The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
At low concentrations, this compound inhibits reduction of conventional hydrophilic electron acceptors, probably acting as a plastoquinone antagonist. At higher concentrations, it acts as an electron acceptor, intercepting electrons either before or at the site of its inhibitory activity.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The absence of light.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
This method still incorporates the respiratory electron transport chain, but without using oxygen as the terminal electron ... yielding more ATP by using other inorganic molecules (not oxygen) of high energy as final electron acceptors in the electron ... The mitochondrial electron transport chain proton pump transfers across the inner membrane 10 H+ / 1 NADH+H+ (4 + 2 + 4) or 6 ... Instead, molecules such as sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), or sulfur (S) are used as electron acceptors Lollar, Garnet S.; ...
The deficit of electrons is replenished by taking electrons from another molecule of water. The electrons transfer from ... Electrons then move spontaneously from donor to acceptor through an electron transport chain. ATP is made by an enzyme called ... The transfer of electrons from a high-energy molecule (the donor) to a lower-energy molecule (the acceptor) can be spatially ... Redox reactions are chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The ...
While the ATP count is glycolysis and the Krebs cycle is two ATP molecules, the electron transport chain contributes, at most, ... NADH and FADH2 contain the stored energy harnessed from the initial glucose molecule and is used in the electron transport ... Oxygen as a high-energy molecule increases ATP production from 4 ATP molecules to about 30 ATP molecules. In anaerobic ... In glycolysis, a six-carbon glucose molecule is split into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. These carbon molecules ...
In cyclic electron transfer, electrons are removed from an excited chlorophyll molecule, passed through an electron transport ... This chain of electron acceptors is known as an electron transport chain. When this chain reaches PS I, an electron is again ... Thus, electron transfer proceeds efficiently from the first electron acceptor to the next, creating an electron transport chain ... There are two different pathways of electron transport in PS I. In noncyclic electron transport, ferredoxin carries the ...
... ceramide suppresses the electron transport chain and induces production of reactive oxygen species. One of the most studied ... Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules. A ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in ... Ceramide is subsequently transported to the Golgi apparatus by either vesicular trafficking or the ceramide transfer protein ... Second, the de novo pathway creates ceramide from less complex molecules. Third, in the "salvage" pathway, sphingolipids that ...
Four electrons of the water molecules need to be separated and transported elsewhere. Another difficult part is the process of ... This catalyst separates the electrons and the water molecules. The nanoparticles are assembled into a thin layer and a single ... The DSPEC consist out of two components: a molecule and a nanoparticle. The molecule is called a chromophore-catalyst assembly ... Historically, ice was transported from mountains to cities for use as a coolant. One metric ton of water (= one cubic meter) ...
The electron transport chain carries both protons and electrons, passing electrons from donors to acceptors, and transporting ... and indeed of the entire electron chain, is the binding of a NADH molecule to complex I and the donation of two electrons. The ... so in the electron transport chain they serve solely to transport electrons through proteins. Electrons move quite long ... The chain of redox reactions driving the flow of electrons through the electron transport chain, from electron donors such as ...
Acetyl-CoA is then used in the citric acid cycle while FADH2 and NADH are sent to the electron transport chain. These ... 4. Thiolase cleaves between the alpha carbon and ketone to release one molecule of Acetyl-CoA and the Acyl-CoA which is now 2 ... After formation in the cytosol, acyl-CoA is transported into the mitochondria, the locus of beta oxidation. Transport of acyl- ... Heart muscle primarily metabolizes fat for energy and Acyl-CoA metabolism has been identified as a critical molecule in early ...
Taira, Yoshichika (1 January 2013). "Antimycin A-like molecules inhibit cyclic electron transport around photosystem I in ... It also will cause the disruption of the entire electron transport chain. Due to this, there can be no production of ATP. ... Because Antimycin A binds to a specific protein in the electron transport chain, its toxicity can be highly species dependent ... Cytochrome c reductase is a central enzyme in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation. The inhibition of this ...
During this stage, electrons are passed down the electron transport chain. Energy is released and captured for ATP production. ... The net result of this step is 34 ATP molecules Darpan P (July 1999). Jain M (ed.). "Cellular Respiration". Competition Science ... The acetyl group is used in the Krebs cycle and the phase ends with the electron transport chain. ... which then reacts with pyruvate kinase to yield two pyruvate molecules. Pyruvate kinase is the last step of glycolysis and is ...
... across the inner mitochondrial membrane by means of the electron transport chain. In the electron transport chain, electrons ... The last destination for an electron along this chain is an oxygen molecule. In normal conditions, the oxygen is reduced to ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemical molecules formed due to the electron receptivity of O2. Examples of ... In aerobic organisms the energy needed to fuel biological functions is produced in the mitochondria via the electron transport ...
... transport, trapping, and transfer of electrons". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130 (40): 13364-13372. doi:10.1021/ ... Walker has created protein simulations to understand the structure and function of biologically-relevant molecules. James ... creating mobile charge carriers that that migrate to electron and hole transport layers. Walker was made coordinator of the ... Electrons within the perovskite are excited across the material bandgap, ...
The electrons from each NADH molecule can form a total of 3 ATP's from ADPs and phosphate groups through the electron transport ... FADH2 is also oxidized into H+ ions, electrons, and FAD. As those electrons travel farther through the electron transport chain ... they form two molecules of water (H2O). By accepting the electrons, oxygen allows the electron transport chain to continue ... However, the electrons that have entered the electron transport chain would eventually pile up like cars traveling down a ...
... the anti-bunching effects arising from their fermionic statistics and he demonstrated electron transport through DNA molecules ... He studied electron transport in quantum wires and shot noise and noise reduction in electron transport. Subsequently, he and ... These include quasi one-dimensional objects such as quantum wires, carbon nanotubes, and DNA-molecules or two-dimensional ... Other applications include the generation of spatially separated entangled electrons using a Cooper pair splitter. More ...
... investigating nanoscale electron transport through molecular layers. By combining single molecule spectroscopy (using scanning ... Her research considers the vibrational dynamics of single-molecules at surfaces. Her group use STM to monitor molecules and ... "Single-Molecule Vibrational Spectroscopy and Inelastic-Tunneling-Electron-Induced Diffusion of Formate Adsorbed on Ni(110)". ... with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to identify electron transfer channels. She discovered a new reaction pathway on ...
Subcellular transport of ions, electrons and molecules such as water and enzymes occurs across cell membranes. Minerals and ... Molecules are moved within plants by transport processes that operate at a variety of spatial scales. ... Diffusion, osmosis, and active transport and mass flow are all different ways transport can occur. Examples of elements that ... that's used to make molecules of ATP and NADPH which temporarily store and transport energy. Their energy is used in the light- ...
... (PQ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions ... It transfers the electrons further down the electron transport chain to plastocyanin, a mobile, water-soluble electron carrier ... The free plastoquinone molecules eventually transfer electrons to the water-soluble plastocyanin so as to continue the light- ... QA is only transferred a single electron, so it has to transfer an electron to QB twice before QB is able to pick up two ...
When in the body, these viologens interfere with electron transport chain, often causing cell death. These molecules act as ... In this sense, the molecule resembles Tschischibabin's hydrocarbon, discovered during 1907. It also shares with this molecule a ... Once the electron has been transferred to the molecular oxygen, it forms a superoxide radical that causes disproportionation, ... The delocalization of charge, which allows for the molecule to stay as a free radical and these structures can be easily ...
Electron transport chain, and humanin[edit]. It was originally incorrectly believed that the mitochondrial genome contained ... Because they provide 30 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule in contrast to the 2 ATP molecules produced by glycolysis, ... This results in two new mtDNA molecules. Each mitochondrion has several copies of the mtDNA molecule and the number of mtDNA ... all of them encoding proteins of the electron transport chain. However, in 2001, a 14th biologically active protein called ...
Succinate thus serves as a direct electron donor to the electron transport chain, and itself is converted into fumarate. Click ... nonspecific protein channels that facilitate the diffusion of molecules less than 1.5 kDa. Transport across the plasma membrane ... it forces electrons to flow backwards along the electron transport chain. RET at mitochondrial respiratory complex 1, the ... production by directing electron flow in the electron transport chain. Under conditions of succinate accumulation, rapid ...
