Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).TritiumPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.PolysaccharidesDalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight: A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.MercaptoethanolKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Glycoside HydrolasesCell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Nadroparin: A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein PrecursorsFactor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.GlucosamineAnthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/43764)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (2/43764)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (3/43764)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (4/43764)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. (5/43764)

Complement receptor 2 (CR2) is important in the regulation of the B lymphocyte response; the regulation of its expression is therefore of central importance. We recently reported that a 42 kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the human CR2 gene [Tolnay, Lambris and Tsokos (1997) J. Immunol. 159, 5492-5501]. We cloned the cDNA encoding this protein and found it to be identical with hnRNP D0B, a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein. By using a set of mutated oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that the recombinant hnRNP D0B displays sequence specificity for double-stranded oligonucleotide defined by the CR2 promoter. We conducted electrophoretic mobility-shift assays to estimate the apparent Kd of hnRNP D0B for the double-stranded DNA motif and found it to be 59 nM. Interestingly, hnRNP D0B displayed affinities of 28 and 18 nM for the sense and anti-sense strands of the CR2 promoter-defined oligonucleotide respectively. The significantly greater binding affinity of hnRNP D0B for single-stranded DNA than for double-stranded DNA suggests that the protein might melt the double helix. The intranuclear concentration of sequence-specific protein was estimated to be 250-400 nM, indicating that the protein binds to the CR2 promoter in vivo. Co-precipitation of a complex formed in vivo between hnRNP D0B and the TATA-binding protein demonstrates that hnRNP D0B interacts with the basal transcription apparatus. Our results suggest a new physiological role for hnRNP D0B that involves binding to double- and single-stranded DNA sequences in a specific manner and functioning as a transcription factor.  (+info)

The endosome fusion regulator early-endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) is a dimer. (6/43764)

EEA1, an early-endosomal protein originally identified as an autoantigen, is essential for endocytic membrane fusion. It interacts with early endosomes via binding to the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the active form of the small GTPase Rab5. Most of the EEA1 sequence contains heptad repeats characteristic of proteins involved in coiled-coil protein-protein interactions. Here we have investigated the ability of EEA1 to self-interact. Crosslinking of cytosolic and recombinant EEA1 resulted in the disappearance of the 180-kDa monomer in SDS/PAGE and the strong appearance of a approximately 350-kDa crosslinked product. Glycerol gradient centrifugation experiments indicated that native EEA1 had the same hydrodynamic properties as the approximately 350-kDa crosslinked complex. Two-hybrid analysis indicated that N- and C-terminal fragments of EEA1 can interact with themselves, but not with each other, suggesting that EEA1 forms parallel coiled-coil dimers. The ability of the C-terminus of EEA1 to dimerize correlates with its ability to bind to Rab5 and early endosomes, whereas its binding to PtdIns3P is independent of dimerization. These data enable us to propose a model for the quaternary structure of EEA1.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (7/43764)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (8/43764)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

*Bemiparin sodium

Bemiparin is an antithrombotic and belongs to the group of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Like semuloparin, bemiparin is ... Planès, A. (2003). "Review of bemiparin sodium - a new second-generation low molecular weight heparin and its applications in ... "A common standard is inappropriate for determining the potency of ultra low molecular weight heparins such as semuloparin and ... classified as an ultra-LMWH because of its low molecular mass of 3600 g/mol on average. (Enoxaparin has 4500 g/mol) These ...

*Parnaparin sodium

Parnaparin is an antithrombotic and belongs to the group of low molecular weight heparins. parnaparin at the US National ... a low-molecular-weight heparin, prevents P-selectin-dependent formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in human whole blood ...

*Dalteparin sodium

Dalteparin is a low molecular weight heparin. It is marketed as Fragmin by Pfizer Inc. Like other low molecular weight heparins ... "Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a Coumadin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer ... against deep vein thrombosis in critically ill patients with severe renal insufficiency with the low-molecular-weight heparin ...

*Tinzaparin sodium

It is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) marketed as Innohep worldwide. It has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ...

*Protein primary structure

... reproducible molecular weight and by electrophoretic measurements by Arne Tiselius that indicated that proteins were single ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Hausman, Robert E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M. (2004). The cell: a molecular approach. ... additional molecular interactions may render the amide form less stable; the amino group is expelled instead, resulting in an ...

*Low-molecular-weight kininogen

Semba U, Shibuya Y, Okabe H, Hayashi I, Yamamoto T (2000). "Whale high-molecular-weight and low-molecular-weight kininogens". ... Low-molecular-weight kininogen is a form of kininogen, which has been identified in mice, guinea pigs, and whales. It is also ... Low-Molecular-Weight Kininogen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... and low-molecular-weight kininogens". Int Immunopharmacol. 4 (10-11): 1391-400. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2004.06.003. PMID 15313436 ...

*High-molecular-weight kininogen

... (HMWK or HK) is a circulating plasma protein which participates in the initiation of blood ... Its current accepted name is to contrast it with low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK) which has a similar function to HMWK in ... Higashiyama S, Ohkubo I, Ishiguro H, Kunimatsu M, Sawaki K, Sasaki M (Apr 1986). "Human high molecular weight kininogen as a ... Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal (2008). Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology. Springer. pp. 673-. ISBN 978-3-540-38916-3 ...

*Molecular-weight size marker

... s can be broken up into two categories: molecular weight markers vs. molecular ladder markers. ... The distance of travel is solely based on molecular weight; therefore, the molecular weight of each protein can be determined ... "Protein Molecular Weight Markers". Help Biotech. 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2013. "Protein Molecular Weight Markers Comparison ... "Molecular Weight Markers". Retrieved 16 November 2013. "Pierce Prestained Protein Molecular Weight Marker". Retrieved 16 ...

*Low molecular weight heparin

Natural heparin consists of molecular chains of varying lengths, or molecular weights. Chains of varying molecular weights, ... Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications. They are used in the prevention blood clots and ... Heparin and low-molecular-weight-heparin. Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 807-818. Xu, Y.; Masuko, S.; Takieddin, M.; Xu, H.; Liu, R ... LMWHs are defined as heparin salts having an average molecular weight of less than 8000 Da and for which at least 60% of all ...

*Molecular weight cut-off

... or MWCO refers to the lowest molecular weight solute (in daltons) in which 90% of the solute is ... This definition is not however standardized, and MWCOs can also be defined as the molecular weight at which 80% of the analytes ... Commercially available microdialysis probes typically have molecular weight cutoffs that range from 1,000 to 300,000 Da, and ... or the molecular weight of the molecule (e.g. globular protein) that is 90% retained by the membrane. ...

*Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

... (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. Also known as high- ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is synthesized from its monomer ethylene, which is bonded together to form ... doi:10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07346-2. de:Ruhrchemie ultra high molecular weight polyethylene; UHMWPE. chemyq.com Lewin (1996-07-09 ... 2305-2317 (1970). Kanamoto, On Ultra-High Tensile by Drawing Single Crystal Mats of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Polymer ...

*Low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance

... (LMWCr; also known as chromodulin) is an oligopeptide that seems to transport ... This oligopeptide is small, having a molecular weight of around 1 500 g/mol and the predominant amino acids present are ... Viera M, Davis-McGibony CM (2008). "Isolation and characterization of low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) ... Vincent JB (1994). "Relationship between glucose tolerance factor and low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance" (PDF). J ...

*IPX Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

IPX 2000 Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (IPX 2000, IPX UHMW, IPX UHMW-PE, IPX-UHMW-PE) is an engineered polyethylene ... The acronym IPX-UHMW-PE stands for Interstate Plastics eXtra ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. IPX 2000 UHMW is ...

*Dumas method of molecular weight determination

The Dumas method of molecular weight determination was historically a procedure used to determine the molecular weight of an ... By dividing the mass in grams of the vapor within the vessel by the calculated number of moles, the molecular weight may be ... The Dumas method is appropriate to determine the molecular weights of volatile organic substances that are liquids at room ... Today, modern methods such as mass spectrometry and elemental analysis are used to determine the molecular weight of a ...

*NBEAL1

Molecular weight of 307.3 kilo Daltons Predicted to be localized to the mitochondria The secondary structure of NBEAL1 is ... Kramer, Jack (1990). "Molecular Weight". Nakai and Horton (1997). "PSORTII". PSORT. "ExPASy: SIB Bioinformatics Resource Portal ... Molecular Brain Research. 125 (1-2): 147-155. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.02.022. ISSN 0169-328X. PMID 15193433. "homo ... Molecular Brain Research. 125 (1-2): 147-155. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.02.022. PMID 15193433. ...

*Lighter than air

"Air - Molecular Weight". www.engineeringtoolbox.com. Retrieved 2018-01-16. "Gases - Density". www.engineeringtoolbox.com. ... Hydrogen (density 0.090 g/L at STP, average molecular mass 2.016 g/mol) and helium (density 0.179 g/L at STP, average molecular ... Water vapor (density 0.804 g/L at STP, average molecular mass 18.015 g/mol) is lighter than air, and has successfully been used ... Ammonia (density 0.769 g/L at STP, average molecular mass 17.03 g/mol) has sometimes been used to fill weather balloons. Due to ...

*Dextroamphetamine

For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator and were within 0.01g/mol of ... "Molecular Weight Calculator". Lenntech. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals ... Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of ... Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 94. ISBN ...

*Trimethylborane

Molecular weight is 55.914. The heat of vapourisation is 25.6 kJ/mol. Trimethylborane was first made by Stock and Zeidler. ...

