Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 126.96.36.199 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 188.8.131.52 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Guanine NucleotidesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cytosine NucleotidesUracil NucleotidesIMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 184.108.40.206.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.AminohydrolasesRibonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 220.127.116.11.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Guanosine Tetraphosphate: Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.TritiumThiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Guanosine Pentaphosphate: Guanosine 5'-triphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing five phosphate groups. Three phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot II.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Adenine NucleotidesSmall Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 22.214.171.124.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Ethenoadenosine Triphosphate: 1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate: A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 126.96.36.199), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Inosine NucleotidesGuanineCell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.UridineNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
It is a guanosine analogue that is phosphorylated to carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP). CBV-TP competes with the viral molecules ...
PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of one guanosine triphosphate molecule. This reaction is ... Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level ...
Rodbell discovered that cyclic AMP is activiated when guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is released from the cell membrane. He, ... In 1970 Martin Rodbell found that hormones did not directly influence cyclic AMP, but there existed other molecules, the third ... however, did not know how the GTP molecules were produced. Gilman pursued the mystery in the signalling process. He found that ... as it specifically bind GTP molecules. Gilman played active roles in defending science education, and opposing creationism. He ...
Two molecules of energy rich guanosine triphosphate (GTP) are also important components of the microtubule structure. One ... tubulin and is non-exchangeable whereas the other GTP molecule is bound to β-tubulin and can be easily exchanged with guanosine ... Tubulin binding molecules have gained much interest among cytotoxic agents due to its success in clinical oncology. They differ ... A microtubule having a GTP molecule at the β-end will be stable and continue to grow whereas a microtubule having a GDP ...
He noted that guanosine triphosphate disassociated glucagon from this receptor and stimulated the G-protein, which strongly ... so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. As with other signals, the ... which range in size from small molecules such as dopamine to neuropeptides such as endorphins. Moreover, some molecules may fit ... Four adaptor molecules are known to be involved in signaling, which are Myd88, TIRAP, TRIF, and TRAM. These adapters activate ...
... and phosphorylated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and becomes 2-phosphoenolpyruvate using guanosine triphosphate (GTP) as ... A pyruvate molecule is carboxylated by a pyruvate carboxylase enzyme, activated by a molecule each of ATP and water. This ... In fact the oxaloacetate is a net product of the glyoxylate cycle because its loop of the cycle incorporates two molecules of ... The urea cycle is a metabolic pathway that results in the formation of urea using two ammonium molecules and one bicarbonate ...
GTPases are enzymes that bind to a molecule called guanosine triphosphate (GTP) which they then hydrolyze to create guanosine ... The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). ... Although small molecules can enter the nucleus without regulation, macromolecules such as RNA and proteins require association ...
... catalyzing the release of guanosine diphosphate from EF-Tu. This enables EF-Tu to bind to a new guanosine triphosphate molecule ...
... guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The shape of the ARF molecule is dependent upon the form to which ... ARF binds to two forms of the guanosine nucleotide, ... exchange factors force ARF to adopt a new GTP molecule in place ...
G proteins are specialised proteins wherby the nucleotides Guanosine diphosphate (GDP), and Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) bind ... When the GDP molecule dissociates from the Gα sub-unit, a GTP molecule binds to the free nucleotide-binding pocket, and the G ... When the GDP molecule is attached, the Gα sub-unit is in its inactive state, and the nucleotide-binding pocket is closed off ... When a Gβγ or Gα(GTP) molecule binds to the C-terminus of the potassium channel, it becomes active, and potassium ions are ...
Most of the protein, however, including its large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain projects out into the stroma. ... Interestingly, introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, while they are rare in prokaryotic DNA molecules (plant ... When GTP, an energy molecule similar to ATP attaches to Toc34, the protein becomes much more able to bind to many chloroplast ... The Toc34 protein can then take up another molecule of GTP and begin the cycle again. Toc34 can be turned off through ...
The splicing reaction is also regulated in vitro by levels of guanosine triphosphate, since group I introns require a guanosine ... Group I introns are ribozymes that catalyze the splicing of the RNA molecule in which they are embedded. In the riboswitch- ...
... guanosine diphosphate) molecule on its alpha subunit for a GTP (guanosine triphosphate) molecule. Once this exchange takes ... There are three basic types of secondary messenger molecules: Hydrophobic molecules: water-insoluble molecules such as ... The cell releases second messenger molecules in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules-the first messengers ... The G-protein (named for the GDP and GTP molecules that bind to it) is bound to the inner membrane of the cell and consists of ...
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is then converted to 5´-diphosphate 3´-diphosphate guanosine (ppGpp), the archetypical alarmone ... An Alarmone is an intracellular signal molecule that is produced due to harsh environmental factors. They regulate the gene ...
The main function of the SEC23A protein is to hydrolyze or break down a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecule bound to the ... This triggers uncoating of the vesicle (a membrane bound carrying compartment for molecules) containing a secretory protein ...
