active ingredients or intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. For example, benzylpenicillin is a widely used antibiotic that contains a benzyl group.

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate are some common examples of benzyl compounds with various industrial applications. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent, preservative, and intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. Benzyl chloride is an important chemical used in the production of resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Benzyl acetate is used as a flavoring agent and fragrance in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that benzyl compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin, depending on their chemical properties and concentrations. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used under appropriate safety measures.

Phenylhydrazines are organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydrogen atom substituted by a hydroxy group) and a hydrazine group (-NH-NH2). They are aromatic amines that have been used in various chemical reactions, including the formation of azos and hydrazones. In medicine, phenylhydrazines were once used as vasodilators to treat angina pectoris, but their use has largely been discontinued due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Hydrazines are not a medical term, but rather a class of organic compounds containing the functional group N-NH2. They are used in various industrial and chemical applications, including the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, some hydrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to high levels of hydrazines can be toxic and may cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, medical professionals should be aware of the potential health hazards associated with hydrazine exposure.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Aporphine is a type of chemical compound called alkaloids, which are found in certain plants. Aporphines have a specific chemical structure and can have various pharmacological effects. They have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and antiasthmatic activities. Some aporphine alkaloids have also been found to have psychoactive effects and are used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential and safety of aporphines.

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that arises from excessive serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. It is typically caused by the interaction of medications, illicit substances, or dietary supplements that increase serotonin levels or enhance serotonin receptor sensitivity.

The diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome include:

1. Presence of a serotonergic medication or drug known to cause the syndrome
2. Development of neuromuscular abnormalities, such as hyperreflexia, myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, or akathisia
3. Autonomic dysfunction, including diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and hyperthermia
4. Mental status changes, such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, or coma
5. Symptoms that develop rapidly, usually within hours of a change in serotonergic medication or dosage

Serotonin syndrome can range from mild to severe, with the most severe cases potentially leading to respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and death. Treatment typically involves discontinuation of the offending agent(s), supportive care, and pharmacologic interventions such as cyproheptadine or cooling measures for hyperthermia.

Alkynes are a type of hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkyne is ethyne, also known as acetylene, which has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms (C2H2). Ethyne is a gas at room temperature and pressure, and it is commonly used as a fuel in welding torches.

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning that they have the potential to undergo chemical reactions that add atoms or groups of atoms to the molecule. In particular, alkynes can be converted into alkenes (hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond) through a process called partial reduction, or they can be fully reduced to alkanes (hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms) through a process called complete reduction.

Alkynes are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and pharmaceuticals. They can be synthesized from other hydrocarbons through various chemical reactions, such as dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling, or metathesis.

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the redox reaction between NADH or NADPH and various electron acceptors. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by transferring electrons from NADH or NADPH to other molecules, which is essential for many biochemical reactions.

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) are coenzymes that act as electron carriers in redox reactions. They consist of a nicotinamide ring, which undergoes reduction or oxidation by accepting or donating electrons and a proton (H+).

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are classified based on their structure and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. Dehydrogenases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing an organic substrate. Examples include lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase.
2. Oxidases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O). Examples include NADH oxidase and NADPH oxidase.
3. Reductases: These enzymes catalyze the reduction of various electron acceptors using NADH or NADPH as a source of electrons. Examples include glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and nitrate reductase.

Overall, NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are essential for maintaining the redox balance in cells and play a critical role in various metabolic pathways, including energy production, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxydopamines" is not a recognized term in medical physiology or pharmacology. However, I believe you might be referring to "Catecholamines," which are a group of neurotransmitters and hormones that include dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and adrenaline (epinephrine). These substances are derived from the amino acid tyrosine and have a catechol nucleus (two hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring) and an amine group.

If you meant something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will be happy to help.

Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Dextroamphetamine is available as a prescription medication and is sold under various brand names, including Adderall and Dexedrine. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare professional, as it can have potentially serious side effects if used improperly.

Cholesterol oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one, while reducing molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is commonly used in clinical and research settings to measure cholesterol levels in samples of blood or other biological fluids. The enzyme is produced by various bacteria, fungi, and plants, and can be purified for use in diagnostic kits and biochemical assays. In addition to its role in cholesterol analysis, cholesterol oxidase has also been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bacterial infections and cancer.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Oxidoreductases acting on CH-NH group donors are a class of enzymes within the larger group of oxidoreductases, which are responsible for catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions. Specifically, this subclass of enzymes acts on CH-NH group donors, where the CH-NH group is a chemical functional group consisting of a carbon atom (C) bonded to a nitrogen atom (N) via a single covalent bond.

These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes by transferring electrons from the CH-NH group donor to an acceptor molecule, which results in the oxidation of the donor and reduction of the acceptor. This process can lead to the formation or breakdown of chemical bonds, and plays a key role in metabolic pathways such as amino acid degradation and nitrogen fixation.

