Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Aotus trivirgatus: A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Herpesvirus 2, Saimiriine: The type species of RHADINOVIRUS, in the subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from squirrel monkeys. It produces malignant lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, MALIGNANT) in inoculated marmosets or owl monkeys.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).TritiumRNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)ThymidineGenes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteria, AerobicNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Cell SeparationSimplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 188.8.131.52.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
... who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. Cells can ... establishing the methodology of tissue culture. Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to ... Cancer Cells in Culture Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base Microcarrier Cell ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ...
"The research for the SV40 by means of tissue culture technique". Nippon Rinsho. 21 (6): 1201-1219. Shimizu B (1993). Seno K, ... Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted ... "The genome landscape of the African green monkey kidney-derived Vero cell line". DNA Research. 21: 673-83. doi:10.1093/dnares/ ... ISBN 4-320-05386-9. "Main Types of Cell Culture". Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. Retrieved 2006 ...
... in monkey kidney tissue cultures (MKTC). Seen on 11h day of incubation, characterized by rounding and granular appearance of ... Raccoon poxvirus has been shown to infect Strain 143 human osteosarcoma cells grown in monolayer culture, producing A-type ... Uses in veterinary medicine: have potential use for this treatment technique in infectious disease, ex vivo therapies, and ... Entry into Cell: The virion attaches to the cell surface as the viral proteins come into contact with host cell ...
... grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero cell line), and made noninfectious by formalin treatment. The second ... Biologic products, chiefly kidney cells for cultures and blood serum for media, were sometimes harvested from local primates ... Enders, John (1955). "The present status of tissue-culture techniques in the study of poliomyelitis viruses". In Debré, R. ... Rappaport, Catherine (1956). "Trypsinization of Monkey-Kidney Tissue: Automatic Method for the Preparation of Cell Suspensions ...
Marburgvirus isolation is usually performed by inoculation of grivet kidney epithelial Vero E6 or MA-104 cell cultures or by ... Hofmann, H.; Kunz, C. (1968). ""Marburg virus" (Vervet monkey disease agent) in tissue cultures". Zentralblatt für ... but particles as long as 14,000 nm have been detected in tissue culture. Marburgvirions consist of seven structural ... Medical staff should be trained and apply strict barrier nursing techniques (disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown ...
... an antigen expressed by malignant B cells, in tissue culture. This approach of generating therapeutic human T cells may be ... This technique also efficiently establishes cell cultures from human and rodent tumors. The ability to rapidly generate many ... As evidence that the technique is safe author of this method points to the existence of the healthy monkeys that are now more ... Adult proximal tubule cells were directly transcriptionally reprogrammed to nephron progenitors of the embryonic kidney, using ...
Marburgvirus isolation is usually performed by inoculation of grivet kidney epithelial Vero E6 or MA-104 cell cultures or by ... Hofmann, H.; Kunz, C. (1968). ""Marburg virus" (Vervet monkey disease agent) in tissue cultures". Zentralblatt für ... Filovirions can easily be visualized and identified in cell culture by electron microscopy due to their unique filamentous ... Medical staff should be trained and apply strict barrier nursing techniques (disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown ...
1. He proved a method for separation of monkey kidney cells, which led to techniques for large scale production. 2. He ... This pH could be easily indicated by phenol red in a tissue-culture system. The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated ... could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. ... Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven ...
"Guidelines and techniques for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells". Cell stem cell. 3 (6): 595-605. doi:10.1016/j. ... 2013). "Tracking Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Derived Neural Stem Cells in the Central Nervous System of Rats and Monkeys". ... 2007). "Directly reprogrammed fibroblasts show global epigenetic remodeling and widespread tissue contribution". Cell Stem Cell ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors". Cell. 126 (4): 663- ...
PERVS were originally discovered as retrovirus particles released from cultured porcine kidney cells. Most breeds of swine ... tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants. It is ... Xenotransplantation of human tumor cells into immunocompromised mice is a research technique frequently used in oncology ... Experiments have shown that PERV-A and PERV-B can infect human cells in culture. To date no experimental xenotransplantations ...
During an outbreak, isolation of the virus via cell culture methods is often not feasible. In field or mobile hospitals, the ... Filovirions, such as EBOV, may be identified by their unique filamentous shapes in cell cultures examined with electron ... A US Army team headquartered at USAMRIID euthanized the surviving monkeys, and brought all the monkeys to Ft. Detrick for study ... Then, vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some ...
Elleder, M; Drahota, Z; Lisá, V; Mares, V; Mandys, V; Müller, J; Palmer, DN (1995). "Tissue culture loading test with storage ... leaving untouched healthy cells to multiply and fill in the gaps. The technique is also used as a skin ... It is considered to be one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals ... Terman, A, Brunk, UT (1998). "On the degradability and exocytosis of ceroid/lipofuscin in cultured rat cardiac myocytes". Mech ...
Large cultures of Micrococcus luteus growing on pyridine (left) and succinic acid (right). The yellow pigment being produced in ... Food and beverages that provide riboflavin without fortification are milk, cheese, eggs, leaf vegetables, liver, kidneys, ... One such organism is Micrococcus luteus (American Type Culture Collection strain number ATCC 49442), which develops a yellow ... Patterson BE, Bates CJ (May 1989). "Riboflavin deficiency, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue function in sucking and ...
... gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. In 2016, researchers developed a technique that used cancer cells' RNA to produce T cells and an ... Attempts to use T cells to treat transplanted murine tumors required cultivating and manipulating T cells in culture. Syngeneic ... Improved antitumor responses have been seen in mouse and monkey models using T cells in early differentiation stages (such as ... In autologous cancer immunotherapy, T cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and ...
... binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Diazepam at high doses has been found to decrease ... limit high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of spinal cord neurons in cell culture". Journal of Pharmacology ... Continual daily doses of diazepam quickly build to a high concentration in the body (mainly in adipose tissue), far in excess ... in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate pentobarbital from saline". Psychopharmacology. 122 (3): 230-6. doi:10.1007/ ...