Two transport mechanisms are fundamental for nanoelectrochemistry: electron transfer and mass transport. The formulation of ... Mass transport, that is the diffusion of the reactant molecules from the electrolyte bulk to the nanoelectrode, is influenced ... The electron transfer between the reactant and the nanoelectrode can be explained by the combination of various theories based ... Nanoelectrochemistry plays significant role in the fabrication of various sensors, and devices for detecting molecules at very ...
Active transport is the uptake by cells of ions or molecules against a concentration gradient; this requires an energy source, ... It helps in the electron transport of plant. Molybdenum is a cofactor to enzymes important in building amino acids and is ... Hydrogen ions are imperative for a proton gradient to help drive the electron transport chain in photosynthesis and for ... it is found in the iron-sulfur complexes of the electron transport chains in photosynthesis. It is needed for N2 fixation by ...
In addition, the electron transport chain (ETC) may produce more free radicals due to loss of components of the ETC, such as ... Loss of ETC components can lead to escape of electrons from the chain, which can then reduce molecules and form free radicals. ... When Δψ is lost, protons and some molecules are able to flow across the outer mitochondrial membrane uninhibited. Loss of Δψ ... MPT causes mitochondria to become permeable to molecules smaller than 1.5 kDa, which, once inside, draw water in by increasing ...
These molecules pass electrons to an electron transport chain, which uses the energy released to create a proton gradient ... These electrons travel down an electron transport chain, causing protons to be actively pumped across the thylakoid membrane ... The carriers pass electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which in turn pass them ... The energy from the electron movement through electron transport chains cross through ATP synthase which allows the proton to ...
The electrons are transported by the associated "P" cluster, which contains two cubical Fe4S4 clusters joined by sulfur bridges ... The sixth coordination site contains a water molecule or a dioxygen molecule. By contrast the protein myoglobin, found in ... iron-sulfur clusters that are involved in transporting the electrons needed to reduce the nitrogen, and an abundant energy ... Rubredoxin is an electron-carrier found in sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and archaea. The active site contains an iron ion ...
H dehydrogenase which transfers electrons in a linear chain to oxygen molecules. This electron transport chain (ETC) within the ... The role of this redox carrier is to transport electrons from the NAD(P)H enzyme to oxygen molecules on the thylakoid membrane ... Whereas, the NDH complexes are responsible for providing a gateway for electrons to form an ETC. The presence of such molecules ... A reduction in such molecules then stimulates NADPH and PTOX molecules to trigger chlororespiratory pathways. Furthermore, in ...
The electrolyte then transports the electrons back to the dye molecules and regenerates the oxidised dye. The basic working ... Meanwhile, the dye molecule has lost an electron and the molecule will decompose if another electron is not provided. The dye ... the missing electrons, also known as electron holes. Eventually enough electrons will flow across the boundary to equalize the ... To improve electron transport in these solar cells, while maintaining the high surface area needed for dye adsorption, two ...
... starting an electron transport chain reaction leading to the stage II reactions. Propanil inhibits the electron transport chain ... In the stage I reaction a chlorophyll molecule absorbs one photon (light) and loses one electron, ... In stage I photosynthetic reactions capture sunlight energy and yield molecules with high energy content. In stage II these ... molecules react to capture CO2, yielding carbohydrate precursors. ...
... and particularly the electron transport protein plastocyanin. The intensely blue colour of plastocyanin and its unusual redox ... properties had frustrated all attempts to synthesise a small molecule mimic. It was not until 1977 that his group finally ...
They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells ... Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its ... Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles (EM ... Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ...
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of a lipid vesicle. The two dark bands around the edge are the two leaflets of the ... Bacteria, fungi and plants have strong cell walls as well, which support the cell and block the passage of large molecules. ... These proteins mainly transport chemicals and information across the membrane.[3]. The membrane contains many proteins. The ... The membrane is made up of a thin layer called the 'phospholipid bilayer'. This has two layers of phospholipid molecules with ...
... until it decelerates to a point where it can interact with an electron.[35] The encounter annihilates both electron and ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ... which has a half-life of 110 minutes and can be transported a reasonable distance before use, or to rubidium-82 (used as ... Organic radiotracer molecules that will contain a positron-emitting radioisotope cannot be synthesized first and then the ...
... while major veins are responsible for its transport outside of the leaf. At the same time water is being transported in the ... Scanning electron microscope image of trichomes on the lower surface of a Coleus blumei (coleus) leaf ... The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other, but ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... "West Africa - Ebola virus disease Update: Travel and transport". International travel and health. World Health Organization ( ... immune defense molecules indicative of Ebola infection were found in three bat species; at various periods of study, between ... Transport, travel, contact. Transportation crews are instructed to follow a certain isolation procedure, should anyone exhibit ...
... each of which forms a dimer with one of its adjacent molecules. Part of a GDP molecule binding site is highlighted in pink.[47] ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s.[17][18] The results of ... Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transportEdit. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ...
It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm ... Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ... 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... Electron micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network around the nucleus (shown in lower right-hand side of the picture). ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... Early diagenesis in newly formed aquatic sediments is mediated by microorganisms using different electron acceptors as part of ...
Step 1: Two 3CD (VPg complex) molecules bind to CRE with the 3C domains (VPg domain) contacting the upper stem and the 3D ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral particle is ...
The electron transport chain consists of a series of redox reactions in which electrons are transferred from a donor molecule ... An electron transport chain (ETC) is how a cell gets energy from sunlight in photosynthesis. Electron transport chains also ... Electron transport chain. A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors ... each molecule of glucose leads to about 34 molecules of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) being produced by the electron transport ...
Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex. *Mitochondrial trifunctional protein ... The thiol is inserted between C-2 and C-3, which yields an acetyl CoA molecule and an acyl CoA molecule, which is two carbons ... in which 3-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by the thiol group of another molecule of Coenzyme A. ...
Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... transmission electron microscopy, etc. have allowed scientists to get a better idea of the structure of cells.[8] ... These molecules within the cell, which operate as substrates, provide a suitable environment for the cell to carry out ... in order for these molecules to participate in reactions, within the cell, they need to be able to cross this membrane layer to ...
"for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۷۵] ... for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[۳۴] ... "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the ...
... when it absorbs an excited electron released from compounds of the electron transport chain. Superoxide is known to denature ... The ligands of the manganese ions are 3 histidine side-chains, an aspartate side-chain and a water molecule or hydroxy ligand, ... Because the uncatalysed dismutation reaction for superoxide requires two superoxide molecules to react with each other, the ... adhesion molecule expression, and leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (3): 537 ...
Main article: Electron transport chain. This is where most of the ATP is made. All of the hydrogen molecules which have been ... Because two acetyl-CoA molecules are produced from each glucose molecule, two cycles are required per glucose molecule. ... It has four stages known as glycolysis, Link reaction, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. This produces ATP ... One carbon dioxide molecule and one hydrogen molecule are removed from the pyruvate (called oxidative decarboxylation) to ...
... stripped of their electron shells), and about 1% are solitary electrons (similar to beta particles). Of the nuclei, about 90% ... When cosmic rays enter the Earth's atmosphere they collide with atoms and molecules, mainly oxygen and nitrogen. The ... 2011). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. *^ ... Hence, next to photons electrons and positrons usually dominate in air showers. These particles as well as muons can be easily ...
Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ... "Molecular model for a complete clathrin lattice from electron cryomicroscopy". Nature. 432 (7017): 573-9. doi:10.1038/ ... Adaptor molecules are responsible for self-assembly and recruitment. Two examples of adaptor proteins are AP180[3] and epsin.[4 ... The skelion does not bind directly to the membrane, but binds to the adaptor proteins that recognize the molecules on the ...
Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... In February 2011, the Swiss Post issued a postage stamp bearing a depiction of a model of a molecule of vitamin C to mark the ... UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase uses the co-factor NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
... one electron donor and one electron acceptor. When a photon is converted into an electron hole pair, typically in the donor ... European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport. *^ PV production grows despite a crisis-driven ... "Hybrid Molecule-Nanocrystal Photon Upconversion Across the Visible and Near-Infrared". Nano Letters. 15 (8): 5552-5557. Bibcode ... Electrons are excited from their current molecular/atomic orbital. Once excited an electron can either dissipate the energy as ...