... but active when bound to Guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Upon receptor activation, the GEF domain, in turn, allosterically ... "The Top Prescription Drugs of 2012 Globally: Biologics Dominate, But Small Molecule CNS Drugs Hold on to Top Spots" (PDF). ACS ... At this point, the adapter molecules and clathrin have dissociated, and the receptor is either trafficked back to the plasma ... Another target of c-SRC are the dynamin molecules involved in endocytosis. Dynamins polymerize around the neck of an incoming ...
The biosynthesis of pterins begins with the molecule guanosine triphosphate (GTP); the enzyme that controls the conversion of ...
Their work revealed that the addition of guanine, such as in the molecule guanosine triphosphate, to dopamine binding sites ...
In addition to calmodulin, guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) has been found to stimulate PIMT activity. The ... although the relationship between these two molecules has not been thoroughly explored. ...
... are two molecules of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and the products are two molecules of diphosphate and one molecule of cyclic ... 2 Guanosine triphosphate ↔ 2 diphosphate + cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate The substrates of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) ... The active (or catalytic) site is located at the interface between the two subunits, each binding one molecule of GTP. (See ... Ryjenkov, D.; Tarutina, M.; Moskvin, O.V.; Gomelsky, M. (March 2005). "Cyclic Diguanylate Is a Ubiquitous Signaling Molecule in ...
... the SRP RNA of the signal peptide-charged SRP promotes the hydrolysis of two guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecules. This ... It has a highly conserved guanosine as the first and an adenosine as the last loop residue. This feature is required for the ... The available PDB structures show the RNA molecule either free or when bound to one or more SRP proteins. One or more SRP ... SRP9/14 is absent in the SRP of trypanosoma which instead possess a tRNA-like molecule. SRP19 is found in the SRP of eukaryotes ...
During microtubule polymerization, each heterodimer formed by an alpha and a beta tubulin molecule carries two GTP molecules, ... Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate. It can act as a substrate for both the synthesis of RNA ... Cyclic guanosine triphosphate (cGTP) helps cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activate cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels ... For instance, a GTP molecule is generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. This is tantamount to the generation ...
... of the citric acid cycle produces two molecules of carbon dioxide, one equivalent of ATP guanosine triphosphate (GTP) through ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ... Citrate - the molecule that gives its name to the cycle - is a feedback inhibitor of citrate synthase and also inhibits PFK, ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ...
... triphosphate) is a non-hydrolyzable or slowly hydrolyzable G-protein-activating analog of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Many ... and the GTP binding protein can then only be activated by exchanging the GDP for a new GTP molecule. The substitution of sulfur ... leaving a bound guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and releasing an inorganic phosphate. This usually occurs rapidly, ... GTPgammaS (GTPγS, guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] ...
... leading to an increased conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In H2S ... Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue ... Gasotransmitters is a subfamily of endogenous molecules of gases or gaseous signaling molecules, including NO, CO, H2S. These ... For one gas molecule to be categorized as a gasotransmitters, all of the following criteria should be met. It is a small ...
... including its large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain projects out into the stroma. ... each of which forms a dimer with one of its adjacent molecules. Part of a GDP molecule binding site is highlighted in pink. ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons. Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, ... The Toc34 protein can then take up another molecule of GTP and begin the cycle again. ...
... building block molecule. Also used as energy transport molecule and in signal transduction. ... Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) RNA (ribonucleic acid) building block molecule. Also used as energy transport molecule and in ...
Guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule which together with ppGpp controls the ... Guanosine 5-triphosphate,3-diphosphate + H2O = guanosine 3,5-bis(diphosphate) + phosphate.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual ... guanosine-5-triphosphate,3-diphosphate diphosphatase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. View the complete GO annotation on ... Guanosine-5-triphosphate,3-diphosphate pyrophosphataseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been ...
7-Methyl-Guanosine-5-Triphosphate. Accession Number. DB02716 (EXPT02167) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. ... Purine ribonucleoside triphosphates. Alternative Parents. Purine ribonucleoside monophosphates / Pentose phosphates / ... Purine ribonucleoside triphosphate / Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate / Pentose phosphate / Pentose-5-phosphate / Glycosyl ... These are purine ribobucleotides with a triphosphate group linked to the ribose moiety.. Kingdom. Organic compounds. Super ...
Guanosine - TheBestLinks.com - Guanine, Molecule, Deoxyribose, Ribose,... Guanosine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that ... Guanosine triphosphate -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5- ... Guanosine triphosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5- ... guanosine monophosphate), cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate), GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate). ...
35S]Guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]Triphosphate (GTPγS)-Binding Assay.. [35S]GTP[γS]-binding assays by using CHO-CCR5 cell membranes (20 ... The compound we have described here, SCH-C, is a potent and specific small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 infection, both in vitro ... In summary, SCH-C is an orally bioavailable small molecule antagonist of the CCR5 coreceptor with in vivo activity against HIV- ... This potency is comparable with or greater than that of TAK-779, a small molecule inhibitor of CCR5 that has previously been ...