Isolating the virus by cell culture, detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detecting proteins by ... Researchers looking at slides of cultures of cells that make monoclonal antibodies. These are grown in a lab and the ... A US Army team headquartered at USAMRIID euthanized the surviving monkeys, and brought all the monkeys to Ft. Detrick for study ... Intense contact tracing and strict isolation techniques largely prevented further spread of the disease in the countries that ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... which is a category of kidney damage that may cause chronic kidney disease. Dogs may also experience chronic joint disease if ... Culture or PCR are the current means for detecting the presence of the organism, as serologic studies only test for antibodies ... New techniques for clinical testing of Borrelia infection have been developed, such as LTT-MELISA, although the results of ...
The most common mammalian expression systems are Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) and Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells.[27 ... are transfected with genes and cultured in suspension and even as tissues or whole organisms, to produce fully folded proteins ... The techniques for overexpression in E. coli are well developed and work by increasing the number of copies of the gene or ... The expression system C1 shows a low viscosity morphology in submerged culture, enabling the use of complex growth and ...
Salk's team created a vaccine against the strains of polio in cell cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells. The vaccine was made ... Today, the nine-banded armadillo is still used to culture the bacteria that causes leprosy, for studies of the proteomics and ... the Development of Tissue Transplantation. Saunders, New York Gibbon JH (1937) Arch. Surg. 34, 1105 Fleming A (1929) Brit J ... organ transplant techniques and anti-transplant rejection medications, the heart-lung machine, antibiotics like penicillin, and ...
ES cells and ES cells. The combination of embryonic stem cell and diploid embryo is a common technique used for the making of ... Chimera: Apical Origin, Ontogeny and Consideration in Propagation Plant Chimeras in Tissue Culture Ainsworth, Claire (November ... For example, the chimera may have a liver composed of cells with one set of chromosomes and have a kidney composed of cells ... This same procedure can be achieved through aggregation of ES cells and diploid embryos, diploid embryos are cultured in ...
Kidney organoids from stem cells with PKD mutations formed large, translucent cyst structures from kidney tubules. The cysts ... Feng Zhang's and George Church's groups simultaneously described genome editing in human cell cultures using CRISPR-Cas9 for ... which eliminated transinfection from the pig to human cells in culture. CRISPR's low cost compared to alternatives is widely ... This technique was used to edit CXCR4 and PD-1, knocking in new sequences to replace specific genetic "letters" in these ...
Researchers looking at slides of cultures of cells that make monoclonal antibodies. These are grown in a lab and the ... A US Army team headquartered at USAMRIID euthanised the surviving monkeys, and brought all the monkeys to Ft. Detrick for study ... Isolating the virus by cell culture, detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detecting proteins ... Hazelton's veterinary pathologist sent tissue samples from dead animals to the United States Army Medical Research Institute of ...
... isomers of MDA and MDMA on phosphatidyl inositol turnover in cultured cells expressing 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors". ... Reynolds S (1999). Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-415-92373-6.. ... Compared to ephedrine, Oberlin observed that it had similar effects on vascular smooth muscle tissue, stronger effects at the ... but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. The concentrations of ...
Zi Xi, Lian (2011). "Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: a possible ... tissue culture is a promising propagation method for the future to produce high volumes of uniform, true-to-type, disease free ... As early as the Han Dynasty, lotus seeds were already recorded as sweet, astringent, nourishing the heart and kidney in "Shen ... 2002). "Progress in the Research on Post-harvest Physiology and Storage Techniques of Nelumbo nucifera gaertn [J]". Guangzhou ...
PERVS were originally discovered as retrovirus particles released from cultured porcine kidney cells. Most breeds of swine ... tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants. It is ... Xenotransplantation of human tumor cells into immunocompromised mice is a research technique frequently used in pre-clinical ... Experiments have shown that PERV-A and PERV-B can infect human cells in culture. To date no experimental ...
... who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. Cells can ... establishing the methodology of tissue culture. Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to ... Cancer Cells in Culture Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base Microcarrier Cell ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ...
During the last two decades cell culture have made considerable advanced in the field of agriculture, horticultu ... Plants cell tissue culture is a rapidly developing technology which holds promise of restructuring agricultural and forestry ... PRIMARY EXPLANATION TECHNIQUES. I. TISSUE CULTURES. SLIDE CULTURES. THE PREPRATION OF SLIDE CULTURE. Single coverslip with ... Trypsinibation of monkey kidney tissue. Preparation of primary human amnion cells. Trypsinibation procedure Trypsinibation in ...
... cell-lines. Secondary cell lines such as LLC-MK2 are also used. Detection of hPIVs in tissue cultures is performed through ... Isolation of viruses using tissue culture is considered the gold standard among detection techniques for hPIVs(3). hPIVs ... demonstrate the best growth in primary monkey kidney (PMK) ... Infected cells are distinguishable from normal cells due to ... currently the most rapid test to detect hPIVs in tissue cultures. Other tests used for hPIV diagnosis include serological and ...
This same transition was made in the development of polio vaccines; a monkey kidney cell strain is used to grow poliovirus for ... For more about cell cultures and cell lines, as well as cell lines made using human cells, see our article "Human Cell Strains ... Which virus drove a great deal of the interest in developing tissue and cell culture techniques? ... Cell cultures involve growing cells in a culture dish, often with a supportive growth medium like collagen. They offer a level ...
"The research for the SV40 by means of tissue culture technique". Nippon Rinsho. 21 (6): 1201-1219. Shimizu B (1993). Seno K, ... Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The Vero lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted ... "The genome landscape of the African green monkey kidney-derived Vero cell line". DNA Research. 21: 673-83. doi:10.1093/dnares/ ... ISBN 4-320-05386-9. "Main Types of Cell Culture". Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. Retrieved 2006 ...
Salks technique involved infecting monkey kidney cell cultures and then killing the virus with formaldehyde. ... just a few years earlier when a team of Harvard researchers figured out how to grow them inside animal-cell tissue cultures ... History & Culture. * Inventions * Famous Inventions * Famous Inventors * Patents & Trademarks * Invention Timelines * Computers ... After successfully testing the vaccine in monkeys, he began trialing the vaccine in humans, which included himself, his wife ...
Cell and Tissue Culture - A manual for laboratory workers, for years in its various editions, the authoritative handbook of pr ... BACKGROUND: Primary cell cultures (before subculturing) are used to grow viruses. Most are derived from primate kidney tissue, ... of culture techniques for primary cells and cell lines including the first demonstration of growing poliovirus in primary cells ... 1949; Finders and team grow poliovirus in rhesus monkey kidney tissue. 1951; Mary Kubicek, under Dr. George Gey at Johns ...