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube structure tailoring and time-resolved transport measurements in a transmission electron ... C. Zhi, N. Hanagata, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «Dispersible Shortened Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Improved Molecule-Loading ... G. Dmitri, Y. Bando : «Electron Microscopy of Boron Nitride Nanotubes» Electron Microscopy of Nanotubes (2003) ... In situ growth of Indium nanocrystals on InP nanorods mediated by electron beam of transmission electron microscope» Chem. Phys ...
Cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while metal atoms are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode.[ ... or molecules undergoing the electrochemical reaction.[3] For instance, energy can be stored in Zn or Li, which are high-energy ... "liquid electrolytes to transport lithium ions between the anode and the cathode. If a battery cell is charged too quickly, it ... Batteries are designed such that the energetically favorable redox reaction can occur only if electrons move through the ...
Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... The donor molecule is often an activated nucleotide sugar.. *The process is non-templated (unlike DNA transcription or protein ... or other organic molecules. This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, ... is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor). In biology, glycosylation mainly ...
for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons ... "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[63] ... "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[89] ... "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[ ...
electron transport chain. • cellular hyperosmotic salinity response. • retinoid metabolic process. • metanephric collecting ... 2fzb: Human Aldose Reductase complexed with four tolrestat molecules at 1.5 A resolution. ... electron carrier activity. • oxidoreductase activity. • glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity. • alditol:NADP+ 1- ...
The NADH pulls the enzyme's electrons to send through the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions ... yielding more ATP by using other inorganic molecules (not oxygen) of high energy as final electron acceptors in the electron ... The mitochondrial electron transport chain proton pump transfers across the inner membrane 10 H+ / 1 NADH+H+ (4 + 2 + 4) or 6 H ... From the electron transport chain, the released hydrogen ions make ADP for an end result of 32 ATP. O2 provides most of the ...
Carpenter, D.C., Brockway, L.O.: The Electron Diffration Study of Paraldehyde in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58 (1936), 1270-1273 ... Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ...
Flavoproteins of electron transport chain, including FMN in Complex I and FAD in Complex II ... the ring-moiety which imparts the yellow color to the oxidized molecule (from Latin flavus, "yellow"). The reduced form, which ...
And in 1899[A 7] also Lorentz noted for the frequency of oscillating electrons "that in S the time of vibrations be k. ε. {\ ... Based on the mass-energy equivalence, he showed that emission and absorption of em-radiation, and therefore the transport of ... according to which all forces between the molecules are affected by the Lorentz transformation (in which Lorentz set the factor ... It is also important that this contraction would only affect the space between the electrons but not the electrons themselves; ...
Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. ... Sodium loses its outer electron to give it a stable electron configuration, and this electron enters the fluorine atom ... And, because it donates electrons, the reducing agent is also called an electron donor. Electron donors can also form charge ... Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. ...
The simplest of molecules is the hydrogen molecule-ion, H2+, and the simplest of all the chemical bonds is the one-electron ... Restricted transport of polyanions". Kidney Int. 8 (4): 212-218. doi:10.1038/ki.1975.104. PMID 1202253.. ... Sodium loses its outer electron to give it a stable electron configuration, and this electron enters the fluorine atom ... A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are ...
This tutorial outlines the basic theoretical concepts and tools which underpin the fundamentals of phase-coherent electron ... transport through single molecules. The key quantity of interest is the transmission coefficient T(E), which yields the ... Basic concepts of quantum interference and electron transport in single-molecule electronics C. J. Lambert, Chem. Soc. Rev., ... Basic concepts of quantum interference and electron transport in single-molecule electronics ...
Solution processable small molecules as efficient electron transport layers in organic optoelectronic devices J. T. Kim, J. Lee ... Solution processable small molecules as efficient electron transport layers in organic optoelectronic devices† ... as electron transport layers (ETLs) in OSCs and OLEDs. QPSMs can be dissolved in alcohol owing to the strong dipole moments ... Moreover, QPSMs improve electron injection/extraction via the well-matched energy levels in both OSCs and OLEDs. In particular ...
Electron Transport in Flavohemoglobins: from Biologi... FNU: Electron Transport in Flavohemoglobins: from Biological Molecules ...
Asymmetric electron transport realized by decoupling between molecule and electrode.pdf. 679.34 kB. Adobe PDF. View/Open. ... Asymmetric electron transport realized by decoupling between molecule and electrode. Authors: Liu, Hongmei. Zhao, Jianwei. Boey ... Liu, H., Zhao, J., Boey, F. Y. C., & Zhang, H. (2009). Asymmetric electron transport realized by decoupling between molecule ... In the case of the linear system, the favorite direction of electron transport is from the strong coupling end to the weak ...
For flat-lying molecules on NaCl, the Raman images present different patterns depending on the symmetry of the vibrational mode ... This single-molecule study in a well-defined environment provides insights into the Raman process at the plasmonic nanocavity, ... Measurements on individual molecules adsorbed on a thin salt layer unveil that components of the electric field perpendicular ... Here, we investigate an isolated copper naphthalocyanine molecule adsorbed on a triple-layer NaCl on Ag(111) using scanning ...
Theory of electron transport through single molecules. Research output: Thesis › Doctoral Thesis ... molecule , gold structures and the other with graphene sheet electrodes forming graphene , molecule , graphene junctions. ... Understanding the electronic transport properties of junctions consisting of a scattering region such as a nanoscale region or ... The second tool is the quantum transport code Gollum which is based on Greens function-based scattering theory. To introduce ...
Quinone is an important type of molecule that is involved in photosynthesis. The transport of electrons mediate.... Chemistry ... Write the ground state electron configuration for the following atoms and ions. (a) F, F-(b) Sc, Sc3+ (c) Mn2+,.... Chemistry: ... Hemoglobin is the protein that transports oxygen in mammals. Hemoglobin is 0.347% Fe by mass, and each hemoglob.... Chemistry: ... Determine the number of protons and electrons in each of the following ions: Chemistry In Focus ...
Probing Electron Transport in Proteins at Room Temperature with Single-Molecule Precision. , ACS nano, Vol: 6, Pages: 13-16 * ... Single-molecule electron transfer in electrochemical environments. , CHEMICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 108, Pages: 2737-2791, ISSN: 0009- ... The stochastic nature of single-molecule charge transport measurements requires collection of large data sets to capture the ... Unsupervised vector-based classification of single-molecule charge transport data. , Nature Communications, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-10 ...
... where a partially positive hydrogen atom of one molecule experiences a strong attractive force to a... ... The intermolecular forces between molecules of isopropyl alcohol are in the form of hydrogen bonds, ... What Is the Electron Transport Chain? Which of the Following Has the Largest Molecules: Starch, Iodine, or Water? ... In general, the molecules of alcoholic compounds, such as isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol and propyl alcohol, combine ...
We have investigated the electron transport properties of Cobalt-centered (Co-centered) porphyrin molecule using the density ... Journal Article: Electron transport property of cobalt-centered porphyrin-armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) junction ... Title: Electron transport property of cobalt-centered porphyrin-armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) junction ... ELECTRONS; EQUILIBRIUM; GRAPHENE; GREEN FUNCTION; MOLECULES; NANOSTRUCTURES; PORPHYRINS; SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTIONS. ...
... transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy molecule. ... The electron transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy ... According to, in an electron transport chain, the high-energy molecule that gives up the election is called the ... These electrons are passed from the donor molecule to the acceptor oxygen molecule through a membrane, creating hydrogen ions ...
Enhancement of electron transport by horizontal molecular orientation of oxadiazole planar molecules in organic amorphous films ... Enhancement of electron transport by horizontal molecular orientation of oxadiazole planar molecules in organic amorphous films ... T1 - Enhancement of electron transport by horizontal molecular orientation of oxadiazole planar molecules in organic amorphous ... Enhancement of electron transport by horizontal molecular orientation of oxadiazole planar molecules in organic amorphous films ...
What molecule is produced when oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport chain? *. Hydrogen ... Which of the following molecules is not either oxidized or reduced during electron flow through the electron transport chain? * ... What type of metabolic reaction involves a loss of electrons from the molecule involved? *. Oxidation ... What type of metabolic reaction involves a gain of electrons by the molecule involved? *. Oxidation ...