*Immunoglobulin M

First, the high molecular weight protein produced by some multiple myeloma patients was recognized to be a tumor-produced γ- ... Kabat, E. A. (1939). "The molecular weight of antibodies". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 69 (1): 103-118. doi:10.1084/jem. ... Heidelberger, M.; Pedersen, K. O. (1937). "The molecular weight of antibodies". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 65 (3): 393- ... with a molecular weight of 990,000 daltons . In accordance with its large size, the new antibody was originally referred to as ...

*Brookhaven Instruments

BI-MwA-Molecular Weight Analyzer. The BI-MwA is a multiangle light scattering detector suitable for Size-exclusion ... It determines the absolute molecular weight of proteins and polymers. BI-200SM-Research Goniometer and Full Laser Light ... Specializing in protein, polymer and particle characterization, with techniques in zeta potential, molecular weight, ... molecular mass and absolute molar mass analysis. Product designs started when their founders were postdoctoral students in the ...

*Cyclol

The same studies appeared to show that the molecular weight of proteins fell into a few well-defined classes related by ... However, it was difficult to determine the exact molecular weight and number of amino acids in a protein. Svedberg had also ... Wrinch summarized her model and the supporting molecular-weight experimental data in three review articles. Having proposed a ... Astbury, WT; Woods HJ (1931). "The Molecular Weight of Proteins". Nature. 127 (3209): 663-665. Bibcode:1931Natur.127..663A. doi ...

*Tubulopathy

AA: Aminoaciduria; AD:autosomal dominant; AR: autosomal recessive; LFT's: Liver function tests; LMWP: low molecular weight ... Burtis, C.A.; Ashwood, E.R. and Bruns, D.E. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 5th Edition. ...

*Polyphosphazene

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Allcock, H. R., Kugel, R. L., Valan, K. J. (1966). "High Molecular Weight Poly( ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Allcock, H. R., Kugel, R. L. (1966). "High Molecular Weight Poly( ... with Molecular Weight Control". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117 (26): 7035-7036. doi:10.1021/ja00131a040. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... More than 700 different polyphosphazenes are known, with different side groups (R) and different molecular architectures. Many ...

*Polyaniline

Kolla, Harsha S.; Surwade, Sumedh P.; Zhang, Xinyu; MacDiarmid, Alan G.; Manohar, Sanjeev K. (2005). "Absolute Molecular Weight ... and Shishov, M. A. (2012) "Oxidative Polymerization of Aniline: Molecular Synthesis of Polyaniline and the Formation of ... "Crucial role of decoherence for electronic transport in molecular wires: Polyaniline as a case study". Physical Review B. 82 ( ...

*Angiotensin (1-7)

... (C 41H 62N 12O 11; Molecular weight = 899.02 g/mol; H-Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-OH) is an active ...

*Red-billed pigeon

The red-billed pigeon is mid or large-sized pigeon, at 30-37 cm (12-15 in) in length and a weight of 230-425 g (8.1-15.0 oz). ... "A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba" (PDF). Auk. 118 (4): 874-887. doi:10.2307/4089839. Dunning ...