... preferably Vero cells. Said virus may then be separated from the tissue culture or cell media using conventional techniques ... or in cells known in the art such as African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells or baby hamster (BHK) cells, ... was cultivated in multiple cultures of Vero cells in OptiMEM (LTI, Grand Island, NY) tissue culture medium at 37°C. The ... Effective protection of monkeys against death from street virus by post-exposure administration of tissue-culture rabies ...
Also disclosed are processes for obtaining the truncated GDNF proteins by recombinant genetic engineering techniques. ... that promote dopamine uptake by dopaminergic cells and promote the survival of nerve cells. ... referred to as truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (truncated GDNF) proteins, ... tissue culture) is a well known procedure. Examples of useful mammalian host cell lines include, but are not limited to, monkey ...
... labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques. ... This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, ... The tissue from which the line was derived was obtained from the kidney of a healthy adult African green monkey. Although ... The term tissue culture arose because most of the early cells were derived from primary tissue explants, a technique that ...
All influenza viruses examined in this study were passaged one time through Primary Rhesus Monkey Kidney (PMK) tissue culture ( ... Cultures were tested for viral infection using the centrifugation-enhanced shell-vial technique that includes a cell monolayer ... RNA from was extracted from a 300 μl aliquot of tissue culture fluid using the High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Boehringer-Mannheim, ... For genetic typing, approximately 1 mL of VTM was used to infect PMK tissue culture (Viro-Med, Minneapolis, MN; BioWhittaker, ...
The present invention provides a process of transfecting a cell with a polynucleotide mixed with one or more amphipathic ... Both the primary cells and cell lines are grown (cultured) in tissue culture media such as Dulbecos Modified MEM media (D-MEM ... CV-1 monkey kidney cells, COS (monkey kidney) cells, 293, HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cells, or HepG2 (human) hepatocytes. ... Techniques for growth and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. EP2292737A1. 16 May 2006. 9 Mar 2011. Cellerix, S.L. ...
... used monkey kidney cells to culture tissues thought to contain poliovirus. Dulbecco and Vogt explained where the virus they ... to their cell cultures to kill the bacteria a technique that had not, of course, been available to researchers working in the ... Once the monkey kidneys were ground up into single cells, cell clusters, and cell debris, they were seeded with the monkey ... In the early days of poliovirus research, tissue culture was usually conducted using monkey kidneys (or, sometimes, monkey ...
... plaques in primary chicken or duck embryonic-cell cultures and CPE in HeLa and L but not primary hamster-kidney-cell cultures. ... Phlebotomus (Sand Fly) Fever Viruses in Hamster-Embryo Tissue Culture A. R. Salim ... The response of monkeys infected with Plasmodium knowlesi was followed using the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. ... Of 129 different arboviruses (134 strains) inoculated into cultures of the baby-hamster kidney-cell line BHK-21 (clone 13), all ...
... who were awarded a Nobel Prizefor their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. ... establishing the methodology of tissue culture. Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s ... Culture of non-mammalian cells. Plant cell culture methods. Plant cell cultures are typically grown as cell suspension cultures ... Tissue culture and engineering. Cell culture is a fundamental component of tissue culture and tissue engineering, as it ...
Of particular interest is the fact that the tissue cultures derived from monkey kidneys (upon which Salk and Sabin based their ... Recognition of this fact led to the production of a new vaccine, which derived not from animals but from human cell cultures… » ... Recovering our health by rejecting Modern Medicine, with its culture of (read dependence on) illness, is only the first step in ... who at the end of the 19th century developed fundamental operative techniques which are still in use today After years of ...
Wing and joint tissues were positive by PCR for poxvirus. Thin-section electron microscopy showed poxvirus particles within A- ... Growth medium from a T25 flask containing green monkey kidney epithelial cells (BSC40) was removed and the virus mixture added ... Material was taken from the wing and joint of an affected bat for real-time PCR testing and cell culture isolation. Wing and ... Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and cultures of the joint from 1 bat for mycoplasma showed negative results. ...
Flu vaccines are increasingly manufactured in cell lines that are actually or potentially oncogenic, and FDA guidelines allow ... For example, the FDA acknowledges that the SV 40 virus (simian virus 40 from monkey kidney cells) was in the early polio ... than other types of cells However, if their growth in tissue culture is not well controlled, there may be additional ... Cell cultures: the next frontier in vaccine production Several cell lines are currently under investigation. Novartis EU- ...
The biocompatibility properties of the DC kidney tissues were evaluated by the culture of human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK ... This method represents a step towards development of a transplantable organ using tissue engineering techniques. ... of nephrectomized monkey kidney. Results: Perfusion-decellularization monkey kidneys retained their essential ECM architecture ... tissues are promising candidates that provide a neutral environment. Objective: We successfully DC rhesus monkey kidneys by ...
The idea of a Symposium on Arthropod Cell Cultures started in July of 1969 shortly after the untimely death of our colleague ... Comparative Lipid Analysis of Aedes aegypti and Monkey Kidney Cells (MK-2) Cultivated in Vitro ... with a Review of Culture of Cells and Tissues from Lepidoptera) ... Mosquito Cell Lines as Determined by Immunodiffusion Techniques ... Arthropod Cell Cultures and Their Application to the Study of Viruses. Editors. * Emilio Weiss ...
Thus, the measles vaccines do not contain viruses, but particles of dead monkey kidney tissue or human cancer cells. " ... sterilised the tissue cultures in order to exclude the possibility of bacteria killing the cells. What he didnt take into ... and the treatment of the cell culture when preparing it for the alleged infection was exactly what was killing the cells. ... As he had been awarded the Nobel prize for the alleged polio virus the same year, all researchers believed his technique to be ...
... monkey kidney cells (CV1); African green monkey kidney cells (VERO-76); human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA); canine kidney ... HIV-1JR-FL is a strain that was originally isolated from the brain tissue of an AIDS patient taken at autopsy and co-cultured ... of mutant viral envelope proteins in cultured eukaryotic cells as well as efficiently secrete these proteins into the culture ... or other conventional techniques. In the case of protoplast fusion, the cells are grown in media and screened for the ...
The vaccine could have been produced from non-animal tissue, however manufacturers opted for monkey kidney tissue instead. The ... The polio vaccine is now grown in human diploid-cell culture instead of in animal tissue. ... Blood, tissue and organ cultures are ideal test-beds for the efficacy and toxicity of medications.. Epidemiology is the study ... Banting, Best and other scientists modified the process using in vitro techniques and later mass-produced insulin from pig and ...
