Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell SeparationMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
... and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion molecules; in junctional adhesion molecules (JAM); in tyrosine-protein kinase receptors; ... and in the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 ... CD86; CD8A; CD8B; CD8B1; CD96; CEACAM1; CEACAM16; CEACAM19; CEACAM21; CEACAM3; CEACAM4; CEACAM5; CEACAM6; CEACAM7; CEACAM8; ...
Mregs express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86) and MHC Class II, they have the highest expression of these ... T cells co-culture with Mregs showed intense activation and proliferation, so Mregs act as sufficient antigen-presenting cells ... Nevertheless, a molecule mechanism that mediates their phenotypical change has not been identified yet. As a potential ... molecule in comparison with the other population of macrophages. ...
... and the other signal is the CD80 or CD86 molecule (also known as B7-1 and B7-2). Abatacept binds to the CD80 and CD86 molecule ... In order for T cells to be activated and attack an antigen, that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen- ... the APC must bind the antigen to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, bring that complex to its surface, and ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ...
... and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds ... It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... In 1987, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, or CTLA-4, was identified by Pierre Golstein and colleagues . In November 1995, the ... In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 interaction, fascin dependent polarization of cytoskeleton towards DC-Treg immune synapse play ...
... like MHC I and II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86) and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated V ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ... or non-MHC molecules suggest recognition of a highly diverse and heterogeneous set of antigens by non-Vδ2 cells, although ... The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ...
Accessory molecule (CD79) Ig-α (CD79A) Ig-β (CD79B) T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / ... CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - Expressed by APCs CD86 - ... Synaptic cell adhesion molecules NCAMs - Neural cell adhesion molecules Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) ICAM-1 ICAM2 ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ...
CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known ... CD28 - This molecule is constitutively expressed on almost all human CD4+ T cells and on around half of all CD8 T cells. ...
Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...
One of the best characterized co-stimulatory molecules expressed by T cells is CD28, which interacts with CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 ... Dendritic cells displaying co-stimulatory molecules while presenting antigen are able to activate T cells. In contrast, T cells ... Co-stimulation is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... is antigen nonspecific and is provided by the interaction between co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the membrane of APC and ...
... or CD86 (B7.2), although other additional co-stimulation molecules have been identified. When Signal 2 is not expressed, but T ... As specific cancer antigens have been discovered, these antigens can be loaded to aAPCs to successfully stimulate and expand ... This is the molecule which is loaded with the specific antigen. MHC class I are found on all cells and stimulate cytotoxic T ... It is the specific antigen or epitope that is loaded into the MHC determines the antigen-specificity. The peptide-loaded MHC ...
IL-10 is partially responsible for reducing expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD86 on macrophages. CD86 is one of ... A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Of these, NPA (nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen) FAR, and Sj-FABPc demonstrate different binding affinities for fatty ... and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens. Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, ...
Both CD80 and CD86 activate the CD28 receptor. These proteins are also known as co-stimulatory molecules. Although the ... It has been proposed that the larger CD45RA+ may decrease the accessibility of the T cell receptor for the antigen-MHC molecule ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules ...
CD86, CD40, and MHC class II molecules) that are critical for developing adaptive immune responses. IL receptor-activated bone ... The axis inhibits bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (i.e. antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material, present it ... Rauvala H, Peng HB (June 1997). "HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule) and heparin-type glycans in the ...
Antigen presentation is upregulated (MHC II, CD86). M2c macrophages are important for secretion of IL-10, TGF-β. They also ... Typical are pro - inflammatory molecules (e.g. IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-23, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, specific chemokines and antigen ... Ability of TAMs to present tumour-associated antigens is decreased as well as stimulation of the anti-tumour functions of T and ... cell activation markers or cell adhesion molecules. For classical macrophage activation is necessary also lipopolysaccharide ( ...
Histiocyte Macrophage List of human clusters of differentiation for a list of CD molecules (such as CD80 and CD86) Steinman, R ... Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
... molecules, NKT cells recognize glycolipid antigen presented by a molecule called CD1d. Once activated, these cells can perform ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... Helper T cells become activated when they are presented with peptide antigens by MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on ...