*Edward Wilson Merrill

Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene". Biomaterials. 17 (18): 1741-53. doi:10.1016/0142-9612(95)00349-5. PMID 8879511. " ... Lewis, Gladius (2001). "Properties of crosslinked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene". Biomaterials. 22 (4): 371-401. doi ...
D4001 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determination of Weight-Average Molecular Weight of Polymers By Light Scattering , light scattering, polymers, weight-average molecular weight,
In this work, we present a generalization of our previous model, which allows us to account for the entire molecular weight distribution, as well as the long-chain branching. We develop a deeper insight into the vinyl group distribution among the molecules given the operating conditions of the modification process. We focus on the modification taking place in a press at constant temperature, under conditions where scission is not measurable. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL We develop a set of mass balances for the reacting species where the different lengths, number of vinyls and number of branching points are taken into account. A triple moment technique was used to calculate number and weight average molecular weights as well as average number of branching points for species having j vinyls, j=0, 1, 2 To calculate molecular weight distributions we apply another transform technique that makes use of probability generating function (pgf) definitions applied to the number and weight MWD, following the ...
The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient group of venomous animals, specialized in the production and delivery of toxins. Many species belonging to the class Anthozoa have been studied and their venoms often contain a group of peptides, less than 10 kDa, that act upon ion channels. These peptides and their targets interact with high affinity producing neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and even death, depending on the dose and the administration pathway. Zoanthiniaria is an order of the Subclass Hexacorallia, class Anthozoa, and unlike sea anemone (order Actiniaria), neither its diversity of toxins nor the in vivo effects of the venoms has been exhaustively explored. In this study we assessed some toxicological tests on mice with a low molecular weight fraction obtained by gel filtration in Sephadex G-50 from Zoanthus sociatus crude extract. The gel filtration chromatogram at 280 nm revealed two major peaks, the highest absorbance corresponding to the low molecular weight fraction. The toxicological effects
The influence of molecular weight distribution and extrusion processing variables on the morphological features and orientation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) uniaxially extruded tubular films was investigated. In order to gain a better understanding of the orientation-crystallization behavior occurring during extrusion processing, the melt flow properties of the two HDPE resins with identical <(M)over bar (n)> (14 600) values but different molecular weight distributions (<(M)over bar (w)>/<(M)over bar (n)> = 10.3, 15.1), utilized in our previous study, were characterized by dynamic rheological experiments over the temperature range from 150 degrees C to 230 degrees C within the angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The experimental data were shifted to produce master flow curves. The how activation energy calculated from the shifting process was found to be 25.9 kJ/mol for resin 1 and 29.1 kJ/mol for resin 2. The characteristic relaxation time at 190 degrees C obtained by use of a ...
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not affected by antigenic stimulation and is apparently produced
Molecular weight is critical property of a chemical, particularly for polymers. Impact Analytical has extensive experience and comprehensive tools for measuring molecular weight of all types of compounds and polymers. We can supply results to aid in problem solving, unknown identification, manufacturing support, or product deformulation.. Depending on the sample material, molecular weight can be determined through a variety of techniques. Molecular weight, as well as molecular structure, of small molecules can be determined using mass spectrometry. Using a direct infusion method, samples can be introduced directly to the detector to confirm molecular weight of a known material, or provide structural characterization of an unknown.. Molecular weight information of polymers can be determined using techniques such as viscosity and size exclusion chromatography. In order to perform molecular weight determinations of polymers, it is necessary to understand the solubility of a given polymer.. Impact ...
Four size exclusion chromatography (SEC) calibration techniques were tested for use in the molecular weight characterisation of Streptococcal Hyaluronic Acid (HA). An exponential equation, evaluated using the Hamielec method, was superior to the customary peak position method. It provided the most accurate estimates of the weight average molecular weight, Mw. The calibration was valid for HA in the range 800 - 2500 kDa, and permitted the calculation of both polydispersity and molecular weight distributions for HA from Streptococcal fermentations. This exponential calibration approach should have application in the characterisation of other large biopolymers, particularly where pore size of available SEC media is limiting ...
In a kinetically-controlled step-growth polymerization, the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymers produced can be controlled via its reaction path. In this paper, the effect of intermediate monomer feed on the MWD in a batch reactor or a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR) is investigated, and a kinetic model is proposed for MWD development. The present model considers the interchange reactions during polymerization. The variance of the MWD can be increased by the intermediate monomer feed method while the interchange reactions counteract this effect. The present model has given satisfactory predictions for the polycondensation of adipic acid and 1,6-hexanediol.
A mathematical model is developed for the molecular weight distribution (IMWD) of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polycondensation process based on the reaction mechanisms and the operating conditions. It employs the logical combination of the reaction extent method, the moment method and the statistical fitting technique. An optimization scheme is then discussed on the tracking of the desired MWD during the polymerization process.. ...
A method to evaluate molecular weight distribution (MWD) from dynamic moduli is presented here. It relies on the least-square fitting of the dynamic data to a model whose parameters depend on the...
This research is focused on the polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline homopolymers and 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline containing copolymers with well-defined structures. In addition, the potential of selected materials as polymer blend compatibilizers was briefly evaluated. The polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline was investigated with regard to the effects of initiator structures on molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution, living characteristics, and mechanisms and kinetics. The structure of initiators was shown to greatly affect the molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). The living nature of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) in chlorobenzene initiated by benzyl iodide, benzyl chloride/NaI, or chloroethyl ethyl ether/NaI has been established by Mn-conversion plots and sequential monomer addition experiments. However, the molecular weight distributions of these polymers were not as narrow as Poisson distributions, Mechanistic and kinetic ...
acrylamide gel for low molecular weight protein - posted in Protein and Proteomics: hi. i will be digesting my gst fusion protein with thrombin. and it will yield a very low molecular weight protein of about 7kda. i would like to ask if there is a special technique of visualizing this protein in acrylamide gel? is 15% enough? or what other conditions do i need to consider in detecting this very low molecular weight protein? thank you....
Matossian, rogers A.; Rogers, P; Ledbetter, J A.; and Herzenberg, L A., "Molecular weight determination of two genetically linked cell surface murine antigens: thb and ly-6." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 534 ...
A process for producing a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising: (1) 100 parts by weight of an olefin polymer which comprises ethylene and at least one α-olefin having 3 to 10 carbon atoms and in which the density is in the range of 0.85 to 0.91 g/cm3 and the molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn) which is the ratio of weight average molecular weight (Mw) and number average molecular weight (Mn) as calculated by a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is less than 3.5, (2) 5 to 300 parts by weight of a propylene polymer, (3) 5 to 250 parts by weight of an oil, and (4) 0.02 to 3 parts by weight of a radical initiator, which process comprises steps of previously mixing and heat-kneading the olefin polymer, the propylene polymer and the radical initiator; adding the oil in the stage in which cross-linking is at a proportion of 30 to 95% based on the cross-linking degree of the composition to be finally obtained; and further melt-kneading them to cross-link the same.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 328 591, filed as application number 01 974 468.9, based on the international application published as WO 02/33008, was granted on the basis twenty-three claims. Claim 1 as granted reads as follows (emphasis added):. 1. An aqueous coating composition comprising:. an ambient temperature crosslinkable water-dispersible polyester oligomer(s) less than 80% by weight soluble in water throughout the pH range of from 2 to 10, with a measured weight average molecular weight in the range of from 1,000 to 100,000 Daltons; and. a dispersed polymer(s) which is not a polyester oligomer, the dispersed polymer(s) having a lower limit of 10% by weight, with a measured weight average molecular weight ,=120,000 Daltons;. wherein said composition when drying to form a coating has the following properties:. i) an open time of at least 20 minutes at 23±2ºC;. ii) a wet edge time of at least 10 minutes at 23±2ºC;. iii) a thumb hard time of ,=48 hours at ...
A high solids coating composition useful as a clear coat for an automotive clear coat/color coat finish which contains about 40-80% by weight of a binder and correspondingly about 20-60% by of a liquid organic carrier; wherein the binder contains about: a. an acrylic solution polymer of polymerized monomers of ethylenically unsaturated esters of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and a hydroxy alkyl acrylate or methacrylate and the polymer has a hydroxyl no. of about 50-200 and a weight average molecular weight of about 4,000-20,000; b. a dispersed polymer of polymerized monomers having stabilizer resin segment that is soluble in the organic carrier and dispersed resin segment that is relatively insoluble in the organic carrier; c. a siloxane oligomer having --OH and --OR groups attached to the silane atoms of the oligomer where R is an alkyl group having 1-6 carbon atoms in the alkyl group or an aryl group and the oligomer has a weight average molecular weight of about 500-5,000; and d. an alkylated
Acetone powders prepared from leaf extracts of Tecoma stans L. were found to catalyze the oxidation of catechol to 3,4,3,4-tetrahydroxydiphenyl. Fractionation of the acetone powders obtained from Tecoma leaves with acetone, negative adsorption of the acetone fraction with tricalcium phosphate gel, and chromatography of the gel supernatant on DEAE-Sephadex yielded a 68-fold purified enzyme with 66% recovery. The enzyme had an optimum pH around 7.2. It showed a temperature optimum of 30° and the Km for catechol was determined as 2 x 10-4 m. The purified enzyme moved as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its activity was found to be partially stimulated by Mg2+. The reaction was not inhibited by o-phenanthroline and agr,agr-dipyridyl. The purified enzyme was highly insensitive to a range of copper-chelating agents. It was not affected appreciably by thiol inhibitors. The reaction was found to be suppressed to a considerable extent by reducing agents like GSH, cysteine, ...
The invention provides a polymerization process comprising polymerizing a reaction mixture comprising one or more monomer types, at least one catalyst, and at least one solvent, to form a polymer dispersion, and wherein the at least one catalyst is soluble in the at least one solvent, and wherein the polymer forms a dispersed phase in the solvent, and wherein the at least one solvent is a hydrocarbon. The invention provides a composition comprising an ethylene-based polymer comprising at least the following properties: a) a weight average molecular weight (Mw(abs)) greater than, or equal to, 60,000 g/mole; and b) a molecular weight distribution (Mw(abs)/Mn(abs)) greater than, or equal to, 2.3.
Fourier transform solution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry with homogated water peak irradiation is a useful method for detecting low molecular weight substances in humic extracts. Succinate, acetate, methanol, formate, lactate and some aryl methoxyl compounds have been detected in extracts from a wide range of sources. In view of the controversy over whether low molecular weight substances are contaminants in humic extracts introduced by the concentration procedure, we report that some of these materials are not contaminants since 1H-NMR can be used to follow their formation from higher molecular weight species. ?? 1988....
A catalyst, co-catalyst, and/or chain transfer agent is added at a time after initiation of an addition polymerization reaction to produce a polymer product with a widened molecular weight distribution relative to having all of the components in the original reaction mixture. The catalyst, co-catalyst, or chain transfer agent may be added discretely or continuously to the reaction to produce a product with a bimodal, trimodal, or other broadened molecular weight distribution.. ...
Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have shown good activity as anticoagulants by allosterically inhibiting thrombin, as well as promising agents for treating emphysema through inhibition of elastolysis, oxidation, and inflammation. Sulfated LMWLs are chemo-enzymatically synthesized from starting monomers caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acid into sulfated dehydropolymers known as CDS, FDS, and SDS. To further the LMWLs development as drugs, their structural composition and physicochemical characteristics were defined in this work. The molecular weight distribution profile of the sulfated LMWLs from size exclusion chromatography performed on a high pressure liquid chromatography system (SEC-HPLC) changed from bimodal when no surfactant is used in the mobile phase of the HPLC to unimodal when surfactant is used in the mobile phase. This indicates that some large molecular weight species, likely an aggregate of smaller molecular weight chains, are disrupted when surfactant is present. The