The CPE consisted of cell shrinkage, nuclear pycnosis, and discontinuity of cell sheet, and the cell culture was totally ... When large numbers of amebae (25,000+) were inoculated into Vero cell cultures, cytopathic effects (CPE) were noticed within 5 ... Experimental studies on the in vitro interactions of this organism with monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero line) and its ... Experimental studies on the in vitro interactions of this organism with monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero line) and its ...
Process to obtain primary cell culture. Primary cell cultures are prepared from fresh tissues. Pieces of tissues from the organ ... African green monkey kidney epithelial cells). Cell strain. Lineage of cells originated from the primary culture is called ... Cell culture techniques are used to know the working of various immune cells, cytokines, lymphoid cells, and interaction ... Animal cell culture. A. Primary cell culture. This is the cell culture obtained straight from the cells of a host tissue. The ...
ExtracellularHeLaJohn FranklRhesus monkeysPluripotent stemPoliovirusTumorsSubstrateEmbryonic kidneyViralStem CellsTumorDifferentiateScaffoldsMesenchymalAdherentPrimary monkey kidney cellInfluenza virusStrainsDiploid-cellClinicalIsolationOrganTransformationMonolayer culturesIndefinitelyCellularMammalian cellOrganoidsVirologyPerfusionEmbryosInoculationInfection1960sVirusExperimentalDifferentiationHuman kidneyGrowthTrypsinVaccinesLineSuccessfullyBiopsyFibroblastsFetal tissueImmortalPreparationSeriallyRoss GranvillLaboratory
- Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
- Mononuclear cells can be released from soft tissues by enzymatic digestion with enzymes such as collagenase , trypsin , or pronase , which break down the extracellular matrix . (wikidoc.org)
- Other adherent cultures cells can be grown on tissue culture plastic, which may be coated with extracellular matrix components (e.g. collagen or fibronectin ) to increase its adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth. (wikidoc.org)
- These adhere to the culture vessel with the use of an extracellular matrix which is generally derived from tissues of organs that are immobile and embedded in a network of connective tissue. (microbeonline.com)
- Extracellular matrix remodeling after proatherosclerotic injury involves an increase in hyaluronan (HA) that is coupled with vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration, proliferation, and with neointima formation. (biomedsearch.com)
- 10. A pharmaceutical composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cell extract is selected from the group consisting of a cytosolic extract, a cytoplasmic extract, a nuclear extract, a whole cell lysate, extracellular extract, whole tissue extract and mixtures thereof. (google.es)
- Ideally, the resulting extracellular matrices would retain the organ-specific architecture and chemical composition to guide implanted cells into functional structures and eventually working organs. (ufl.edu)
- Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are highly proliferative, capable of differentiating into all cells of the kidney, and respond to tissue-specific extracellular matrix proteins. (ufl.edu)
- Examining the ability of these cells to proliferate and differentiate in a whole kidney extracellular matrix scaffold would serve as a valuable baseline for future studies in producing a functioning organ. (ufl.edu)
- Letter excerpts: "The job would involve handling serial cultures of L cells and HeLa for virology teaching. (vialibri.net)
- HeLa cells HSV. (blogspot.com)
- A significant leap forward was made in 1951 by cell biologist George Otto Gey when he successfully cultured the first confirmed, immortal human cell line from cervical cancer cells: HeLa. (sciencetrends.com)
- Within a single year after being isolated, HeLa cells were used to develop the polio vaccine (Cox 1953). (sciencetrends.com)
- As demand grew for HeLa cells, they were used for physiology studies and research in genetics and medicine. (sciencetrends.com)
- In fact, HeLa cells are so persistent and ubiquitous, concerns have arisen that HeLa cells may be contaminating other cell lines, and efforts continue today to ensure the purity of other cell lines (Gartler 1968). (sciencetrends.com)
- The standard continuous cell lines have been derived from human cancer cells such as HeLa (derived from cervical cancer of a lady, HeLa by name), Hep2, and KB cells. (microbeonline.com)
- Another example would be HeLa cells, from a human cervical carcinoma, also used in the past for growth of poliovirus. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Example: HeLa cells. (aidsorigins.com)
- The discovery in 1960 of live SV-40 virus contamination in formalin-treated poliovirus vaccine, produced in kidney cells cultures from rhesus monkeys, did not lead to an immediate recall of the contaminated vaccines. (prohealth.com)
- Noteworthy was the admission that the vaccines were routinely tested in rhesus monkeys because African green monkeys commonly show evidence of neurological disease. (prohealth.com)
- Salk's vaccine was made by growing live polio virus on kidney tissue from Asian rhesus monkeys. (sfgate.com)
- Based on this knowledge, the last 3 years have witnessed the development of a cohort of protocols allowing efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) towards defined kidney progenitor populations using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems or through generating organoids. (karger.com)
- Due to their phenotypic features, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and the closely related human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), represent an ideal model to meet this challenge. (karger.com)
- Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are three-dimensional spheroids of human epithelium generated through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (asm.org)
- Induced pluripotent stem cells from tissues tend to display epigenetic memory with residual expression of genes from their tissue of origin, as well as low expression of Phase I and Phase II enzymes, and a tendency to express fetal genes [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, we sought to generate retinal organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as a screening tool to explore the membrane trafficking efficacy of some recently described microbial opsins. (frontiersin.org)
- Early efforts to grow poliovirus in culture, however, repeatedly ended in failure. (historyofvaccines.org)
- In 1936, Albert Sabin and Peter Olitsky at the Rockefeller Institute successfully grew poliovirus in a culture of brain tissue from a human embryo. (historyofvaccines.org)
- They tried to grow poliovirus in cultures using tissue that had been taken from other sources, but were unsuccessful. (historyofvaccines.org)
- Thirteen years after Sabin and Olitsky's success with growing poliovirus in brain tissue, researchers at the lab of John Enders at the Children's Hospital in Boston successfully grew the virus in a culture of skin and muscle tissue from a human embryo-in a very fortunate happenstance. (historyofvaccines.org)
- They went on to grow two other strains of poliovirus, and in many different types of human embryonic tissue, without using nervous system tissue. (historyofvaccines.org)
- Offered is an historic specimen, originally owned by Elsa Meyer Zitcer, who without even a B.S., became a remarkable technician and made important contributions to the development of culture techniques for primary cells and cell lines including the first demonstration of growing poliovirus in primary cells from human amnion (1955). (vialibri.net)
- In 1955 Zitcer with associates demonstrated it was possible to grow generations of human amniotic cells in serial culture and infect them with poliovirus. (vialibri.net)