ESCHERICHIA-COLI RIBOSOMES; ANGLE NEUTRON-SCATTERING; TRANSFER-RNA-BINDING; FACTOR EF-TU; MOLECULES PARTICIPATE; SYNCHROTRON ... Solution structure of the ternary complex between aminoacyl-tRNA, elongation factor Tu, and guanosine triphosphate. Bilgin, N ... RADIATION; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE; TRANSLATION; GTP; 5-TRIPHOSPHATE Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-79266OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu- ...
... of the citric acid cycle produces two molecules of carbon dioxide, one molecule of the ATP equivalent guanosine triphosphate ( ... Adenosine triphosphate. 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Adenosine 5-triphosphate. ... NADH, and one molecule of the reduced coenzyme FAHD2. Both of these latter molecules are recycled to their oxidized states (NAD ... Because NADH and FADH2 are energy-rich molecules, dozens of ATP molecules can be generated by the beta-oxidation of a single ...
It is a guanosine analogue that is phosphorylated to carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP). CBV-TP competes with the viral molecules ...
What is guanosine triphosphate? Meaning of guanosine triphosphate medical term. What does guanosine triphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of guanosine triphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? guanosine triphosphate explanation free. ... IMPDH inhibition leads to a reduction in intracellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a molecule required for DNA and RNA ... Related to guanosine triphosphate: adenosine triphosphate, GTP guanosine. [gwah´no-sēn] a nucleoside, guanine riboside, one of ...
PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of one guanosine triphosphate molecule. This reaction is ... Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level ...
... guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate; BLAST, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; GAP, GTPase-activating protein; MICAL-cl, MICAL- ... As far as we know, this is the first report of large scale screening for novel Rab effector molecules, and as a result of the ... Broad Rab Binding Specificity of Molecules Interacting with CasL (MICALs) and MICAL-like Proteins-. MICAL-1 and MICAL-like ... specific effector molecules for most of the mammalian Rabs have never been elucidated, and even the Rab binding specificity of ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a protective molecule and an important mediator of anesthetic preconditioning (APC) ... Isoflurane Favorably Modulates Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase during Myocardial ... Isoflurane Favorably Modulates Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase during Myocardial ... Isoflurane Favorably Modulates Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase during Myocardial ...
guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. CTX. cholera toxin. BSA. bovine serum albumin. KHB. Krebs-HEPES buffer. IBMX. ... 2007) Small-molecule agonists for the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:937-942. ... Small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been sought due to difficulties with peptide therapeutics. Recently, 6,7-dichloro-2- ... Recently, an exciting development has been the identification of a small-molecule ligand of the GLP-1R, which not only ...
guanosine triphosphate. Rap. Ras-related protein. HTS. high-throughput screening. 007-AM. 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2-O- ... Among these new molecules, the indole analogue 22a and the 7-azaindole analogue 24d display an almost retained activity of ... guanosine diphosphate. PKA. protein kinase A. FRET. fluorescenceresonance energy transfer. GEF. guanine nucleotide exchange ... Identification and Characterization of Small Molecules as Potent and Specific EPAC2 Antagonists. Haijun Chen,† Tamara Tsalkova, ...
RE is dependent on GTP hydrolysis; it is blocked by GTP removal or replacement with guanosine 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. In ... Thus the divalent cation receptors for RE and exocytosis must be distinct molecules. ...
Guanosine triphosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. GTP is a purine nucleotide that is incorporated into the growing RNA ... This is tantamount to the generation of one molecule of ATP since GTP is readily converted to ATP. ... GTP is also essential to signal transduction, where it is converted to GDP (guanosine diphosphate) through the action of ...
Kras can bind either guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or guanosine diphosphate (GDP). When occupied by GDP, Kras does not activate ... damage molecules (DAMPs), hormones, or other molecules activate Kras. These molecules indirectly interact with guanine ... Although individual Kras molecules may act as a "binary switch," populations of Kras proteins have varying degrees of activity ... Cytokines and adhesion molecules attract additional immune cells and inflammation persists within the pancreas (see section ...
"Guanosine triphosphate and guanosine diphosphate as conformation-determining molecules. Differential interaction of a ... Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside ... guanosine. GDP consists of a pyrophosphate group, a pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase guanine. ... fluorescent probe with the guanosine nucleotide complexes of bacterial elongation factor Tu". Biochemistry. 13 (5): 933-939. ...
... guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate; IPTG, isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside; Mant, 2′-(or-3′)-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl); MTX, ... A novel small-molecule screening strategy identifies mitoxantrone as a RhoGTPase inhibitor. Aurélien Bidaud-Meynard, Daniela ... As a consequence, there is great interest in the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of RhoGTPases. In the present ... A novel small-molecule screening strategy identifies mitoxantrone as a RhoGTPase inhibitor ...
These dimers each bind two molecules of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Beta tubulins can selectively (and reversibly) allow GTP ... These dimers each bind two molecules of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Beta tubulins can selectively (and reversibly) allow GTP ... The individual elements are protein dimers attached to either guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in red or guanosine diphosphate (GDP ... The individual elements are protein dimers attached to either guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in red or guanosine diphosphate (GDP ...
