A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Serine-threonine protein kinases that relay signals from CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and are involved in control of CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; and APOPTOSIS.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An endogenous GAMMARETROVIRUS from the germ line of mice but isolated from humans. It has close similarity to xenotropic MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (1/1467)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Inhibition of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat-driven transcription by in vitro methylation: different sensitivity in permissive chicken cells versus mammalian cells. (2/1467)

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) enhancer sequences in the long terminal repeat (LTR) have previously been shown to be sensitive to CpG methylation. We report further that the high density methylation of the RSV LTR-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter is needed for full transcriptional inhibition in chicken embryo fibroblasts and for suppression of tumorigenicity of the RSV proviral DNA in chickens. In nonpermissive mammalian cells, however, the low density methylation is sufficient for full inhibition. The time course of inhibition differs strikingly in avian and mammalian cells: although immediately inhibited in mammalian cells, the methylated RSV LTR-driven reporter is fully inhibited with a significant delay after transfection in avian cells. Moreover, transcriptional inhibition can be overridden by transfection with a high dose of the methylated reporter plasmid in chicken cells but not in hamster cells. The LTR, v-src, LTR proviral DNA is easily capable of inducing sarcomas in chickens but not in hamsters. In contrast, Moloney murine leukemia virus LTR-driven v-src induces sarcomas in hamsters with high incidence. Therefore, the repression of integrated RSV proviruses in rodent cells is directed against the LTR.  (+info)

Gene transfer of cytokine inhibitors into human synovial fibroblasts in the SCID mouse model. (3/1467)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of retrovirus-based gene delivery of inhibitory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors into human synovial fibroblasts in the SCID mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The MFG vector was used for gene delivery of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor (TNFalphaR) p55, viral interleukin-10 (IL-10), and murine IL-10 into RA synovial fibroblasts. The effect on invasion of these cells into human articular cartilage and on perichondrocytic cartilage degradation was examined after 60 days of coimplantation into the SCID mouse. RESULTS: TNFalphaR p55 gene transfer showed only a limited effect on inhibition of RA synovial fibroblast invasiveness and cartilage degradation. In contrast, invasion of the RA synovial fibroblasts into the coimplanted cartilage was strongly inhibited by both viral and murine IL-10. Perichondrocytic cartilage degradation was not affected by either form of IL-10. CONCLUSION: The data show that cytokines can be successfully inserted into the genome of human RA synovial fibroblasts using a retroviral vector delivery system, and that the SCID mouse model of human RA is a valuable tool for examining the effects of gene transfer. In addition, inhibition of more than one cytokine pathway may be required to inhibit both synovial- and chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction in RA.  (+info)

Development of viral vectors for gene therapy of beta-chain hemoglobinopathies: optimization of a gamma-globin gene expression cassette. (4/1467)

Progress toward gene therapy of beta-chain hemoglobinopathies has been limited in part by poor expression of globin genes in virus vectors. To derive an optimal expression cassette, we systematically analyzed the sequence requirements and relative strengths of the Agamma- and beta-globin promoters, the activities of various erythroid-specific enhancers, and the importance of flanking and intronic sequences. Expression was analyzed by RNase protection after stable plasmid transfection of the murine erythroleukemia cell line, MEL585. Promoter truncation studies showed that the Agamma-globin promoter could be deleted to -159 without affecting expression, while deleting the beta-globin promoter to -127 actually increased expression compared with longer fragments. Expression from the optimal beta-globin gene promoter was consistently higher than that from the optimal Agamma-globin promoter, regardless of the enhancer used. Enhancers tested included a 2.5-kb composite of the beta-globin locus control region (termed a muLCR), a combination of the HS2 and HS3 core elements of the LCR, and the HS-40 core element of the alpha-globin locus. All three enhancers increased expression from the beta-globin gene to roughly the same extent, while the HS-40 element was notably less effective with the Agamma-globin gene. However, the HS-40 element was able to efficiently enhance expression of a Agamma-globin gene linked to the beta-globin promoter. Inclusion of extended 3' sequences from either the beta-globin or the Agamma-globin genes had no significant effect on expression. A 714-bp internal deletion of Agamma-globin intron 2 unexpectedly increased expression more than twofold. With the combination of a -127 beta-globin promoter, an Agamma-globin gene with the internal deletion of intron 2, and a single copy of the HS-40 enhancer, gamma-globin expression averaged 166% of murine alpha-globin mRNA per copy in six pools and 105% in nine clones. When placed in a retrovirus vector, this cassette was also expressed at high levels in MEL585 cells (averaging 75% of murine alpha-globin mRNA per copy) without reducing virus titers. However, recombined provirus or aberrant splicing was observed in 5 of 12 clones, indicating a significant degree of genetic instability. Taken together, these data demonstrate the development of an optimal expression cassette for gamma-globin capable of efficient expression in a retrovirus vector and form the basis for further refinement of vectors containing this cassette.  (+info)

One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. (5/1467)

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (6/1467)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Transplantation of transduced nonhuman primate CD34+ cells using a gibbon ape leukemia virus vector: restricted expression of the gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor to a subset of CD34+ cells. (7/1467)

The transduction efficiencies of immunoselected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) CD34+ cells and colony-forming progenitor cells based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were comparable for an amphotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) retroviral vector and a retroviral vector derived from the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) packaging cell line, PG13. On performing autologous transplantation studies using immunoselected CD34+ cells transduced with the GaLV envelope (env) retroviral vector, less than 1% of peripheral blood (PB) contained provirus. This was true whether bone marrow (BM) or cytokine-mobilized PB immunoselected CD34+ cells were reinfused. This level of marking was evident in two animals whose platelet counts never fell below 50,000/microliter and whose leukocyte counts had recovered by days 8 and 10 after having received 1.7 x 10(7) or greater of cytokine-mobilized CD34+ PB cells/kg. Reverse transcriptase(RT)-PCR analysis of CD34+ subsets for both the GaLV and amphotropic receptor were performed. The expression of the GaLV receptor was determined to be restricted to CD34+ Thy-1+ cells, and both CD34+ CD38+ and CD34+ CD38dim cells, while the amphotropic receptor was present on all CD34+ cell subsets examined. Our findings suggest that, in rhesus macaques, PG13-derived retroviral vectors may only be able to transduce a subset of CD34+ cells as only CD34+ Thy-1+ cells express the GaLV receptor.  (+info)

Retrovirus integration site Mintb encoding the mouse homolog of hnRNP U. (8/1467)

Retroviral genes are not usually expressed in mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, but they are readily expressed upon differentiation of these cells. We previously reported the isolation of EC cell lines that express a neomycin resistance (neo) gene introduced by a recombinant transducing Moloney murine leukemia virus from specific integration sites, Minta, Mintb, Mintc, or Mintd. In some of these clones, the entire 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) was deleted, and the neo gene was expressed by read-through transcription from upstream cellular promoters in a "promoter-trap" fashion. One such promoter ("promoter B" at the Mintb locus) was found in a CpG island, associated with an upstream enhancer ("enhancer B"). Although enhancer B caused expression of the neo gene in the transductant EC cell line, no endogenous transcription from promoter B was detected in the parental EC or NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, we found a strong counter-flow endogenous transcription unit ("R" for reverse), which apparently interfered with transcription from promoter B. Promoter R turned out to have a bidirectional activity in transfection assays. In normal tissues, promoter R activates gene R, which encodes an 800-residue protein that is highly homologous to the rat and human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U). Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that gene R was abundantly expressed in the testis, especially in the pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids.  (+info)

We previously described an enhancer variant of Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV), ΔMo + SV M-MuLV, in which the enhancers of MuLV have been deleted and replaced with the enhancers of the simian virus 40 (SV40). When this virus is injected into neonatal NIH Swiss mice, pre-B and B-lymphoblastic lymphomas develop with a latency of 17 months. Van Lohuizen et al. (1989) described a line of transgenic mice that carry an activated pim-1 proto-oncogene transgene (Eµ pim-1). They also reported that Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice show greatly accelerated lymphoma development when infected with wild-type M-MuLV at birth. In these experiments, neonatal Eµ pim-1 transgenic mice were infected intraperitoneally with ΔMo + SV M-MuLV. Marked acceleration of T-lymphoid leukaemia was seen. However, 10 of the 11 tumours analysed were found to be negative for the SV40 enhancers, but they still contained M-MuLV DNA as measured by Southern blot analysis. The LTRs on viruses cloned from two such tumours (as well as on
Moloney Murine Leukaemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
Retrovirus entry into cells is mediated by specific interactions between the retrovirally encoded Env envelope glycoprotein and a host cell surface receptor. Though a number of peptide motifs responsible for the structure as well as for the binding and fusion activities of Env have been identified, only a few quantitative data concerning the infection process are available. Using an inducible expression system, we have expressed various amounts of ecotropic and amphotropic Env at the surfaces of Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived vectors and assayed for the infectivity of viral particles. Contrary to the current view that numerous noncooperative Env-viral receptor interactions are required for cell infection, we report here that very small amounts of Env are sufficient for optimal infection. However, increasing Env density clearly accelerates the rate at which infectious attachment to cells occurs. Moreover, our data also show that a surprisingly small number of Env molecules are sufficient ...
The invention concerns the use of a nucleotide sequence derived from all or part of the genomic RNA 5′ end of a type C retrovirus except for Friend murine leukaemia virus (FMLV) and Moloney murine leukaemia virus (MoMLV) as internal ribosome entry site or as element enabling or improving retrovirus vector packaging. The invention also concerns a vector comprising said nucleotide sequence, a viral particle generated from this vector, a cell comprising this vector or infected by the viral particle, their therapeutic use and a pharmaceutical composition containing them. The invention further concerns the use of a vector, a viral particle or a pharmaceutical composition for transfecting or infecting pluripotent stem cells.