- This switch in monkey species was soon followed by the decision to forgo formalin inactivation by using a weakened (attenuated) live strain of poliovirus (1). (prohealth.com)
- With the exception of some derived from tumors, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
- Following this, Alexis Carrel refined those early techniques, improving these growth media, and was able to establish cultured cells from the tissues of chicks and tumors. (sciencetrends.com)
- Mixture of cells derived from human and animal tumors. (microbeonline.com)
- These tumors as well as several human mesothelioma cell lines previously reported to contain SV40 large T antigen were negative for detection of the virally encoded oncoprotein. (aacrjournals.org)
- The hemagglutinin protein, responsible for viral uptake into host epithelial cells, is also the antigen targeted by antibodies. (cdc.gov)
- Several days later, the gooey viral suspension is centrifuged to remove as much chicken blood and tissue from the solution as possible. (i-sis.org.uk)
- Since the early 2000s, dozens of human and animal tissues have been investigated for use in viral vaccines, especially for the production of influenza shots. (i-sis.org.uk)
- with increasing passage diploid cells become more insensitive to viral infection e.g. human neonatal lung culture. (blogspot.com)
- The type of cell culture used for viral cultivation depends on the sensitivity of the cells to a particular virus (Knipe, 2001). (blogspot.com)
- This technique is simple method that more rapidly identifies the virus than the traditional viral culture. (blogspot.com)
- Detection of virus in cell culture depend on cytopathic effects (CPE) which are morphological changes noted as a result of viral replication. (blogspot.com)
- SUMMARY Electron microscopy, considered by some to be an old technique, is still on the forefront of both clinical viral diagnoses and viral ultrastructure and pathogenesis studies. (asm.org)
- In the research arena, modalities such as immunoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, and electron tomography have demonstrated how viral structural components fit together, attach to cells, assimilate during replication, and associate with the cellular machinery during replication and egression. (asm.org)
- EM was instrumental in elucidating the viral agent of the first outbreak of Ebola virus in Zaire in 1976 ( 8 , 45 , 71 ) and in identifying the Ebola Reston infection of a monkey colony in Reston, VA, in 1989 as being caused by a filovirus ( 28 ). (asm.org)
- They should be placed into viral transport media and transported at 4 o C or frozen at -70 o C. Specimens for culture or IF are best taken as early as possible in the illness. (health.gov.au)
- Are not used for the preparation of viral vaccines as vaccines prepared in cancer cells are considered unsafe for human use. (microbeonline.com)
- PRV was isolated from monkey faeces for the first time in Thailand via viral culture and LC-MS/MS. The genetic diversity of the virus genome segments suggested a re-assortment within the PRV species group. (beds.ac.uk)
- Mosquito bites present the major route of transmission of ZIKV, after which viral replication is believed to occur in skin fibroblasts/keratinocytes and skin-associated dendritic cells (DCs) with subsequent dissemination to lymph nodes and the bloodstream [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
- 1 1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Sciences Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. (journalbe.com)
- The first 2 reviews in this series have described the defining properties of stem cells, their possible sources, and some initial attempts at their clinical use for tissue regeneration and repair. (biomedsearch.com)
- Transdifferentiation of rat fetal brain stem cells into penile smooth muscle cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Generation of transplantable, functional satellite-like cells from mouse embryonic stem cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) can be used to create tissue engineered cartilage constructs to treat osteoarthritis. (case.edu)
- My lab and I induced cell growth in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to develop a non-invasive methodology to interrogate the process of chondrogenesis. (case.edu)
- Chimeras rely on stem cells and their ability to differentiate into the necessary cells needed by the body. (walktocurecancer.org)
- It is this feature of stem cells that allow scientist to culture tissue samples and eventually produce transplantable organs. (walktocurecancer.org)
- The procuration of stem cells is the subject of a controversial argument as the methodologies of some variations raises several moral and ethical issues. (walktocurecancer.org)
- As the name suggests, this form of stem cells are derived from human embryos. (walktocurecancer.org)
- The cells within the blastocyst are usually referred to as totipotent stem cells. (walktocurecancer.org)
- The beginning of life is said to be conception or fertilisation therefore this method of obtaining stem cells can be considered as taking a life without its consent. (walktocurecancer.org)
- Another limitation of hESCs includes carcinogenic risk when the culture medium is altered in order to induce differentiation of stem cells to form specialised cells such as: heart cells, lungs cells, liver cells and nerve cells. (walktocurecancer.org)
- If the wrong mix of proteins or hormones are added to the stem cells there's a potential risk of mutation of DNA resulting in the production of cancerous or faulty cells. (walktocurecancer.org)
- Therefore, if stem cells are extracted from an unfertilised egg, then arguably life which begins at conception or fertilisation, has not yet begun, making the use of the stem cells less controversial. (walktocurecancer.org)
- However, the ethical implications have not been bypassed altogether, as it can still be argued that stem cells from unfertilised eggs do still have the potential to make a living individual. (walktocurecancer.org)
- Parthenogenetic embryos will develop to the blastocyst stage and so can serve as a source of embryonic stem cells. (walktocurecancer.org)
- But this form of stem cells comes with its disadvantages, as it is a new concept the cost of production is high. (walktocurecancer.org)
- The epithelial compartment of the HIO possesses an array of small intestinal cell types, including absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth, goblet, and enteroendocrine cells, in addition to Lgr5 + intestinal stem cells ( 6 ). (asm.org)
- A recent study showed that the alternative mouse model made with hematopoietic stem cells is sufficient, meaning we don't need fetal tissue, for the study of HIV infection, pathogenesis, and therapy. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Generation of hepatocytes from stem cells shows promise [ 9 ], but embryonic stem cells have limited availability. (hindawi.com)
- Murine embryonic stem cells were seeded into the decellularized scaffolds and cultured up to 14 days with one of three protocols: whole scaffold, perfused scaffold, and sectioned scaffold culture. (ufl.edu)
- The evidence of cellular change of mouse stem cells in response to a rat scaffold is a promising step toward establishment of a xenogenic scaffold source for engineered kidneys. (ufl.edu)
- Examples of cells used to culture are fibroblast, lymphocytes, cells from cardiac and skeletal tissues, cells from liver, breast, skin, and kidney and different types of tumor cells. (microbeonline.com)
- In addition, cells cultured from tumor tissue frequently establish immortal cell lines in culture. (microbeonline.com)
- CELL LINE A group of dividing cells derived from abnormal tissue (e.g., a tumor) which are immortal. (aidsorigins.com)