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
Export Data And Price Of HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data. You can find previous two days HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data on Eximpulse Services. HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not ...
Dahl, H M.; Truelsen, E; and Blair, G E., "The purification and properties of two low-molecular-weight proteins required for the initiation of translation in ascites tumour cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1411 ...
A first step in characterizing a protein often involves determining its molecular weight. From this information, different proteins may be compared and the number of amino acid residues in a protein can be determined. Here, students determine the molecular weight of two unknown proteins by comparing their electrophoretic migration with the migration of standard proteins. The protein standards and unknowns have been pre-stained so that your students can follow ...
Multilayer thermoplastic film structures comprising at least one heat-sealable outer layer (A) and at least one core layer (B) are disclosed. Layer (A) has improved heat sealability after irradiation (e.g. electron beam). Layer (B) has improved shrinkage after irradiation. Layer (A) is a linear polyethylene having a melt index from about 2 to about 20 g/10 minutes, a density from about 0.88 to about 0.92 g/cc, a molecular weight distribution (I10 /I2) from about 5 to about 8, a fraction of the polyethylene having a degree of branching less than or equal to 2 methyls/1000 carbons of not more than 15% by weight and a fraction of the polyethylene having a degree of branching greater than or equal to 25 methyls/1000 carbons of not more than 25% by weight of the polymer. Layer (B) is a linear polyethylene having a melt index from about 0.05 to about 5 g/10 minutes, a density from about 0.88 to about 0.94 g/cc and a molecular weight distribution (I10 /I2) from about 8 to about 30.
This research investigated the relationships between molecular size and the TOC, TTHM, acid strength and color concentrations present in raw and coagulated water from Lake Washington. Three separate coagulants were utilized for investigation. There were: Al, Fe and Mg. Results indicated that the majority of the TOC, color and TTHM precursors were in the colloidal size range and removed by coagulation. The remaining TTHM precursors are mostly molecular and require a process other than coagulation for removal from the potable water before environmental standards are met.
The process of the present invention may be used to prepare homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher alpha olefins having densities in the range of, for example, about 0.900-0.970 g/cm3 and especially 0.910-0.965 g/cm3; the polymers of higher density e.g. about 0.960 and above being homopolymers. Such polymers may have a melt index, as measured by the method of ASTM D-1238, condition E, in the range of for example, 0.1-200 dg/min, typically from about 0.1 to 150 dg/min., and especially in the range of about 0.1 to 120 dg/min. The polymers may be manufactured with narrow or broad molecular weight distribution. For example, the polymers may have a stress exponent, a measure of the molecular weight distribution, in the range of about 1.1-2.5 and especially in the range of about 1.3-2.0. Stress exponent is determined by measuring the throughput of a melt indexer at two stresses (2160 g and 6480 g loading) using the procedures of the ASTM melt index test method, and the ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
The HPSEC-RI elution profiles of ethanol precipitated WE-AX isolated from flours and breads are shown in Fig. 3. The high molecular weight (HMW). polysaccharides present in the endosperm flours of population rye cultivars (Amilo, Diament and Kier) eluted as the single, sharp and symmetric populations in the high molar mass range of the column (11-14 ml). click here Amongst endosperm flour AX of hybrid rye cultivars, only polymers isolated from Koko cultivar had a similar distribution pattern to those of population ryes, with slightly broader distribution. The remaining profiles of AX from endosperm flour of hybrid cultivars (Stach and Konto) and from wholemeals of population cultivars, apart from the HMW populations also contained the low molecular weight (LMW) polymers, eluting at 14.5-17.5 ml. The high-symmetry peaks of endosperm flour AX (Amilo, Diament, Kier and Koko) were ascribed to their highest weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) ( Table 2). While, the ...
A graft polymer containing a cyclic structure comprised of a polymer containing a cyclic structure graft-modified with an unsaturated compound containing a polar group, having a graft ratio of 10 to 150 mol %, having a weight average molecular weight of 1,000 to 1,000,000, and having a gel content of not more than 0.1 wt % or having a ratio (Ha/La) of high molecular weight side area (Ha) and low molecular weight side area (La) divided by a vertical line suspended from a peak top of a differentiated elution profile measured by gel permeation chromatography to a baseline of not more than 1.6, a method of production of the same, and a curable composition containing that graft polymer containing a cyclic structure and a curing agent.
Nurkhamidah, S. and Woo, E. M. (2011), Effects of crystallinity and molecular weight on crack behavior in crystalline poly(L-lactic acid). J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122: 1976-1985. doi: 10.1002/app.34021 ...
Aqueous coating compositions consist essentially of: (a) a water-insoluble film-forming polymeric resin; (b) water-insoluble agglomerated particulate beads of urea, melamine or phenol and formaldehyde; (c) polyethers having the formulaH(OC.sub.x H.sub.2x).sub.n OHwhere x is from 2 to 4 and n is a number such that the polyether has a weight average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 1000; (d) pigments; and (e) water. The aqueous coating compositions are especially useful for imparting to metal coil a low gloss pigmented protective finish having good metal marking resistance.
Lipscomb, D.L.; Boudreaux, M.K.; Paxton, R.; Spano, J.; Welles, E.G.; Schumacher, J., 1997: Identification of thrombospondin as a high molecular mass protein released from activated equine platelets
Yang J.K., Epstein W.. Adenylate cyclase of Escherichia coli K12 has been purified 17,000-fold to near homogeneity from a 5-fold overproducing strain. One major band of Mr = 92,000 and several minor bands are seen on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the purest fractions. Identification of the enzyme with the 92,000-Da protein is based on the correlation of this band with activity when highly purified enzyme is eluted from ADP-sepharose columns. The native enzyme has a molecular weight of 95,000 determined by gel filtration, showing that the enzyme is active as a monomer. The purest enzyme has a specific activity of 700 nmol min-1 mg-1, indicating a turnover number of about 100 min-1. Our data indicate that there are only about 15 molecules of the enzyme in wild type cells of E. coli. In crude extracts, over 80% of the activity is soluble after centrifugation at 100,000 x g, indicating the enzyme is soluble or, at most, loosely membrane bound. The enzyme is only moderately ...
In analysis, our results show an unreasonable result. The majority of the failure is from the volume result. From Avogrados law we know that. As such, because the average volume (0.051 L) was low, the mol resulting from it is also low. A small mol results in a large Mr value, or in our case the Mr of Oxygen is too high.. -Another point to that is that if the experiment was assuming r.t.p, our results prove to be incorrect again. If we compared the mol, the actual mol results of andusing the ideal gas laws is different than if we calculated using normal Stoichiometry.. From Stoichiometry, the actual mol of is, and if we compared it to a ratio of 2:2, the actual mol value of is also 0.138 mol. However in our experiment using the gas law, our mol result was. Again this is due to the fact of the low amount of volume recorded.. -In addition to that point, from the section to: Calculate molar mass of Water using the mass of Hydrogen Peroxide , another flaw to the experiment was the amount of ...
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
The present invention relates to a continuous gas phase process comprising passing a recycle stream through a fluidized bed in a gas phase fluidized bed reactor, wherein the recycle stream comprises a low molecular weight dew point increasing component and a high molecular weight component, polymerizing an alpha-olefin monomer in the presence of a catalyst, and controlling an amount of the low molecular weight dew point increasing component in the recycle stream such that a dew point approach temperature of the recycle stream is less than the dew point approach temperature when operating with the higher molecular weight dew point increasing component alone.
[14C] Methylated Protein Molecular Weight Markers from GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham Biosciences,[14C] Methylated Protein Molecular Weight Markers, 37 kBq, 1 uCi. Carbon-14 radiolabelled marker proteins enable molecular weight determination of the sample on Western blots.The Rainbow-labeled version also allows visual monitoring of band migration in the gel and on the blot.The specific activity,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Undenatured Alcohol, Wholesale Various High Quality Undenatured Alcohol Products from Global Undenatured Alcohol Suppliers and Undenatured Alcohol Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Globins were measured to establish a size molecular weight relationship similar to Mark-Houwink to easily establish the oligomeric state in this superfamily of proteins, MRK1294
VisiBlot Standard I is a mixture of 10 recombinant proteins of a molecular weight range from 25 kDa to 150 kDa. Protein bands of 25 kDa, 45 kDa and 85 kDa are prestained allowing monitoring of protein separation during SDS PAGE. The remaining five proteins contain several IgG binding sites. Hence marker proteins bind to primary or secondary antibodies used in Western Blotting facilitating easy marker visualization on the transfer membrane. Because the proteins have no chromophore attached, the marker enables accurate molecular weight estimation. Recommended loading volume for a mini gel is 5 µl/lane. Ready-to-use, no reconstitution, further dilution or heating required Prestained bands for monitoring electrophoresis and membrane transfer Visualization of marker proteins on Western Blots by horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase-based immune-detection methods Molecular weight determination of proteins detected on transfer membrane
The molar mass of CuNO_3 is 125.55 g/mol Based on the formula youve given me, that compound would actually be copper (II) nitrate. Copper (I) nitrate is CuNO_3 Before we begin heres a tip: atomic weight of element xxnumber of atoms given by subscript = molar mass First, you want to have your handy dandy periodic table available so you can determine the atomic weight of Cu, N, O Cu has an atomic weight of 63.55 g/mol N has an atomic weight of 14.01 g/mol O has an atomic wight of 16.00 g/mol Based on the chemical formula, we have 1 atom of Cu, which would have an atomic weight of 63.55 g/mol Next, we have 1 atoms of N, and that has an atomic mass of 14.01 g/mol You have 3 atoms of O so we would multiply the atomic mass of O by 3 to obtain 48.00 g/mol. Now you want to add the mass of each atom together to obtain the molecular weight of the entire compound: 63.55 g/mol + 14.01 g/mol + 48.00 g/mol = 125.55 g/mol
Alison Leakey wrote: , , How do I concentrate a low molecular weight protein (less than 5kDa) , from gel filtration fractions ie. dilute???, keeping in mind that , filtration devices and dialysis tubing concentrate above this size. Have you tried concentrating chromatographic techniques (reverse phase chromatography, ion exchange ...
The present invention pertains to an ethylene interpolymer composition characterized as having a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD) and optimized compositional uniformity, a process for making such a composition and a fabricated article made from such composition. The novel composition is characterized as having at least two polymer components, the first component having an ATREF peak temperature, T.sub.peak1 and a viscosity average molecular weight, M.sub.v1, and the second component having an ATREF peak temperature, T.sub.peak2, and a viscosity average molecular, M.sub.v2, wherein the temperature differential between T.sub.peak2 and T.sub.peak1 decreases with increased composition density and M.sub.v1 /M.sub.v2 is less than or equal to 1.2. The novel composition is further characterized as having a M.sub.w /M.sub.n of less than or equal to 3.3 as determined by gel permeation chromatography, an I.sub.10 /I.sub.2 |6.6, and a composition density
Definition of Plessey v. Ferguson in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Plessey v. Ferguson? Meaning of Plessey v. Ferguson as a legal term. What does Plessey v. Ferguson mean in law?
Definition of McCarran Ferguson Act in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is McCarran Ferguson Act? Meaning of McCarran Ferguson Act as a finance term. What does McCarran Ferguson Act mean in finance?
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. ASTM Method D 3593-77. Standard Test Method for Molecular Weight Averages and Molecular Weight Distribution of Certain Polymers by Liquid Exclusion Chromatography (Gel Permeation Chromatography-GPC) Using Universal Calibration. LH Tung. J Appl Polym Sci 13:775, 1969. LH Tung, JR Runyan. J Appl Polym Sci 13:2397, 1969. MR Ambler, LJ Fetters, Y Kesten. J Appl Polym Sci 21:2439- 2451, 1977. ST Balke, AE Hamielec, BP LeClair, SL Pearce. MA Haney. J Appl Polym Sci 30:3037- 3049, 1985. MA Haney. Am Lab 17(4):116 - 126, 1985. PJ Wang, BS Glasbrenner. J Liq Chromatogr 11(16):3321 -3333, 1988. DJ Nagy, DA Terwilliger. J Liq Chromatogr 12(8):1431 - 1449, 1989. J Cazes, ed. Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials (Chromatographic Science Series, volume 8). New York: Marcel Dekker, 1977. J Cazes, X Delamare, eds. Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials II (Chromatographic ...
The present invention provides a slurry for chemical mechanical polishing comprising water-soluble clathrate compound (a), polymer compound (b) having an acidic group optionally in a salt form as a side chain, polishing abrasive grain (c) and water (d), wherein the content of the water-soluble clathrate compound (a) is 0.001 mass % - 3 mass % of the total amount of the slurry, the polymer compound (b) has a weight average molecular weight of not less than 1,000 and less than 1,000,000, and the content of the polymer compound (b) is 0.12 mass % - 3 mass % of the total amount of the slurry, and a polishing method for substrate using the slurry.