B-cells of the high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma Burkitts lymphoma (BL) overexpress survival oncoproteins, including the proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemia virus kinase (Pim)-1, and become apoptosis resistant. Activated death receptor CD95 after ligation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibody (mAb) resulted in the regression of BL via induction of apoptosis, suggesting a decrease of survival protein expression. Here, CD95-mediated apoptotic pathways in BL B-cell lines (Raji and Daudi) following treatment with anti-CD95 mAb was investigated with the cause-and-effects on pim-1 gene expression, in comparison with leukemic cell line (K562) used as CD95-negative cells. Immunohistochemical staining for CD95 and Pim-1 was performed, and the effects of anti-CD95 mAb on apoptotic signalling using western blotting, on caspase activity and cell survival of BL B-cell and leukemic cell lines were determined. We showed that Raji cells expressed more CD95 receptors than Daudi cells. Half of each ...
The ZAP Express cDNA library was constructed using mRNA extracted from the triactinomyxon spores. First-strand cDNA was synthesized using Moloney Murine leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase. Following second-strand cDNA synthesis, the double-stranded cDNA was digested with Xho I restriction enzyme, cDNA fragments less than 400bp were removed and the remaining cDNA was ligated with the lambda ZAP Express vector. The recombinants were packaged in vitro using Gigapack III gold packaging extract. The primary cDNA library titre contained 0.5 X 106 clones, with 97% recombinant and only 3% non-recombinant clones. The cDNA library was then screened using the anti-triactinomyxon antibodies. Positive clones were selected and re-screened twice more to give a final selection of 526 clones. One clone (46-5) was selected randomly and subjected to in vivo excision of the pBK-CMV phagemid from the ZAP express vector. The sequence of the entire clone was obtained using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. A ...
Here we have studied how an early activation step of Mo-MLV Env proceeds in its three protomeric units: simultaneously in all of them or sequentially in one after the other. We followed the isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide and the subsequent SU release in Env that was triggered in vitro by Ca2+ depletion or in vivo by the receptor on rat XC cells. Our results suggested a sequential activation of the protomers according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3. Thus, in this reaction, the protomers of Env release their SU one after the other, forming asymmetric oligomer intermediates (I-1 and I-2). In contrast, the TM subunits of the isomerized protomers stay noncovalently associated with the partially activated Env. At present, we cannot conclude what controls the sequential protomer activation. One possibility is that it is controlled through sequential receptor interactions. However, a single receptor-protomer interaction might also be sufficient. According to ...
The Moloney leukemia virus integration 2 (MLVI2) locus represents a common region for proviral integration and a putative oncogene involved in the induction of thymic lymphomas in rodents. The human homolog of the MLVI2 locus has been cloned and studies have been intiated to determine its possible role in the induction and progression of human neoplasms. In this study we used a panel of human × rodent somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes to map MLVI2 to the short arm of the human chromosome 5, band p14.
In a previous study, we showed that MMLV-RT has a strong terminal transferase activity, and that the C-, G-, and T-tailing activities are enhanced by dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP, respectively. In this study, to achieve faster reaction and higher tailing efficiency, we screened other compounds for the ability to enhance the tailing activities of MMLV-RT, and determined the corresponding optimal concentrations. The C-, G-, and T-tailing activities were enhanced by guanine, cytosine, and adenine, respectively, and by derivatives thereof, suggesting a transient Watson-Click base pairing between an enhancer molecule and the nucleotide to be incorporated. In the presence of some additives (GMP and GDP for C-tailing and CMP for G-tailing), the tail length increased continuously, resulting in tail lengths of 7 to 15 (GMP and GDP) or 13 to 22 (CMP) nucleotides. Among the compounds that do not induce continuous addition, adenosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyguanosine mostly enhanced T-, G-, and C-tailings, ...
1A6B: NMR structure of the complex between the zinc finger protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus and the single-stranded pentanucleotide d(ACGCC): comparison with HIV-NCp7 complexes.
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The scanning electron microscope was used to study the budding process of the wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus and one of its temperature-sensitive mutants, designated ts 3. A considerably larger number of budding particles was observed on TB cells infected with ts 3 at the nonpermissive temperature (39 C) than at the permissive temperature (34 C). No apparent difference was noted between the number of particles on ts 3-infected cells at (34 C) and wild-type-infected cells at 34 or 39 C. Virions were detected at the cell membrane of ts 3-infected cells at 39 C as early as 8 h postinfection. Virion density increased progressively up to 48 h after which no increase was observed. An average of 1,600 virus particles was observed at the cell surface at the peak of virus production. The distribution of these on the cell membrane appeared to be random. The maximum proportion of the cell surface occupied by the viral particles did not exceed 10%. After temperature shift from 39 to 34 C, ...
Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Human, Infection, Somatostatin, Virus, Binding Site, Gene, Leukemia, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Mouse, Murine Leukemia Virus, Somatostatin Receptors, Stomatitis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Cell, Cell Lines, Cholesterol, Complement, Cytoplasm
1NND: Structural and energetic characterization of nucleic acid-binding to the fingers domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase
BOSC 23 is a human kidney cell line developed by Warren Pear in David Baltimores lab and is derived from the 293T cell line. The main use of BOSC 23 is the production of recombinant retroviruses; it stably expresses Moloney murine leukemia virus proteins and when transiently transfected with recombinant retroviral vector DNA will produce high titers of infectious retroviral particles. The cell line does not produce detectable replication-competent virus, an important safety feature. BOSC 23 carries neomycin/G418 resistance derived from its parental line 293T, and also hygromycin and mycophenolic acid (gpt) resistance. It should be maintained under gpt selection. This cell line is a model for cancer research which doesnt express activated Src protein. http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-December/086646.html Pear WS, Nolan GP, Scott ML, Baltimore D (15 Sep 1993). Production of high-titer helper-free retroviruses by transient transfection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 (18): 8392-8396. ...
Total RNA was extracted from the liver tissue using Trizol (Life Technologies, USA) according to the manufacturers protocol. To synthesize single-strand cDNA, reverse transcription of 2 μg total RNA was carried out using 200 U Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (M-MLV RT) and reaction mixture (2.5 mmol/L dNTP, 100 pmol/L oligo(dT) primer, RT buffer, 50 U RNA inhibitor) according to the manufacturers protocol. Transcripts of the gene for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were used as an internal control. Sequences of the PCR primers were as follows: CuZn-SOD forward 5-AAG GCC GTG TGC GTG CTG AA-3, reverse 5-CAG GTC TCC AAC ATG CCT CT-3 (246 bp product) (El Mouatassim et al., 1999); CAT forward 5-GCA GAT ACC TGT GAA CTG TC-3, reverse 5-GTA GAA TGT CCG CAC CTG AG-3 (229 bp product) (El Mouatassim et al., 1999); and, GAPDH forward 5-GAC CCC TTC ATT GAC CTC AAC T-3, Reverse 5-GTT TGT GAT GGG TGT GAA CCA-3 (200 bp product) (Hougardy et al., 2005). The PCR ...
Virions of Moloney murine leukemia virus can synthesize two classes of DNA molecules complementary to their 70S RNA. One class consists of molecules about 200 nucleotides long, which are of limited sequence complexity; these molecules are formed preferentially if the dNTP concentration during the reaction is low. The second class consists of very heterogeneous DNA molecules with weight-average size of about 1,000 nucleotides containing at least 70% of the viral RNA sequences in approximately equal concentration. The longest of these molecules can be 5,000 nucleotides long. This second class of DNA is formed in large amounts only in reactions containing dNTP concentrations of 0.2 mM or higher. In such reactions after 24 h of incubation, at least 35% of the input RNA is represented in DNA copies. The ability to make long, representative DNA transcripts of tumor virus RNA provides a source of excellent probes for molecular hybridization. ...
Our laboratory is interested in the replication of mammalian retroviruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). The major approach has been to alter cloned DNA copies of the viral genome by site-directed mutagenesis, and to determine the effects of these mutations on the viral life cycle after transfer of the altered DNAs into cells in culture. These genetic analyses have defined the functional domains of various viral proteins and the sites of their action on viral nucleic acids. We have also expressed reverse transcriptase and integrase in bacteria and studied these enzymes biochemically. We have applied the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. We are also screening overexpression cDNA libraries, and RNAi knock-down libraries, in mammalian cells to identify novel host proteins involved in retroviral ...
The central effort of our laboratory for several years has been a detailed genetic analysis of the replication cycle of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The major approach has been to create mutations in cloned DNA copies of the viral genomes and to determine the effect of the mutations on the viral life cycle after transfer of the altered DNAs into cells in culture. These genetic analyses have defined the functional domains of various viral proteins and the sites of their action on viral nucleic acids. We have also expressed reverse transcriptase and integrase in bacteria and studied these enzymes biochemically. We make use of the yeast two-hybrid system to monitor protein-protein interactions between viral proteins, and to identify new host proteins that interact with the Gag, Pol and Env gene products. Finally, we use genetic selections in mammalian cells to screen overexpression libraries and gene knock-down libraries to identify ...
The amplification of RNA requires the conversion of the RNA substrate into DNA. This is achieved through the use of a reverse transcriptase such as AMV RT (avian myeloblastis virus reverse transcriptase) or M-MuLV RT (moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase). The resulting cDNA can be used as a template for a standard PCR. Nested PCR means that two pairs of PCR primers were used for a single locus. The first pair generates an amplicon within the locus as seen in any PCR experiment. The second pair of primers (nested primers) bind within the first amplicon and produce a second PCR product that will be shorter than the first one. The logic behind this strategy is that if the wrong locus were amplified by mistake, the probability is very low that it would also be amplified a second time by a second pair of primers. ...
