Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Polyplacophora: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.Nautilus: The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Perna: A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Atlantic OceanEchinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.BrazilBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molluscum Contagiosum: A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)Molluscum contagiosum virus: A species of MOLLUSCIPOXVIRUS causing skin lesions in humans. It is transmitted by direct contact or from non-living reservoirs (fomites), such as books or clothing.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).Unionidae: A family of freshwater mussels in the class BIVALVIA. They differ from ZEBRA MUSSELS in that they are larger and posses a larval stage called glochidia, which requires attachment to the GILLS or fins of particular species of FISHES.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Mytilidae: A family of marine MUSSELS in the class BIVALVIA.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Corbicula: A genus of freshwater clams, in the family Corbiculidae, class BIVALVIA. It originated in Asia but was introduced in North America and is now found throughout the United States.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Prostatism: Lower urinary tract symptom, such as slow urinary stream, associated with PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA in older men.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (1/1395)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (2/1395)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

Central pattern generator for escape swimming in the notaspid sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. (3/1395)

Escape swimming in the notaspid opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea is an episode of alternating dorsal and ventral body flexions that overrides all other behaviors. We have explored the structure of the central pattern generator (CPG) in the cerebropleural ganglion as part of a study of neural network interactions underlying decision making in normal behavior. The CPG comprises at least eight bilaterally paired interneurons, each of which contributes and is phase-locked to the swim rhythm. Dorsal flexion is mediated by hemiganglion ensembles of four serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, the As1, As2, As3, and As4, and an electrically coupled pair, the A1 and A10 cells. When stimulated, A10 commands fictive swimming in the isolated CNS and actual swimming behavior in whole animals. As1-4 provide prolonged, neuromodulatory excitation enhancing dorsal flexion bursts and swim cycle number. Ventral flexion is mediated by the A3 cell and a ventral swim interneuron, IVS, the soma of which is yet unlocated. Initiation of a swim episode begins with persistent firing in A10, followed by recruitment of As1-4 and A1 into dorsal flexion. Recurrent excitation within the As1-4 ensemble and with A1/A10 may reinforce coactivity. Synchrony among swim interneuron partners and bilateral coordination is promoted by electrical coupling among the A1/A10 and As4 pairs, and among unilateral As2-4, and reciprocal chemical excitation between contralateral As1-4 groups. The switch from dorsal to ventral flexion coincides with delayed recruitment of A3, which is coupled electrically to A1, and with recurrent inhibition from A3/IVS to A1/A10. The alternating phase relation may be reinforced by reciprocal inhibition between As1-4 and IVS. Pleurobranchaea's swim resembles that of the nudibranch Tritonia; we find that the CPGs are similar in many details, suggesting that the behavior and network are primitive characters derived from a common pleurobranchid ancestor.  (+info)

A novel small protein associated with a conjugated trienoic chromophore from membranes of scallop adductor muscle: phosphorylation by protein kinase A. (4/1395)

Membranes enriched in sarcolemma from the cross-striated adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop have been found to contain a previously undescribed small protein of 6-8 kDa that can be released by treatment with organic solvent mixtures. This proteolipid co-purified with a non-amino acid chromophore containing a conjugated trienoic moiety. Although common in plants and algae, such a stable conjugated trienoic group is unusual for an animal cell. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein was XEFQHGLFGXF/ADNIGLQ, which most strongly resembles sequences in the triacyl glycerol lipase precursor and the product of the human breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA 1, but does not show similarity to previously described proteolipids. The protein was found to be one of the major substrates in its parent membrane for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, which may imply a regulatory function for this molecule.  (+info)

Osmotic adjustment in an estuarine population of Urosalpinx cinerea (Say, 1822) (Muricidae, Gastropoda). (5/1395)

Individuals from a subtidal, estuarine population of the common oyster drill, Urosalpinx cinerea (Say, 1822), were brought into the laboratory and tested for osmotic adjustment to changing salinity. Tissue variables monitored at seven experimental salinities ranging from 10 to 40% were tissue fluid osmolality, chloride, sodium, potassium, free amino acids (FAA), ninhydrin-positive substances (NPS) and water content. The results of this study demonstrate that the test animals did not exhibit anisosmotic regulation at any of the experimental salinities. However, the data do suggest a high degree of hyper-ionic regulation of potassium at all experimental salinities and a hyporegulation of sodium between the 25 and 40% salinities. Taurine, aspartic acid, alanine and glycine were the four FAA present in relatively consistent high amounts. These four amino acids comprised from 59.6 to 75.7% of the total FAA pools. It is postulated that the population does not maintain its euryhaline survival status through an osmoregulatory mechanism. Rather, the population has probably adapted physiologically to withstand dilution of its body fluids during spring conditions of low salinities.  (+info)

Fluorescence measurements detect changes in scallop myosin regulatory domain. (6/1395)

Ca2+-induced conformational changes of scallop myosin regulatory domain (RD) were studied using intrinsic fluorescence. Both the intensity and anisotropy of tryptophan fluorescence decreased significantly upon removal of Ca2+. By making a mutant RD we found that the Ca2+-induced fluorescence change is due mainly to Trp21 of the essential light chain which is located at the unusual Ca2+-binding EF-hand motif of the first domain. This result suggests that Trp21 is in a less hydrophobic and more flexible environment in the Ca2+-free state, supporting a model for regulation based on the 2 A resolution structure of scallop RD with bound Ca2+ [Houdusse A. and Cohen C. (1996) Structure 4, 21-32]. Binding of the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate (ANS) to the RD senses the dissociation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) in the presence of EDTA, by energy transfer from a tryptophan cluster (Trp818, 824, 826, 827) on the heavy chain (HC). We identified a hydrophobic pentapeptide (Leu836-Ala840) at the head-rod junction which is required for the effective energy transfer and conceivably is part of the ANS-binding site. Extension of the HC component of RD towards the rod region results in a larger ANS response, presumably indicating changes in HC-RLC interactions, which might be crucial for the regulatory function of scallop myosin.  (+info)