Figure 1 Distribution of linkages in barley 1 3,1 4 - -glucans. G -glucosyl residues 3 1 3 -linkages 4 1 4 -linkages red reducing end arrows sites of hydrolysis by 1 3,1 4 - -glucan endohydrolases EC 3.2.1.73 . From Ref. 10. barley 1 3, 1 4 - -glucans have weight average molecular weights in the range 200,000-300,000 12, 13 . These values correspond to polysaccharides containing 1200-1800 glucosyl residues. The high viscosities of cereal 1 3, 1 4 - -glu-can solutions can be attributed not only.... ...
Colouring of high molecular weight organic substances with the pigment colourant of formula (1) is carried out, for example, by mixing such a pigment colourant with the substrates using rolling mills, mixing or grinding apparatuses, as a result of which the pigment colourant is dissolved or finely divided in the high molecular weight material. The high molecular weight material with the admixed pigment colourant is subsequently processed by methods known perse, for example calendering, compression moulding, extrusion, coating, spinning, casting or by injection moulding, whereby the coloured material acquires its final form. The admixture of the pigment colourant may also be carried out immediately prior to the actual processing step, for example by continuously feeding a solid pigment colourant, for example a pulverulent pigment colourant, and, at the same time, a granulated or powdered high molecular weight organic material, and optionally also additional ingredients, for example additives, ...
|strong|Charles Ferguson|/strong| is a filmmaker and writer. He is the founder and president of Representational Pictures, and the director and producer of Inside Job, winner of the 2011 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, and of No End in Site: The American Occupation of Iraq, which was an Academy Award nominee as well. His latest film, Time to Choose, is the first comprehensive examination of how to address climate change and the bigger challenge of global sustainability. Ferguson was originally trained as a political scientist and holds a B.A. in mathematics from University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in political science from MIT. He has also been a consultant to the White House, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Department of Defense, and several U.S. and European high technology firms. In 1994, Ferguson founded Vermeer Technologies which he sold in early 1996 to Microsoft, which integrated FrontPage into Microsoft Office. After selling Vermeer, Ferguson turned to
... Looking for High Molecular Weight High Density Hmw Hdpe in UAE ? Get Suppliers / Manufacturers / Retailers of High Molecular Weight High Density Hmw Hdpe in UAE
A bubble gum base composition containing a combination of two PVA polymeric materials, namely a low molecular weight component and a medium molecular weight component along with an acetylated monoglyceride having a sponification value above about 400.
View Notes - problemset3KEY from MCB 102 at Berkeley. PROBLEM SET 3 ANSWER KEY FALL 2007 MCB102 Collins Multiple choice, for warm-up 1. The average molecular weight of the 20 standard amino acids
DBP control by nanofiltration was studied. Nine DBPs including THMs were selected as target compounds. Reagent DBPs and DBPs formed as a result of chlorination of NOM contained in river water, were applied to nanofiltration to examine DBPs removal. Humic acid was used to investigate DBP precursor control. Nanofiltration was conducted for about one day for each experiment using two 2-inch membrane modules. NF showed high performance for DBP precursor removal but little effect on the removal of DBPs themselves, especially THMs. In the experiment of DBP precursors removal, rejections were 98 to 100 percent for most of the DBPFPs. For NOM in river water, rejections of THMFPs were 96 to 99 percent. This shows nanofiltration is effective even at low concentrations of NOM. Nanofiltration can remove almost all organic substances with the apparent molecular weight of greater than 2,000 daltons. Molecular weight distribution patterns of the permeate were different depending on NF. THMs showed decreasing ...
I am working on a project in which I am doing Western Blots to look at the expression of a low molecular weight protein (15 kDa) in various brain regions. I have been using a 0.2 uM nitrocellulose membrane for my transfers and I have been transferring for 1 hour at 100 Volts. I have been getting nice Ponceau staining, so my transer appears to be working. In addition, I have run a positive control with the purified form of my protein of interest and I have been getting nice results with that when I develop my film so my antibody seems to be working. However, I have not been able to detect my protein of interest in the brain. I was wondering if anyone had any tips regarding doing Westerns of low-molecular weight proteins. Ive been using a 15% gel for SDS-PAGE and I am considering going to a 4-20% linear gradient gel. Will that help? Does anyone think I am having a sample preparation problem? I would appreciate anyones input. Thanks ...
Note, that a lot depends on the method of determining molar mass, so 192.8 g/mol can be a honest result, one that needs refining. Imagine using ebuliometric or crioscopic method to determine molar mass of substance that dimerizes to some extent in the solution. You didnt know that beforehand, all you know is that molar mass is off and you have to deal with it somehow ...
0085] The casting process with a mixing-dispensing machine as described above, consists of the following operations: [0086] feeding the two components (A) and (B) by means of lines (1) and (1) into the two respective stirred tanks R(A) and R(B). Additives such as UV stabilizers, dyes, mould release agents, etc., if not previously dissolved in the single components, can be added in this step in one of the two tanks or in both; the acid phosphate ester catalyst, on the other hand, is already present in component (A) which is preferably a mixture of a cyclo-aliphatic diisocyanate monomer and the prepolymer obtained by reaction, in the presence of an acid phosphate ester catalyst, between said cyclo-aliphatic diisocyanate monomer and one or more polyols having two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule and a molecular weight ranging from 50 to 2,000 g/moles; [0087] degassing the liquids at about 40-60° C. for about two hours under vacuum and under stirring; [0088] transferring the degassed liquids ...
Barium hydroxide has a molar mass of 171.34 grams per mole. The molar mass of a chemical compound is determined by adding together the molar masses of all of the atoms present in that compound. The...
Free Download and information on Molar Mass - Molar Mass is a Dashboard widget that calculates the molar mass of a molecule based on the formula entered in the input field. The calculator has an option to show the calculations.
The CD36 antigen (platelet GPIV) is a generic term for a family of glycoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 78 to 88 kDa. This molecule is found on platelets, endothelial cells, monocytes, and some human tumor cell lines. It is a very early marker of erythroid differentiation and mediates the adherence of platelets to thrombospondin and collagen. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc ...
edta molecular weight 372 24 for sale - 688 - edta molecular weight 372 24 wholesalers & edta molecular weight 372 24 manufacturers from China manufacturers of page 6.
The invention relates to polymer tapes that are blends including at least one silane-grafted single-site initiated polyolefin resin. The silane-grafted single-site initiated polyolefin resin generally is a copolymer of ethylene and a C3-C20 alpha-olefin that has a molecular weight distribution between about 1.5 and about 3.5. The polymer tapes include an adhesive on at least one face of the polymer. The polymer tapes can be foamed.
Here are the plots of molecular weight vs. bit count. This is molecular weight vs. Daylight bit strings. This is molecular weight vs. BCI bit strings and this is molecular weight vs. Unity bit strings. We see, again,the upper part of the plots, those data are the structures with more repeated fragments. For example, let us see the structure of this compound. ...
You could certainly try running some of the DNA on the gel if you wanted to. I would suspect that you will see a lot of large molecular weight material that would correspond to the genomic DNA, again it would depend on what kind of protocol you were using to isolate the DNA in the first place, but it might give you some indication of how pure it is. I think for a normal plasmid transformation you use around 200 ng of DNA. I looked back at my yeast DNA isolation protocol and all it says is to try transforming between 1-5 ul of DNA. I recall that it was often tricky to get the plasmid back into bacteria - I would get very few transformants. I do believe that some companies sell kits that make it easier to extract plasmid DNA from yeast, but I havent tried them. I remember that one member of this forum was doing a yeast two hybrid screen recently and he was doing transformations with it. Perhaps he can give you more information ...
MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a unique technology to explore the spatial distribution of biomolecules directly on tissues. It allows the in situ investigation of a large number of small proteins and peptides. Detection of high molecular we
Of course, these columns are not restricted to these applications; and these applications are not restricted to these columns… and wed be happy to help you sort out the best choice for your specific application(s).. However … the topic of this entry is "none of the above." Instead, lets spend a minute or two on Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) for mAbs.. YMCs newest size exclusion column uses a stationary phase specifically designed for separating monoclonal antibodies. The product, YMC-SEC MAB, utilizes a 3µm, 250Å dihydroxypropyl stationary phase bonded to a silica gel base.. The 250Å pore size of YMC-SEC MAB is well-suited for separating aggregates from monomer and is also effective at resolving lower molecular weight fragments. YMC-SEC MAB delivers high resolution and excellent peak shape over a broad range of molecular weights (10kDa to 700kDa).. YMC-SEC MAB has been shown to work well for both characterization and quality control of antibody drugs.. Benefits of YMC-SEC ...
This answer depends on the amount of different gasses in the samples of air, the weights of those gasses can affect the final molar measurement. However, the average molar mass of air is 28.9656g/mol.References:Environmental Chemistry: Molar Mass Calculator
The regional metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the developing female rat brain was investigated after the intracranial injection of [32P]P1. The synthesis of polyadenylated RNA relative to high-molecular-weight RNA was determined after oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography of total cellular high-molecular-weight RNA labelled after 4h. In both hypothalamus and cortex this synthesis was significantly higher during the first 10 days post partum than at subsequent ages. In both regions apparently more mRNA is synthesized in the young. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight RNA relative to that of the nucleus, measured after a 48 h period of labelling, was considered to be an index of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized RNA [Berthold & Lim (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 529-539]. In the cortex, nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in rats aged up to 20 days was significantly higher than in older rats, with the maximal value being attained between 16 ...
The molar mass of gold is 196.97 g/mol. To find this number, multiply the atomic mass by the molar mass constant, which is one gram per one mole because gold in its elemental form is a single atom....
Thats correct. The notation for molar mass is M. However, the notation for molarity is also M, so when a question has M in it, be sure you know which M its referring to. If the units for it is g/mol, then its referring to molar mass, whereas if the units are in mol/L, then its referring to molarity ...
When I was an undergrad we did an exercise to determine the molecular weight more accurately of a particular unknown DNA fragment. We ran the unknown fragment next to a ladder of known molecular weight. From a picture of the gel, we determined the distance migrated for each of the bands in the known molecular weight ladder and plotted this relationship on 2-cycle semi-log paper where the distance traveled was on the x-axis. The molecular weight was plotted on the y-axis...the log portion. From a best fit line, the molecular weight of the unknown DNA fragment could be determined. If you plot this on straight linear graph paper, youll need to take the log of the molecular weight first.. ...
Analysis of Extracted DNA Samples Samples of DNA were quantitatively assayed using spectrophotometery by measuring absorbance at 260 nm (A260), 280 nm (A280), and 230 nm (A230) to determine concentration of ds DNA, and to measure A260 to A280 ratio (optimal ratio is equal to 1.8 or more and less than 2) and A260 to A230 ratio (optimal ratio is greater than 2.2). A280 is an estimate of concentration of non-DNA components. such as proteins, whereas A230 is measured to estimate concentration of other components such as detergents, peptides, carbohydrates, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical phenol and chloroform. Some randomly selected samples were assayed quantitatively by running on a 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical allowing the molecular weight of the DNA to be estimated. The electrophoresis resulted in a thick smear of DNA fragments with variable size ranging from very high molecular weight DNA to those about 100 bp in size (figure 1). Moreover, some ...
Molar Mass 0.4 - Widget to calculate the molar mass of a molecule. Download the latest versions of the best Mac apps at safe and trusted MacUpdate
Singer Rebecca Ferguson Height Weight Body Statistics. Rebecca Ferguson Height -1.70 m, Weight -58 kg, Measurements, bra size, dress, shoe size, boyfriend
The molecular weight of a substance expresses the relative mass of its molecule in composition to some arbitrarily selected standard. Molecular weight in chemistry is considered a simple matter being just the weight of one mole of the compound. The molecular weight of a substance is pure number having no unit ...
Get an answer for A compound with the empirical formula CH2 has a molar mass of 112 g/mol. What is the molecular formula for this compound? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
The molar mass of a certain gas is 58.1 g/mol. What is the density of the gas in g/L at STP?use the ideal gas law, PV=nRT -| P=nRT/V sub in: n...