They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia ... They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia ... Keywords: quinolines; naphthalene; lipophilicity; photosynthetic electron transport inhibition; spinach chloroplasts; in vitro ... photosynthetic electron transport inhibition; spinach chloroplasts; in vitro antimycobacterial activity; in vitro cytotoxicity ...
... electron transport chain glycolysis Krebs cycle acetyl CoA formation ... During which stage of cellular respiration is glucose broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid? ... During which stage of cellular respiration is glucose broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid? electron transport chain ... During which stage of cellular respiration is glucose broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid? electron transport chain ...
S The excited electron is transferred through an. electron transport chain to a molecule called NADP+. S As electrons flow ... S One of the chlorophylls electrons is elevated to. a higher energy level, the chlorophyll molecule is said to be in an excited ... S The electrons released from photolysis of. water is accepted by the positively charged chlorophyll to replace the electron ... S The chlorophyll molecule becomes neutral. again, and it is said to be in a ground state. It can continue to absorb light ...
... is an elegant optical technique utilized to observe single molecule fluorescence at surfaces and interfaces. ... electron transport in the mitochondrial membrane; cytoskeletal and membrane dynamics; cellular secretion events; polymer ... When these molecules are excited and detected with a conventional widefield fluorescence microscope, the resulting fluorescence ... Total internal reflection fluorescence is employed to investigate the interaction of molecules with surfaces, an area that is ...
Here, in this work we address direct electrical measurements of hydrogen bond dynamics at the single-molecule and single-event ... study the stochastic arrangement of hydrogen bonds using single-molecule junctions connected to graphene electrodes. ... bonding system is covalently incorporated into graphene point contacts to build stable supramolecule-assembled single-molecule ... Design and control of electron transport properties of single molecules. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 15259-15263 (2009). ...
... little is known about the interplay between molecular spin and electron transport. We have trapped single Mn12 molecules ... A Statistical Approach for the Investigation of Charge Carrier Transport through Single Molecules. ... Transport through Single Molecules from 7 Mar 2005 through 12 Mar 2005. ... Electronic transport through single molecules is a driving new direction in the science and technology of nano-metre-scale ...
It does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and used an ORGANIC molecule as the final electron acceptor. During ... If a pair of electrons is passed along the entire length of the electron transport chain, ATP is made in 3 separate places. ... Electron transport, also sometimes called OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION, is the process by which electrons are passed from the ... The consequences of electron transport are to synthesize ATP and deliver protons (H+) and electrons (-) to oxygen forming water ...
Subgroup Name: Electron Transport Chain Super Complexes (Respirasome) Protein Name: Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Super ... Small Molecules Ligands 3 Unique. ID. Chains. Name / Formula / InChI Key. 2D Diagram & Interactions. 3D Interactions. ...
Two molecules of NADH are also produced, which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation of ... Both of these latter molecules are recycled to their oxidized states (NAD+ and FAD, respectively) via the electron transport ... It is the passage of electron pairs from NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain that powers the pumping of protons ... electron acceptor. In most eukaryotes, glucose is used as both an energy store and an electron donor. The formula for the ...
Subgroup Name: Electron Transport Chain Super Complexes (Respirasome) Protein Name: Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Super ... Small Molecules Ligands 11 Unique. ID. Chains. Name / Formula / InChI Key. 2D Diagram & Interactions. 3D Interactions. ...
5 It occurs in electron transport system Occurs during cyclic and non cyclic electron transport 6 ATP molecules are released to ... During the electron transport.6 Kcal. One molecule of ATP with 7. this oxidation accompanies is ... 4 ATP molecules instead of 6 ATP molecules. Complete oxidation of a glucose molecule (hexose sugar) in aerobic respiration ... the other components of electron transport chain (cytochromes) are only electron carriers i. ...
3 Mesoscopic Electron Transport. 4 Spintransfer Phenomena in Layered Structures. 5 Organic Molecules - Structures and ... 16 Single-Electron Devices for Logic Applications. 17 Electron Waveguide Devices. 18 Superconductor Digital Electronics. 19 ... 21 Molecular Electronics - Functions and Features Arising from Tailor-Made Molecules. IV COMPUTATIONAL CONCEPTS AND ...
Electron Transport in Organic Molecules. Advisors: Tinkham/ Dr. Nina Markovic. Seila Selimovic (03) / Wellesley College. Aging ... Electron Transport through Individual Organic Molecules. Advisor: Park. Jonathan Mapel (03) / University of Southern California ... Investigating Multi-electron Bubbles. Advisor: Silvera. Adam Sood (04) / Harvard University. Attenuated Total Reflectance ... Solid State Metal-molecule-metal Nanojunctions Using Gallium and Other Low Melting Point Alloys. Advisors: Whitesides/ Dr. ...
electron transport chain. IEA. --. GO:0044281. small molecule metabolic process. TAS. --. GO:0055114. oxidation-reduction ...
With this strategy, it was revealed that the electron transport chain (ETC) on the inner membrane of mitochondria may contain ... Bufalin is a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the steroid receptor coactivators SRC-3 and SRC-1. Cancer Res. 74:1506-1517. ... Electron transport chain disruption induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. (A) Flow cytometry ... electron transport chain; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; OCR, oxygen consumption rate; ROS, reactive ...
Quinone is an important type of molecule that is involved in photosynthesis. The transport of electrons mediate... ... Draw the following molecule as a skeletal structure, and show how it can be prepared from a ketone and an amine... ... The reason as to why the total angular momentum of a diatomic molecule is quantized is to be stated. Concept in... ... In the final stage of aerobic respiration, ________ accepts electrons. a. water c. oxygen (O2) b. hydrogen d. N... ...
  • the two reduced coenzyme molecules (NADH) produced per hexose sugar molecule during Glycolysis will yield only 2x2:4 ATP molecules instead of 6 ATP molecules. (
  • although in eukaryotes terminal oxidation of mitochondrial NADH / NADPH results in the production of 3 ATP molecules but that of extra mitochondrial NADH / NADPH yields only 2 ATP molecules. (
  • NADH deposits the H+ during the electron transport chain. (
  • Considering that the 10 NADH molecules entering the ETS will contribute to 10 é pairs (and hence to the consumption of 10/2 = 5 O2 molecules), and that the 2 FADH2 molecules entering the ETS will contribute to 2 é pairs (and use 2/2 = 1 O2 molecule). (
  • I know 1000% that for every 2 NADH or FADH2 molecules one water molecule is produced. (
  • Cause every NADH molecule carries 2 electrons, and it should be enough to reduce one water molecule. (
  • 6. C. Lactic acid fermentation converts pyruvate into lactate using high-energy electrons from NADH. (
  • The process requires the use of two ATP molecules, but as glucose is broken down from a six-carbon sugar molecule into two three-carbon sugar molecules, four ATP and two NADH molecules are created. (
  • As the two-carbon fragment travels through the cycle, it has net production of four molecules of carbon dioxide, six molecules of NADH, and two molecules of ATP and FADH2. (
  • When NADH is reduced to NAD, the electron transport chain accepts the electrons from the molecules. (
  • Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. (
  • The NADH pulls the enzyme's electrons to send through the electron transport chain. (
  • The Respiratory Electron-transport Chain (ETC) is a series of enzyme complexes embedded in the innermitochondrialmembrane, which oxidize NADH and QH2. (
  • Then add 2 electrons it becomes negatively charged and then takes a nearby positively charged hydrogen ion, and becomes NADH. (
  • So NADH is a full high energy electron carrier full of high energy electrons and it goes off to electron transport system where those high energy electrons can be used to generate a lot of ATP. (
  • Several steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle transfer electrons from substrates to NAD+, forming NADH. (
  • NADH passes these electrons to the electron transport chain. (
  • The energy stored from the process of respiration in reduced compounds (such as NADH and FADH) is used by the electron transport chain to pump protons into the intermembrane space, generating the electrochemical gradient over the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • At the inner mitochondrial membrane, electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass through the electron transport chain to oxygen, which is reduced to water. (
  • According to, in an electron transport chain, the high-energy molecule that gives up the election is called the donor, while the low-energy molecule that is getting the electron is called the acceptor. (
  • These electrons are passed from the donor molecule to the acceptor oxygen molecule through a membrane, creating hydrogen ions that are used in ATP. (
  • Single wall carbon nanotubes ( SWNT ) may also serve as the electron acceptor component in donor-acceptor ensembles, just as fullerenes have been the electron acceptors in much recent research. (
  • I will discuss recent advances in the design, synthesis, purification, characterization, and examination of the potential for applications of new multifunctional SWNT materials as two- or three-dimensional architectures for high mechanical strength and electron donor-acceptor chemistry. (