Examples of enzymes that fall within this class include:

* Amino oxidases, which catalyze the oxidative deamination of amino acids to produce alpha-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide.
* Transaminases, which transfer an amino group from one molecule to another, often in the process of amino acid biosynthesis or degradation.
* Amine oxidoreductases, which catalyze the oxidation of primary amines to aldehydes and secondary amines to ketones, with the concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide.

L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of flavin monooxygenases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids into corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction takes place in the presence of molecular oxygen and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) as a cofactor.

LAAO is found in various organisms, including mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, bacteria, and plants. In some species, LAAO plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, while in others, it functions as a part of the immune system or contributes to the development of venoms and toxins.

In humans, LAAO is primarily located in the peroxisomes of liver, kidney, and intestinal cells, where it participates in the catabolism of amino acids. In addition, LAAO has been found to have potential roles in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, and cancer, due to its ability to generate hydrogen peroxide and induce oxidative stress.

A cluster headache is a type of primary headache disorder characterized by severe, one-sided headaches that occur in clusters, meaning they happen several times a day for several weeks or months and then go into remission for a period of time. The pain of a cluster headache is typically intense and often described as a sharp, stabbing, or burning sensation around the eye or temple on one side of the head.

Cluster headaches are relatively rare, affecting fewer than 1 in 1000 people. They tend to affect men more often than women and usually start between the ages of 20 and 50. The exact cause of cluster headaches is not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to abnormalities in the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including hormone production and sleep-wake cycles.

Cluster headache attacks can last from 15 minutes to several hours and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as redness or tearing of the eye, runny nose, sweating, or swelling on the affected side of the face. During a cluster period, headaches typically occur at the same time each day, often at night or in the early morning.

Cluster headaches can be treated with various medications, including triptans, oxygen therapy, and local anesthetics. Preventive treatments such as verapamil, lithium, or corticosteroids may also be used to reduce the frequency and severity of cluster headache attacks during a cluster period.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Pyruvate oxidase is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. However, pyruvate oxidase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of glucose in cells. It is involved in the conversion of pyruvate, a product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) to generate energy in the form of ATP.

Pyruvate oxidase is found in the mitochondria of cells and requires molecular oxygen (O2) to function. It catalyzes the following reaction:

pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ + H2O → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH + H+

Deficiencies in pyruvate oxidase have been associated with certain metabolic disorders, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and Leigh syndrome. However, these conditions are typically caused by defects in other enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyruvate rather than pyruvate oxidase itself.

Glycols are a type of organic compound that contain two hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms. They are colorless, odorless, and have a sweet taste. The most common glycols are ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is widely used as an automotive antifreeze and in the manufacture of polyester fibers and resins, while propylene glycol is used as a food additive, in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in various industries. Glycols are also used as a coolant, humectant, and in the production of unsaturated polyester resins. Exposure to high levels of glycols can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and ingestion can be harmful or fatal.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Isatin is not a medical term, but rather an organic compound that has been used in various biochemical and medicinal research contexts. Here's the chemical definition:

Isatin, also known as indole-2,3-dione, is an organic compound with the formula C8H5NO2. It is a derivative of indole and consists of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring, with two ketone functional groups (=O) at positions 2 and 3. Isatin is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. It occurs naturally in some plants and animals and can be synthesized in the laboratory.

In medical and biochemical research, isatin has been studied for its potential role as an inhibitor of various enzymes and biological targets, including monoamine oxidases, tyrosinase, and carbonic anhydrase. Some isatin derivatives have shown promising results in preclinical studies for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy in humans before they can be approved for medical use.

Lobeline is not a medical term per se, but it is a pharmacological substance with some potential medical applications. Lobeline is an alkaloid compound that can be found in certain plants, including the Indian tobacco plant (Lobelia inflata). It has been used in some over-the-counter and prescription medications as a smoking cessation aid due to its ability to stimulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, which may help reduce cravings for nicotine.

However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of lobeline as a smoking cessation aid is still a matter of debate and further research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.

Chlorphenamidine is a first-generation antihistamine drug that is primarily used to treat allergic reactions. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Chlorphenamidine may also have some anticholinergic and sedative effects.

It's important to note that Chlorphenamidine is not commonly used in modern clinical practice due to its adverse effects such as neurotoxicity, which can cause symptoms like dizziness, unsteady gait, and in severe cases, coma. Therefore, it has been largely replaced by safer and more effective antihistamine drugs.

If you have any questions or concerns about medications, including Chlorphenamidine, it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic or stimulate the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates various automatic physiological functions in the body. The sympathetic nervous system's primary function is to prepare the body for the "fight-or-flight" response, which includes increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolism while decreasing digestive activity.

Sympathomimetic drugs can exert their effects through various mechanisms, including directly stimulating adrenergic receptors (alpha and beta receptors) or indirectly causing the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from nerve endings. These drugs are used in various clinical settings to treat conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, low blood pressure, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of sympathomimetic drugs include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, albuterol, pseudoephedrine, and methylphenidate.