This short seminar discusses chromatographic techniques suitable for the analysis of large molecular weight biomolecules. With an increased interest in the area of biotherapeutics and more regulations focused on these pharmaceuticals, possible methods to characterise biomolecules are required. Modes such as size exclusion (SEC), ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction (HIC) and affinity chromatography will be covered for intact biomolecules. Techniques that may be more familiar to those analysts involved in small molecule analysis, such as reversed-phase LC-MS methods for protein digests will also be discussed, alongside new tools focused primarily on large molecules, for example SEC for monoclonal antibody monomer, fragment and aggregate separations. Course attendees will leave with a better understanding of the variety of techniques available to enable a more complete characterisation of biomolecules ...
Protein molecular weight markers are used to calculate sample molecular weights, to monitor the progress of an electrophoretic run, or as a positive control for analysis conditions. Sigma offers a wide selection of markers for numerous protein electrophoresis applications, including silver staining, isoelectric focusing, fluorescent studies, and others. Sigma-Aldrich.com
In article ,3u5mss$j93 at is.bbsrc.ac.uk, Your Name ,your.name at bbsrc.ac.uk, writes: , Does anyone know of a gcg programme which will calculate , the molecular weight of DNA fragments? Dear Your Name: Huh?? Why do you need a program in the GCG package to do this??? This should be very easy to do on your pocket calculator... T = 322.2 A = 331.2 C = 307.2 G = 347.2 If you only know the sequence of one strand, and want to know the molecular weight of the entire double-stranded DNA: MW of strand1 = #T(322.2) + #A(331.2) + #C(307.2) + #G(347.2) PLUS MW of strand2 = #T(331.2) + #A(322.2) + #C(347.2) + #G(307.2) Therefore the overall MW is #T(322.2 + 331.2) + #A(331.2 + 322.2) + #C(307.2 + 347.2) + #G(347.2 + 307.2) --------------------------------------- OR #T(653.4) + #A(653.4) + #C(654.4) + #G(654.4) OR 653.4(#T + #A) + 654.4(#C + #G) OR If you know the %GC of the single stranded sequence, MW in daltons for the double stranded DNA would be = (%GC * total length) (100-%GC * total length) ...
A solution is labeled 2.89ppm and is made with a solute that has molar mass equal to 522 g/mol. What is the molarity of the solution? I'm not too concerned with the answer as this is just an example on my homework, but I need to know how to set up the problem to work other problems. Thank you!
RxBio-1kb DNA Ladder is ideal for assessment of a range of DNA sizes, which consists of ten discrete DNA fragments: 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 8000 and 10000bp. This marker is supplied in loading buffer containing tracking dye and precipitant for agarose gel electrophoreses, which is in a convenient ready-to-load format. The recommended volume for each lane is 5µl and each band DNA quantity approximately is 50ng, and 2000bp, 5000bp DNA fragment quantity approximately are 100ng, the demonstration bright band.. ...
RxBio-1kbPlus DNA Ladder is ideal for assessment of a range of DNA sizes, which consists of 15 discrete DNA fragments: 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 700, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 8000 and 10000bp. This marker is supplied in loading buffer containing tracking dye and precipitant for agarose gel electrophoreses, which is in a convenient ready-to-load format. The recommended volume for each lane is 5µl and each band DNA quantity approximately is 50ng, and 500bp. 3000bp DNA fragment quantity approximately are 100ng, the demonstration bright band.. ...
A method of measuring the flow and composition of a fluid or mixture of fluids through a system by determining the temperature, pressure and speed of sound in the fluid or mixture of fluids in the system and calculating the flow, molar density and average molecular weight of the fluid from the equation: ##EQU1## wherein: ##EQU2## c=speed of sound P=pressure of the fluid T=temperature of the fluid ρ=molecular density of the fluid M=average molecular weight of the fluid φ=velocity potential t=time.
COMBINING STOICHIOMETRY AND MOLAR MASS CONVERSIONS (MOLES TO GRAMS CONVERSIONS): Now that we are more comfortable with stoichiometry, we can combine it with
Calculate the distance between $Na^+$ and $CI^−$ ions in NaCI crystal if its density is $2.165 gcm^{−3}$. [Molar mass of $NaCI = 58.5 gmol^{−1};N_A =6.02 × 10^{23} mol^{−1}$] ...
Get an answer for what is the purpose of molar mass of a volatie liquid lab experiment? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Well go through three examples progressing from easy to difficult. By the end of this post, youll be able to calculate the molar mass of anything.
This is a small molar mass calculator for the Ti-89. Its about 4 Kb and is easy to use. It finds answers to three or four decimal places. Now it uses a binary search so it runs a lot faster. ...
ACQUITY APC AQ columns are designed to provide highly efficient size-based separations for water soluble polymer characterization. The sorbent uses patented Ethylene Bridge Hybrid (BEH) technology to provide a mechanical strong packed bed that resists shinking and swelling for easy mobile phase solvent switching. The expected molecular weight range for this column is approximatley 1, 000 - 30, 000 g/mole.
Find and order markers and products like this Protein Molecular Weight Marker on www.antibodies-online.com. Order product ABIN2843754.
Covering a 100-year period in the history of the social policy and practice toward people with severe mental retardation, Abandoned to Their Fate looks at the lives of people once labeled "idiots," "hopeless," or "unteachable." Ferguson examines what he terms "chronicity," the definition of some of the disabled population as beyond successful treatment or training that would make them suitable for reentry into daily life. The government, physicians, and families faced the quandary of what to do with people categorized as "feebleminded." Those who failed to respond to education or treatment were institutionalized, kept isolated except for contact with others like themselves, and simply left to a fate of neglect and exclusion. This book centers on a typical facility in New York. The Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots (later the Rome Developmental Center) adopted a system of "custodialism" that is representative of the pattern of care provided by most American institutions in the ...
Deck Mount Bath Lever Handle Pair *ARTIFA Vibrant Brushed Bronze (T98071-4-BV) at Ferguson. Nobody expects more from us than we do. ®
Former Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson was sitting up and talking to his family, reports said Tuesday, as he recovers from emergency surgery following a brain haemorrhage.
Former Gers skipper Barry Ferguson warns Ibrox stars they need to seriously up their game on the road because their managers fate could be relying on it.
Preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis purification of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.: Preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been use
Infection of barley leaves by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) causes increased dark respiration, par tof which is associated with active host responses to infection, and a consequence of which is reduced plant growth. The pathogen cannot be grown separately from the host. Therefore, in order to examine those changes in respiratory activity peculiar to the host, attempts were made to isolate protoplasts from infected tissues, and from healthy controls. Isolation of useful numbers (, 106cm−6) of viable mesophyll protoplasts from infected tissues was possible with one among several batches of commercial Cellulysin tested; on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), this batch contained a low molecular weight protein at 20.1 kDa not found in other batches. In all isolated protoplasts, total respiration increased with the age of the source-leaf, but within 24 h of inoculation respiration was stimulated by infection. Protoplasts from ...
The (Chilean) flat oyster, Ostrea chilensis, is native to New Zealand and the west coast of South America. It is a commercially important species in New Zealand because of its exquisite taste that attracts premium prices. This thesis describes the first isolation and partial charcterisation of an oyster haemolymph calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. This protein chiletin was originally isolated from oyster haemolymph by binding to the agarose-galactan matrix of a Sepharose column. Chiletin was predominantly composed of a 24 kilodalton (kDa) band when examined with one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions and a 12 kDa band with reduction of disulphide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of the 24 kDa band was determined to be IAGPGWEKYN. This sequence was not homologous to any known protein. Examination of isolated chiletin with two-dimensional protein analysis gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three (~12 kDa) ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mungbean protein isolate (MPI) on the potential possibility of water binding agent and as a substrate for the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in myofibrillar protein. Cooking loss (CL,%), gel strength (GS, gf), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were measured. The addition of MPI reduced CL, indicating that it has a water binding capacity during cooking. The major protein band (53 kDa) of MPI appeared when MPI was mixed with MP, but it disappeared when MTGase was incorporated. MPI treatment changed the endothermic peaks as compared with those of CTL. MTGase (1%) mediated pork MP increased CL and GS (P , 0.05), and reduced peak temperatures with vanishing of endothermic intensity at 1st and 3rd peaks, suggesting the structural changes of protein gelation. In microstructures, MTGase treatment showed a finely stranded ...
0030]According to the invention there are present in the coating agent for producing the conversion layer low molecular weight compounds that contain at least one group capable of crosslinking by radical polymerization. Low molecular weight compounds are to be understood as being liquid or solid, monomeric or oligomeric compounds, or mixtures thereof, which contain on average one or more double bonds reactive in the polymerization, as well as a further H-active functional group. Polar and/or ionic components are contained in the molecule, and non-polar hydrophobic components. Compounds having such double bonds are, for example, esters or amides of low molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids, such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, etc., or polyester or polyether oligomers having lateral or terminal (meth)acrylic groups, or other monomers containing activated double bonds, such as functionalized vinyl ethers. Preference is given to compounds having ...
About 10% of the Chinese population are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Thus, the development of a highly efficient process for the preparation of a vaccine based on a recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is very important to the Chinese national immunization program. To this end, the ion exchange chromatography recovery of CHO-HBsAg from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was shown to increase from about 55 to 80% by the addition of 1% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 10,000) to the mobile phase. Furthermore, based on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the intact glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was completely preserved by the addition of PEG. In the absence of PEG the glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was also spread out into the high salt elution fraction. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography with on-line multiangle-laser-light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS) analysis was performed to monitor the status of the ...
Silicone oil droplets have limited deposition on hair due to electrostatic repulsion with negative surface charge of hair substrates. Aiming to improve silicone deposition on hair substrates, surface properties of uniform-sized silicone oil droplets (produced by membrane emulsification) were modified using layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition. By using this method, silicone oil droplets were coated with large molecular weight polymers, i.e. quaternized chitosan and alginate, and low molecular weight compounds, i.e. diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and glycerol to obtain six alternate layers of different surface charges. It was found that the dispersion of coated silicone oil droplets of narrow size distribution exhibited much improved mechanical strength and increased viscosity against shear compared to uncoated droplets. These multilayered silicone oil droplets were then added into model shampoos and conditioners to study the effect of charge and molecular weight of coating materials on ...
Four glycopeptides (I, IIA, IIB, III) with different oligosaccharide structures were isolated from purified mouse thymocyte Thy-1 glycoprotein. The glycoprotein was digested with Pronase, and the glycopeptide fraction was isolated by gel filtration and acetylated with [3H]acetic anhydride. The different glycan structures were separated by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and lentil lectin-Sepharose 4B. Size determinations of intact and exoglycosidase- and endoglycosidase-digested glycopeptides were performed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, calibrated with glycopeptides of known structure. On the basis of these experiments and on the behaviour of the glycopeptides on the lectin columns, the following structures of the oligosaccharide chains were proposed: I, triantennary complex-type with terminal fucose; IIA, biantennary complex-type without fucose; IIB, biantennary complex-type with fucose; III, a mixture of high-mannose chains containing either five or six ...
Purified radiolabeled rabbit Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen were used to examine Hageman factor system molecular dynamics after the intravenous injection of heparin-like dextran sulfate polymer in the rabbit. Hageman factor system proteins rapidly disappeared from the circulation following dextran sulfate injection, as measured by radial immunodiffusion, by kaolin-releasable kinin formation, and by measuring circulating levels of radiolabeled Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen. 125I-Hageman factor was distributed mainly to lung, liver, and spleen following dextran sulfate injection. Proteolysis of circulating 125I-Hageman factor occurred at a site within a disulfide loop into fragments of 50,000 and 30,000 molecular weight. Proteolysis of 125I-prekallikrein also occurred with visualization of a 50,000 molecular weight fragment. Although extensive proteolysis of 131I-high molecular weight kininogen was observed, the cleavage ...