  • At the level of the electron transport system (ETS), the equation regarding O2 as the final electron acceptor is: 1/2O2 + 2é + 2H+ ---- H20. (
  • Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the chain, so the oxygen, electrons and hydrogen ions together form water. (
  • Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport chain. (
  • The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). (
  • electron acceptor layer. (
  • In other situations, bacteria use one or more different molecules as a final electron acceptor for respiration. (
  • In aerobic respiration, the flow of electrons terminates with molecular oxygen being the final electron acceptor. (
  • Each electron donor will pass electrons to a more electronegative acceptor, which in turn donates these electrons to another acceptor, a process that continues down the series until electrons are passed to oxygen, the most electronegative and terminal electron acceptor in the chain. (
  • Passage of electrons between donor and acceptor releases energy, which is used to generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane by "pumping" protons into the intermembrane space, producing a thermodynamic state that has the potential to do work. (
  • 15. How many molecules of carbon dioxide are generated during the citric acid cycle? (
  • 17. How many molecules of ATP can be generated from one round of the citric acid cycle? (
  • 20. What is the name of the molecule generated in the final step of the citric acid cycle and is also used in the first step? (
  • We studied the contact coupling effect on the asymmetric electron transport in molecular junctions by the first-principles density functional theory incorporating with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. (
  • Understanding the electronic transport properties of junctions consisting of a scattering region such as a nanoscale region or molecule connected two electrodes is of fundamental interest. (
  • The first original topic I investigate in chapter 4 addresses anti-resonance features of destructive quantum interference in single-molecule thiophene junctions. (
  • Controlling the electrical conductance and in particular the occurrence of quantum interference in single-molecule junctions through gating effects, has potential for the realization of high-performance functional molecular devices. (
  • Here, in this work we address direct electrical measurements of hydrogen bond dynamics at the single-molecule and single-event level on the basis of the platform of molecular nanocircuits, where a quadrupolar hydrogen bonding system is covalently incorporated into graphene point contacts to build stable supramolecule-assembled single-molecule junctions. (
  • In this tutorial I will review some of the basic concepts and theoretical techniques that are presently used to describe the transport through single-molecule junctions. (
  • Metal-Molecule-Semiconductor Junctions: An Ab Initio Analysis (L. Agapito, J.M. Seminario). (
  • Mechanically controlled break-junction techniques, which emerged right after the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy, have enabled substantial progress in characterizing single-molecule junctions toward the ultimate goal of molecular devices. (
  • Dramatic advances have been made in design, fabrication, control, and understanding of the measurements of single-molecule junctions over the past decade. (
  • The key feature of each of these methods, and all other mechanically controlled break junctions (MCBJs), is a molecule in contact with two or more electrodes where one of the electrodes is mechanically controlled to allow it to create, break, and reform junctions with the molecule incorporated. (
  • Some of the more detailed challenges that troubled the field in those early years, such as the strong sensitivity of MCBJs to contact geometry, behaviors relating to redox reactions in molecules in MCBJs, and the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR), as well as other nonlinear current-voltage behaviors of molecular junctions, have been studied at length in the last decade, and we know much more about these issues today. (
  • In recent years molecular transport junctions have been produced with one single molecule between two electrodes, sometimes with an additional gate electrode near the molecule. (
  • The first stage involves the breakdown of one glucose molecule (6 carbons) into two molecules of the 3-carbon sugar GLYCERALDEHYDE 3 PHOSPHATE (G 3 P) or PHOSPHOGLYCERALDEHYDE, commonly called PGAL. (
  • Complete oxidation of a glucose molecule (hexose sugar) in aerobic respiration results in the net gain of 36 ATP molecules in most eukaryotes. (
  • One glucose molecule contains about 686 Kcal. (
  • Since huge amount of energy is generated in mitochondria in the form of ATP molecules.6/686) energy of the glucose molecule is utilized during aerobic breakdown and the rest is lost as heat. (
  • The breaking down of a glucose molecule to produce energy is known as GLYCOLYSIS. (
  • I wasn't interested so much about the idea of water production per se, but rather about the understanding of the equations (trying to balance the general equation that states that 6 molecules of water will be formed for each glucose molecule broken down, with the equation that accounts for the oxygen consumption (and water production) at the end of the ETS. (
  • 12 molecules of water will be formed for each glucose molecule being broken down. (
  • So far we have in total, from one glucose molecule. (
  • Usually, slightly less than this will be made per glucose molecule. (
  • Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidized glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). (
  • What Is the Electron Transport Chain? (
  • 13. What molecule is produced when oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport chain? (
  • 30. Which of the following molecules is not either oxidized or reduced during electron flow through the electron transport chain? (
  • The electron transport chain is a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred from a high-energy molecule to a low-energy molecule. (
  • The electron transport chain is critical to the production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a source of energy for living things. (
  • the other components of electron transport chain (cytochromes) are only electron carriers i. (
  • With this strategy, it was revealed that the electron transport chain (ETC) on the inner membrane of mitochondria may contain potential targets for bufalin, and that bufalin‑induced mitochondrial‑dependent apoptosis may be caused by disruption of the ETC. Collectively, the present study suggests that bufalin may a promising drug for chemotherapy against neuroblastoma, and provides a foundation for further studies into the antitumor mechanisms of bufalin. (
  • The answer to your question lies at the electron transport chain. (
  • The electron is the part that actually gets passed down the chain from carrier to carrier. (
  • For every reduced NAD feeding hydrogen into the chain, enough energy is released to make 3 ATP molecules. (
  • Large changes in protein-chain folding accompany a pH-dependent switch between the two modes of an important life process called electron transport, Georgia Institute of Technology scientists have suggested. (
  • Bound to its enzyme in the inner mitochondrial membrane, so only releases e- to the electron transport chain. (
  • They are then transferred to electron acceptors in an electron transport chain. (
  • The complex process consists of several interdependent components such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. (
  • As the electrons are transferred to each carrier within the electron transport chain, free energy is released and is used to form ATP. (
  • Without oxygen, the electron transport chain becomes jammed with electrons. (
  • [3] However, some anaerobic organisms, such as methanogens are able to continue with anaerobic respiration , yielding more ATP by using other inorganic molecules (not oxygen) of high energy as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain. (
  • The electron transport chain pulls H + ions through the chain. (
  • From the electron transport chain, the released hydrogen ions make ADP for an end result of 32 ATP. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PAE-6, i.e. phosphonic acid ester having substituted C 6 H 13 for R and C 2 H 5 for R' on electron transport chain activity of thylakoid membranes of wheat and broad bean. (
  • Through a series of chemical reactions along this electron transport chain, the ATP molecules are produced. (
  • Other familiar substances are involved in this electron transport chain. (
  • Coenzyme Q10, which is fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes, plays a unique role in the electron transport chain. (
  • Each pair of electrons processed by the chain must first interact with CoQ10. (
  • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation a. (
  • NADH+ and FADH2 have great importance in donating protons to the membrane potential around the electron transport chain, which further drives production of ATP. (
  • These molecules move from the Kreb's cycle to the electron transport chain and carry protons. (
  • In the electron transport chain, NADH+ and FADH2 donate protons and increase the proton gradient on the outside of the cell. (
  • These molecules sit at the end of the electron transport chain. (
  • The electron transport chain in bacteria uses the products of glycolysis, a process that breaks down sugars, to create a proton gradient across the outside of the cell membrane. (
  • Mutations in genes in the electron transport chain causes decreased function in the chain, which can result in the cell not producing enough energy to live. (
  • Cellular processes simply can't proceed without the energy produced from the electron transport chain. (
  • The electron transport chain can be blocked through the use of poisons. (
  • Rat poison works by blocking one of the first steps in the electron transport chain. (
  • Coenzyme Q10 is involved in the electron transport chain that synthesises (ATP) adenosine triphosphate. (
  • Electron transport chain synthesis 90% of ATP. (
  • Electron transport chain to synthesisATP and produces about 90% of ATP(inner mitochondrial membrane). (