This suggests Treg-mediated suppression of antigen presenting cells is a multi-step process. In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 ... and retinal tissue and is used in the bundling of actin molecules. The structure of human fascin has been determined to a ... T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein ... essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic ...
... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... This process removes the drugs from their intended targets (i.e. PD-1 molecules expressed on the surface of T cells) and limits ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ...
In the TNF family of molecules, the protein 4-1BB (CD137) on the T cell may bind to 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) on the APC. The B7 ( ... There are two major types of B7 proteins: B7-1 or CD80, and B7-2 or CD86. However, it is not known if they differ significantly ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...
When activated by Toll-like receptor ligands, the CD80 expression is upregulated in antigen presenting cells (APCs). The CD86 ... Greenway AL, Holloway G, McPhee DA, Ellis P, Cornall A, Lidman M (2004). "HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ...
"Entrez Gene: CD86 CD86 molecule". Human CD86 genome location and CD86 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Davila S, ... Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides ... CD86 works in tandem with CD80 to prime T cells. The CD86 gene encodes a type I membrane protein that is a member of the ... "Molecular cloning and expression of early T cell costimulatory molecule-1 and its characterization as B7-2 molecule". Journal ...
... antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.180 --- antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.186 --- antigens, cd86 MeSH D23.050. ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.101.100.110.180 --- antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.101.100.110.186 --- antigens, cd86 MeSH D23.101.100.110.194 ... antigens, cd MeSH D23.101.100.110.030 --- activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D23.101.100.110.101 --- antigens, cd1 ...
... molecule CD28, which is on the surface of all naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, can bind ligands CD80 and CD86). Receptor- ... Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates ... Recipient's T-lymphocytes can identify either MHC molecules alone or complex MHC molecule-foreign peptide as alloantigens. ... Antigen presentation by chemically modified splenocytes induces antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo. ...
Key molecules in the synapse are the T cell receptor and its counterpart the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Also ... The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell ... important are LFA-1, ICAM-1, CD28, and CD80/CD86. Ortega-Carrion, Alvaro; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel (2016-03-31). "Concerning ... d-SMAC (distal-SMAC) enriched in CD43 and CD45 molecules. New investigations, however, have shown that a "bull's eye" is not ...
Interestingly, PD-L1 also has an appreciable affinity for the costimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1), but not CD86 (B7-2). CD80's ... Normally the immune system reacts to foreign antigens that are associated with exogenous or endogenous Danger signals, which ... The related molecule PD-L2 has no such affinity for CD80 or CD86, but shares PD-1 as a receptor (with a stronger Kd of 140nM). ... PD-L1 was characterized at the Mayo Clinic as an immune regulatory molecule, B7-H1. Later this molecule was renamed as PD-L1 ...
... functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on the surfaces of activated endothelial cells, which line the inner ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • positive regulation of leukocyte migration. • ... When endothelial cells are activated by molecules such as histamine or thrombin during inflammation, P-selectin moves from an ...
DC-like up-regulation of class II antigens and costimulatory molecules, i.e., CD54, CD86; Cytokine release, i.e., IL-8; LC-like ... Upon antigen capture, the DC undergoes a maturation process leading to the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, ... Ashikaga, T.; Hoya, M.; Itagaki, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Aiba, S. Evaluation of CD86 expression and MHC calss II molecule ... Evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals using expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, on the ...
Cd86 antigen, isoform CRA_cImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,O35531,O35531_RAT CD86 molecule OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 GN=Cd86 PE=1 SV=1 ... CD86 moleculeImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... "Donor antigen-loaded IKK2dn gene-modified dendritic cells prolong allograft survival.". Ouyang J., Fan C., Wen D., Hou J., Du Y ...
Mouse Monoclonal CD86 antibody for FACS, Func, IHC (f), IP, WB. Published in 9 Pubmed References. Order anti-CD86 antibody ... costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes is the CD86 differentiation antigen." in: Blood, Vol ... CD86 (CD86 Antibody Abstract) Background CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 ... CD86 antibody (CD86 Molecule). Details for Product anti-CD86 Antibody No. ABIN302084 ...