- Decellularized (DC) extra cellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to repair damaged tissue is considered a promising approach in the field of renal regeneration (3-6). (journalbe.com)
- DC kidney scaffolds are able to act as an inductive template for organ functional recovery, allowing the injured area to be recellularized (RC) by cells (7-11). (journalbe.com)
- Previous studies have shown that small units of engineered kidney scaffolds are able to maintain function in animal studies (15). (journalbe.com)
- However, recellularization of these scaffolds with normal renal cells which have sufficient functional capacity is still a major challenge (16). (journalbe.com)
- However, re-endothelialization of acellular kidney scaffolds were enhanced by antibody conjugation of vasculatures and some different approaches recently (17). (journalbe.com)
- 19) successfully implanted porcine DC kidney scaffolds into pigs. (journalbe.com)
- Therefore, the goal of the study was to develop less toxic DC kidney scaffolds which could induce renal regeneration. (journalbe.com)
- One approach to alleviate this demand is to reconstruct kidneys using tissue engineering scaffolds. (ufl.edu)
- The bovine pulmonary artery endothelial ( BPAE ) cells presented in the digital image above were resident in an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin (green fluorescence), and for DNA with the bis-benzimidazole dye Hoechst 33258 (blue fluorescence). (fsu.edu)
- Depending on their origin, primary cells grow either as an adherent monolayer or in a suspension. (microbeonline.com)
- None of the strains replicated in the human exocrine cell clusters, in contrast, both strains replicated in the endocrine islets of Langerhans. (openvirologyjournal.com)
- Immortal cell cultures are called continuous cell lines, to distinguish them from primary cultures and cell strains which have definite lifespan. (microbeonline.com)
- Virulent strains of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis survive and grow exponentially inside nonactivated murine macrophages ( 3-5 ), despite the potent antimicrobial mechanisms of the host cell ( 22-24 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- Human rotaviruses in clinical samples may be culture adapted if subjected to several passages in primary African green monkey kidney cells, with additional passages in MA104 cells ( 11 ). (asm.org)
- The major part of the book concentrates on clinical kidney transplantation, but every other organ that currently can be transplanted is also addressed. (booktopia.com.au)
- Cell culture is the most commonly used by clinical virology laboratories (Nauschuetz and Learmonth, 2007). (blogspot.com)
- Generally isolation and identification of the virus using transmission electron microscopy TEM, Immunohistochemistry, cell cultures and molecular techniques (PCR and LAMP assays) are advised for the confirmation of clinical cases. (annexpublishers.co)
- The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
- This method represents a step towards development of a transplantable organ using tissue engineering techniques. (journalbe.com)
- For animal cell culture the cells are taken from the organ of an experimental animal. (microbeonline.com)
- Instead, death occurs due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to fluid redistribution, hypotension , disseminated intravascular coagulation , and focal tissue necroses . (wikipedia.org)
- The culture of whole organs or intact organ fragments with the intent to use cells as machinery to produce biological is called Organ Culture . (actip.org)
- When the cells are removed from the organ fragments prior to or during cultivation thus disrupting their normal relationships with neighboring cell, the technology is called Cell Culture . (actip.org)
- They are in no way a tissue or organ, and to characterize them in that way displays either ignorance of the science or willful deception. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Each year, there is a severe shortage of kidneys for organ transplant. (ufl.edu)
- Developed by Yakov Gluzman, the COS-1 cell line differs from CV-1 due to transformation of the earlier line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
- SV40 has a well-characterized ability to trigger transformation of cells in culture. (aacrjournals.org)
- For example, a transformation-defective large T antigen mutant which cannot bind p53 is still capable of fully transforming cells which lack p53 (4) . (aacrjournals.org)
- In many cases, expression of SV40 large T antigen alone is necessary and sufficient for transformation of rodent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- CARCINOGEN Any substance that causes transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. (aidsorigins.com)
- When the bottom of the culture vessel is covered with a continuous layer of cells, usually one cell in thickness, these are known as monolayer cultures. (microbeonline.com)
- What Enders and Peebles managed to do was to maintain the virus in cells growing in tissue culture (a far more convenient host experimentally) - initially primary human kidney cells, and then monolayer cultures of chick embryo cells. (stackexchange.com)
- The lifespan of most cells is genetically determined, but some cell culturing cells have been "transformed" into immortal cells which will reproduce indefinitely if the optimal conditions are provided. (wikipedia.org)
- An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
- At any time during the culture of a cell strain, cells in the culture may become transformed, meaning that they are no longer subject to crisis and senescence but can be passage indefinitely i.e. they will have infinite lifespan. (microbeonline.com)
- Also known as heteroploid cultures, continuous cells lines are termed so as they can be serially cultivated indefinitely. (microbeonline.com)
- Can be sub-cultured indefinitely. (microbeonline.com)
- As established cell lines emerged, the application of well-defined normal and transformed cells in biomedical investigations has become an important staple in the development of cellular and molecular biology. (fsu.edu)
- Results: Perfusion-decellularization monkey kidneys retained their essential ECM architecture, intact vascular tree, and cellular compatibility ensured clearance of cellular material, which directly impacts immunoreactivity during transplantation. (journalbe.com)
- Thus, particular physiochemical properties of DC kidney induce generation of specific cellular niches within body tissues. (journalbe.com)
- One of the crucial limitations in cellular transplantation is poor cell survival after cell transfer. (biomedsearch.com)
- The cytopathic changes seen in stealth virus cultures correlate well with the vacuolating cellular damage observed on histological sections of brain tissues obtained on biopsy and on autopsy. (prohealth.com)
- Although, directed differentiation of hPSCs towards defined kidney cell types offers unprecedented opportunities for studying phenotypes manifested at the cellular level, this approach may be insufficient for modelling the cellular interactions occurring in the whole kidney. (karger.com)
- The process by which a cell receives and acts on some external chemical or physical signal, such as a hormone, including receiving the information at specific receptors in the plasma membrane, conveying the signal across the plasma membrane into the cell, and subsequently inducing an intracellular chain of other signalling molecules, thereby stimulating a specific cellular response. (ndif.org)
- Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) are a promising new model for generating intestine-like tissue. (asm.org)