It is important to note that sympathomimetic drugs can also have adverse effects, particularly when used in high doses or in individuals with certain medical conditions. These adverse effects may include anxiety, tremors, palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmias, and seizures. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of catecholamines, which are important neurotransmitters and hormones in the human body. Specifically, DBH converts dopamine into norepinephrine, another essential catecholamine.

DBH is primarily located in the adrenal glands and nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system. It requires molecular oxygen, copper ions, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) as cofactors to perform its enzymatic function. Deficiency or dysfunction of DBH can lead to various medical conditions, such as orthostatic hypotension and neuropsychiatric disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxazoles" is not a medical term, it is a chemical term. Oxazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring made up of one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and three carbon atoms. They have the molecular formula C4H4NO.

Oxazoles do not have specific medical relevance, but they can be found in some natural and synthetic substances, including certain drugs and bioactive molecules. Some oxazole-containing compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, these studies are primarily within the field of chemistry and pharmacology, not medicine itself.

Neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron after they have been released into the synapse. This results in an increased concentration of these neurotransmitters in the synapse, which can enhance their signal transduction and lead to therapeutic effects.

These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs).

It's important to note that while neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors can be effective in treating certain conditions, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Zimeldine is not commonly used in current medical practice due to its association with serious side effects. However, historically, it was a medication used as an antidepressant. It belongs to the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain.

Zimeldine was first synthesized in 1972 and approved for medical use in Sweden in 1982. However, it was withdrawn from the market in 1983 due to its association with a rare but serious side effect called Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Although Zimeldine is no longer used in medical practice, it played an important role in the development of SSRIs as a class of antidepressants, which have since become widely used due to their effectiveness and relatively favorable side effect profile compared to earlier classes of antidepressants.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Metaraminol is a synthetic vasoconstrictor and sympathomimetic agent, which is primarily used in clinical medicine to raise blood pressure in hypotensive states. It is a direct-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist, with some mild beta-adrenergic activity as well.

Metaraminol works by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscle of blood vessels, causing them to contract and narrow, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and systolic blood pressure. It also has a positive inotropic effect on the heart, increasing its contractility and stroke volume.

The drug is administered intravenously, and its effects are usually rapid in onset but short-lived, typically lasting for 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of metaraminol include hypertension, reflex bradycardia, arrhythmias, headache, anxiety, and tremors. It should be used with caution in patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and other cardiovascular conditions.

Sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves interrupting the sympathetic nerve pathways. These nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion. The goal of sympathectomy is to manage conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of chronic pain.

There are different types of sympathectomy, including thoracic sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the chest), lumbar sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the lower back), and cervical sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the neck). The specific type of procedure depends on the location of the affected nerves and the condition being treated.

Sympathectomy is usually performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as endoscopic surgery, which involves making small incisions and using specialized instruments to access the nerves. While sympathectomy can be effective in managing certain conditions, it carries risks such as nerve damage, bleeding, infection, and chronic pain.

Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group) and an acetic acid group. In the context of medicine, sodium phenylacetate is used in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as urea cycle disorders, to help remove excess ammonia from the body. It does this by conjugating with glycine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which can then be excreted in the urine.

It is important to note that the use of phenylacetates should be under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Catechol oxidase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechols and other phenolic compounds to quinones. These quinones can then undergo further reactions to form various pigmented compounds, such as melanins. Catechol oxidase is widely distributed in nature and is found in plants, fungi, and some bacteria. In humans, catechol oxidase is involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine.

Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. In the first part of reaction, cofactor FAD oxidase ... Monoamine oxidases contain the covalently bound cofactor FAD and are, thus, classified as flavoproteins. Monoamine oxidase A ... Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ...
Monoamine oxidase A inhibitors have been typically used in the treatment of depression, and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors are ... Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene. The protein encoded by this ... A comparison of polyamine oxidase and monoamine oxidase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (27): 23973-23976. doi:10.1074/ ... "Entrez Gene: MAOB monoamine oxidase B". Cho HU, Kim S, Sim J, Yang S, An H, Nam MH, et al. (July 2021). "Redefining ...
Binda C, Mattevi A, Edmondson DE (2011). "Structural properties of human monoamine oxidases a and B". Monoamine Oxidase and ... MAOA monoamine oxidase A". Gupta V, Khan AA, Sasi BK, Mahapatra NR (July 2015). "Molecular mechanism of monoamine oxidase A ... Monoamine oxidase B Monoamine oxidase inhibitor - a class of antidepressant drugs that block or inactivate one or both MAO ... Human Monoamine oxidase A) at the PDBe-KB. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monoamine oxidase A. Portal: Biology ( ...
... s (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: ... monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as effective antidepressants, especially for ... MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and ... Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) are a subclass of MAOIs that selectively and reversibly inhibit the MAO-A ...
Fagervall I, Ross SB (April 1986). "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurones in the rat brain by irreversible ... Volz HP, Gleiter CH (November 1998). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A perspective on their use in the elderly". Drugs & Aging. ... Isocarboxazid (Marplan, Marplon, Enerzer) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine ... and the monoamine neurotransmitters. In combination with other drugs that increase the levels of the monoamine ...
... acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and increases levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain. At typical ... Monoamine oxidase B Inhibitors. 2 (4, Supplement): S27-S31. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2012.06.003. ISSN 2210-5336. Gillman PK (October ... September 2004). "Monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors in early Parkinson's disease: meta-analysis of 17 randomised trials ... Miklya I (March 13, 2014). "The History of Selegiline/(-)-Deprenyl the First Selective Inhibitor of B-Type Monoamine Oxidase ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Advised not to be started until at least 2 weeks after stopping MAOIs. MAOIs are advised ... "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters". European Journal of ...
... also inhibits monoamine oxidases at very high doses, resulting in less monoamine and trace amine metabolism and ... Monoamine oxidase (Homo sapiens). Technische Universität Braunschweig. BRENDA. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. "Targets ... Feinberg SS (November 2004). "Combining stimulants with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review of uses and one possible ... Amphetamine also interacts with MAOIs, particularly monoamine oxidase A inhibitors, since both MAOIs and amphetamine increase ...
McEwen CM Jr (1965). "Human plasma monoamine oxidase. 1. Purification and identification". J. Biol. Chem. 240 (5): 2003-10. ... is a family of amine oxidase enzymes which includes both primary-amine oxidase and diamine oxidase; these enzymes catalyze the ... The copper amine oxidase 3-dimensional structure was determined through X-ray crystallography. The copper amine oxidases occur ... Yamada H, Adachi O, Ogata K (1965). "Amine oxidases of microorganisms. Part III. Properties of amine oxidase of Aspergillus ...
The defect discovered was later found to be a mutation in the gene that codes for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA gene). Brunner said ... "Monoamine oxidase A deficiency". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 23 February 2023. Brunner HG, Nelen M, Breakefield XO, Ropers HH, van ... Scott, AL; Bortolato, M; Chen, K; Shih, JC (2008-05-07). "Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous ... The following signs and symptoms occur in people with monoamine oxidase A deficiency, which causes Brunner syndrome: lack of ...
... another monoamine, in depression. Lastly, increased activity of monoamine oxidase, which degrades monoamines, has been ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ... Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, an older class of antidepressants, have been plagued by potentially life-threatening ... The safety profile is different with reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as moclobemide, where the risk of serious ...
Krishnan KR (2007). "Revisiting monoamine oxidase inhibitors". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 68 (Suppl 8): 35-41. PMID ... ECT versus tricyclics and ECT versus monoamine oxidase inhibitors." Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a standard psychiatric ...
"Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)". Mayo Clinic. 12 September 2019. Tisserand R, Young R (2014). "Kinetics and dosing". ... Myristicin is additionally known to be a weak inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme in humans that metabolizes ... Truitt EB, Duritz G, Ebersberger EM (March 1963). "Evidence of monoamine oxidase inhibition by myristicin and nutmeg". ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Phenylpropenes, O-methylated phenylpropanoids, O-methylated natural phenols, Benzodioxoles, Allyl ...
"Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2017-08-08. "Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)". Mayo Clinic. ... were discovered through research on treating tuberculosis and yielded the class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase ...
An enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down neurotransmitters. MAO has two forms, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-B is generally ... A potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor. J Med Chem. 1966 Nov;9(6):830-2. doi: 10.1021/jm00324a009. PMID: 5972038. Youdim MB, ... Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson's disease and depressive illness. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1( ... Rasagiline (Azilect, Azipron) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in ...
Fagervall I, Ross SB (April 1986). "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurones in the rat brain by irreversible ... Eberson LE, Persson K (July 1962). "Studies on Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. I. The Autoxidation of β-Phenylisopropylhydrazine ... is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine chemical class that was used as an ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Withdrawn drugs, Phenethylamines, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors. For shock due to loss of blood or fluid, give fluid replacement therapy ... Severe hypertension may occur with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and possibly tricyclic antidepressants. Additive ...