HMWC - High Molecular Weight Chitosan | AcronymFinderHMWC - High Molecular Weight Chitosan | AcronymFinder

HMWC stands for High Molecular Weight Chitosan. HMWC is defined as High Molecular Weight Chitosan somewhat frequently. ... www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "HMWC." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC).html,HMWC,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-(HMWC).html ... High Molecular Weight Component. *Anti-High Molecular Weight ...
more infohttps://www.acronymfinder.com/High-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan-

Global Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market Professional Survey Report 2017Global Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market Professional Survey Report 2017

The Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE market analysis is provided for the international market... ... 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Ultra High Molecular Weight ... The Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE Industry ... 5 Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE Regional Market Analysis. 6 Global 2012-2017E Ultra High Molecular ...
more infohttp://prsync.com/qyresearch-global/global-ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-fiberuhmwpe-market-professional-survey-report--1807754/

buy
        Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
        - high quality
        
        Manufacturers,Suppliers and...buy Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene - high quality Manufacturers,Suppliers and...

Trade leads from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Suppliers and Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene buyers ... Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene trade offers directory and Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene business offers ... ultra-high molecularhigh molecular weighthigh molecular weight polymerHigh molecular weight hyaluronic acidmolecular weight ... fiberUltra High molecular weight polyethylene pipeHigh Molecular Weight PolyethyleneULTRA High Molecular WeightMolecular Weight ...
more infohttp://www.weiku.com/Plastic-Products/buy-Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene.html

Global Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Sales Market Report 2017 - QY ResearchGlobal Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Sales Market Report 2017 - QY Research

Research Report on Global Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Sales Market Report 2017. The Report includes market ... Figure Picture of Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. Table Classification of Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight ... Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. Figure Medical Ultra High Molecular ... Medical Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016). Figure Crown Plastics Co ...
more infohttps://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-medical-ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-sales-market-report-2017.htm

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market: global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts up to 2023Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market: global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts up to 2023

Market Size and Forecasts up to 2023 Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market: global Industry - Market research report ... Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market: global Industry Analysis, Trends, ... 3.5 Competitive Landscape in the global ultra high molecular weight polyethylene market 4. Global Ultra High Molecular Weight ... 7.3.4 Asia-Pacific ultra high molecular weight polyethylene market by Country. 7.4 Row 7.4.1 Row ultra high molecular weight ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Infinium-Global-Research-v4127/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene-11295458/

United States Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Industry 2016 Market Research Report - RnR Market ResearchUnited States Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Industry 2016 Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

United States Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a market research ... Figure Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Picture and Specifications of DSM. Table Ultra-high Molecular Weight ... Table Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Price by Product Types 2011-2016. Table Ultra-high Molecular Weight ... Figure Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Picture and Specifications of Sabic. Table Ultra-high Molecular Weight ...
more infohttp://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/united-states-ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-uhmwpe-industry-2016-market-research-report-market-report.html

Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market by Form (Sheets, Rods & Tubes), End-Use Industry (Aerospace, Defense, &...Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market by Form (Sheets, Rods & Tubes), End-Use Industry (Aerospace, Defense, &...

Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market by Form (Sheets, Rods & Tubes), End-Use Industry (Aerospace, Defense, & ... Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market by Form (Sheets, Rods & Tubes), End-Use Industry (Aerospace, Defense, & ... The Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) market is projected to reach USD 2.16 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 9.9 ... ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE MARKET, BY END-USE INDUSTRY*INTRODUCTION*Table UHMW PE MARKET, BY END-USE INDUSTRY, ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/MarketsandMarkets-v3719/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene-10828599/

The Effect of Pressure-Induced Flow (PIF) Processing on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Molecular...The Effect of Pressure-Induced Flow (PIF) Processing on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Molecular...

Processing on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Gel ... will be presented for obtaining high-performance materials of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), which is ... Processing on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Gel. ...
more infohttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/mas/article/view/6019/0

Dielectric Behavior Induced by Vitamin E and Electron Beam Irradiation in Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyethyleneDielectric Behavior Induced by Vitamin E and Electron Beam Irradiation in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

... Mostrar el ... Dielectric Behavior Induced by Vitamin E and Electron Beam Irradiation in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. RiuNet: ... Dielectric Behavior Induced by Vitamin E and Electron Beam Irradiation in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene ... 2014). Dielectric Behavior Induced by Vitamin E and Electron Beam Irradiation in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. ...
more infohttps://riunet.upv.es/handle/10251/84820

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market Outlook 2018Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market Outlook 2018

Inquire for Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market 2018 Competitive Analysis, Trends and Forecast till ... Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Cost Analysis. *Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) ... Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Industry. *Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market ... Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) Market Growth. *Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber(UHMWPE) ...
more infohttp://newzy.net/ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-fiberuhmwpe-market/

Cambridge Polymer Group :: Molecular weight characterization to assess aging in ultra high molecular weight polyethyleneCambridge Polymer Group :: Molecular weight characterization to assess aging in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

Molecular weight characterization to assess aging in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. ... Molecular weight characterization to assess aging in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene ... and that 4 hours is sufficient to extract the larger molecular weight species. The impact of the molecular weight change on in ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is commonly used as a bearing surface in hip, knee, shoulder, and other total ...
more infohttp://www.campoly.com/blog/2015-04-molecular-weight-characterization/

Control of IBMIR Induced by Fresh and Cryopreserved Hepatocytes by Low Molecular Weight Dextran Sulfate Versus HeparinControl of IBMIR Induced by Fresh and Cryopreserved Hepatocytes by Low Molecular Weight Dextran Sulfate Versus Heparin

The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LMW-DS) to control these ... Control of IBMIR Induced by Fresh and Cryopreserved Hepatocytes by Low Molecular Weight Dextran Sulfate Versus Heparin. ... Innate immunity, IBMIR, Thromboinflammation, Hepatocyte transplantation, Low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LMW-DS) ...
more infohttp://lnu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?faces-redirect=true&language=sv&searchType=SIMPLE&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&pid=diva2%3A1079475&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Effect of the high molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate on Candida albicans hydrophobicity and adhesion to cellsEffect of the high molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate on Candida albicans hydrophobicity and adhesion to cells

The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the effect of the high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) and of sodium alginate ( ... The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the effect of the high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) and of sodium alginate ( ... Effect of the high molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate on Candida albicans hydrophobicity and adhesion to cells. ... Effect of the high molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate on Candida albicans hydrophobicity and adhesion to cells. ...
more infohttp://roderic.uv.es/handle/10550/63538

Synthesis and characterization of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene filled with boron nitride micro and nano-particles  ...Synthesis and characterization of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene filled with boron nitride micro and nano-particles ...