Differential display. Total RNA was isolated from P1 and P14 rat retina, and the differential display was performed as described previously (Imaizumi et al., 1994). Briefly, total RNA (3 μg) was converted to cDNA with Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD). Subsequently, each pool of cDNA was amplified by PCR with 200 different arbitrary primers. After separation by 5% PAGE, cDNA bands that were amplified abundantly only from the cDNA derived from the P14 retina were recovered from the gel, reamplified with the corresponding primer, and cloned into the pGEM-T vector (Promega, Madison, WI).. cDNA library screening. A rat retina cDNA library constructed in the Uni-ZAP XR vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) was screened using the cDNA fragment obtained from the differential display as a probe by the standard methods. To obtain the sequence of human homolog of Pal, a human retina cDNA library (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) was screened using the rat cDNA ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1d1u.1. USE OF AN N-TERMINAL FRAGMENT FROM MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE TO FACILITATE CRYSTALLIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF A PSEUDO-16-MER DNA MOLECULE CONTAINING G-A MISPAIRS
Definition of Moloney test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Moloney test? Meaning of Moloney test as a legal term. What does Moloney test mean in law?
The mechanism by which spleen cells from mice bearing established Moloney leukemia suppress the in vitro anti-SRBC PFC response and the mitogen-induced proliferative response was investigated. Suppression of the PFC response was clearly evident when leukemic spleen cells (SMuLV) were mixed with normal responder spleen cells (SN) at a ratio of 1:10. The suppressor cells were most effective when added to the responders during the first 24 to 48 hr of culture. Similarly, suppression was seen when responders were treated with homogenate fractions prepared from SMuLV. No suppression of the PFC response was demonstrated when responder cells were mixed with supernatants harvested from cultures of SMuLV. In contrast, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine by mitogen-stimulated B and T cells was inhibited by supernatants collected from cultures of both SN and SMuLV, however, this suppressive effect was abrogated after dialysis of the supernatants. In addition, responder cells were unaffected when separated ...
Floersheim, G L., Treatment of moloney lymphoma with lethal doses of dimethyl-myleran combined with injections of haemopoietic cells. (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 74 ...
Summary Retroviral packaging cell lines were constructed by using the gag-pol gene of spleen necrosis virus, the gag-pol gene of Moloney murine leukaemia virus and the env gene of bovine leukaemia virus. The plasmids containing the gag-pol genes and the plasmid containing the env gene were cotransfected into NIH/3T3 and D17 cells. The cells containing the helper virus constructs were tested for their ability to package replication-defective murine leukaemia and avian reticuloendotheliosis retrovirus vectors. The titre of vector virus produced by each of the retroviral packaging cell lines was about 102 colony-forming units per ml of medium. Tests for events that might result in intact replication-competent retroviruses showed no evidence for the generation of such viruses. The vector viruses were able to infect dog and rat cells. Bovine cells were infected only after their cocultivation with the retroviral packaging cell lines producing murine leukaemia virus vectors, perhaps as a result of a low
We have previously shown that the delta E3 site is an essential element for transcriptional activation by the human T-cell receptor (TCR) delta enhancer and identified two factors, NF-delta E3A and NF-delta E3C, that bound to overlapping core (TGTGGTTT) and E-box motifs within delta E3. In this study, we show that protein binding to the core motif is necessary but not sufficient for transcriptional activation by the delta E3 element. In contrast, protein binding to the E-box motif does not contribute significantly to enhancer activity. A similar core motif present within the enhancers of T-cell-tropic murine retroviruses has been shown to contribute to transcriptional activity of the viral long terminal repeat in T lymphocytes and to viral T-cell tropism. We therefore determined the relationship between the nuclear factors that bind to the TCR delta and Moloney murine leukemia virus core motifs. On the basis of electrophoretic mobility shift binding and competition studies, biochemical analysis ...
Jolicoeur, P, The fv-1 gene of the mouse and its control of murine leukemia virus replication. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3183 ...
Poly(adenylic acid), poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid), and poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) moderately inhibit the synthesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus in cultured JLS-V9 cells. Moreover, they are potent inhibitors of spleen focus formation by Friend murine leukemia virus in mice. Both in cell cultures and in the animal system, the order of inhibitory potency observed is poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) , poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid) , poly(adenylic acid). This order is identical with the one we have noted for inhibition of the RNA-directed DNA polymerases of these two viruses. While the molecular basis of inhibition of viral replication is not yet known, our results are compatible with the notion that RNA-directed DNA polymerase may he a drug target in vivo.. ...
Polycomb complex protein BMI-1 also known as polycomb group RING finger protein 4 (PCGF4) or RING finger protein 51 (RNF51) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMI1 gene (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). BMI1 is a polycomb ring finger oncogene. BMI1 (B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog) has been reported as an oncogene by regulating p16 and p19, which are cell cycle inhibitor genes. Bmi1 knockout in mice results in defects in hematopoiesis, skeletal patterning, neurological functions, and development of the cerebellum. Recently it has been reported BMI1 is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage and it sustains for over than 8h. Loss of BMI1 leads to radiation sensitive and impaired repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. Bmi1 is necessary for efficient self-renewing cell divisions of adult hematopoietic stem cells as well as adult peripheral and central nervous system neural stem cells. However, it is less important ...
Traditional retroviral vectors are based on the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV). These vectors are useful for integrating genetic material into the host cell genome. However, retroviral titer tends to be significantly lower than adenoviral titer, and this can lead to a lower efficiency of gene transfer to the host cell. Our retroviral expression reagents include exclusive technologies that can increase the success rate of your retrovirus expression studies. These technologies include highly efficient retroviral packaging cell lines, a rapid retroviral quantitation kit, and a reagent kit that can significantly increase the transduction rate of your retroviral vector into a variety of cell types.
Pim (Provirus Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus) kinases are a family of three serine/threonine kinases involved in cell cycle, survival and metabolism. These kinases were first identified in malignant cells and are most often associated with their role in cancer. Their role in immunity and lymphocytes is less well known. To date, it has been shown that Pim 1 and/or Pim 2 are important for T lymphocyte survival and activation when the Akt signaling pathway is inhibited by rapamycin. In addition, our laboratory has shown that Pim 2 is critical for BLyS-mediated naive B lymphocyte survival in the presence of rapamycin. This thesis extends the role(s) for Pim 1 and/or 2 to include functions during B cell activation and the generation of immune responses. We found that during in vitro activation of purified resting splenic B cells from wild type mice with a variety of activators that use multiple signaling pathways, including the BCR, TLR and CD40 receptors, both Pim 1 and 2 kinases were
A protein engineered by researchers at KU Leuven that combines proteins active in HIV and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) replication may lead to safer, more effective retroviral gene therapy. KU Leuven is located in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium. Gene therapy involves inserting healthy genetic material into a diseased cell. Using a carrier derived from a retrovirus, the genetic material is smuggled into a human cell where, once inside, it integrates itself into the cells DNA. But gene therapy is not without risks. If integrated too near a carcinogenic gene, the newly introduced genetic material can also induce disease-causing mutations. In gene therapy, the delivery vehicle is not the retrovirus itself, but a viral vector: a derivative form of the retrovirus that retains its proteins but not its nucleic acid. One of the most widely used viral vectors is derived from MLV. But this particular virus-borne carrier is both a weapon and a risk. It can cure disease but, if ...
Inefficient gene delivery continues to be a primary hurdle facing gene therapy. Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. Remarkably, a single mutation in the protease (PR), G119E, in the MLV gag-pro-pol is responsible for the enhanced stability. Thus, the variant MLV exhibits increased stability with various wild type envelope proteins, including amphotropic, ecotropic, 10A1, and VSV-G. Lastly, saturation mutagenesis at the site of the beneficial mutation identified MLV mutants with infectivity half-lives of ∼24 h at 37°C, nearly a ...
PIM kinases are frequently overexpressed in various hematologic and solid tumors, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and promoting tumor growth.2 In inflammatory disorders, PIM-1 kinase has been shown to mediate interleukin-22 signaling in cell-based and animal models. TP-3654 is an investigational agent and is not approved by the US FDA or any other regulatory authorities.. PIM=proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
Pim kinases are a small family of serine/threonine kinases regulating several signaling pathways that are fundamental to cancer development and progression. They were first recognized as pro-viral integration sites for the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus. Pim kinases possess a hinge region which creates a unique binding pocket for ATP. Absence of a regulatory domain means that these proteins are constitutively active once transcribed. Pim kinases are critical downstream effectors of the ABL (ableson), JAK2 (janus kinase 2), and Flt-3 (FMS related tyrosine kinase 1) oncogenes and are required by them to drive tumorigenesis. Recent investigations have established that the Pim kinases function as effective inhibitors of apoptosis and when overexpressed, produce resistance to the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, rapamycin . Overexpression of the PIM kinases has been reported in several hematological and solid tumors (PIM 1), myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia (PIM 2) and adenocarcinomas (PIM ...
Total RNA was extracted from cells cultured in the monophasic solution of phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate (TRIzol reagent; Life Technologies-GibcoBRL, Milan, Italy). Briefly, the cells were lysed by addition of 1.0 mL of extraction reagent, and total RNA was subsequently isolated according to the manufacturers instructions. Complementary DNA was synthesized from 500 ng total RNA per sample with 50 minutes incubation at 37°C, using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies-Gibco BRL) and oligo (dT) priming. Amplification was performed in a programmable thermal controller (PTC-100; MJ Research Inc., Watertown, MA), with recombinant Taq DNA polymerase (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and the specific primer pairs reported in Table 1 . The parallel amplification of cDNA for the housekeeping enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an internal control. To enable a semiquantitative comparison between samples, serial threefold ...