CD86) cloned gene : ORF from ATG to Stop, in pUNO1 expression plasmid selectable in E.coli and mammalian cells. Fully sequenced ... Co-Stimulatory Molecule B7-2.. CD86 molecule.. CD28 antigen ligand 2. Back to the top ...
CD86 shares with the CD80 molecule the same co-receptors on T cells, CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). CD86 binds to CD152 with a 20-100 ... On lymphocytes, CD86 appears as a B-cell activation antigen. CD86 is preferentially expressed by memory B cells and germinal ... CD86 is expressed constitutively by interdigitating dendritic cells, and at lower level by peripheral blood dendritic cells. It ... Its expression can be up-regulated by activation through surface immunoglobulin, CD40, MHC class II molecules or by PMA with ...
The expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells is crucial in determining T-cell immune responses. We ... Antisense ODNs targeting CD80 or CD86 mRNA specifically suppressed the expression of CD80 or CD86 in DCs and inhibited their ... Administration of dendritic cells transduced with antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeting CD80 or CD86 prolongs allograft ... and transduced with anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 antisense ODNs (base-mismatched ODNs as controls). The effect of antisense ODN on ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD86 (B7-2) Mouse anti-Human, Functional Grade, Clone: IT2.2, ... CD86 acts as costimulatory molecule in eliciting T-cell help during antigen presentation. Antigen presentation in the absence ... CD86 is a type I membrane protein that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The CD86 protein is expressed by antigen- ... Binding of CD86 with CD28 antigen is a costimulatory signal for activation of the T-cell. Binding of CD86 with cytotoxic T- ...
The expression of MHC II, CD40, and CD86 molecules were analyzed by flow cytometry.. (C) OT-II T cells were cultured with the ... In vivo requirement for Atg5 in antigen presentation by dendritic cells.. Lee HK1, Mattei LM, Steinberg BE, Alberts P, Lee YH, ... No exogenous viral antigens were added.. (A and B) IFN-γsecretion was measured by ELISA (left) and IFN-γ-secreting T cells were ... Autophagy is known to be important in presentation of cytosolic antigens on MHC class II (MHC II). However, the role of ...
... as well as T cell costimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40, CD80, CD86). DCs can initiate Ag-specific CD4+ T cell responses, without ... B lymphocytes can be competent antigen-presenting cells for priming CD4+ T cells to protein antigens in vivo. J. Immunol. 155: ... Presentation of exogenous protein antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules by dendritic cells: pathway of ... requirement for professional antigen presenting cells and evidence for antigen transfer from myocytes. Mol. Med. 3:362. ...
... a MHC class II molecule; CD86, which reflects DC function and influences antigen-presenting and tumor-antigen cross priming; ... Mechanisms of exogenous antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules in vitro and in vivo: implications for generating CD8+ T ... I. Defective antigen presentation in tumor-bearing hosts. Cell Immunol. 1996. 170:101-110. View this article via: PubMed ... Graphs depict: (c) CD11c; (d) CD86; (e) MHC class II; and (f) CD40. Untreated wild-type cells (black bars), wild-type treated ...
... whereas co-stimulatory molecules including CD86 remained absent. MSCs remained locked in their metabolic phenotype, as ... Conditioning of antigen-specific T-cells by activated and antigen-pulsed MSCs prevented T-cells to proliferate upon subsequent ... Conditioning of antigen-specific T-cells by activated and antigen-pulsed MSCs prevented T-cells to proliferate upon subsequent ... whereas co-stimulatory molecules including CD86 remained absent. MSCs remained locked in their metabolic phenotype, as ...
Cd86 protein, mouse * Histocompatibility Antigens Class II * Membrane Glycoproteins * Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 ... Moreover, stimulation with dodecameric CD154 induced higher levels of the costimulatory molecules ICAM-1 and CD86. The higher ...