The occurrence of two types of collagen proalpha-chain in the abalone Haliotis discus muscle. (7/1395)

Acid-soluble collagens were prepared from connective tissues in the abalone Haliotis discus foot and adductor muscles with limited proteolysis using pepsin. Collagen preparation solubilized with 1% pepsin contained two types of alpha-chains which were different in their N-terminal amino acid sequences. Accordingly, two types of full-length cDNAs coding for collagen proalpha-chains were isolated from the foot muscle of the same animal and these proteins were named Hdcols (Haliotis discus collagens) 1alpha and 2alpha. The two N-terminal amino acid sequences of the abalone pepsin-solubilized collagen preparation corresponded to either of the two sequences deduced from the cDNA clones. In addition, several tryptic peptides prepared from the pepsin-solubilized collagen and fractionated by HPLC showed N-terminal amino acid sequences identical to those deduced from the two cDNA clones. Hdcols 1alpha and 2alpha consisted of 1378 and 1439 amino acids, respectively, showing the primary structure typical to those of fibril-forming collagens. The N-terminal propeptides of the two collagen proalpha-chains contained cysteine-rich globular domains. It is of note that Hdcol 1alpha completely lacked a short Gly-X-Y triplet repeat sequence in its propeptide. An unusual structure such as this has never before been reported for any fibril-forming collagen. The main triple-helical domains for both chains consisted of 1014 amino acids, where a supposed glycine residue in the triplet at the 598th position from the N-terminus was replaced by alanine in Hdcol 1alpha and by serine in Hdcol 2alpha. Both proalpha-chains of abalone collagens contained six cysteine residues in the carboxyl-terminal propeptide, lacking two cysteine residues usually found in vertebrate collagens. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the mRNA levels of Hdcols 1alpha and 2alpha in various tissues including muscles were similar to each other.  (+info)

Continuous in vitro propagation and differentiation of cultures of the intramolluscan stages of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. (8/1395)

The metazoan parasitic blood flukes, Schistosoma spp., infect over 200 million people worldwide and cause extensive human morbidity and mortality. Research strategies for development of anti-schistosomal agents are impeded by the organism's complex molluscan-mammalian life cycle, which limits experimental approaches and availability of material. We derived long-term continuously proliferative cultures of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts capable of generating cercariae in vitro. Cultured organisms retained the ability to parasitize the host, and they exhibited developmental regulation of candidate stage-specific genes in the host-free culture system. Evidence for expression of a reverse transcriptase also was found in the cultured organisms, pointing to this activity as a possible mechanistic contributor to the dynamic relationship between the parasite and its hosts. Continuous in vitro propagation of the asexual sporocyst stage allows isolation of clonally derived parasite populations and provides a means to study schistosomal molecular genetics, metabolism, and evasion of host defenses.  (+info)

  • Members of the Class Aplacophora of the Phylum Mollusca are worm-like animals that lack a shell but have calcareous scales or spicules in their integument. (
  • Biomonitoring study of an estuarine coastal ecosystem, the Sacca di Goro lagoon, using Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia). (
  • 1989. Ultrastructural characteristics of spermatogenesis in Pecten maximus (Mollusca, Bivalvia). (
  • 1995. Estudo ultraestrutural da espermatogenese de Donax striatus Linnaeus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) do litoral norte do Brasil. (
  • Comparative morphometrics of the acrosomes of the sperms of "externally" and "internally" fertilizing sperms of the shipworms (Teredinidae,Bivalvia,Mollusca). (
  • 1989. Ultrastructural and cytochemical study of spermatogenesis in Scorbicularia plana (Mollusca, Bivalvia). (
  • my boyfriend has had it for about two months, and we decided to go to the local STD clinic to get tested for everything under the sun, and they confirmed my suspicions that he had molluscum on his penis and abdomen. (
  • I am 99% sure I have molluscum on my penis it is really frustrating because I spent so much time trying to get it diagnosed and even the doctor wasn't sure what it was and I was told either way it was benign. (
  • 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Scaphopoda (Mollusca) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences: support for a Scaphopoda-Cephalopoda clade. (
  • Ponder and Lindberg provides a breathtaking overview of the evolutionary history of the Mollusca, effectively melding information from anatomy, ecology, genomics, and paleobiology to explore the depths of molluscan phylogeny. (
  • Our understanding of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the mollusca has been revolutionized over the past two decades through new molecular data and analysis, and reinvestigation of morphological characters. (
  • The investigators conducted a prospective, randomized trial that compared the efficacy and adverse effects of four previously recognized treatments for molluscum contagiosum in 124 children. (
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Scarabino, Victor, Caetano, Carlos Henrique Soares, Carranza, Alvar (2011): Three new species of the deep-water genus Bathycadulus (Mollusca, Scaphopoda, Gadilidae). (
  • 2017. (
  • Is there any sort of anti-biotic or medicine that could prevent molluscum at the early incubation period? (
  • Some GPS, however, take a more aggressive stance, choosing to freeze off individual molluscum with liquid nitrogen, which can be traumatic and painful for young children. (
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