Complexes of 125I p30, a viral core polypeptide, and rat anti-p30 antibody, preformed in vitro, were injected into the heart of BN rats bearing Moloney sarcomas (MST) and of BN rats bearing an unrelated tumor or unexposed to tumor. Complexes were cleared from the circulation of MST-bearing rats more rapidly than from sera of controls and were almost completely eliminated after 30 hr. There was no relationship between rate of disappearance and size of tumor or levels of circulating complexes. Disappearance rates in rats with progressing and regressing tumors were similar. Uncomplexed labeled p30 was cleared from the circulation of tumor-bearing and control rats with kinetics similar to those of labeled complexes. Complexes were localized in the spleen of tumor-bearing and control rats, but much more in spleens of MST-bearing rats. No other tissues, including tumor, concentrated complexes, nor was there binding to peripheral blood and spleen cells. The data suggest that augmented clearance and ...
TRIM5alpha is a restriction factor that limits infection of human cells by so-called N- but not B- or NB-tropic strains of murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, we performed a mutation-based functional analysis of TRIM5alpha-mediated MLV restriction. Our results reveal that changes at tyrosine(336) of human TRIM5alpha, within the variable region 1 of its C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, can expand its activity to B-MLV and to the NB-tropic Moloney MLV. Conversely, we demonstrate that the escape of MLV from restriction by wild-type or mutant forms of huTRIM5alpha can be achieved through interdependent changes at positions 82, 109, 110, and 117 of the viral capsid. Together, our results support a model in which TRIM5alpha-mediated retroviral restriction results from the direct binding of the antiviral PRYSPRY domain to the viral capsid, and can be prevented by interferences exerted by critical residues on either one of these two partners. Maillard, Pierre; Reynard, Séverine; Serhan, Fatima; Turelli, Priscilla;
Test Name: Phospho-ACC (Ser79). Alternative Name(s): BMS1. Test Description: B-cell specific moloney leukemia virus insertion-site 1 (pACC) is a member of the polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which has been shown to play a critical role in cancer development and recurrence. pACC controls the cell cycle and promotes cell proliferation by suppressing tumor pathways such as p16INK4a, MDM2, and p53.. ...
Test Name: Phospho-ACC (Ser79). Alternative Name(s): BMS1. Test Description: B-cell specific moloney leukemia virus insertion-site 1 (pACC) is a member of the polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which has been shown to play a critical role in cancer development and recurrence. pACC controls the cell cycle and promotes cell proliferation by suppressing tumor pathways such as p16INK4a, MDM2, and p53.. ...
BioAssay record AID 152712 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration which leads to inhibitory effect on the proliferation of murine leukemia (P388) cells.
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Quantitative RT-PCR ReadyMix™ One step RT-qPCR for probe-based methods, MMLV & hot-start Taq; find Sigma-Aldrich-QR0200 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration0.5Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.2ImmunogenAbelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B tumor cellsBackground Informatio...
Severe progressive fatal neurological degeneration occurs in fucosidosis, a storage disease. Bone marrow transplantation into affected dogs has shown that haematopoietic stem cells can provide enzyme producing daughter cells to the central nervous system, altering disease course. This makes canine fucosidosis an ideal large animal model for gene therapy. Fucosidosis affected allogeneic or autologous canine marrow was transduced ex vivo by cocultivation, then transplanted into fucosidosis affected dogs conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation. The vectors were Moloney murine leukaemia virus based. Transduction efficiency was increased with multiple cytokines in short term marrow culture. Despite high levels of transduction, proviral sequence was detected 2 months post transplant in only one dog. Early or total graft failure occurred in all transplants. We believe lack of engraftment could be caused by differentiation or change of repopulating ability of marrow cells occurring with multiple ...
Another member of the genera retroviridae commonly studied in gene therapy is the amphotropic MLV-based retrovirus (Romano et al. 1999; Shinnick et al. 1981; Weiss 1998; Weiss and Wrangham 1999). MLV-based retroviral vectors contain a single-stranded, linear, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 8000 nucle-otides. In some studies in utero, MLV-based retroviral vectors have been pseudo-typed with VSV-G envelope proteins (Tarantal et al. 2001). MLV-based retroviral vectors infect dividing cells and integrate into the host cell genome providing the rationale that MLV-based retroviral vectors could offer permanent gene replacement in utero (Miller et al. 1990). While studies have shown short term expression in canine mucopolysaccharidosis Type I animal models, they have not demonstrated long term gene expression and transgene integration into the germ line (Meertens et al. 2002).. Relatively few retroviral in utero studies transducing muscle tissues have been performed. One study showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid 1-hour transduction of whole bone marrow leads to long-term repopulation of murine recipients with lentivirus-modified hematopoietic stem cells. AU - Kurre, Peter. AU - Anandakumar, P.. AU - Kiem, H. P.. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Efficient gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells by Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vectors benefits from ex vivo culture and cytokine support. Both also increase the risks of apoptosis and differentiation among cells targeted for transduction. In an effort to maximize the retention of stem cell properties in target cells, we developed a transduction protocol with a focus on minimizing graft manipulation, cytokine stimulation, and ex vivo exposure duration. Based on their wide host range and ability to transduce quiescent cells, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived lentivirus vectors are ideally suited for this purpose. Our present studies in a murine model show that whole bone marrow cells are readily transduced ...
Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. MLV vectors, whereby the last two are transcriptionally restricted to liver- and -catenin/T-cell factor-deregulated cells, respectively. When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. Fusion from the heterologous promoters missing the TATA container towards the MLV TATA container, however, generated vectors which replicated with almost-wild-type kinetics throughout permissive cells while exhibiting negligible or low spread in nonpermissive cells. The genomic balance from the vectors was been shown to be much like that of an identical vector filled ...
Background:. Pim-1 (Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1) belongs to the Ser/Thr kinase family and plays a pivotal role in occurrence and development of oncogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that Pim-1 phosphorylates RUNX3 and alters its subcellular localization. As a highly malignant tumor, salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) accounts for approximately 10% of all epithelial salivary tumors and the 5-year survival rate of patients with highly metastatic ACC is less than 20%. However, few studies have concerned the implications of Pim-1 in the salivary ACC.. Aim:. In this study, we aimed to clarify the function of Pim-1 in ACC cell lines in vitro. Meanwhile, we measure the levels of Pim-1 and RUNX3 in the ACC tissues. The correlations between Pim-1/RUNX3 levels and clinical parameters were also analyzed. Methods:. SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells were transfected with the Pim-1 siRNA. Pim-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured using real-time PCR and immnuoblot, ...
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
Tumor antigens on the cell surface of thymic lymphoma cells from chemical- and virus-induced lymphomas of C57BL mice and virus-induced tumors of Wistar-Furth rats have been studied with the use of immunofluorescence on viable cells with rat, rabbit, and monkey antisera. In young mice given intrathymic injections of a murine leukemia virus, a new cell surface antigen can be detected as early as 2 to 4 days postinjection in some thymuses. Rat antisera to virus-induced rat thymic lymphoma cells gave a precipitin line in Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis when tested with virus isolated from plasma of tumor-bearing rats or from mouse lymphoma extracts. This reaction is due to the group-specific (internal) antigen of the murine leukemia viruses, since ether treatment of the virus preparations was required to obtain it. The results indicate that both radiation and certain chemicals may activate the same leukemia virus, which is endemic in this low leukemia strain.. ...
Performed reverse transcription on the Olympia oyster DNased RNA from the control samples and the 1hr heat shock samples of Jakes project. To accommodate the large numbers of anticipated genes to be targeted in subsequent qPCRs, I prepared 100μL reactions (normally, 25μL reactions are prepared) using 250ng of each DNased RNA. A 1:10 dilution of the oligo dT primers (Promega) was prepared to improve pipetting accuracy. All incubations were performed in a thermal cycler without using a heated lid.. DNased RNA was combined with NanoPure H2O and oligo dT primers in 48 wells of a PCR plate, heated @ 70C for 10mins and immediately placed on ice. After 5mins, the plate was spun 2000g @ RT for 2mins and returned to ice.. 25.25μL of a master mix containing 5x M-MLV Buffer (Promega), dNTPs (10mM each; Promega), and M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase (50U/rxn; Promega) was distributed to each well and mixed via pipetting. The plate was heated @ 42C for 1hr, 95C for 3mins. The plate was spun 2000g @ RT for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein A-coated erythrocyte binding to cell surface antigens. T2 - Application to quantitate retrovirus infectivity in vitro. AU - Fitting, Thomas. AU - Kabat, David. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research was supported by Grant PCM791372 from the National Science Foundation and in part by Grant CA23032 from the U. S. Public Health Service. T.F. was supported by a predoctoral training grant from the U. S. Public Health Service.. PY - 1981/6. Y1 - 1981/6. N2 - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. AB - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, ...
Jolicoeur, Paul and Rassart, Eric and Kozak, Christine et al. (1980) Distribution of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA sequences among mouse chromosomes. Journal of Virology, 33 (3). pp. 1229-1235. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC288660. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:JOLjvir80 ...
RAF1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Authors: Max Cayo, David Yu Greentblatt, Muthusamy Kunnimalaiyaan, Herbert Chen. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
A major assumption in this study was that the IAS Env obtained by Ca2+ depletion in the presence of alkylator corresponds to a structural intermediate in the receptor‐activated Env. Its validity was suggested by several facts. First, Ca2+ depletion facilitates receptor‐mediated fusion of virus with cells, whereas the reaction is reversibly suppressed by high Ca2+ (,1.8 mM) (Wallin et al, 2004). This suggests that removal of Ca2+ mediates receptor‐induced activation as well. Second, receptor activation elicits a pathway of conformational changes that appears identical with that obtained in vitro by Ca2+ depletion. This includes a stage with the exposure of the CXXC thiol and the intersubunit disulphide for external modifications (IAS), the disulphide isomerization reaction and SU dissociation (Wallin et al, 2004; M Sjöberg, unpublished results). Finally, recent analyses by us have shown that Env triggering in vitro or in vivo results in a similarly SDS‐sensitive IAS oligomer in the ...