GUANOSINE-5-TRIPHOSPHATE / GTP, energy-carrying molecule*YM / Guanosine triphosphate. Source. *. homo sapiens (human)*. severe ...
guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. OHC. hydroxycholesterol. PDB. Protein Data Bank. TM. transmembrane region. GPR. G-protein- ... Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 2. CXCR. C-X-C chemokine receptor. β2AR. β2-adrenergic receptor. ECL. extracellular loop. ... Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 2 (EBI2) (also known as G-protein-coupled receptor 183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor ( ... Identification of Structural Motifs Critical for Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Molecule 2 Function and Homology Modeling of the ...
Guanosine-5-triphosphate,3-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (GppA), also known as guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase, ... Guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule which together with ppGpp controls the "stringent ... This entry includes guanosine-5-triphosphate,3-diphosphate pyrophosphatases (also known as pppGpp-5-phosphohydrolases) and ... Exopolyphosphate phosphatase and guanosine pentaphosphate phosphatase belong to the sugar kinase/actin/hsp 70 superfamily.. ...
Guanosine triphosphate / Comment: GTP (energy-carrying molecule) *YM. #5: Chemical. E-502. J-502. C-502. L-502. A-502. K-502. ... Non-polymers , 3 types, 18 molecules #4: Chemical. E-501. J-501. C-501. L-501. A-501. K-501. ChemComp-GTP / GUANOSINE. -. 5. - ... Protein/peptide , 3 types, 14 molecules E. J. C. L. A. K. F. G. D. I. B. H. N. M. #1: Protein/peptide. E. J. C. L. A. K. ... TRIPHOSPHATE. Details. Sites. Mass: 523.180 Da / Num. of mol.: 6 / Source method: obtained synthetically / Formula: C10H16N5O14 ...
To test whether the role of EF-G is limited to a single action in triggering sliding, we measured guanosine 5′-triphosphate ( ... Single-molecule experiments using TIRF microscopy. Single-molecule FRET experiments were carried out at 22°C or 4° to 10°C ... Elongation factor G promotes bypassing at the cost of guanosine 5′-triphosphate hydrolysis. To identify what triggers bypassing ... E) Guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of EF-G during bypassing and the kinetics of bypassing measured by [14C]Leu ...
Adenosine triphosphateNucleotideProteinsIntracellularHeterotrimeric guanosine triphosphateGuanineHydrolysisRiboseTriphosphatasePathwaysNucleotidesAdaptorNucleic acidMRNA moleculeNADHNucleoside triphosphatePppGppPhosphate groupPyrophosphateOxaloacetateEnzymesRibonucleic acidElongation factorReceptorsProtein synthesisCoenzymeInhibitorSignal transductionThymidineOrganic moleculesGlycolysisEnergyCyclohydrolaseCarbon dioxideGlucose moleculeTubulin moleculesGenePathwayEffectorPentaphosphateCGMPIdentificationChemicalReceptorAmino acidsNuclearPyrimidineTRNAInosinePyruvic acidAdeninePolymerase
- This process requires adenosine triphosphate , amino acid activating enzymes, and guanosine triphosphate . (factbites.com)
- a high-energy nucleotide, similar to adenosine triphosphate, that functions in various metabolic reactions, such as the activation of fatty acids and the formation of peptide bonds in protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
- The Krebs cycle is a series of enzymatic reactions that catalyzes the aerobic metabolism of fuel molecules to carbon dioxide and water, thereby generating energy for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
- Since all digestible forms of carbohydrates are eventually transformed into glucose, it is important to consider how glucose is able to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to various cells and tissues. (sparknotes.com)
- In both types of metabolism, the breakdown is accompanied by the formation of energy-rich bonds, chiefly the pyrophosphate bond of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as a coupling agent between different metabolic processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When energy is required to perform an exercise, it is supplied by the breakdown of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). (brianmac.co.uk)
- Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thus, for example, deoxy-adenosine-triphosphate (pictured at right), one of the activated precursors in the synthesis of DNA, is abbreviated as dATP. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The other is ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (technologynetworks.com)
- Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, provides most of the necessary energy. (issels.com)
- Intracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species and complex I activity were measured by traditional biochemical methods to determine the functional role of the disease-associated mutation. (arvojournals.org)
- In that capacity, they serve as sources of chemical energy (adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate), participate in cellular signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (coenzyme A, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). (medicalxpress.com)
- However it may be the case that the increase in fuel supply leads to an upgrade in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production at times of high demand. (archive.org)
- Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is the universal energy currency of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which serves as a carrier for mannose residues in glycoprotein synthesis and as a substrate for a phosphorylation reaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (factbites.com)
- a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which is formed during the hydrolysis of nucleic acidis and is a regulator of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. (factbites.com)
- guanosine monophosphate (GMP) a nucleotide important in metabolism and RNA synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- guanosine triphosphate (GTP) a nucleotide required for RNA synthesis and involved in energy metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