... immunoregulatory molecules CD73 and HO-1, and NK ligands CD112 and CD155 were noted. While they globally preserved their ... Differences in the expression of the stromal markers CD90 and CD105, adhesion molecules CD44 and CD49e, ... Human leukocyte antigens (HLA-G) and costimulatory molecules (CD27, CD40, CD70, CD86, CD134, and CD252). ... and the costimulatory molecules CD27, CD70, CD80, CD86, CD134, CD154, and CD252 but positive for HLA-ABC molecules. The absence ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-B7-2/CD86 Antibody. DC Maturation Marker. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Human, Monkey. 100% ... CD28 antigen ligand 2. *CD28LG2B7-2 antigen). *CD86 antigen. *CD86 molecule. *CD86 ... Check out the latest blog posts on B7-2/CD86.. CD86 - I work in tandem with CD80. CD86 belongs to the immunoglobulin ... Additional B7-2/CD86 Products. B7-2/CD86 NBP1-33276 * B7-2/CD86 Antibodies ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-B7-2/CD86 Antibody (37301) [PerCP (Peridinin-chlorophyll Protein Complex)]. Validated: Flow. Tested ... CD28 antigen ligand 2. *CD28LG2B7-2 antigen). *CD86 antigen. *CD86 molecule. *CD86 ... Check out the latest blog posts on B7-2/CD86.. CD86 - I work in tandem with CD80. CD86 belongs to the immunoglobulin ... Additional B7-2/CD86 Products. B7-2/CD86 FAB141C * B7-2/CD86 Antibodies ...
... or portion thereof a gene encoding an antigen at a disease causing agent in combination with an immunostimulatory molecule for ... C07K14/70532-B7 molecules, e.g. CD80, CD86 * * A-HUMAN NECESSITIES * A61-MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE ... Class I molecule rW; Kb = H-2Kb MHC Class I molecule rW;. HLA-A2.1 = Human MHC Class I molecule rW, h~2m = Human Beta-2- ... Exemplary antibody molecules are intact immunoglobulin molecules, substantially intact iIr~nunoglobulin molecules or those ...
Recent studies have suggested that the B7 molecule, expressed on most antigen presenting cells (APC), functions as a co- ... C07K14/70532-B7 molecules, e.g. CD80, CD86 Abstract. The invention relates generally to compositions of and methods for ... molecule. Where a polynucleotide is a DNA molecule, that molecule can be a gene or a cDNA molecule. Nucleotide bases are ... antigen-presenting cells to increase the immunogenicity of foreign antigens for things like vaccines, or non-classical antigen- ...
Ag = antigens; CD80, CD86 = costimulatory molecules; DC = dendritic cell; HLA-DR = histocompatibility-complex class II ... Ag = antigens; CD80, CD86 = costimulatory molecules; DC = dendritic cell; HLA-DR = histocompatibility-complex class II ... 1). Recognition of an antigen without membrane expression of CD80 or CD86 molecules leads to inactivation or apoptosis of T ... Ag = antigens; CD80, CD86 = costimulatory molecules; DC = dendritic cell; HLA-DR = histocompatibility-complex class II ...
This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate ... This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate ... cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. ... cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. ...
Indeed, it is the optimally stimulated expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells, together with ... C) DC activation assessed as CD86 and CD40 upregulation on EGFP+ CD11c+ and EGFP− CD11c+ cells at the 18-h time point. Values ... class I molecules. Among the currently most exploited virus systems that facilitate antigen delivery to DCs are adenoviral (18 ... macrophages at the same location are able to collect viral antigen from the lymph and present antigen to follicular B cells (49 ...
Rat CD86 / B7-2 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all transfected cell ... CD86; CD86 molecule; T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86; cd86 antigen; membrane glycoprotein; B7-2;. ... Recombinant Rat CD86 cell lysate. Download Datasheet See All CD86 Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to your bench! ... CD86-1971RCL. Product Overview:. Rat CD86 / B7-2 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer. ...
... and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion molecules; in junctional adhesion molecules (JAM); in tyrosine-protein kinase receptors; ... and in the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 ... CD86; CD8A; CD8B; CD8B1; CD96; CEACAM1; CEACAM16; CEACAM19; CEACAM21; CEACAM3; CEACAM4; CEACAM5; CEACAM6; CEACAM7; CEACAM8; ...