"Inhibition of monoamine oxidase A-form and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase by selective and reversible monoamine oxidase- ... "Stereoselective inhibition of monoamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase by 4-dimethylamino-2,alpha- ... Amiflamine (FLA-336) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), thereby being a RIMA, and, to a lesser extent, ... Reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA) Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) Ask AL, Högberg K, Schmidt L, Kiessling H, Ross SB ( ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Bender, KJ; Walker, SE (8 October 2012). "Irreversible Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Revisited". Psychiatric Times. Psychiatric ... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. The serotonin created by the brain ...
One piece with which Milne was pleased was his clarification of the tyramine monoamine-oxidase inhibitor interaction (the " ... London, D. R.; Milne, M. D. (1962). "Dangers of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors". British Medical Journal. 2 (5321): 1752. doi: ...
... acts as a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Regarding the isoforms of monoamine ... Gillman PK (2016). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review concerning dietary tyramine and drug interactions" (PDF). ... van Haelst IM, van Klei WA, Doodeman HJ, Kalkman CJ, Egberts TC (August 2012). "Antidepressive treatment with monoamine oxidase ... Baker GB, Urichuk LJ, McKenna KF, Kennedy SH (June 1999). "Metabolism of monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Cellular and Molecular ...
MAOI antidepressants block the actions of monoamine oxidase enzymes. Monoamine oxidase enzymes are responsible for breaking ... Fookes C. "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Drugs.com. Retrieved June 6, 2022. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) - ...
... can also act as a competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that removes neurotransmitters from the ... Mitsui N, Noro T, Kuroyanagi M, Miyase T, Umehara K, Ueno A (February 1989). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Cinchonae ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor Hydrazine (antidepressant) World Health Organization (2011). "The use of stems in the selection of ... Boissier JR, Ratouis R, Dumont C, Lesbros J (1966). "Synthesis of new monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Chimica Therapeutica (5-6 ... Cimemoxin (INN), or cyclohexylmethylhydrazine, is a hydrazine monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant which was never ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
... a selective inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase with dopaminergic properties. II. Biochemical characterization of monoamine ... It is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which is believed to be useful for the treatment of depression. The drug strongly ... Reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA) Kan JP, Steinberg R, Leclercq J, Worms P, Biziere K (April 1988). "Monoamine oxidase- ... evidence for selective and reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A in vivo but not in vitro". Journal of ...
"MAOB: Monoamine oxidase B - Homo sapiens". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 6 December 2015. Retrieved 29 ... Benzylamine is degraded biologically by the action of the monoamine oxidase B enzyme, resulting in benzaldehyde. Benzylamine is ... Tipton, K. F.; Boyce, S.; O'Sullivan, J.; Davey, G. P.; Healy, J. (2004). "Monoamine oxidases: Certainties and uncertainties". ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Coumarins, Phenol ethers, Enones, Alkene derivatives, All stub articles, Heterocyclic compound ... It is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Several analogues of geiparvarin have been studied for antitumor properties. Lahey FN, ...
Monoamine oxidases MAO-A and MAO-B play vital roles in the degradation and inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters such as ... Another enzyme responsible for oxidative deamination is monoamine oxidase, which catalyzes the deamination of monoamines via ... Monoamine oxidases are important drug targets, targeted by MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) such as selegiline. Glutamate dehydrogenase ... Edmondson DE, Mattevi A, Binda C, Li M, Hubálek F (August 2004). "Structure and mechanism of monoamine oxidase". Current ...
Serotonin is catabolized by monoamine oxidase A in the presence of oxygen, so if care is taken to prevent an unsafe spike in ... The combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) with precursors such as L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan pose a ... Many MAOIs irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. It can take at least four weeks for this enzyme to be replaced by the body ... Oates JA, Sjoerdsma A (December 1960). "Neurologic effects of tryptophan in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor". ...
It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (RIMA) of both MAO-A and MAO-B subtypes, with five-fold preference for the ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in neurological diseases. New York: M. Dekker. 1994. ISBN 0-8247-9082-0. Moretti A, Caccia C, ... Martini A, Bonollo L, Nicolis FB, Sega R, Palermo A (June 1981). "Effects of caroxazone, a reversible monoamine oxidase ... May 1981). "Effect of caroxazone, a new antidepressant drug, on monoamine oxidases in healthy volunteers". British Journal of ...
Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. In the first part of reaction, cofactor FAD oxidase ... Monoamine oxidases contain the covalently bound cofactor FAD and are, thus, classified as flavoproteins. Monoamine oxidase A ... Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ...
Monoamine oxidase A deficiency is a rare disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males. Explore symptoms, inheritance, ... Monoamine oxidase A plays a role in normal brain development. Some studies suggest that reduced monoamine oxidase A activity ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/monoamine-oxidase-a-deficiency/ Monoamine oxidase A deficiency. ... A reduction of monoamine oxidase A activity also impairs breakdown of monoamines found in foods. An excess of these molecules ...
... Ann Emerg Med. 1984 Dec;13(12):1137-44. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(84)80339-x. ...
encoded search term (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity) and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity What to Read ... Inhibitors of Type B Monoamine Oxidase, and Role of Monoamine Oxidases in Synucleinopathies. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 21. 23 (19 ... Monoamine oxidase is responsible for the deactivation of monoamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Toxicity. Updated: Oct 25, 2023 * Author: Eddie Garcia, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Miller, ...
Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by 8-benzyloxycaffeine analogues. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... AnimalsCaffeineHumansModels, MolecularMonoamine OxidaseMonoamine Oxidase InhibitorsPapioProtein BindingQuantitative Structure- ... Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by 8-[(phenylethyl)sulfanyl]caffeine analogues.. *Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B by N-methyl ... Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by selected C6-substituted chromone derivatives.. *Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by C5- ...
Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that ... Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target ... An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is ... Monoamine Oxidase B; Oxidase, Monoamine; Amine Oxidase (Flavin-Containing); Type A Monoamine Oxidase; Type B Monoamine Oxidase ...