- Recently, hPSCs with genetic mutations introduced through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering have shown to produce kidney organoids able to recapitulate phenotypes of polycystic kidney disease and glomerulopathies. (karger.com)
- Before this scientists had found that an agent which was small enough to pass through filters that retained bacteria (i.e. possibly a virus) could cause measles when inoculated into monkeys and could be passaged in eggs containing developing chick embryos - the best method available until then. (stackexchange.com)
- The embryos are then suspended in a culture medium, mirroring similar conditions to that of a mother's womb, allowing the embryo to divide into a mass of cells known as the blastocyst. (walktocurecancer.org)
- Later versions used sheep or goat brain or chicken embryos, or hamster kidney cells. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Virus replication was measured with TCID50 titrations of aliquots of the culture medium at different time points post inoculation. (openvirologyjournal.com)
- cell culture, animal inoculation and embryonated eggs. (blogspot.com)
- They say it is better based on looking at the infection kinetics following inoculation of 4 animals each, in particular it seems because that it replicates to a higher rate in cattle than the cell culture one. (fieldofscience.com)
- In 1924, a filterable agent from human brain tissue was isolated in rabbits and in 1934, Hayashi transmitted the disease experimentally to monkeys by intracerebral inoculation (9). (cdc.gov)
- Very little is known about the mechanism of infection in the pancreatic exocrine cells. (openvirologyjournal.com)
- Binding of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN also can enhance direct HIV-1 infection in cis ( 6 , 9 ), but much of the research has focused on the role of DC-SIGN as a receptor to explain the effective sequestration and transmission of HIV-1 from DCs to T cells in trans ( 4 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
- For example, norovirus (Norwalk agent) was discovered by EM ( 46 ), and EM continues to serve to confirm infection in quality control of molecular techniques ( 87 ). (asm.org)
- Some claim that fetal tissue is "needed" because BLT humanized mice generated with fetal bone marrow/liver/thymus tissue have been used to study HIV infection , human immune response, and antiretroviral treatments, and to test new therapies (i.e. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Antibiotics need to be trialled in living organisms as there is no way of knowing whether they will penetrate tissue at the site of an infection. (speakingofresearch.com)
- In the 1960s, cells from aborted human fetal tissue, called MRC-5 and WI-38 cells, were developed and are still used for the manufacture of rubella chickenpox, hepatitis A and shingles vaccines. (i-sis.org.uk)
- Called macular relocation, this technique was perfected in the eyes of monkeys, cats and rabbits starting in the 1960s. (speakingofresearch.com)
- After a virus infects a cell, it uses the cell's own components to produce more copies of itself. (historyofvaccines.org)
- Salk's technique involved infecting monkey kidney cell cultures and then killing the virus with formaldehyde. (thoughtco.com)
- Zitcer was the primary or co-author for ten significant papers on aspects of cell culture with applications to virus and cancer research (1954-1968). (vialibri.net)
- More recently, African green monkeys have been of significant interest because of the high levels of simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 ( SIV-1 ) that frequently occur in their blood, which may be distantly related to the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) that causes AIDS. (fsu.edu)
- Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1) - The transformed COS-1 cell line was derived from the CV-1 fibroblast line, which was initiated in March, 1964 by F. C. Jensen and colleagues from the normal kidney of an adult African green monkey. (fsu.edu)
- As it turned out, our close relatives the monkeys contracted polio nasally (not through the digestive system), and the virus moved directly from the nose to the brain. (animalliberationfront.com)
- In 1937, animal experiments led scientists to spray zinc sulfate and picric acid alum into children's noses, reasoning that if the human transmission route was via the nasal mucosa as it was in monkeys, this would kill the virus in the nose. (animalliberationfront.com)
- In 1949, John Enders grew the virus in tissue culture. (animalliberationfront.com)
- Should hepatitits-C virus antibody-positive donors be excluded from kidney donation? (booktopia.com.au)
- They could passage the virus by inoculating uninfected cells with infected cells, and they also isolated some virus from the cells by breaking open the cells and using the technique of centrifugation to separate the (larger) virus particles from the soluble cell contents and debris. (stackexchange.com)
- The presence of virus particles or virus proteins within the pancreatic cells was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and electron microscopy (EM). (openvirologyjournal.com)
- Virus particles were found exclusively in the endocrine cells, often in close association with insulin granules. (openvirologyjournal.com)
- He went on to a storied career, developing a cell strain used in most human virus vaccines, serving as an anatomy professor at the University of California, San Francisco, as president of the Gerontological Society of America, and as a co-founder of the National Institute on Aging. (nautil.us)
- These procedures can augment the classical virological techniques to provide information on virus serogroup, serotype and topotype. (scribd.com)
- DC-SIGN is expressed on monocyte-derived DCs in culture, and importantly, it is able to sequester HIV-1 within cells and facilitate transmission of virus to CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- That virus was later determined to be the cause of transient aplastic crisis in patients with sickle cell disease and of "fifth disease," a childhood exanthem. (asm.org)
- Paramyxoviruses (including parainfluenza virus) are relatively labile, especially during freezing and thawing, so specimen should be processed immediately or stored (short term) at +4 0 C or (longer term) at -70 0 C. The maximum acceptable duration of storage at room temperature is 5 days for IF and 2 days for culture. (health.gov.au)
- In April, more than 60 scientists met in Chicago to discuss the controversial virus and how it works to defeat certain cells' natural defenses against cancer. (sfgate.com)
- Based on dozens of interviews and a review of the medical research, this is the story of how the campaign to eradicate polio may have inadvertently permitted another potentially deadly monkey virus to infect millions of people - and why the government for years discounted the accumulating evidence suggesting that SV40 may be a health risk for humans. (sfgate.com)
- The original Salk and Sabin polio vaccines used monkey tissue to grow virus. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Two virus isolates were retrieved by virus culture of 55 monkey faecal samples. (beds.ac.uk)
- Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda from an infected rhesus macaque monkey [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- This Native Herpes simplex Virus 2 product contains a high concentration of virus particles and components in tissue culture medium contianing a low concentration of bovine serum. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Herpes simplex virus 2, MS strain, cultured in BSC-1, a cell line derived from African Green monkey kidney. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- Herpes simplex virus 2 antigen is collected from both the cell and supernatant phases of tissue culture. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- On the other hand they have cell culture isolated virus. (fieldofscience.com)