Latest to join the happiness debate is counselling psychologist Paul Moloney, who argued in yesterdays Guardian that Unhappiness is inevitable. He wants you to feel the psychic pain, not seek to cure it through therapy: Recent months have seen the science and politics of happiness endorsed by commentators of all persuasions. Richard Layard - a consultant to the government - called for a huge increase in the number of publicly funded psychological therapists. These therapists, he suggests, would help to...
A woman in the United States has issued legal proceedings against 2 companies Bayer Corporation and Berlex Laboratories claiming that she has been left p...
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When Silvia and Moloney were in the team most of our team had a poor work rate. Not sure why your mentioning that with those two. And they were hard, they could crash pack When Silvia and Moloney were with us, most of our team had a poor work rate. Not sure why your mentioning that. And they were hard, they could smash through packs and hold tackles. People were loving Buggs work, then as soon as he gets out Buggd we turn on him. Clayton Oliver is great under the packs, but he has a way to go before id start calling him hard. Hes courageous ...
James Ginter, a laboratory chemist, worked with a Friction Assessment Screening Test (FAST) machine, manufactured by the Ford Motor Company to test asbes...
Kiernan, Miranda G.; Sahebally, Shaheel M.; Jarrar, Awad; Burke, J.P.; Hogan, J.; Kiely, Patrick A.; Shen, Bo; Moloney, M.; Skelly, M.; Leddin, Des; Hedayat, H.; Faul, P.N.; Healy, V.; OConnell, Ronan P.; Martin, S.; Shanahan, Fergus; Dunne, Colum P.; Coffey, Calvin J. (Springer, 2016) ...
Walsh, Leon G.; Kiernan, Miranda G.; Sahebally, Shaheel M.; Kiely, Patrick A.; Waldron, David; Moloney, M.; Skelly, M.; HIdayat, H.; Faul, P.N.; OLeary, Peter D.; Lowery, Aoife J.; Dunne, Colum P.; Coffey, Calvin J. (Oxford University Press, 2017) ...
"Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia virus infection". Journal of Virology. 81 (19): 10506-14. doi:10.1128/ ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Moloney murine leukemia virus enzymes prefer to cleave the RNA strand one nucleotide ... "Crystal structure of the moloney murine leukemia virus RNase H domain". Journal of Virology. 80 (17): 8379-89. doi:10.1128/jvi. ... Taylor JM (March 1977). "An analysis of the role of tRNA species as primers for the transcription into DNA of RNA tumor virus ... Leo B, Schweimer K, Rösch P, Hartl MJ, Wöhrl BM (September 2012). "The solution structure of the prototype foamy virus RNase H ...
Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ... Rose, J; Haseltine WA; Baltimore D (1976). "5'-Terminus of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus 35s RNA is m7G5ppp5'GmpCp". Journal of ... Haseltine, WA; Coffin JM; Hageman TC (1979). "Structure of Product of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Endogenous DNA ... "Identification of RNA Primer of DNA Synthesis of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 21 (3): 1031-41. doi: ...
"NMR structure of the 101-nucleotide core encapsidation signal of the Moloney murine leukemia virus". J Mol Biol. 337 (2): 427- ... D'Souza V, Summers MF (2004). "Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus". Nature. ... signal is an RNA element known to be essential for stable dimerisation and efficient genome packaging during virus assembly. ...
"Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases Promote Human T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation". The ... PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, ... "Increased Expression of the hPim-2 Gene In Human Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. ... The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over ...
... such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), feline leukemia virus (FLV), and feline sarcoma virus (FESV). This family also ... "Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix ... Matrix proteins are also components of beta-retroviruses such as Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and mouse mammary tumor virus ... Stansell E, Tytler E, Walter MR, Hunter E (May 2004). "An early stage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus budding is regulated by the ...
PMID: 11390625 Expression of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNase H Rescues the Growth Defect of an Escherichia coli Mutant. ... As a President's Postdoctoral Fellow at UCSF Campbell studied Hepatitis B Virus with William J. Rutter, founder of the Chiron ...
In the first system, a wild-type Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase was fused to the Cas9 H840A ... A fusion protein consisting of a Cas9 H840A nickase fused to a Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase. ... The target organism can then be transduced by the virus to synthesize the base editor in vivo. Common laboratory vectors of ... so proposed human therapies often centered around adeno-associated virus (AAV) because AAV infections are largely asymptomatic ...
M-MLV reverse transcriptase from the Moloney murine leukemia virus is a single 75 kDa monomer. AMV reverse transcriptase from ... murine leukemia virus and again Rous sarcoma virus. For their achievements, they shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or ... Biology portal Viruses portal cDNA library DNA polymerase msDNA Reverse transcribing virus RNA polymerase Telomerase ... ISBN 978-0-87969-382-4. Bernstein A, Weiss R, Tooze J (1985). "RNA tumor viruses". Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses (2nd ed ...
... purified as a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that regulated the disease specificity of the Moloney murine Leukemia virus ... a protein that binds the conserved core site in murine leukemia virus enhancers". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (1): 89-102. doi:10.1128/ ... "Cloning and characterization of subunits of the T-cell receptor and murine leukemia virus enhancer core-binding factor". Mol ... Perry C, Eldor A, Soreq H (March 2002). "Runx1/AML1 in leukemia: disrupted association with diverse protein partners". Leukemia ...
A few examples of the virus are Moloney murine leukemia virus, xenotropic MuLB-related virus, feline leukemia virus, and feline ... Example species are the murine leukemia virus and the feline leukemia virus. They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune ... over 50 human cancer cell lines that were claimed to be linked to murine leukemia virus-related virus or murine leukemia virus ... One specific gammaretrovirus that is commonly used as a retroviral vector is the Moloney murine leukemia virus. A specific ...
The recombinant retroviruses such as the Moloney murine leukemia virus have the ability to integrate into the host genome in a ... This concern remained theoretical until gene therapy for ten SCID-X1 patients using Moloney murine leukemia virus resulted in ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the first virus to be discovered. Viral vectors based on tobacco mosaic virus include those of ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus that infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known to ...
"Oligomerization and transport of the envelope protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus-TB and of ts1, a neurovirulent ... For the virus to penetrate the cytosol of a host cell, a low pH is necessary. The env gene of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) codes ... The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... This membrane receptor was isolated from Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV). The retroviral protein env has been captured ...
The main use of BOSC 23 is the production of recombinant retroviruses; it stably expresses Moloney murine leukemia virus ... The cell line does not produce detectable replication-competent virus, an important safety feature.[citation needed] BOSC 23 ...
... has been seen to demonstrate antiviral activity against a number of viruses including Moloney murine leukemia virus, ... Rauscher murine leukemia virus, and the human immunodeficiency virus. Its effects against the proliferation of viruses is ... Myricetin was identified as a competitive inhibitor of the reverse transcriptase of Rauscher murine leukemia virus and a ... partial competitor with respect to the human immunodeficiency virus. Investigations into the activity of the HIV-1 strain when ...
The M-MLV reverse transcriptase from the Moloney murine leukemia virus is commonly used due to its reduced RNase H activity ... Some viruses also use cDNA to turn their viral RNA into mRNA (viral RNA → cDNA → mRNA). The mRNA is used to make viral proteins ... Here, the host cell membrane becomes attached to the virus' lipid envelope which allows the viral capsid with two copies of ... In cellular life, cDNA is generated by viruses and retrotransposons for integration of RNA into target genomic DNA. In ...
... immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus and to the p12Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus". ... Mazzé FM, Degrève L (2006). "The role of viral and cellular proteins in the budding of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta ... Unanchored ubiquitin in virus uncoating". Science. 346 (6208): 427-8. doi:10.1126/science.1261509. PMID 25342790. S2CID ...
... immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus and to the p12Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus". ... Mazzé FM, Degrève L (2006). "The role of viral and cellular proteins in the budding of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta ... Gottwein E, Kräusslich HG (Jul 2005). "Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag ubiquitination". Journal of Virology ...
B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). BMI1 is a polycomb ring finger oncogene. BMI1 (B lymphoma Mo ... a new murine homolog of the Drosophila polycomb protein is a member of the mouse polycomb transcriptional repressor complex". J ...
The earliest retroviral vectors were based on the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) which when pseudotyped with GaLV ... "The receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine leukemia virus are not downregulated in productively ... "Gibbon ape leukemia virus-Hall's Island: new strain of gibbon ape leukemia virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... J, McKee; N, Clark; F, Shapter; G, Simmons (April 2017). "A New Look at the Origins of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Virus Genes ...
"NMR structure of the 101-nucleotide core encapsidation signal of the Moloney murine leukemia virus". Journal of Molecular ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
A highly efficient helper virus commonly used when growing A-MuLV in vitro is Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). It causes ... Shields A, Rosenberg N, Baltimore D (1979). "Virus production by Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed lymphoid cells". J. ... The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV or A-MuLV) is a retrovirus (Class VI) used to induce malignant transformation of ... The Abelson murine leukemia virus is named for the American pediatrician Herbert T. Abelson, who together with Louise S ...
... moloney murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.750 - radiation leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.770 - rauscher ... leukemia virus, feline MeSH B04.820.650.375.510 - leukemia virus, gibbon ape MeSH B04.820.650.375.525 - leukemia virus, murine ... moloney murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.750 - radiation leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.770 - ... moloney murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.750 - radiation leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.770 - ...
"Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase". Virus Research. 134 (1-2 ... "Insight into the mechanism of the stabilization of moloney murine leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase by eliminating RNase H ... Retroviral RT proteins from HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus are the best-studied members of the family. Retroviral RT is ... Pathogenic examples include human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, respectively. Both encode large multifunctional ...
Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others ... One difficulty faced with some retroviruses, such as the Moloney retrovirus, involves the requirement for cells to be actively ... Also, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) causes disease in humans. The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) cause cancer in mouse ... Some viruses contain additional genes. The lentivirus genus, the spumavirus genus, the HTLV / bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genus ...
Cytotoxic cells with specificity for mouse Moloney leukemia cells. Characteristics of the killer cell". European Journal of ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... For NK cells to defend the body against viruses and other pathogens, they require mechanisms that enable the determination of ...
Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; ... One difficulty faced with some retroviruses, such as the Moloney retrovirus, involves the requirement for cells to be actively ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ...
Cytotoxic cells with specificity for mouse Moloney leukemia cells. Characteristics of the killer cell". European Journal of ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... In mice, the majority of research was carried out with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and in models of hapten-hypersensitivity ... that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells could induce remissions in patients with advanced leukemia. Logistical ...
1980) Cellular origin of the transforming gene of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 44 Pt 2, 727- ... with murine and feline leukemia viruses as helpers. Int J Cancer 9, 383-392 PMID 4339414 ... 1976) Murine sarcoma virus defectiveness: serological detection of only helper virus reverse transcriptase in sarcoma virus ... Monti-Bragadin C, Ulrich K. (1972) Rescue of the genome of the defective murine sarcoma virus from a non-producer hamster tumor ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete genome Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete genome. gi,2801468,gb,AF033811.1, ...
1998) Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein subunits, gp70 and Pr15E, form a stable disulfide-linked complex. J Virol ... 2008) Stabilization of TM trimer interactions during activation of moloney murine leukemia virus Env. J Virol 82(5):2358-2366. ... 2007) The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond ... Sequential activation of the three protomers in the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env. Mathilda Sjöberg, Robin Löving, Birgitta ...
... VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: ... Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) (ATCC® VR-1450™) Classification: Retrovirus, Mammalian Type C ... Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC® VR-1450™ frozen ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF010170 Plasmid pAMS with hybrid amphotropic/Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete sequence. ...
... moloney murine leukemia virus include Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral ... A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants ... Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (Leukemia virus, Murine) arising during the propagation of S37 ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses. Sang-Im Yun1, Byung- ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus isolate Shinnick. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: gag-pol. EC: 2.7.7.49 (PDB Primary Data), 2.7.7.7 ( ... The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from Moloney murine leukemia virus.. Das, D., Georgiadis, M.M.. ( ... We now report the first crystal structure of the full-length Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) RT at 3.0 A resolution. The ... The crystal structure of the monomeric reverse transcriptase from moloney murine leukemia virus. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4MH8/pdb ...
Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain: ... Cytoplasmic Tail of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein Influences the Conformation of the Extracellular Domain: ... Cytoplasmic Tail of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein Influences the Conformation of the Extracellular Domain: ... Cytoplasmic Tail of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein Influences the Conformation of the Extracellular Domain: ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THE N-TERMINAL FRAGMENT FROM MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE COMPLEXED WITH NUCLEIC ... Moloney murine leukemia virus (isolate Shinnick). Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: gag-pol. ... This fragment includes the fingers and palm domains from Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. We have also ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THE N-TERMINAL FRAGMENT FROM MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE COMPLEXED WITH NUCLEIC ...
Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Based Retroviral Vector. Tue, 29 May 2012 , Muscular Dystrophy ...
Clones of cells were isolated from single virus-single cell infections of NIH/3T3 cells with Moloney murine leukemia virus. ... High frequency of aberrant expression of moloney murine leukemia virus in clonal infections ... High frequency of aberrant expression of moloney murine leukemia virus in clonal infections. Cell, 14 (3). pp. 601-609. ISSN ... High frequency of aberrant expression of moloney murine leukemia virus in clonal infections, Cell, Volume 14, Issue 3, July ...
Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 expression in gastric ... Citation: Zhao J, Luo XD, Da CL, Xin Y. Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus ... Zhao J, Luo XD, Da CL, Xin Y. Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site ... Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 expression in gastric ...
Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites.. S Basu, H E Varmus ... Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. ... Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. ... Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. ...
Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is ... Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is ... Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is ... Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is ...
Mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus have been isolated which (i) produce a thermolabile reverse transcriptase, (ii) are ... Isolation and properties of Moloney murine leukemia virus mutants: use of a rapid assay for release of virion reverse ... Isolation and properties of Moloney murine leukemia virus mutants: use of a rapid assay for release of virion reverse ... Isolation and properties of Moloney murine leukemia virus mutants: use of a rapid assay for release of virion reverse ...
Packaging of virus-encoded RNA is selective, with virions virtually devoid of spliced env mRNA and highly enriched for ... Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles contain both viral genomic RNA and an assortment of host cell RNAs. ... Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles contain both viral genomic RNA and an assortment of host cell RNAs. Packaging of ... Nonrandom packaging of host RNAs in moloney murine leukemia virus.. @article{OnafuwaNuga2005NonrandomPO, title={Nonrandom ...
Compounds that enhance the tailing activity of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. by Physicians Weekly , Jul ...
Efficient cell infection by Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived particles requires minimal amounts of envelope glycoprotein. ... Efficient cell infection by Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived particles requires minimal amounts of envelope glycoprotein. ... we have expressed various amounts of ecotropic and amphotropic Env at the surfaces of Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived ... Moloney murine leukemia virus/metabolism/*pathogenicity ...
We found that the wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) reverse transcriptase (RT) was capable of degrading RNA in ... Crystal structure of the moloney murine leukemia virus RNase H domain.. David Lim, G. Glenn Gregorio, +3 authors Stephen P Goff ... Moloney murine leukemia virus decay mediated by retroviral reverse transcriptase degradation of genomic RNA.. Monica Casali, ... We found that the wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) reverse transcriptase (RT) was capable of degrading RNA in ...
Yang F, Seamon JA, Roth MJ: Mutational analysis of the N-terminus of Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase. Virology 2001, ... Yang F, Roth MJ: Assembly and catalysis of concerted two-end integration events by Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase. J ... Donzella GA, Leon O, Roth MJ: Implication of a central cysteine residue and the HHCC domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus ... Acevedo ML, Arbildua JJ, Monasterio O, Toledo H, Leon O: Role of the 207-218 peptide region of Moloney murine leukemia virus ...
Random Primer Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz ... Thermo Fisher moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, ... Thermo Fisher random primer moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Random Primer Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus ... random primer moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Thermo Fisher) Thermo Fisher is a verified supplier ...
murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... Interact with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Enhancer by C V Gunther, B J Graves, Cathy V. Gunthert, Barbara, J. Graves , ... Strand Displacement Synthesis Capability of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase by J. Virol, S H Whiting, J J ...
Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus) reverse transcriptase is a DNA polymerase that uses single-stranded RNA, DNA, or an RNA-DNA ... hybrid (using a primer) to synthesize a complementary DNA strand; M-MLV (Moloney murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase ... Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus enzyme & buffer for cDNA synthesis Synonym: Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase ... M-MLV (Moloney murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase enzyme is isolated from E. coli expressing a portion of the pol ...
Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase. Moloney murine leukemia virus RT is often used for reverse transcription ... The use of cloned Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase to synthesize DNA from RNA. Mol. Biotech. 8, 61-77. ... Kotewicz, M.L. et al. (1988) Isolation of cloned Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase lacking ribonuclease H ... Tanese, N. and Goff, S.P. (1988) Domain structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: Mutational ...
Search Results for Enzyme Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase on Bioz, providing objective ratings for all ... Millipore moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by ... Promega moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase enzyme. Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase Enzyme ... moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase enzyme - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09 90/100 stars ...
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The Role of Core Binding Factor in the Pathogenesis of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in ... The role of core binding factor in the pathogenesis of the Moloney murine leukemia virus. ... The Role of Core Binding Factor in the Pathogenesis of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in ... The role of core binding factor in the pathogenesis of the Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
... and moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) capsid protein major-homology-region peptide analogs by NMR spectroscopy. ... Solution structures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ... Source organism: Moloney murine leukemia virus. Primary publication:. Solution structures of human immunodeficiency virus type ... Source organism: Moloney murine leukemia virus. Expression system: Not provided. UniProt: *Canonical: P03332 (Residues: 352-382 ...
... and of a small fragment of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) TM protein (19) revealed that the central part of all of ... The filovirus, Ebola virus, has been linked to a number of lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever (1, 2). The virus genome is ... The Ebola virus TM ectodomain shares additional structural features with influenza virus HA2, HIV-1 gp41, and MoMuLV TM. ... The distribution of sequence conservation along the length of Gp2 of Ebola virus and Marburg virus (72% sequence similarity) (4 ...
N2 - We have analyzed the roles of RNA structural motifs located in the 5 part of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) ... AB - We have analyzed the roles of RNA structural motifs located in the 5 part of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) ... We have analyzed the roles of RNA structural motifs located in the 5 part of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) ... cis-Active structural motifs involved in specific encapsidation of Moloney murine leukemia virus RNA. In: Journal of virology. ...
Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) (ATCC® VR-1448™) ATCC® Number: VR-1448™ Classification: Retrovirus ...