  • Respiration occurs in three metabolic stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • As electrons passed along the chain, their energy stored in the mitochondrion in a form that can be used to synthesize the rest 90% of the ATPATP(34 ATP). (
  • Antidotes either directly counteract cyanide's toxicity on the electron transport chain or help the body eliminate the cyanide molecule. (
  • It transfers electrons from the electron transport chain to oxygen, forming water in the process. (
  • There are also cytochrome b6f complexes, which are proteins that are an element of the electron transport chain. (
  • The electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. (
  • The electron transport chain is built up of peptides, enzymes, and other molecules. (
  • The flow of electrons through the electron transport chain is an exergonic process. (
  • In the electron transport chain, the redox reactions are driven by the Gibbs free energy state of the components. (
  • The complexes in the electron transport chain harvest the energy of the redox reactions that occur when transferring electrons from a low redox potential to a higher redox potential, creating an electrochemical gradient. (
  • In eukaryotic organisms the electron transport chain, and site of oxidative phosphorylation, is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is found on the thylakoid membrane. (
  • Here, light energy drives the reduction of components of the electron transport chain and therefore causes subsequent synthesis of ATP. (
  • In bacteria, the electron transport chain can vary over species but it always constitutes a set of redox reactions that are coupled to the synthesis of ATP, through the generation of an electrochemical gradient, and oxidative phosphorylation through ATP synthase. (
  • The electron transport chain comprises an enzymatic series of electron donors and acceptors. (
  • This entire process is called oxidative phosphorylation since ADP is phosphorylated to ATP by using the electrochemical gradient established by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain. (
  • Energy obtained through the transfer of electrons down the electron transport chain is used to pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical proton gradient (ΔpH) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • TERMINAL OXIDATION OF THE REDUCED COENZYMES / ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION last step in aerobic respiration is the oxidation of reduced coenzymes produced in glycolysis and Krebs' cycle by molecular oxygen through FAD. (
  • On the other hand the Krebs cycle uses up 2 molecules of water per glucose when it turns fumarate into malate. (
  • The resulting molecule is attached to a co-enzyme, which starts the Krebs Cycle. (
  • Krebs cycle is what's generating the carbon dioxide that you breathe out every time you break down your sugar and then the electron transport system is what generates the load of ATP. (
  • the Krebs cycle in general what happens is that pyruvate from glycolysis out in the cytoplasm as it starts to enter into the mitochondria enzymes will take off a couple of high energy electrons and then onto an electron carrier called NAD positive. (
  • oxidation of one molecule of reduced NADH2 or NADPH2 will result in the formation of 3 ATP molecules while the oxidation of FADH2 lead to the synthesis of 2 ATP molecules. (
  • 7. B. Proteins in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion accept high-energy electrons from NAD and FADH2, and in turn transport protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. (
  • The Kreb's cycle uses these molecules to create a small amount of ATP, and a large amount of NADH+ and FADH2. (
  • NADH+ and FADH2 act as transports for protons. (
  • In the case of the linear system, the favorite direction of electron transport is from the strong coupling end to the weak coupling one with a rectification ratio of 5 at 2.0 V. In addition, the rectification performance is sensitive to the molecular proportion of the molecular wire length and the tunneling barrier width. (
  • This single-molecule study in a well-defined environment provides insights into the Raman process at the plasmonic nanocavity, which may be useful in the nanoscale metrology of various molecular systems. (
  • The stochastic nature of single-molecule charge transport measurements requires collection of large data sets to capture the full complexity of a molecular system. (
  • However, differences in molecular conformation or electrode contact geometry, the number of molecules in the junction or dynamic effects may lead to very different molecular signatures. (
  • To demonstrate the effect of molecular orientation on charge transport characteristics in vacuum-deposited organic amorphous films, the electrical and optical properties of films of two oxadiazole derivatives were investigated. (
  • Total internal reflection fluorescence is employed to investigate the interaction of molecules with surfaces, an area that is of fundamental importance to a wide spectrum of disciplines in cell and molecular biology. (
  • Our group has performed nanoscale electrical measurements on single protein molecules, nanotubes and thin molecular films. (
  • The prospect of using organic materials in nanoscale electronic circuits, in solar cells, or as part of bioorganic sensors provides numerous interesting challenges to molecular and materials design and fundamental questions to generation and transport of charges and excitons. (
  • Leading chemists, physicists, and materials scientists will address the key challenges in the field related to charge transport and photophysical processes in organic materials and will discuss how molecular architectures and materials design can provide new and enhanced functionalities. (
  • However, these investigations remain challenging because they require (i) highly precise device fabrication to incorporate single molecules and (ii) sufficient time resolution to be able to make fast molecular dynamic measurements. (
  • By covalently integrating a conjugated molecular wire with a pendent crown ether into graphene point contacts, we can transduce the physical [2]pseudorotaxane (de)formation processes between the electron-rich crown ether and a dicationic guest into real-time electrical signals. (
  • Both rational protein engineering and directed evolution are used to create new proteins and structural biology, single molecule analysis, molecular dynamics, biophysics and biochemistry are used to investigate the properties of these novel proteins. (
  • We present low-temperature electron transport measurements of individual phenyleneâ€"ethynylene molecular wires, connected to nanometer-spaced gold electrodes. (
  • We suggest that different Iâ€"V curves measured, including the NDR, could be due either to conformational changes in the molecules or a change in coupling of the molecular junction. (
  • The theory of molecular-scale transport group has made outstanding contributions to the field of molecular electronics, both in the development of new concepts and methodologies and through highly original and innovative applications to problems in materials science. (
  • We use quantum mechanics, molecular transport and scattering theory to analyse electron, phonon and spin transport through molecules and low-dimensional materials. (
  • Target functionalities include high-performance thermoelectric materials, molecular-scale devices for DNA sequencing, molecular-scale transistors and single-molecule sensors. (
  • The theory of molecular-scale transport group comprises Prof Colin Lambert, 1 Leverhulme Research Fellow, 5 postdoctoral Research Fellows, 2 Marie Curie Fellows and 14 PhD students. (
  • Molecular Origin of Balanced Bipolar Transport in Neat Layers of the Emitter CzDBA. (
  • [2] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions , which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy because weak high-energy bonds, in particular in molecular oxygen, [3] are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. (
  • however, information on the binding site and molecular mechanisms underlying small‐molecule inhibition is elusive. (
  • Rather than relying on the usual molecular signals, like hormones or nutrients, that control a cell's gene expression, we created a synthetic "switching" system in bacterial cells that recognizes electrons instead. (
  • the optical signatures of molecular chirality and the influence of chirality on charge transport. (
  • Modelling Molecular Switches: a Flexible Molecule Anchored to a Surface (Bidisa Das, Shuji Abe). (
  • Nonequilibrium Green's Function Modeling of the Quantum Transport of Molecular Electronic Devices (Pawel Pomorski et al . (
  • Theory of Quantum Electron Transport through Molecules as the Bases of Molecular Devices (M. Tsukada et al . (
  • The so-called 'molecular clock' hypothesis, which states that the rate of molecular evolution is constant in time and across lineages, is only rarely met: some species evolve significantly faster than others as far as molecules are concerned ( Bromham & Penny 2003 ). (
  • Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is an experimental tool for studying the vibrations of molecular adsorbates on metal oxides. (
  • labeled IV), which uses the electrons and hydrogen ions to reduce molecular oxygen to water. (
  • Most of the energy is lost as heat, almost half is captured in the form of high-energy electrons that the cell can use to synthesize ATP. (
  • It accomplishes both by transferring energy into high-energy electrons. (
  • Hemoglobin is the protein that transports oxygen in mammals. (
  • The intermolecular forces between molecules of isopropyl alcohol are in the form of hydrogen bonds, where a partially positive hydrogen atom of one molecule experiences a strong attractive force to a partially negative oxygen atom of another molecule. (
  • A special type of dipole intermolecular forces called hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom of one molecule chemically combines with either an oxygen or nitrogen atom of another molecule. (
  • Cellular respiration is the process by which food molecules react with oxygen and are broken down to carbon dioxide and water with a net gain of captured energy in the form of ATP molecules. (
  • When the hydrogen ions and the electrons reach oxygen, they combine with it to form water. (