- AVN944 is an oral, small molecule inhibitor of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme that is essential for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Like other G proteins, Rab cycles between two nucleotide-bound states, a GDP-bound state and a GTP-bound state, and the GTP-bound active form of Rab promotes membrane trafficking through interaction with specific effector molecules ( 1 - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- Here, we show that elongation factor G (EF-G) triggers ribosome take-off by a pseudotranslocation event using a small mRNA stem-loop as an A-site transfer RNA mimic and requires hydrolysis of about two molecules of guanosine 5′-triphosphate per nucleotide of the noncoding gap. (sciencemag.org)
- Guanosine monophosphate , also known as 5'-guanidylic acid and abbreviated GMP , is a nucleotide that is found in RNA . (statemaster.com)
- When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, guanine forms a derivative called guanosine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides nucleotide , organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Guanosine-5'-triphosphate, a purine nucleotide, is required as a coenzyme for protein biosynthesis in a cell-free system. (thomassci.com)
- The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine and lacks only a phosphate to form a nucleotide. (conservapedia.com)
- Cyclic guanosine triphosphate (cGTP) helps cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activate cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in the olfactory system . (worldheritage.org)
- Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), which is a purine nucleotide triphosphate, acts as an energy source during translation-both at the start of elongation and during the ribosome's translocation. (lumenlearning.com)
- The nucleotide molecule contains three functional groups: a base, a sugar, and a phosphate (see diagram). (encyclopedia.com)
- For instance, guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is an RNA nucleotide with three phosphates attached. (encyclopedia.com)
- Both mutant proteins were found to be associated with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in vivo. (factbites.com)
- The authors investigated the hypothesis that isoflurane modulates nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and protection against myocardial infarction through time-dependent changes in expression of key NO regulatory proteins, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (asahq.org)
- Identification and development of small-molecule probes with high potency and specificity represents a major effort for chemical biologists to explore and validate the roles of the proteins in a broader biological context. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Bonded to the proteins, the energy molecule Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is crucial for turning off many protein switches. (photonics.com)
- The two globular proteins, which only occur in this network, each exhibit a binding site for a single guanosine triphosphate ( GTP ) molecule. (fsu.edu)
- In 1980 Alfred Gilman discovered that molecules involved in the transfer are a type of protein that reacts with GTP - G proteins. (nobelprize.org)
- Central regulatory elements of intracellular signaling networks are small GTPases (guanosine triphosphate hydrolases, also referred to as G-proteins). (nature.com)
- In the active state, signals are propagated by the recruitment of effector proteins that function as signal transmitting molecules. (nature.com)
- They utilise heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins to transduce extracellular signals to intracellular events. (embl.de)
- The ras genes encode proteins that exhibit guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding or guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, or both. (glowm.com)
- This includes integral membrane proteins, that is, proteins that completely traverse the lipid bilayer sometimes more than once such as membrane receptors, as well as peripheral membrane proteins such as the guanosine-triphosphate (GTP) binding protein ("G-protein") subunits and cell-cell recognition molecules such as LFA-2 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-2), which are only associated with the membrane and do not traverse it. (springer.com)
- Other molecules, such as fatty acids and proteins, can also serve as energy sources when they are funneled through appropriate enzymatic pathways. (nih.gov)
- The proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides that make up most of the food we eat must be broken down into smaller molecules before our cells can use them-either as a source of energy or as building blocks for other molecules. (nih.gov)
- In either case, the large polymeric molecules in food are broken down during digestion into their monomer subunits-proteins into amino acids, polysaccharides into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol -through the action of enzymes. (nih.gov)
- It contains most of the cell's genetic material , organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins , such as histones , to form chromosomes . (bionity.com)
- The movement of larger molecules such as proteins is carefully controlled, and requires active transport facilitated by carrier proteins. (bionity.com)
- Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-delineated bodies, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and DNA conglomerates. (bionity.com)
- In the active state, G-proteins dissociate into G-alpha and G-beta gamma subunits, which are able to activate signaling molecules that mediate changes in the cytoskeletal apparatus, and transcription factors that regulate cell growth. (sabiosciences.com)
- Archaea SRP is composed of an SRP RNA molecule and two bound proteins named SRP19 and SRP54. (hindawi.com)
- The large, 50S ribosome subunit has a carefully folded RNA molecule (16S ribosomal RNA), interwoven between the 50S ribosomal proteins. (scientificamerican.com)
- On the other hand, the small 30S subunit has two RNA molecules (23S and 5S ribosomal RNA) with its ribosomal proteins encasing it (2), (3). (scientificamerican.com)
- Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. (uniprot.org)
- This mass is probably representative of the receptor complexed with other proteins or molecules. (aspetjournals.org)