... oxidase inhibitorsMonoamine oxidase inhibitorsMechanism of action MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. 34 related questions found What does monoamine oxidase do?. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is ... Is monoamine oxidase a drug?. Asked by: Miss Betty Predovic. Score: 4.4/5 (18 votes) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Monoamine ... Is monoamine oxidase addictive?. Abuse of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not common but there are a few cases of addiction in ...
Current Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Publication Type : ... HomePublicationsCurrent Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors ... and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitors. The review has leanings towards the molecular determinants and structure-activity ... "Current Progress in Quinazoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors", ChemistrySelect, vol. 6 ...
Monoamine oxidase as a target for drug action by. Drozak J, Kozlowski M. Zaklad Regulacji Metabolizmu, Instytut Biochemii, ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4), a flavine-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines, is located ...
Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1992 18(4):399-409 ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, like other antidepressants, generally are considered free of risk for abuse. There is, however, ... "Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors" Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1992;18(4):399-409. ...
To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in older adults ... Objective - To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in ... Current prescription patterns and safety profile of irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a population-based cohort study ...
Inhibited by acetylenic compounds such as chlorgyline, 1-deprenyl and pargyline but, unlike EC 1.4.3.21 and EC 1.4.3.22, it is not inhibited by semicarbazide ...
Press-News.org) Monoamine oxidase A: Biomarker for postpartum depression. ... Monoamine oxidase A: Biomarker for postpartum depression. Postpartum mood swings correlated with high monoamine oxidase A ... Monoamine oxidase A: Biomarker for postpartum depression. Postpartum mood swings correlated with high monoamine oxidase A ... this alternative is provided by selective and reversible monoamine-oxidase- A inhibitors. "The first monoamine oxidase ...
Dive into the research topics of 4-(aminomethyl)-1-aryl-2-pyrrolidinones, a new class of monoamine oxidase b inactivators. ... 4-(aminomethyl)-1-aryl-2-pyrrolidinones, a new class of monoamine oxidase b inactivators. ...
Overview of noun monoamine_oxidase. The noun monoamine oxidase has 1 sense. *monoamine oxidase, MAO -- (an enzyme that ...
Monoamine Oxidase MRI MRS Neurobiology Neurology Neuron Neurotransmitter Noradrenaline Patient education PET Prevention ...
Learn more about about our monoamine oxidase MAO reaction phenotyping - both screening and regulatory studies - assay protocol ... Home > Services , ADME PK , Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Reaction Phenotyping Assay Monoamine oxidase (MAO) reaction phenotyping ... Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) reaction phenotyping assay protocol. Test System. hMAO-A and hMAO-B expressed enzyme. ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO) reaction phenotyping is a non-CYP mediated metabolism assay within our portfolio of in vitro ADME ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be prescribed for people who dont experience good ... A new class of MAOIs, called reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), have a lower impact and are more selective ... MAOIs function by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. The enzyme is responsible for a reaction which ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors And Tricyclic Antidepressants. Advair Diskus should be administered with extreme caution to ... patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of ...
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI). [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ... take a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, ... Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with PROZAC or within 5 weeks of ... Switching A Patient To Or From A Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended To Treat Psychiatric Disorders. At least 14 days ...
Monoamine Oxidases (MAOs) as Privileged Molecular Targets in Neuroscience: Research Literature Analysis.. Yeung AWK, Georgieva ... Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. ... N.T. Tzvetkov, et al., "(Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective ... Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO) are drugs that enhance the effect of dopamine by preventing enzymes from breaking them down ...
Human MAOA(Monoamine Oxidase A) ELISA Kit. Human MAOA(Monoamine Oxidase A) ELISA Kit. To Order Contact us below: ... Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Monoamine Oxidase A ( ... Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Monoamine Oxidase A ( ... Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Monoamine Oxidase A ( ...
The present invention concerns the use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the protection or rescue of normal cells from ... The present invention concerns the use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the protection or rescue of normal cells from ... CYTOPROTECTIVE AGENTS COMPRISING MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS - [origin: WO9840102A1] ... CYTOPROTECTIVE AGENTS COMPRISING MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS. Title (en). CYTOPROTECTIVE AGENTS COMPRISING MONOAMINE OXIDASE ...
7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. With other drugs that affect brain monoamine concentrations, there have been reports of ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) 4.3 Narrow Angle Glaucoma 4.4 Pheochromocytoma 4.5 Severe Cardiovascular Disorders 5 ... 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 7.2 Effect of CYP2D6 Inhibitors on Atomoxetine 7.3 Antihypertensive Drugs and Pressor Agents ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI). Atomoxetine should not be taken with an MAOI, or within 2 weeks after discontinuing an ...
7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors With other drugs that affect brain monoamine concentrations, there have been reports of ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) 4.3 Narrow Angle Glaucoma 4.4 Pheochromocytoma 4.5 Severe Cardiovascular Disorders 5 ... 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 7.2 Effect of CYP2D6 Inhibitors on Atomoxetine 7.3 Antihypertensive Drugs and Pressor Agents ... 4.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Atomoxetine capsules should not be taken with an MAOI, or within 2 weeks after ...
Studies on platelet monoamine oxidase activity in schizophrenics. Title. Studies on platelet monoamine oxidase activity in ...
Existence of isoforms monoamine oxidase A and B was established after separate gene sequences encode two enzymes. These ... Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in neurotransmitter metabolism ... Monoamine Oxidases. Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in ... Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase enzyme increase the monoamine neurotransmitter availability, decreasing the production, low ...
... a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal ... Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed ... Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine ( ... Peehl DM, Coram M, Khine H, Reese S, Nolley R, Zhao H: The Significance of Monoamine Oxidase-A Expression in High Grade ...