  • At the time of deposit, cell-free preparations of the Mo/A-MuLV strain were considered as suitable reference standards in assays to detect replication competent murine retrovirus--select lots have had titer confirmed by workers outside the ATCC. (atcc.org)
  • The integration protein (IN) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), purified after being produced in yeast cells, has been analyzed for its ability to bind its putative viral substrates, the att sites. (asm.org)
  • An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the Moloney MuLV IN protein binds synthetic oligonucleotides containing att sequences, with specificity towards its cognate (MuLV) sequences. (asm.org)
  • We found that the wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) reverse transcriptase (RT) was capable of degrading RNA in RNA-RNA duplexes as well as in RNA-DNA hybrids, as assayed by in situ gel techniques. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Splenic T cells from animals that had rejected a Moloney murine sarcoma virus/Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MSV/M-MuLV)-induced tumor were marked with a PET reporter gene, injected into tumor-bearing mice, and imaged in a microPET by using a substrate specific for the reporter. (pnas.org)
  • One hundred percent of BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice challenged with the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (M-MSV)/Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) reject the tumor ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have analyzed the roles of RNA structural motifs located in the 5' part of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) encapsidation domain (Psi region) with regard to their effects on viral replication. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that M-MuLV motifs C and D are necessary for efficient encapsidation, and the presence of at least one of these two stem-loops is crucial to encapsidation and virus replication. (elsevier.com)
  • The CD8(+) T cell response to Moloney-murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV)-induced Ags is almost entirely dominated by the exclusive expansion of lymphocytes that use preferential TCRV beta chain rearrangements. (geoscience.net)
  • After virus immunization, all the potentially M-MuLV-reactive lymphocytes are primed, but only the deletion of dominant V beta rescues the alternative V beta response. (geoscience.net)
  • The 1.0 A crystal structure of the ecotropic Gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) matrix protein reveals the conserved topology of other retroviral matrix proteins, despite undetectable sequence similarity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report the development of an advanced system for transfer and expression of exogenous genes in mammalian cells based on Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo MuLV). (nih.gov)
  • Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV) is a member of the retrovirus family. (scielo.org.za)
  • These various acylated derivatives, as well as the free N -trityl substituted DL-phenylalanyl amino acids, were tested for their effect on the DNA polymerase activity of the Moloney murine leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV RT). (scielo.org.za)
  • Extracts from lymphoid and fibroblast cell lines transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) contain a protein of molecular weight 120,000 (P120). (caltech.edu)
  • In vitro translation of virion RNA from A-MuLV, with Moloney MuLV as helper, yields a product of molecular weight 120,000 with serological reactivity similar to that of the cellular P120. (caltech.edu)
  • These results suggest that the P120 product of the A-MuLV genome may be responsible for maintenance of the transformed phenotype of lymphoid and fibroblast cells transformed by the virus. (caltech.edu)
  • Retrovirus-Based Virus-Like Particle Immunogenicity and Its Modulation by Toll-Like Receptor Activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A composition for use in inactivating a proviral DNA integrated into the genome of a host cell latently infected with a retrovirus including isolated nucleic acid sequences comprising a CRISPR-associated endonuclease and a guide RNA, wherein the guide RNA is complementary to a target sequence in a human immunodeficiency virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an exceptionally deadly retrovirus that has caused more than 20 million deaths over the past two decades. (harvard.edu)
  • As HIV uses reverse transcriptase to copy its genetic material and generate new viruses (part of a retrovirus proliferation circle), specific drugs have been designed to disrupt the process and thereby suppress its growth. (bionity.com)
  • The fibroblast line was originally utilized in research focusing on the transformation of the cancer-causing Rous sarcoma virus ( RSV ), but now is popular as a host for acquired immunodeficiency disease ( AIDS ) research, as well as transfection experiments with simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) and recombinant plasmid vectors. (microscopyu.com)
  • A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Moloney murine sarcoma virus, has been determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we have studied how the protomeric units of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein (Env) are activated in relation to each other, sequentially or simultaneously. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoplasmic tail of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein influences the conformation of the extracellular domain: implications for mechan. (nih.gov)
  • The envelope (Env) protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) is a homotrimeric complex whose monomers consist of linked surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) proteins cleaved from a precursor protein by a cellular protease. (nih.gov)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus integration protein produced in yeast binds specifically to viral att sites. (asm.org)
  • The NTD is essential for 3' processing and strand transfer, however determining its role in the integration process in lentiviruses and oncogenic viruses has been difficult due to the absence of the full-length structure of IN and the complexity of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in the synaptic complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional dissection of the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein gp70. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Modular organization of the Friend murine leukemia virus envelope protein underlies the mechanism of infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A total of 16.5% GP1 cells was also positive for Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein (gp 70). (bvsalud.org)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • 2001. Identification of a high affinity nucleocapsid protein binding element within the Moloney murine leukemia virus Psi-RNA packaging signal: implications for genome recognition. (harvard.edu)
  • Altering Murine Leukemia Virus Integration Through Disruption of the Integrase and BET Protein Family Interaction. (cuny.edu)
  • The assay was further evaluated using cells and mouse brain tissues infected with a recombinant rabies virus expressing the E protein of WNV. (frontiersin.org)
  • The eukaryotic release factor protein family has also been dramatically expanded and suggests an ongoing evolutionary arms race with viruses and transposons. (genetics.org)
  • We now report the first crystal structure of the full-length Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) RT at 3.0 A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • We have previously reported that processive DNA synthesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) is severely compromised by substitution of an Ala for the fingers domain residue Arg 116. (elsevier.com)
  • It is apparent that the murine leukemia virus genome is often mutated by spontaneous processes generating a wide range of phenotypes. (caltech.edu)
  • Packaging of virus-encoded RNA is selective, with virions virtually devoid of spliced env mRNA and highly enriched for unspliced genome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have constructed an expression plasmid containing the portion of the Moloney murine leukemia virus genome encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT). (neb.com)
  • As Type C retroviruses, replicating murine leukemia viruses produce a virion containing a spherical nucleocapsid (the viral genome in complex with viral proteins) surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retroviruses are a diverse family of enveloped RNA viruses that can be broadly categorized into two groups based on genome complexity: the simple retroviruses and the complex retroviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • 2004. Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. (harvard.edu)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of or genome fragment sequencing, genotype specific the family Flaviviridae, placed in a new monotypic amplification of a genomic region or PCR genus Hepacivirus (4, 5). (who.int)
  • Reverse-transcribing RNA viruses , such as retroviruses , use the enzyme to reverse-transcribe their RNA genomes into DNA, which is then integrated into the host genome and replicated along with it. (bionity.com)
  • The viral genome has the coding capacity for the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag gene product and contains large deletions in pol and env genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The viral class I membrane fusion proteins, such as those of the influenza, retro, paramyxo, corona, and Ebola viruses, are typically trimeric transmembrane proteins, where the protomeric unit is composed of a transmembrane subunit (TM) and a peripheral subunit. (pnas.org)
  • Selection of key residues was based on an Env with reduced threshold for fusion, that of the CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolate ROD/B. It was shown here that vectors bearing MoMLV-FBP Env with a V512M substitution had higher titres and faster kinetics of entry than vectors bearing parental targeted Env proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Matrix proteins associated with the viral membrane are important in the formation of the viral particle and in virus maturation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Encrypted proteins are trafficked to the plasma membrane, where they are combined into progeny virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments have shown that it is possible to protect against Friend virus infection with several types of vaccines, including attenuated viruses, viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinguishing them from simple retroviruses, complex retroviruses also encode a number of accessory proteins that carry out additional virus-specific functions. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol, Pro and Env) have the same function regardless of the specific virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Studamire's interaction screens identified a family of proteins that are the first proteins shown to play a role in Moloney murine leukemia virus integration targeting. (cuny.edu)
  • Interactions of Host Proteins With the Murine Leukemia Virus Integrase. (cuny.edu)
  • Host Proteins Interacting With the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Integrase: Multiple Transcriptional Regulators and Chromatin Binding Factors. (cuny.edu)
  • Mutations in the RNase H primer grip domain of murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase decrease efficiency and accuracy of plus-strand DNA transfer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Receptor-binding domain of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Interestingly, the C and D motifs both contain a GACG loop sequence and are highly conserved among murine type C retroviruses. (elsevier.com)
  • The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different strains of mice may have different numbers of endogenous retroviruses, and new viruses may arise as the result of recombination of endogenous sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Retroviruses are associated with a wide range of clinical diseases, including leukemia, tumors, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (harvard.edu)
  • To this end, I am interested in studying the structural determinants of reverse transcription and gene translation in retroviruses like HIV, Human T-cell leukemia virus and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). (harvard.edu)
  • A variety of defective clones were also isolated following infection of rat cells with Moloney virus. (caltech.edu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection and fusion of CD4-negative human cell lines: induction and enhancement by soluble CD4. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Release of virus into the culture medium started 4 hr after infection (pi) and was complete at 10 hr pi. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: The findings of 6.2% prevalence of HCV infection based on HCV RNA test confirmed that there is Hepatitis C virus in Kaduna State with genotype 1b as the predominant genotype found in all the three senatorial zones. (who.int)
  • Enteroviruses, particularly human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs), such as coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs), are implicated as environmental factors, and a recent meta-analysis confirms that there is a clinically significant association between enterovirus infection and autoimmunity/type 1 diabetes ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) infection leads to an acute febrile zoonosis, which can cause disease in birds, humans and horses 1 ( Gubler, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • AF010170 Plasmid pAMS with hybrid amphotropic/Moloney murine leukemia virus, complete sequence. (atcc.org)
  • Using an inducible expression system, we have expressed various amounts of ecotropic and amphotropic Env at the surfaces of Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived vectors and assayed for the infectivity of viral particles. (cnrs.fr)
  • or amphotropic (wild mouse viruses capable of infecting both mouse and heterologous species cells). (psu.edu)