- Structural similarities between Ruk, CIN85 and CD2AP/CMS suggest that these proteins form a novel family of adaptor molecules that are involved in various intracellular signalling pathways. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Entire disciplines have developed around obtaining a better understanding of molecules of biological significance including DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), proteins, and their respective component molecules. (google.com)
- IMPDH inhibition leads to a reduction in intracellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a molecule required for DNA and RNA synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Small GTPase Rab is generally thought to control intracellular membrane trafficking through interaction with specific effector molecules. (mcponline.org)
- Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
- In bacteria, nutrient deprivation evokes the stringent response, which is mediated by the small intracellular signaling molecule ppGpp. (asm.org)
- The chemical structure of Guanosine Guanosine is a nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a Î²-N9-glycosidic bond. (statemaster.com)
- The accepted structure of the guanine molecule was proposed in 1875, and the compound was first synthesized in 1900. (thefreedictionary.com)
- GTP is the source of the guanosine found in RNA and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) is the source of the deoxyguanosine in DNA, and thus guanine is intimately involved in the preservation and transfer of genetic information. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Guanine=== Guanine, a two-ring molecular structure, and is derived from the two-ring parent molecule purine. (conservapedia.com)
- Its structure is similar to that of the guanine nucleobase , the only difference being that nucleotides like GTP have a ribose sugar and three phosphates , with the nucleobase attached to the 1' and the triphosphate moiety attached to the 5' carbons of the ribose. (worldheritage.org)
- PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of one guanosine triphosphate molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- Using a combination of FTIR spectroscopy and bio-molecular simulations, the researchers were able to visualize the state of the arginine finger bonded to the GTP molecule at one hundredth of the atomic diameter, which presented in detail how GTP hydrolysis is accelerated. (photonics.com)
- In gluconeogenesis, PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of 1 guanosine triphosphate molecule. (hmdb.ca)
- The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) molecules attached to each tubulin subunit supports the nonequilibrium nature of microtubule dynamics. (rice.edu)
- Regulated by the binding and hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphates, the RNA-bound SRP54 protein transiently associates not only with the hydrophobic signal sequence as it emerges from the ribosomal exit tunnel, but also interacts with the membrane-associated SRP receptor (FtsY). (hindawi.com)
- Translation and protein translocation or membrane insertion take place during ongoing translation (cotranslational translocation), and, upon hydrolysis of two GTP molecules, the SRP returns to its free cytosolic state ready to initiate another protein targeting cycle (Figure 1 ) [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Such GTP hydrolysis is not mandatory for microtubule formation, but it appears that only GDP-bound tubulin molecules are able to depolymerize. (worldheritage.org)
- E ) Guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of EF-G during bypassing and the kinetics of bypassing measured by [ 14 C]Leu incorporation. (sciencemag.org)
- Ran, a small guanosine triphosphatase, is suggested to have additional functions beyond its well-characterized role in nuclear trafficking. (sciencemag.org)
- 14 , 15 To this end, we direct our efforts on identification novel small molecules as selective EPAC antagonists to probe the functions of EPAC in relevant signaling pathways and act as potential therapeutics with unique targets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of the adult stage of T. circumcincta and to infer the main pathways linked to molecules known to be expressed in this nematode. (biomedcentral.com)
- The instructions for the pathways that make these molecules are stored in the genome - the complete set of genetic material - of the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- have now used genome mining to identify a biochemical pathway in P. luminescens that combines the pathways used to create two different types of small molecules produced by the bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- To start, many companies begin with molecules that target particular pathways that are important in cancer metabolism. (scienceboard.net)
- Molecules acting against these pathways are often selected based on knowledge from scientific literature or internal expertise. (scienceboard.net)
- Traditional approaches have looked at inhibiting guanosine triphosphate (GTP) pathways, but this is challenging as it may also result in inhibition of properly functioning wildtype KRAS activity. (scienceboard.net)
- Adenine nucleotides are components of three major coenzymes, NAD + , FAD, and CoA, organic molecules that assist in various biochemical reactions by serving as carriers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- RNA molecules, for example, can contain as few as 75 nucleotides to more than five thousand nucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Activity that transfers the [γ-S] group to other nucleotides or other RNA molecules (often troublesome in other systems) cannot be detected. (oregonstate.edu)
- Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. (medicalxpress.com)
- Rap1-guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) plays a critical role in actin reorganization and inside-out activation of integrins in lymphocytes and platelets. (sciencemag.org)
- Knockdown of Rap1-guanosine triphosphate-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM), a Rap1 effector, blocks this response. (rupress.org)
- This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes. (powtoon.com)
- Translation 'is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. (powtoon.com)
- On one end of its structure, it carries the attached amino acid with it and on another it exposes a three letter genetic code (anti-codon to mRNA's codon) that acts as a specific recognition site for binding to the mRNA molecule inside the ribosome. (scientificamerican.com)
- Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces two molecules of carbon dioxide, one guanosine triphosphate molecule (GTP), and enough electrons to generate three molecules of NADH and one molecule of FADH 2 . (encyclopedia.com)
- At the same time, two molecules of NADH are formed. (sparknotes.com)
- Finally, the C-4 carbon skeleton undergoes three additional reactions in which guanosine triphosphate (GTP), FADH2 and NADH are formed, thereby regenerating oxaloacetate. (sparknotes.com)
- Occurs in living cells, primarily in the oxidized state Coenzyme for dehydrogenases NAD usually acts as a hydrogen acceptor, forming NADH Major electron acceptor molecule in biological oxidations. (thomassci.com)
- In this section we trace the major steps in the breakdown, or catabolism , of sugars and show how they produce ATP, NADH, and other activated carrier molecules in animal cells. (nih.gov)
- During pyruvate formation, two types of activated carrier molecules are produced-ATP and NADH. (nih.gov)
- ddNTP.GIF a nucleoside triphosphate analog that causes termination of an elongating DNA molecule when incorporated by DNA polymerase because of the absence of a 3´-hydroxyl residue on the sugar portion of the compound, which is necessary for the formation of the 3' to 5' phosphate linkage in an elongating DNA chain. (factbites.com)
- Guanosine-5'-triphosphate ( GTP ) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate . (worldheritage.org)
- In the cell, DNA or RNA polymers are synthesized using nucleoside triphosphate monomers as precursors. (encyclopedia.com)
- During polymer synthesis, two of the phosphate groups of the incoming nucleoside triphosphate are cleaved off, and this provides the energy needed to power the reaction. (encyclopedia.com)
- As the enzymes of the Krebs cycle oxidize fuel molecules to carbon dioxide, the coenzymes NAD + , FAD, and coenzyme Q (also known as ubiquinone) are reduced. (encyclopedia.com)
- GTP acts as a coenzyme coenzyme , any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- For instance, a GTP molecule is generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle . (worldheritage.org)
- Thus the divalent cation receptors for RE and exocytosis must be distinct molecules. (pnas.org)
- Such receptors participate in virtually all physiological processes as signalling molecules. (embl.de)
- Membrane receptors bind extracellular molecules, such as growth factors and steroid hormones, initiating a cascade of events that culminates in altered gene expression. (glowm.com)
- When an endorphin molecule binds to receptors on brain cells, it switches on a G protein that produces the "high" sensation when one is elated. (latimes.com)
- ATP handles the bulk of a cell's energy requirements, while GTP is required for protein synthesis and is a signaling molecule that helps direct processes within the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
- Each of these subunits is made up of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules that complement each other in achieving ribosome's function of protein synthesis. (scientificamerican.com)
- Essentially, the small subunit part of the machine is for recognizing and correctly binding the incoming tRNA molecules and the large part is for facilitating the protein synthesis action (fig. 1). (scientificamerican.com)
- The pyruvic acid molecules from glycolysis undergo oxidation in the mitochondrion to produce acetyl coenzyme A and then the Krebs cycle begins. (brianmac.co.uk)
- There, each pyruvate molecule is converted into CO 2 plus a two-carbon acetyl group-which becomes attached to coenzyme A (CoA), forming acetyl CoA , another activated carrier molecule (see Figure 2-62 ). (nih.gov)
- The acetyl group in acetyl CoA is linked to coenzyme A through a high-energy linkage , and it is therefore easily transferable to other molecules. (nih.gov)
- We describe here the identification and properties of SCH-C (SCH 351125), a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CCR5 coreceptor. (pnas.org)
- The company leveraged a novel approach of locking the molecule in an autoinhibition position with the use of an allosteric inhibitor. (scienceboard.net)
- So we already know that if we start off with a glucose molecule, which is a 6-carbon molecule, that this essentially gets split in half by glycolysis and we end up 2 pyruvic acids or two pyruvate molecules. (khanacademy.org)
- In stage 2 a chain of reactions called glycolysis converts each molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules of pyruvate. (nih.gov)
- During exercise, hormonal levels shift and this disruption of homeostasis alters the metabolism of glucose and other energy-bearing molecules. (sparknotes.com)
- Although one molecule of GTP leads to the production of one ATP, the production of the reduced NAD and FAD are far more significant in the cell's energy-generating process because they donate their electrons to an electron transport system that generates large amounts ATP. (brianmac.co.uk)
- This energy is derived from the chemical bond energy in food molecules, which thereby serve as fuel for cells. (nih.gov)
- As this translation takes place, transfer RNA (tRNA) constantly brings in amino acid building blocks, while energy-supplying molecules in the form of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) cycle through. (medgadget.com)
- GTP-guanosine triphosphate-is one of two energy molecules used by cells. (technologynetworks.com)
- ATP Synthase , for example, is a large protein machine in cells that functions by rotating itself to power its ATP (energy) molecule production. (scientificamerican.com)
- A recent breakthrough shows similar promise as a way to cut off the energy molecules that fuel the growth of cancer cells. (issels.com)
- Cells are fueled by two types of energy molecules. (issels.com)
- The process of translation requires transfer RNAs specific for individual amino acids with the amino acids covalently attached to them, guanosine triphosphate as an energy source, and a number of translation factors. (biology-online.org)
- Anesthetic preconditioning favorably enhances gene expression in the nitric oxide biosynthetic pathway by upregulation of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (asahq.org)
- Autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency (Segawa disease). (docme.ru)
- Autosomal Dominant Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Deficiency (Segawa Disease) Masaya Segawa, MD, PhD,1 Yoshiko Nomura, MD, PhD,1 and Nobuyoshi Nishiyama, PhD2 Autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) deficiency (Segawa disease) is a dopa-responsive dystonia caused by mutation of the GCH-I gene located on 14q22.1-q22.2. (docme.ru)
- Ann Neurol 2003;54 (suppl 6):S32-S45 Autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) deficiency (Segawa disease) is a dominantly inherited dystonia that responds markedly to L-dopa and is caused by heterozygous mutation of GCH-I gene located on 14q22-q22.2. (docme.ru)
- Microtubules grow from their free end at about 1 micron per minute by continually adding more tubulin (around 20 tubulin molecules per second). (eurekalert.org)
- This peeling, or depolymerization, takes place at up to 15 microns per minute, or about 300 tubulin molecules falling off per second, Nogales said. (eurekalert.org)
- RPMI-8226R was subjected to microarray gene expression profiling, and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) level was determined with the objective of comparing these biomarkers to the same markers in patient samples from the Phase I clinical trial. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cancer researchers are saying they have conquered the "Everest of cancer genes " with the discovery of a synthetic molecule that inhibits the mutated RAS cancer-promoting gene. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
- Each protein-coding gene is transcribed into a template molecule of the related polymer RNA, known as messenger RNA or mRNA. (biology-online.org)
- Exopolyphosphatases (Ppx) is involved in the degradation of inorganic polyphosphates [ PMID: 8380170 ] and belongs to the same family as the guanosine pentaphosphate phosphatase [ PMID: 8212131 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Exopolyphosphate phosphatase and guanosine pentaphosphate phosphatase belong to the sugar kinase/actin/hsp 70 superfamily. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The amplification of the rod signal is produced by two phototransduction components: a single R* activating multiple Tα subunits, and a single Tα/PDE complex hydrolyzing multiple cGMP molecules. (arvojournals.org)
- Now, Sildenafil citrate is coming in the form of jelly with is called Kamagra oral jelly and it is considered as an anti-impotence medicine in semi-liquid form and takes action on active PDE-5 enzyme and blocks it when it get blocked it increases cGMP molecules which are responsible to increase hard erection in male for sexual arousal to enjoy satisfactory sexual intercourse. (list.ly)
- The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. (statemaster.com)
- Search chemical reactions in Rhea for this molecule. (uniprot.org)
- In this process, bacteria use a diverse set of chemical signals to report how many other bacteria are nearby, which enables the bacteria to launch coordinated biological responses - for example, releasing toxic molecules - when their numbers are great enough. (elifesciences.org)
- Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 2 (EBI2) (also known as G-protein-coupled receptor 183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is best known for its role in B cell migration and localization. (aspetjournals.org)
- Quantal analysis of receptor responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated odorant receptor, probably due to an extremely brief dwell time of odorant-receptor interaction, has a low probability of stimulating a single G protein molecule. (sciencemag.org)
- The two scientists discovered that inside the cellular membrane, right next to that receptor, sits a protein, which they named the G protein because it binds to a molecule called guanosine triphosphate. (latimes.com)
- This is supported by the finding that guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate abolished 125I-MK 678 binding to the solubilized SRIF receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
- Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to most molecules, nuclear pores are required to allow movement of molecules across the envelope. (bionity.com)
- After testing a couple of signaling molecules associated with chromosomes, Kiyomitsu determined that a signal from the chromosomes, involving the ras-related nuclear protein (Ran), blocks LGN, and therefore dynein, from attaching to the cell cortex closest to the chromosomes. (phys.org)
- First, there is the driver A site (aminoacyl-tRNA site), that allows the entry of new tRNA molecules attached to an amino acid. (scientificamerican.com)
- Next to it is the middle passenger P site (peptidyl-tRNA site), that holds a growing protein chain and the intermediate tRNA molecule in place. (scientificamerican.com)
- And finally, the front passenger E site (the exit site) allows the exit of both the used tRNA molecules and the newly made protein chain out of the ribosome. (scientificamerican.com)
- the tRNA molecule . (scientificamerican.com)
- The tRNA molecule is folded into L-shaped RNA structure from its genetic sequence. (scientificamerican.com)
- Essentially, a tRNA molecule functions as a cargo-like molecule during the protein translation event by bringing in a new amino acid into the ribosome for it to be incorporated into the growing protein chain (2). (scientificamerican.com)
- A build-up of H+ will make the muscle cells acidic and interfere with their operation so carrier molecules, called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), remove the H+. (brianmac.co.uk)
- three molecules of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are reduced. (brianmac.co.uk)
- Uracil can base pair with any of the bases depending on how the molecule arranges itself on the helix, but readily pairs with adenine. (conservapedia.com)
- Purine Nitrogenous bases== ===Adenine=== Adenine is derived from the two-ring parent molecule purine. (conservapedia.com)
- Transcription initiation in isolated yeast nuclei by endogenous RNA polymerase has been studied using nucleoside 5'-[γ-S] triphosphates as affinity probes. (oregonstate.edu)
- Eukaryotic mRNA are monocistronic molecules that are produced in the nucleus by the activity of RNA polymerase II. (asnjournals.org)