Copyright © 2023 Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells. Powered by WordPress and ... Therapeutic targeting of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in carotid body type‐1 cells ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporters described the development of metabolically stable and potent apelin analogs that can be used ...
  • They are well known enzymes in pharmacology, since they are the target for the action of a number of monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lexapro is not considered a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). (moviecultists.com)
  • This study assessed the effects of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor deprenyl in Daphnia magna locomotor activity. (url.edu)
  • seoulensis: A potent and selective reversible inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase A. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of the latter, they are involved in a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, some of which can be treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) which block the action of MAOs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressants that have largely fallen out of favor for the treatment of depression. (medscape.com)
  • When the inhibitory effects of MAOIs are amplified by overdose, drug-drug interactions, or drug-food interactions, the resulting increase of active monoamines is directly responsible for the manifestations of MAOI toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase , thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. (moviecultists.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants , treating different forms of depression and other nervous system disorders such as panic disorder, social phobia, and depression with atypical features. (moviecultists.com)
  • Although SSRIs are the current frontline treatment for depression, MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) were the first antidepressants developed. (moviecultists.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are an extremely strong class of antidepressants that treat depression by preventing the breakdown of the brain chemicals serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. (moviecultists.com)
  • SSRIs are second-generation antidepressants, which means they are newer than first-generation medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). (moviecultists.com)
  • Objective - To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in older adults over the past decade. (ices.on.ca)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be prescribed for people who don't experience good results with any other type of antibiotic. (brighthub.com)
  • MAOIs function by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. (brighthub.com)
  • A new class of MAOIs, called reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs), have a lower impact and are more selective in the way they work. (brighthub.com)
  • MAOs are important in the breakdown of monoamines ingested in food, and also serve to inactivate monoamine neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both MAOs are also vital to the inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters, for which they display different specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase A helps break down the neurotransmitters when signaling is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the MAOA gene reduce monoamine oxidase A activity, which causes serotonin and other neurotransmitters to build up in the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Monoamine neurotransmitters (eg, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) are stored in vesicles at the pre-synaptic nerve terminals and released through the plasma membrane into the synaptic cleft. (medscape.com)
  • When released into the synaptic space, neurotransmitters are either reabsorbed into the proximal nerve and metabolized by intracellular monoamine oxidase (MAO) or destroyed by catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) in the synaptic cleft. (medscape.com)
  • An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is involved in removing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine from the brain . (moviecultists.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, plays an important role in this condition. (press-news.org)
  • They are the major enzymes participating in the catabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters and related exogenous amines. (cyprotex.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal human prostatic epithelium and in poorly differentiated (Gleason grades 4 and 5), aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, or serotonin) and norepinephrine [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the degradation of a very broad range of biogenic and dietary amines including many neurotransmitters in the brain, whose imbalance is extensively linked with the biochemical pathology of various neurological disorders. (irb.hr)
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, has an important role in the bra. (nel.edu)
  • The current studies were based on the identification of potent scaffold from several known inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and marketed inhibitors of MAO-B namely selegiline, rasagiline and safinamide were retrieved from Zinc database and database was prepared. (biomedres.us)
  • In a pure MAOI overdose, the ability of the neuron to degrade monoamines is severely diminished. (medscape.com)
  • The inhibition of monoamine oxidase enzyme suggests the significant target for the regulation of depression and Parkinson's disease. (biomedres.us)
  • Inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity by antidepressants and mood stabilizers. (nel.edu)
  • Association of traffic behavior with personality and platelet monoamine oxidase activity in school children. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase A deficiency is caused by mutations in the MAOA gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (2sars.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (2sars.com)
  • Interactions between maltreatment and the monoamine oxidase A upstream variable number tandem repeat genotype (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with alcohol-related problems. (nih.gov)
  • Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (curehunter.com)
  • M onoamine oxidase (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4), a flavine-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines, is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and exhibited in virtually all tissues of mammals. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • abstract = "Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) activities were studied histochemically in the Syrian hamster Harderian gland using tryptamine as substrate and Nitroblue Tetrazolium as the final electron acceptor. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Therefore, we should promote strategies that help to reduce monoamine oxidase A levels in the brain, and avoid everything that makes these values rise," explains Sacher. (press-news.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines including adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. (proteopedia.org)
  • Regional distribution of the monoamine oxidases is characterized by extremely high levels of both MAOs in the hypothalamus and hippocampal uncus, as well as a large amount of MAO-B with very little MAO-A in the striatum and globus pallidus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine Oxidases (MAOs) as Privileged Molecular Targets in Neuroscience: Research Literature Analysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are attractive targets in drug design. (unica.it)