  • Overall, the process requires 6 molecules of oxygen for every molecule of glucose. (
  • Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules [1] or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. (
  • It plays a variety of roles in oxygen transport, electron transfer, and catalytic reactions. (
  • Mitochondrial respiratory activity generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of membrane electron transport. (
  • In addition to oxygen, bacteria can respire with many different inorganic and organic molecules. (
  • According to the Ohio State University, anaerobic bacteria use inorganic molecules like nitrate, sulfate and carbonate as final electron acceptors in the place of oxygen. (
  • Cytochrome oxidase C is an enzyme that reduces (adds electrons to) oxygen. (
  • this oxidation accompanies is synthesized at each place when electrons are transferred from Reduced NADH2 or NADPH2 to FAD Reduced cytochrome b to cytochrome c Reduced cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 Thus. (
  • redox molecules must undergo chemical reactions-oxidation or reduction reactions-to "hand off" electrons. (
  • The device toggles the molecule's oxidation state-it's either oxidized (loses an electron) or reduced (gains an electron). (
  • The oxidation of these molecules was proposed to interfere with growth of individual cells and biofilms. (
  • It was found to be mediated by the oxidation of external redox molecules participating in cell's respiration, thus allowing for a direct connection of electrodes to the cell's metabolism. (
  • These techniques prove to be a robust platform of single-molecule electrical detection that is capable of probing the dynamic processes of chemical reactions at the single-event level with high temporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios, for example photoinduced conformational transition 27 , temperature-dependent σ-bond rotation 28 and host-guest interaction 29 . (
  • This series of reactions results in a NET GAIN of TWO ATP molecules and two pairs of HYDROGEN ATOMS. (
  • Chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize large molecules from simpler components. (
  • When molecules are broken apart in respiration, A. the heat produced is used to drive biological reactions. (
  • These peptides were designed to be representative of actual parts of proteins involved in these [electron transport] reactions-photosynthesis, respiration and DNA synthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Review and Jeopardy Photosynthesis: Light Dependent Reactions (Stage 1) PS II (wavelength p680) -Photons strike the chlorophyll in Photosystem 2 (PS II) and an electron absorbs the energy and becomes excited (photoexcitation), but has nothing to do with this energy. (
  • He is a pioneer in artificial photosynthesis, studying how light causes electron transfer reactions as well as novel uses of conducting organic materials and composites. (
  • The energy produced by these chemical reactions is converted to chemical energy in the form ATP molecules. (
  • These ATP molecules are available to supply energy to the various chemical reactions necessary for life. (
  • The purpose of respiration is to provide the cell with the appropriate molecules for creating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP. (
  • These protons then cross back across the cell membrane, driving the addition of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate, an adenosine molecule with only 2 phosphate groups, to make adenosine triphosphate. (
  • It may mean the REMOVAL OF some ELECTRONS resulting in the formation of HYDROGEN IONS (H + ) which are passed along an assembly line of CARRIER MOLECULES. (
  • Any organic molecule that contains bond energy can be used as a fuel in cellular respiration. (
  • In glycolysis, an organic molecule known as pyruvate supplies energy to the Kreb's cycle and is broken down into two molecules of acetyl-CoA. (
  • phosphate group is transferred from an organic molecule (the substrate) to ADP, forming 10% ATP (4 ATP). (
  • Quinone is an important type of molecule that is involved in photosynthesis. (
  • The fuel of life is electron, or more exactly, the energy it takes over from photons in photosynthesis, and gives up gradually while flowing through the cellular machinery. (
  • His research focuses on light-driven charge transfer and transport in molecules and materials, natural and artificial photosynthesis, and nanoscale materials for solar energy conversion. (
  • Now it is true that photosynthesis uses proteins and other organic molecules that are not sturdy, but they provide good working models for how we can convert and store solar energy. (
  • Photosynthesis in Silico: Understanding Complexity from Molecules to Ecosystems is a unique book that aims to show an integrated approach to the understanding of photosynthesis processes. (
  • During photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy in the form of molecules such as ATP and glucose. (
  • In anaerobic respiration, other electron acceptors are used, such as sulfate. (
  • 1. Ubiquinone (Q)Q is a lipid soluble molecule that diffuses within the lipid bilayer, accepting electrons from Complex I and Complex II and passing them to Complex III. (
  • This is the fully oxidised version of the molecule, known as ubiquinone. (
  • The efficiency of respiration may be expressed as follows.Efficiency of respiration The total energy content of one molecule of glucose is 686 Kcal.3 Efficiency of anaerobic respiration: ------------x 100 = 31 % 47 Efficiency of fermentation 2 x 7.3 : ------------x 100 = 41 % 673. (
  • C. anaerobic electron transport. (
  • Aerobic metabolism is up to 15 times more efficient than anaerobic metabolism (which yields 2 molecules ATP per 1 molecule glucose) because the double bond in O 2 is of higher energy than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds in other common molecules in the biosphere. (
  • Most bioremediation systems operate under aerobic conditions, but anaerobic environments may also permit microbial degradation of recalcitrant molecules. (
  • After pyruvate arrives from the cytoplasm, each molecule is completely broken down from a three-carbon sugar into a two-carbon fragment. (
  • It begins catabolism by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. (
  • These smaller sugars are oxidized and rearranged to form two molecules of pyruvate. (
  • Biological Molecules & Self-Assembly at Surfaces 7. (
  • Although electron transport chains and mitochondria are characteristic of eukaryotic cells, some bacteria and Archaea have similar features. (
  • All of the enzymes involved in these transfers and all of the carrier molecules are found in the mitochondria , some of them exclusively. (
  • 8. During electron transport phosphorylation, which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria? (
  • The mitochondria contain electron transport chains, which are the fundamental units for energy production in our cells. (
  • transport proteins to carry out the work of the cell. (
  • 2017. Site-specific one-to-one click coupling of single proteins to individual carbon nanotubes: a single-molecule approach . (
  • The sequences of building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules hod the information to manufacture proteins in the form of a genetic code. (
  • Much of the group's work has a basis in synthetic biology whereby we construct new protein components or modify existing proteins for new applications, including single molecule electron transfer. (
  • In their experiments and simulations, Gumbart, Barry and their teams turned to two artificial proteins, Peptide A and Peptide C. These proteins were designed as simplified versions of the ones that carry out electron transport in living organisms. (
  • Peptides A and C are pared-down proteins that only contain the structures needed to reproduce a basic step in the two types of electron transport. (
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging , electron microscopy , analysis of chromosome number , plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins . (
  • Heme binds to proteins to modulate their function, thereby functioning as a signaling molecule in a variety of biologic events. (
  • 6. What are the two types of transport proteins? (
  • Electron transport in photosystem I reaction center complex and Fe-S type reaction center was intensively investigated by spectrophotometrical and biochemical procedures and site-directed mutagenesis of genes encoding subunit proteins of the complex. (
  • Some proteins components (ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP^+ oxido-reductase) of electron transport system in non-photosynthetic plastids were biochemically compared with those in chloroplast. (
  • 5 , 6 In the search for effective ways to couple a molecule between electrodes, researchers produced two efficient options: scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using the newly invented STM, and a microfabricated, electromigration piezoelectric three-point arching method. (
  • In this way, the four main features of study in MCBJs are 1) the electrodes (and the macroscopic system), 2) the electrode-molecule junction, 3) the molecule, and 4) the environment in which the junction takes place. (
  • In the next step, molecules involved in the direct electron transport to electrodes were found to be c-type cytochromes. (
  • The disadvantage of this method is that it is experimentally very challenging to create and identify a junction with exactly one molecule between the electrodes. (
  • The COST of the TRANSFER across the mitochondrial membrane is 2 ATP molecules. (
  • 13) Fusion of transport vesicle with membrane and dumping of contents outside of cell. (
  • Optimal electron transport to generate ATP depends upon there being optimal levels of CoQ10 in the mitochondrial membrane. (
  • We can simulate the membrane and its mixing with the nanowires or rods using classical MD simulations, especially to study the proton transport. (
  • Both chlorophyll molecules a and b are highly efficient at this energy transfer because they are tightly packed in the membrane, as a result of having hydrophobic phytol tails and virtually indistinguishable porphyrin ring structures which are able to lie parallel to each other. (
  • It's safe to say that, without electron transport, the most complex organisms on Earth would be bacteria. (