- I will consider this cell culture (insect-mammal) virus. (fieldofscience.com)
- The monkeys in the HLS study were not infected with a virus, but were simply being used to investigate toxicity and bio-distribution of the compound - something that could clearly have been assessed using a raft of alternative human based methods (see replacements, p.30) and researching the already available data. (savetheprimates.org)
- ATTENUATE (virus) To reduce the virulence of a virus, achieved by passaging the virus through tissue culture or live animals. (aidsorigins.com)
- Paralytic polio could be dealt with only by preventing the irreversible destruction of the large number of motor nerve cells, and the work on prevention was long delayed by the erroneous conception of the nature of the human disease based on misleading experimental models of the disease in monkeys. (animalliberationfront.com)
- These techniques for culturing cells offer a viable alternative for experimental use. (sciencetrends.com)
- He expects the cell culture model recently developed in his laboratory to be very useful in the examination of the action of vasopressin and its reaction to experimental drug therapies. (ndif.org)
- Conversely, hESCs are more accepted in the scientific community as the production of it can be done at lower cost with much more efficient differentiation and the cells produced are within a suitable HLA spectrum. (walktocurecancer.org)
- This mini review provides an overview of the most recent advances in differentiation of hPSCs into kidney lineages, and the latest implementation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the organoid setting, as promising platforms to study human kidney development and disease. (karger.com)
- however, only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. (wikipedia.org)
- Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
- Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell cultures involve growing cells in a culture dish, often with a supportive growth medium like collagen. (historyofvaccines.org)
- Cells can be easily purified from blood, however only the white cellsare capable of growth in culture. (wikidoc.org)
- For a few days it can become too crowded for their container and this can be detrimental to their growth, generally leading to cell death if left for long time. (microbeonline.com)
- The cells thus have to be subculture i.e. a portion of cells is transferred to a new vessel with fresh growth medium which provides more space and nutrients for continual growth of both portions of cells. (microbeonline.com)
- The process involves removing the growth media and disassociating the adhered cells (usually enzymatically). (microbeonline.com)
- During the passage, cells with the highest growth capacity predominate, resulting in a degree of genotypic and phenotypic uniformity in the population. (microbeonline.com)
- Discard supernatant and resuspend cells in fresh growth medium. (atcc.org)
- A solution of blood clots, agar, and salt provided cultured cells with nutrients that allowed them to survive and grow, which led to it being called growth medium. (sciencetrends.com)
- CANCER Disease caused by a benign or malignant growth resulting from abnormal and uncontrolled division of body cells. (aidsorigins.com)
- The tissue is finely minced and then treated with trypsin to disperse cells then the cells seeded onto a surface to form monolayer, as flask or test tube. (blogspot.com)
- Add 2.0 to 3.0 mL of 0.25% (w/v) Trypsin-0.53mM EDTA solution to flask and observe cells under an inverted microscope until cell layer is dispersed (usually within 5 to 15 minutes). (atcc.org)
- Add 2.0 to 3.0 mL of 0.25% Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor and aspirate cells by gently pipetting. (atcc.org)
- Disclosed are novel proteins, referred to as truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (truncated GDNF) proteins, that promote dopamine uptake by dopaminergic cells and promote the survival of nerve cells. (google.com)
- The tissue from which the line was derived was obtained from the kidney of a healthy adult African green monkey. (fsu.edu)
- The new manufacturing process for flu shots, called cell-line technologies, are little understood and have the potential for serious, long term consequences. (i-sis.org.uk)
- We hypothesized that transplanting a DC kidney scaffold provided by less toxic protocol that including treatment with detergents in less time and more wash would allow better regeneration in border line of the nephrectomized area. (journalbe.com)
- The cells can also be obtained by previously made cell line or cell strain. (microbeonline.com)
- A passage number refers specifically to how many times a cell line has been sub-cultured. (microbeonline.com)
- When a primary culture is sub-cultured, it is known as secondary culture or cell line or sub-clone. (microbeonline.com)
- This is a cell line with the hypodiploid chromosome count. (atcc.org)
- An immortal cell line is a population of cells which, due to mutations, can evade the normal aging process. (sciencetrends.com)
- Cell line derived from primary culture has limited lifespan. (microbeonline.com)
- Following serial sub-culture of primary cells, cells that continue to grow are subjected to genetic reorganization and adapt to the new synthetic environment and proliferate serially, generating an immortalization event that results in a Continuous Cell Line over several passages or definitely immortal cells. (actip.org)
- 7. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the cell extract is prepared from a cell or a tissue selected from the group consisting of: a primary cell, a cultured cell, a cell line, an engineered tissue, and a primary tissue. (google.es)
- Drs. David Prentice and Tara Sander Lee debunk misinformation about the Trump Administration's decision to halt funding of fetal tissue research. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- There has been a lot of misinformation published about the Trump Administration's decision to halt funding for experiments involving fetal tissue research . (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- We need research using fetal tissue to find new treatment for HIV. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Fetal tissue is not needed to develop drugs for HIV. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- Humanized mice generated with fetal tissue are more technically difficult, costly, time consuming, and not as efficient as the other models. (caffeinatedthoughts.com)
- After all, for 60 years it had been known that human cells were immortal, capable of dividing forever if they were cultivated in the right medium under the right conditions. (nautil.us)
- But at the time, the scientific community deemed Hayflick's discoveries-that normal cells are mortal, that they have memory and an internal counting mechanism, that cancer cells are uniquely immortal-preposterous. (nautil.us)
- The invention relates to humanized anti-human Factor D monoclonal antibodies, their nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, the cells and vectors that harbor these antibodies and their use in the preparation of compositions and medicaments for treatment of diseases and disorders associated with excessive or uncontrolled complement activation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. (wikipedia.org)
- After graduating with a bachelor's degree in that subject area I went to work for about a year and then returned to Penn to get my master's and Ph.D. My boss, one of the professors, had just returned from the first course in the United States on cell culture, that is, the technology for growing both human, animal and plant cells in laboratory glassware or (now) plastic-ware. (nautil.us)