  • However, because monoamine oxidase A breaks down not only serotonin but also other monoamines like dopamine and noradrenaline, a treatment that directly targets monoamine oxidase A could have a higher success rate, particularly in very serious cases: this alternative is provided by selective and reversible monoamine-oxidase- A inhibitors. (press-news.org)
  • In the next stage of this research involving clinical trials, the scientists intend to test the effectiveness of these reversible monoamine oxidase A inhibitors in the treatment of postpartum depression. (press-news.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to clip off their amine group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are membrane-associated enzymes located specifically on the outer mitochondrial membrane. (cyprotex.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase enzymes are central to the normal functioning of brain by playing a key role in neurotransmitter metabolism thus involved in some neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. (biomedres.us)
  • Existence of isoforms monoamine oxidase A and B was established after separate gene sequences encode two enzymes. (biomedres.us)
  • Deprenyl exposure inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and increased the concentrations of serotonin, dopamine and the dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine in whole D. magna extracts. (url.edu)
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are a class of one such naturally occurring compounds that have been clinically developed as an antidepressant and as a treatment for social anxiety and Parkinson's disease (Youdim et al. (moviecultists.com)
  • Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/EBMG/454994/all/Monoamine_oxidase_B_inhibitors_versus_other_dopaminergic_agents_in_early_Parkinson's_disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, like other antidepressants, generally are considered free of risk for abuse. (erowid.org)
  • The first such enzyme was discovered in 1928 by Mary Bernheim in the liver and was named tyramine oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ingested monoamines, such as tyramine, are metabolized by MAO-A in the GI tract and liver. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (curehunter.com)
  • Modulation of the D. magna monoamine system was accomplished by 24 h exposure to two model psychotropic pharmaceuticals with antagonistic and agonistic serotonin signalling properties: 10 mg/L of 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) and 1 mg/L of deprenyl, respectively. (url.edu)
  • citation needed] Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are one of the major classes of drug prescribed for the treatment of depression, although they are often last-line treatment due to risk of the drug's interaction with diet or other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new study shows that postpartum depression is accompanied by strongly elevated monoamine oxidase A in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate cortex. (press-news.org)
  • This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called monoamine oxidase A. This enzyme breaks down chemicals called monoamines, including serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1 Hotamisligil GS and Breakefield XO (1991) Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity. (cyprotex.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase A deficiency is a rare disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most boys with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are less able to control their impulses than their peers, causing aggressive or violent outbursts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sleep problems, such as trouble falling asleep or night terrors, can also occur in monoamine oxidase A deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with monoamine oxidase A deficiency have episodes of skin flushing, sweating, headaches, or diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Similar episodes can occur in female family members of males with monoamine oxidase A deficiency, although females do not experience other signs or symptoms of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, certain foods, such as cheese, appear to worsen symptoms of monoamine oxidase A deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Monoamine oxidase A deficiency is thought to be very rare. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how this buildup leads to the signs and symptoms of monoamine oxidase A deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An excess of these molecules can contribute to the behavioral problems, flushing, sweating, and other symptoms associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency, which may be why foods high in monoamines sometimes worsen the symptoms of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some studies suggest that reduced monoamine oxidase A activity alters the development of certain regions of the brain, which may contribute to intellectual disability and behavioral problems in people with monoamine oxidase A deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tzvetkov NT, Stammler H-G, Hristova S, Atanasov AG, Antonov L. (Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY , vol. 162, 2019, pp. 793-809. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • MAO-A is particularly important in the catabolism of monoamines ingested in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reduction of monoamine oxidase A activity also impairs breakdown of monoamines found in foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the first part of reaction, cofactor FAD oxidase substrate yielding corresponding imine which converts the cofactor into its reduced form FADH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) reaction phenotyping is a non-CYP mediated metabolism assay within our portfolio of in vitro ADME screening services. (cyprotex.com)
  • Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. (curehunter.com)
  • Abuse of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not common but there are a few cases of addiction in the literature . (moviecultists.com)
  • Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 8139 : Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors : Gordon Baumbacher, M.D., Mary Susan Hansen, M.D. (erowid.org)
  • Gordon Baumbacher, M.D., Mary Susan Hansen, M.D.. "Abuse of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors" Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse . (erowid.org)
  • Our findings indicate that D. magna is a sensitive and useful nonvertebrate model for assessing the effects of short-term exposure to chemicals that alter monoamine signalling changes. (url.edu)
  • It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase A plays a role in normal brain development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Four years ago, Julia Sacher and her colleagues at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health CAMH in Toronto already succeeded in showing that, in the first week postpartum, the concentration of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A in the brain is on average 40 percent higher than in women who had not recently given birth. (press-news.org)
  • The monoamine oxidase A values behave in the opposite way to oestrogen levels. (press-news.org)
  • When oestrogen levels drop acutely after childbirth, the concentration of monoamine oxidase A rises. (press-news.org)