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of our ongoing development of RRV Toca 511 in recurrent high-grade glioma, we performed extensive monitoring of the virus in patient tumors and body fluids, including Toca 511 quantitation, integration site identification, and mutation profile characterization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1963 and hepatitis A in 1973, but many of the blood varies according to the isolate and genotype of the samples taken for post transfusion illness tested virus from 3008 to 3037 amino acids (6). (who.int)
  • Characterization of a continuous lymphocyte cell line derived from BALB/c mice inoculated with a recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus-TB. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neonatal BALB/c mice were inoculated (ip) with a recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus -TB. (bvsalud.org)
  • Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guérin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus causes thymic leukemias when injected into newborn mice. (asm.org)
  • Many research groups have developed targeted vectors for gene therapy based on Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Targeting retroviral vectors to CD34-expressing cells: binding to CD34 does not catalyze virus-cell fusion. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Extensive deletion/mutagenesis analysis to identify cis-acting signals involved in virus transmission has led to the design of a family of novel, highly efficient retroviral vectors and a partner helper-free packaging cell line. (nih.gov)
  • Together, the pBabe vectors and omega E cell line should prove useful in experiments where highest frequencies of gene transfer, or concomitant expression of several different genes within a single cell are required with minimal risk of helper virus contamination. (nih.gov)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped -retroviral vectors: concentration to very high titer and efficient gene transfer into mammalian and nonmammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • 11. Boeckle S., Wagner E. Optimizing targeted gene delivery: chemical modification of viral vectors and synthesis of artificial virus vector systems // AAPS J. 2006. (supotnitskiy.ru)
  • either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guérin or Corynebacterium parvum , or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Photochemotherapy and Graft-versus-Leukemia Reaction in Acute Leukemia: Tumor Immunity and Survival Are Dependent on Timing of Photochemotherapy of the Skin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study shows that induction of tumor-specific CD4 + T cells by vaccination with a specific viral T helper epitope, contained within a synthetic peptide, results in protective immunity against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II negative, virus-induced tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • RRV are selective for tumor cells partially due to virus-selective advantages in the tumor microenvironment from blunted innate immune responses as well as suppressed adaptive immune responses relative to normal dividing cells ( 3-6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • M-MLV (Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus) reverse transcriptase is a DNA polymerase that uses single-stranded RNA, DNA, or an RNA-DNA hybrid (using a primer) to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. (sial.com)
  • With a two-enzyme system consisting of Moloney murine leukemia virus RT and Taq DNA polymerase, we detected 16 CFU/ml. (asm.org)
  • MLVs include both exogenous and endogenous viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes of exogenous and endogenous murine leukemia viruses have been fully sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to obtain detailed structural information about nucleic acid interactions with reverse transcriptase, we have determined crystal structures at 2.3 A resolution of an N-terminal fragment from Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase complexed to blunt-ended DNA in three distinct lattices. (rcsb.org)
  • This fragment includes the fingers and palm domains from Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. (rcsb.org)
  • Isolation and properties of Moloney murine leukemia virus mutants: use of a rapid assay for release of virion reverse transcriptase. (asm.org)
  • Mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus have been isolated which (i) produce a thermolabile reverse transcriptase, (ii) are temperature sensitive for release of enzyme activity, or (iii) can only productively infect cells already producing gag-related polypeptides. (asm.org)
  • Compounds that enhance the tailing activity of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Nuclease activities of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus decay mediated by retroviral reverse transcriptase degradation of genomic RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: structural comparison with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutations of the RNase H C helix of the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase reveal defects in polypurine tract recognition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Random Primer Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • Liver RNA was extracted using TriPure reagent (Roche Applied Science) according to the manufacturer's instructions and cDNA was synthesized using random primer Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). (bioz.com)
  • M-MLV (Moloney murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase enzyme is isolated from E. coli expressing a portion of the pol gene of M-MLV on a plasmid. (sial.com)
  • Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • Increasing amounts (7.5 to 60 ng, quantified by OD, as indicated under the lanes) of total RNA extracted from human monocytes were employed in reverse transcription with Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase for 1 h, followed by PCR in the same tube (100-μl final volume, 25 cycles). (bioz.com)
  • The cDNA synthesis from 15 ng of total cellular RNA from each extract was performed with 25 ng of random primers (Gibco BRL), 200 U of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase ( Gibco BRL), and 20 U of RNase inhibitor (Boehringer Mannheim). (bioz.com)
  • Template switching rates of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase mutants were tested using a retroviral vector-based direct-repeat deletion assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Pfeiffer, JK , Georgiadis, M & Telesnitsky, A 2000, ' Structure-based Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase mutants with altered intracellular direct-repeat deletion frequencies ', Journal of Virology , vol. 74, no. 20, pp. 9629-9636. (elsevier.com)
  • Reference: Expression in Escherichia coli of a Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase whose structure closely resembles the viral enzyme. (neb.com)
  • Recent X-ray crystal structure determinations of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MoMLV RT) have allowed for more accurate structure/function comparisons to HIV-1 RT than were formerly possible. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Three types of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are now used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections, but only reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are readily available to the vast majority of HIV-1-infected individuals in the developing world. (asm.org)
  • Reverse-transcribing DNA viruses, such as the hepadnaviruses , transcribe their genomes into an RNA intermediate and then, using reverse transcriptase, back into DNA. (bionity.com)
  • cDNA was generated from total RNA using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • America from 1999 through 2001 set the stage for the Texas shared the following differences from WN-NY99: five rapid and widespread movement of the virus across the nucleotide mutations and one amino acid substitution. (cdc.gov)
  • geographic distribution of the virus was limited to Africa, Phylogenetic comparisons of partial and complete the Middle East, India, and western and central Asia with nucleotide sequences from isolates collected in the north- occasional epidemics in Europe (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • 2004. NMR structure of the 101-nucleotide core encapsidation signal of the Moloney murine leukemia virus. (harvard.edu)
  • PSC-CUNY Award, for "Host Factors Interacting With the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Integrase. (cuny.edu)
  • We have determined the kinetics of virus production and virus-specific RNA synthesis in Sac(−) cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59). (nih.gov)
  • A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • One clone produced virus with altered plaque morphology, while others failed to produce particles able to make plaques on XC cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles contain both viral genomic RNA and an assortment of host cell RNAs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recruitment of 7SL RNA to assembling HIV-1 virus-like particles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This cleavage is essential for the Env incorporation into virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature particles are released from the cell with the help of cellular "ESCRT" machines [23] and then mature as they separate PR viral polyproteins in the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mougel, M, Zhang, Y & Barklis, E 1996, ' cis-Active structural motifs involved in specific encapsidation of Moloney murine leukemia virus RNA ', Journal of virology , vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 5043-5050. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhao J, Luo XD, Da CL, Xin Y. Clinicopathological significance of B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its precancerous lesion. (wjgnet.com)
  • Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is mediated through its transcriptional enhancer. (asm.org)
  • The investigation aimed to identify a new signature for AML prognostic prediction by using the three-gene expression (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), POU domain type 5 transcription factor 1B (POU5F1B) and B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 pseudogene 1 (BMI1P1). (portlandpress.com)
  • In general, expression of BMI-1 was low in large B-cell lymphomas and follicular lymphoma and enhanced in mantle cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Justification: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to be a major disease burden on the world and Man is the only known natural host of Hepatitis C virus (Chivaliez and Pawlotsky, 2007). (who.int)
  • Results: of the 259 plasma specimens screened for Hepatitis C virus in this study, 20(7.7%) were positive for anti HCV antibodies by ELISA and 16(6.2%) of the antibodies positive specimen were positive for HCV RNA. (who.int)
  • Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b was found in the entire HCV RNA positive sample. (who.int)
  • identified the virus to be Hepatitis C virus (2). (who.int)
  • The risk of receiving bacterially contaminated platelets is estimated to be 50- to 250-fold higher than the combined risk of transfusion-related infections per unit associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis B virus, and human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • murine leukemia virus enhancer. (psu.edu)
  • Cloning and characterization of subunits of the T-cell receptor and murine leukemia virus enhancer core-binding factor. (asm.org)
  • A major determinant of the thymic disease specificity of Moloney virus genetically maps to the conserved viral core motif in the Moloney virus enhancer. (asm.org)
  • mA3) and human APOBEC3G (hA3G) upon Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). (psu.edu)
  • The role of core binding factor in the pathogenesis of the Moloney murine leukemia virus. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. (psu.edu)
  • Although virtually all infectious MuLVs encode glyco-gag, XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) lacks the classical gPr80 Gag sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some mutants displayed deletion rates that were lower and others displayed rates that were higher than that of wild-type virus. (elsevier.com)
  • Synthesis of virus-specific RNA, measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]uridine in the presence of 1 μg/ml actinomycin D, also started at 4 hr pi and its maximum rate occurred between 6 and 8 hr pi. (nih.gov)
  • The endothelial cells are positive for bovine diarrhea virus and for angiotensin converting enzyme ( ACE ), an enzyme involved in the maintenance of blood pressure and volume. (microscopyu.com)
  • The enzyme is encoded and used by reverse-transcribing viruses , which use the enzyme during the process of replication. (bionity.com)
  • MSV, recombinant virus derived of helper viral and cellular sequences, possesses termini resembling prokaryotic transposable elements. (sciencemag.org)
  • The assay produced sensitivities of 10 1.5 TCID 50 /ml and 10 1.33 TCID 50 /ml for detection of the recombinant virus in the cells and brain tissues, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Almost any single-stranded nucleic acid can support virus-like particle (VLP) assembly in vitro ( Campbell and Rein, 1999 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The assay has also been useful for the isolation of nonproducer cells infected with various replication-defective transforming viruses. (asm.org)
  • We mapped Toca 511 integration sites and sequenced integrated Toca 511 genomes from patient samples with detectable virus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The line exhibits typical epithelial morphology and is susceptible to several viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana and New Jersey strains), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and sheep bluetongue virus. (microscopyu.com)
  • Nile virus (WNV) isolates collected during the summer and years, the virus has traversed North America, presumably fall of 2001 and 2002 indicated genetic variation among from New York City, where it was first isolated during the strains circulating in geographically distinct regions of the summer of 1999 (4-7). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the emergence of HIV strains resistant to CCR5 antagonists has been reported in vitro and in vivo, where the virus has adapted to enter the cells via antagonist-bound CCR5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CBF binds to core sites in murine leukemia virus and T-cell receptor enhancers. (asm.org)