... Synthesis and characterization of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene filled with boron nitride micro and nano-particles ...
more infohttp://espace2.etsmtl.ca/id/eprint/11642/

Time-Dependent Uniaxial Ratchetting of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Polymer: Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Constitutive...Time-Dependent Uniaxial Ratchetting of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Polymer: Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Constitutive...

Chen K, Kang G, Yu C, Lu F, Jiang H. Time-Dependent Uniaxial Ratchetting of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Polymer: ... Asmaz, K. , Colak, O. U. , and Hassan, T. , 2014, " Biaxial Ratcheting of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Experiments ... Lewis, G. , 2001, " Properties of Crosslinked Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene," Biomaterials, 22(4), pp. 371-401. [ ... Bergström, J. , Kurtz, S. , Rimnac, C. , and Edidin, A. , 2002, " Constitutive Modeling of Ultra-High Molecular Weight ...
more infohttp://appliedmechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2534625

Molecular Weight | Encyclopedia.comMolecular Weight | Encyclopedia.com

The molecular weight may be calculated from the molecular formula [3] of the substance; it is the sum of the atomic weights [4 ... weight of a molecule [1] of a substance expressed in atomic mass [2] units (amu). ... Molecular weight. Molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule . A molecule can be viewed as an ... Molecular Weight. Resources. Molecular weight (MW) is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule. (Although ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/chemistry-general/molecular-weight

Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene - WikipediaUltra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene - Wikipedia

UHMWPE is defined by ASTM as "polyethylene with molecular weight over three million (weight average). ... ultra high molecular weight polyethylene; UHMWPE. chemyq.com *^ Lewin (1996-07-09). Handbook of Fiber Science and Technology ... "Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2018) (Learn how and when to ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. Also known as high- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-high-molecular-weight_polyethylene

Low molecular weight heparins/warfarin | SpringerLinkLow molecular weight heparins/warfarin | SpringerLink

Tran T, et al. Recommended timing for surveillance ultrasonography to diagnose portal splenic vein thrombosis after laparoscopic splenectomy. Surgical endoscopy 24: 1670-1678, No. 7, Jul 2010. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-009-0828-1 - Canada ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40278-018-55365-y

What Is Peptide Molecular Weight?What Is Peptide Molecular Weight?

Peptide molecular weight is a number without units that is derived from the ratio of an average mass of a peptide molecule that ... Molecular weight analyzer software is often used to calculate peptide molecular weight numbers, as the calculations can be ... For instance, if one component had a molecular weight of 50 and another had a molecular weight of 100, then the molecules in ... a peptide molecular weight calculator is often used to determine the new molecular weight. ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-peptide-molecular-weight.htm

Molecular Weight Marker | Carolina.comMolecular Weight Marker | Carolina.com

Molecular Weight Marker. 2 Items *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Molecular Weight Marker, 25 µg (100 µL; 0.25 µg/µL) Item #211473A *. ... Molecular Weight Marker, 50 µg (200 µL; 0.25 µg/µL) Item #211473 *. ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/biotechnology-dna-markers/molecular-weight-marker/FAM_211473.pr

Low molecular weight proteins definition | Drugs.comLow molecular weight proteins definition | Drugs.com

Definition of low molecular weight proteins. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/low-molecular-weight-proteins.html

C-Phycocyanin: Minimum Molecular Weight | ScienceC-Phycocyanin: Minimum Molecular Weight | Science

Sedimentation and immunodiffusion experiments indicate that the molecular weight for the minimum molecular unit of C- ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/145/3636/1054

Molecular Weight Of Salt - Lightinthebox.comMolecular Weight Of Salt - Lightinthebox.com

Lightinthebox.com will help you search for Molecular Weight Of Salt, guaranteeing youll find the best price out there! So, ... High Molecular WeightMolecular Weight LeadMolecular Weight MoleculeMolecular Weight NitrogenMolecular Weight OilMolecular ... Weight OxygenMolecular Weight PotassiumMolecular Weight SodiumMolecular Weight SolubilityMolecular Weight Solution ... Molecular Weight Of Salt See All 38 products in Molecular Weight Of Salt ...
more infohttps://www.lightinthebox.com/Popular/Molecular_Weight_Of_Salt.html

molecular weight - calculator.orgmolecular weight - calculator.org

What is Molecular Weight?. In more modern contexts, molecular mass is used instead of the more antiquated term molecular weight ... The molecular mass, or weight, of a given molecule is the mass of one molecule of a given substance relative to the unified ... The molecular mass of a molecule is computed by taking the sum of the molecular masses of all of the isotopes that compose it. ... we suffer no large error from adding the molecular masses of isotopes together to get the molecular mass of the molecules they ...
more infohttps://www.calculator.org/properties/molecular_weight.html

Molecular weights from Gel ImagesMolecular weights from Gel Images

... Mike Challen mike.challen at hri.ac.uk_nospam Mon Dec 20 10:27:28 EST 1999 *Previous message ... Is there any free public software that will calculate molecular weights from captured DNA agarose gel images (TIF files etc)? ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/bio-soft/1999-December/021844.html
  • Glutenins are high-molecular weight seed storage proteins of wheat endosperm. (uniprot.org)
  • Thermo Scientific™ SuperSignal Molecular Weight Protein Ladders (20 to 150KDa) are a ready-to-use mix of recombinant proteins with IgG-binding sites that provide reliable and proportional band intensities in stained gels and immunoblots developed with chemiluminescent, fluorescent, chromogenic or other detection systems. (fishersci.ca)
  • The SuperSignal Molecular Weight Protein Ladders and SuperSignal Enhanced Molecular Weight Protein Ladders contain a ready-to-use stabilized mixture of eight recombinant proteins ranging in size from 20 to 150kDa. (fishersci.ca)
  • The peptide molecular weight can also be described as one mole of the peptide in grams, as a mole is a quantity of the peptide that is equal to its molecular weight. (wisegeek.com)
  • If they were both combined in equal grams, the lower weight compound would have twice as many molecules present in the mixture, since they only weighed half as much, and, instead of a 50/50 concentration, there would be a concentration of approximately 66/33. (wisegeek.com)
  • The molecular weight of HCl, or hydrochloric acid, is 36.46 grams per mole. (reference.com)
  • The molecular weight of argon is 39.9 grams/mole. (reference.com)
  • Glycine has a molecular weight of slightly over 75 grams/mole. (reference.com)
  • When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. (convertunits.com)
  • Molecular weights of substances may be determined experimentally in various ways, the method employed usually depending on the state (solid, liquid, or gas) of the substance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, if the substance ionizes or does not completely separate into molecules, the molecular weight so determined will be erroneous. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The methods may give different results, since usually the molecules of a substance such as a polymer do not all have exactly the same molecular weight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It's unique feature was a friendly interface, the ability to compute and display weights for multiple compounds simultaneously, and proper handling of parentheses, isotopes, and user-defined abbreviations. (alchemistmatt.com)
  • For instance, if one component had a molecular weight of 50 and another had a molecular weight of 100, then the molecules in the second compound would weigh twice as much as those in the first compound. (wisegeek.com)
  • How to Calculate the Molecular Weight of a Chemical Compound? (syvum.com)
  • The molecular weights of substances that are not normally gaseous and do not evaporate without decomposition are sometimes determined from their effects on the melting point , boiling point , vapor pressure , or osmotic pressure of some solvent (see colligative properties ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A. heating at least 75 percent, by weight, of a reaction solvent which contains at least above 25 percent, by weight, benzyl alcohol to about above 150° C. in a reactor, the remainder of said reaction solvent having a boiling point in excess of about 150° C. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The process of claim 7 wherein the reaction solvent comprises 100 percent, by weight, benzyl alcohol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is important to know peptide molecular weight numbers in processes such as peptide synthesis, as the weight can be used to determine the concentration of molecular components. (wisegeek.com)
  • From typical industrial synthesis a fairly broad distribution in molecular weight results. (uc.edu)
  • Regulation of Macromolecular Synthesis by Low Molecular Weight Mediators contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Regulation of Macromolecular Synthesis by Low Molecular Weight Mediators held at Hamburg on May 29-31, 1979. (elsevier.com)
  • Some substances, especially ionic compounds such as common salt, are not made up of molecules and thus have neither a molecular formula nor a molecular weight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Avogadro's number , which represents how many molecules exist in a mole, must also be used when determining a peptide's volume from the peptide molecular weight. (wisegeek.com)
  • Analytic techniques for the determination of molecular weight can be broken down into primary and secondary techniques based on whether or not standards are needed to calibrate the analytic instrument. (uc.edu)
  • None of the primary techniques are used on a routine basis as they all involve a significant effort and generally yield only one moment of molecular weight. (uc.edu)
  • Based on the molecular weights of each of these components and their respective ratios in air, adding them together will estimate the molecular weight of air. (reference.com)
  • Determining an accurate peptide molecular weight has important applications in a variety of research. (wisegeek.com)
  • In polymer science it is the convention to define several special parameters to describe molecular weight distributions. (uc.edu)