B7 family members are transmembrane molecules that exist predominantly as monomers. They are classified into three groups ... CD86, also known as B7-2, is a member of the cell surface immunoglobulin superfamily. ... CD86, B7-2, T lymphocyte activation antigen CD86, Activation B7-2 antigen, CD28 antigen ligand 2, CD28LG2, B7-2 antigen, B70, ... CD86, along with CD80, is a ligand of CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). CD86 is expressed earlier in the immune response than CD80. CD86 ...
CD86 is a critical costimulatory molecule for B-cell activation and CD95 is associated with apoptosis. In addition, we found ... This suggests that antigen stimulation may promote the redistribution of B cells. Activated B cells increased the expression ... As shown in Figure 6, the percentages of IgD+CD27−CD19+ (naive B), CD86+CD19+, and CD95+CD19+ B cells in those patients were ... So we usually use blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells to study TFH cells [11]. These molecules promote TFH development and T- and B-cell ...
Expression of these antigen-presenting molecules was not significantly modified by FGFb, PDGF-BB or IL-2 treatment. ... IL-1β treatment significantly enhanced the expression of CD54, CD86 and HLA-DR. LPS and IFNγ treatments produced a major ... LPS and IFNγ modulate the expression on cultured human osteoblast-like cells of different antigens involved in antigen- ... on the expression on osteoblast-like cells of antigens involved in antigen presentation. ...
  • The first signal, which confers specificity, is provided by interaction of the T-cell receptor with peptides presented by MHC molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This review discusses the mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of antigen-specific T cell tolerance techniques using syngeneic apoptotic cellular carriers and synthetic nanoparticles that are covalently cross-linked to diabetogenic peptides or proteins through ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI) to prevent and treat T1D. (soc-bdr.org)
  • The antigens that bind to MHC proteins are always short peptides , 8-10 amino acids long for MHC Class I, and up to 25 or so for MHC Class II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following antigen-uptake, DCs may process and present specific peptides to naïve T lymphocytes, and DCs activated through ligands of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA can present antigens in a suitable molecular form, ranging from full-length sequence to short MHC class I- or II-binding epitopes, to optimize induction of T-cell responses [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • CD86, also known as B72, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors. (novusbio.com)
  • CD86 111 produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and CD86 111 expressed in bacteria was functionally active and displayed specific binding to B7 counter receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-18, and TNF-α, and T cell surface molecules, such as CD40L, OX40, and TRANCE, bind specific receptors that activate NF-κB as well ( 1 )( 20 )( 34 )( 35 )( 36 )( 37 ). (rupress.org)
  • Antigen uptake by DC induces maturational changes that include decreased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 that maintain DC residence in peripheral tissues, and increased expression of CCR7 that mediates the migration of antigen-bearing DC to lymphatic tissue. (prolekare.cz)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • REA564 recognizes the RT1B antigen expressed by C3H mice, but not by Balb/c or C57BL6 mice. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Immunisation of mice that are both transgenic for the human HLA-A02.01 molecule and knockout for murine MHC class I molecules, with DNA encoding HBsAg shows that epitopes presented after in vivo processing in HLA-A2 transgenic mice are very similar to those generated in humans during HBV infection. (bmj.com)
  • Experimental models have demonstrated that intravenous injection of autoantigen decorated splenocytes and biodegradable nanoparticles through ECDI fixation effectively induce and maintain antigen-specific T cell abortive activation and anergy by T cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. (soc-bdr.org)
  • CD86 is expressed earlier in the immune response than CD80. (biolegend.com)
  • They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or extending the immune response and at the same time reducing the amount of antigen needed. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral antigen was sufficient for PD-1 upregulation, but induction of PD-L1 was required for impairment. (jci.org)
  • In contrast with the administration of control DCs into C3H recipients that exacerbated rejection of B10 cardiac allografts, injection of DCs transduced with anti-CD80 or CD86 antisense ODN significantly prolonged the survival of heart allografts. (nih.gov)