  • To treat an infection, we need to detect these molecules to identify the bacteria, discern their activities and determine how to best respond. (
  • Capitalizing on the electronic nature of redox molecules, we genetically engineered bacteria to respond to them. (
  • We wanted our bacteria cells to turn "on" and "off" due to the applied voltage-voltage that oxidized a naturally occurring redox molecule, pyocyanin. (
  • Bacteria are engineered to respond to a redox molecule activated by an electrode by creating an electrogenetic switch. (
  • In bacteria, the only electron chauffeur is a molecule called menaquinone (MK) that has species-specific variations in its structure. (
  • In the second original work in chapter 5, I investigate quantum transport across graphene nanogaps bridged by carbon atomic chains. (
  • Here we have reported transmission coefficient as well as current voltage characteristics of Co-centered porphyrine molecule connected between armchair graphene nanoribbons. (
  • 2018. Defined covalent assembly of protein molecules on graphene using a genetically encoded photochemical reaction handle . (
  • We demonstrate a graphene-molecule single-molecule junction that is capable of probing the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of a host-guest complex. (
  • During which stage of cellular respiration is glucose broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid? (
  • cellular respiration and can produce up to 30 molecules of ATP from a single molecule of glucose. (
  • I have a question regarding the number of water molecules produced by cellular respiration. (
  • Topics you will need to know in order to pass the quiz include cellular respiration and electrons. (
  • Cellular respiration generates many ATP molecules. (
  • That charged particle, an electron, can then go to another protein, which then uses it to carry out another step and make ATP [the cell's energy-storage molecule] eventually. (
  • 4) Diffusion with the help of a transport protein. (
  • One such essential process is electron transport, which powers all life forms by shuttling electrons between key protein complexes. (
  • Enzymes are specialized protein molecules, which generally require a mineral, such as magnesium or zinc, and a non-protein organic chemical, called a coenzyme. (
  • Here we describe the synthesis and properties of the first family of molecules belonging to this compound category-differently sized rings comprising only 1,1′-disubstituted ferrocene units (cyclo[n], n = 5-7, 9). (
  • We made cells with switches controlling the synthesis of a signaling molecule that diffuses to neighboring cells and, in turn, causes changes in their behavior. (
  • 8. E. Electrons trapped by the chlorophyll P680 molecule in photosystem II are energized by light. (
  • Within this center there are a pair of chlorophyll a molecules (which, in photosystem one they are named P700 because they are best at absorbing 700nm wavelengths of light). (
  • With the recent advances in nanofabrication techniques it has become possible to manipulate single atoms and molecules and to investigate the electronic transport through them. (
  • In particular several contributions describe scattering cross sections involving electrons interacting with atoms and molecules in both ground and excited states (from theoretical and experimental point of view), of energy transfer processes as well as reactive ones involving excited molecules colliding with atoms and molecules as well as with metallic surfaces. (
  • STM-IETS was also used to measure the atomic spin transitions split by single ion magnetic anisotropy of individual atoms and molecules. (
  • They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. (
  • Antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antifungal and photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibiting in vitro activities of these compounds were investigated. (
  • Carotenoids serve as light-harvesting molecules in photosynthetic assemblies and also play a role in protecting prokaryotes from the deleterious effects of light. (
  • There were isoenzymes or isoproteins differently expressed in chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastids, which can differently function in the various electron transport systems in plastids. (
  • 27. An enzyme that catalyzes a reaction that adds a phosphate group to a molecule is called which of the following? (
  • 34. What class of enzyme is involved in transferring a functional group from one position on a molecule to another? (
  • 4. The transformed substrate molecules, now called the product of the reaction, are released from the enzyme molecule. (
  • 5. The unaltered enzyme reacts with other substrate molecules. (
  • A water molecule is split as an enzyme breaks the bond between two parts of a molecule. (
  • This ability of an enzyme to identify its substrate arises from the three-dimensional shape, or conformation, of the enzyme molecule. (
  • As the interaction free energies between the redox centres scale linearly with overall ring charge and in conjunction with fast intramolecular electron transfer (∼107 s−1), these molecules can be considered as uniformly charged nanorings (diameter ∼1-2 nm). (
  • Low-temperature electronic transport through macromolecules and characteristics of intramolecular electron transfer. (
  • 24. How many carbon atoms are found in one molecule of glucose? (
  • This reaction converts a ___-carbon molecule to a ___- carbon molecule. (
  • The common stage for almost all fuel molecules is the 2-carbon acetyl. (
  • Because of its comparatively low reduction potential, benzonitrile is reduced during this process to the radical anion, which exhibits a red colour and serves as a reporter molecule for the quantitative determination of negative charges on the carbon sheets. (
  • There is a gap as big as the Grand Canyon in the low-carbon power environment: How do you store and transport energy for applications that can't be electrified, like aircraft and ships? (
  • During glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon-sugar) is split into two molecules (each is three-carbon sugar). (
  • Experiments were planed by focussing on 1) regulation in cyclic electron transport system, 2) regulation of photon cupturation by two photosystems, 3) balance between NADP photoreduction and photophosphorylation, 4) partitioning of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to electron requiring system, such as NADP reduction, reductive assimilation of nitrogen, sulfur and carbon, ferredoxin-dependent thioredoxin system. (
  • The electron carriers are at successively lower energy levels hence, as the electron moves on from one carrier to the next some energy is released. (
  • Vitamin K2 is a mitochondrial electron carrier that rescues pink1 deficiency. (
  • While most ATP is produced using electron transport chains, some simpler organisms produce ATP through fermentation. (
  • Though it's far from a household phrase, electron transport is a big deal in higher organisms. (
  • Heme is an essential molecule for diverse living organisms, including human beings. (
  • First, the researchers compared genes in TB with those known to modify the electron shuttles for other organisms, leading them to a gene they called MenJ. (
  • Cytochrome oxidase is the last step in the electron transfer system in most aerobic organisms. (
  • Part III: Modeling Electron Transport and Chlorophyll Fluorescence: 5. (
  • They contain chlorophyll molecules and accessory pigments (e.g. xanthophylls and carotenoids) which absorb light photons from a wide area and then pass it on in to a reaction center, through resonance energy transfer. (
  • 12. What type of metabolic reaction involves a loss of electrons from the molecule involved? (
  • involve the gain of electrons, while _____ involves the loss of electrons. (
  • 16. What type of metabolic reaction does not change the atomic make-up of the molecule involved? (
  • The conductance of the single-molecule junction reveals two-level fluctuations that are highly dependent on temperature and solvent environments, affording a nondestructive means of quantitatively determining the binding and rate constants, as well as the activation energies, for host-guest complexes. (
  • It has been found that concentrations of DMSO up to 20% (v/v) do not inhibit electron transport in freshly isolated chloroplasts, but that higher concentrations start to cause inhibition. (
  • The key quantity of interest is the transmission coefficient T ( E ), which yields the electrical conductance, current-voltage relations, the thermopower S and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of single-molecule devices. (
  • In this tutorial I will review the wealth of information that can be extracted from the conductance of atomic-sized metal contacts and molecules at low temperatures. (
  • The effect of low-temperature electron charge redistribution at the Si/SiO[sub 2] interface between the interphase states and the conduction band of an n-Si crystal on the temperature behavior of conductance, photovoltage, and photocurrent in Si barrier structures with edge surface electron. (
  • Experiments using MCBJs to measure the conductance of single molecules began in earnest in the late 1990s, and the first years of experiments resulted in many discrepancies among the measured and simulated results of single-molecule conductance from different labs. (
  • Molecules called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) remove the H+. (
  • Why Do Some Atoms Gain or Lose Electrons to Form Ions? (
  • Atoms gain or lose electrons based on their respective electron affinity. (
  • [1] The chemical energy stored in ATP (the bond of its third phosphate group to the rest of the molecule can be broken allowing more stable products to form, thereby releasing energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis , locomotion or transport of molecules across cell membranes . (
  • One type shuffles energy between molecules in a living cell by transporting a negatively charged electron. (
  • 2. What molecule is essential for aerobic respiration to take place? (
  • Two hydrogen atoms or electrons from the reduced coenzyme (NADH2 or NADPH2) travel through FAD and the cytochromes and ultimately combines with 1/2O2 molecule to produce one molecule of H2O. (