The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC, TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC, and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.
A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/43764)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (2/43764)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (3/43764)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (4/43764)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. (5/43764)

Complement receptor 2 (CR2) is important in the regulation of the B lymphocyte response; the regulation of its expression is therefore of central importance. We recently reported that a 42 kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the human CR2 gene [Tolnay, Lambris and Tsokos (1997) J. Immunol. 159, 5492-5501]. We cloned the cDNA encoding this protein and found it to be identical with hnRNP D0B, a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein. By using a set of mutated oligonucleotides, we demonstrated that the recombinant hnRNP D0B displays sequence specificity for double-stranded oligonucleotide defined by the CR2 promoter. We conducted electrophoretic mobility-shift assays to estimate the apparent Kd of hnRNP D0B for the double-stranded DNA motif and found it to be 59 nM. Interestingly, hnRNP D0B displayed affinities of 28 and 18 nM for the sense and anti-sense strands of the CR2 promoter-defined oligonucleotide respectively. The significantly greater binding affinity of hnRNP D0B for single-stranded DNA than for double-stranded DNA suggests that the protein might melt the double helix. The intranuclear concentration of sequence-specific protein was estimated to be 250-400 nM, indicating that the protein binds to the CR2 promoter in vivo. Co-precipitation of a complex formed in vivo between hnRNP D0B and the TATA-binding protein demonstrates that hnRNP D0B interacts with the basal transcription apparatus. Our results suggest a new physiological role for hnRNP D0B that involves binding to double- and single-stranded DNA sequences in a specific manner and functioning as a transcription factor.  (+info)

The endosome fusion regulator early-endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) is a dimer. (6/43764)

EEA1, an early-endosomal protein originally identified as an autoantigen, is essential for endocytic membrane fusion. It interacts with early endosomes via binding to the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the active form of the small GTPase Rab5. Most of the EEA1 sequence contains heptad repeats characteristic of proteins involved in coiled-coil protein-protein interactions. Here we have investigated the ability of EEA1 to self-interact. Crosslinking of cytosolic and recombinant EEA1 resulted in the disappearance of the 180-kDa monomer in SDS/PAGE and the strong appearance of a approximately 350-kDa crosslinked product. Glycerol gradient centrifugation experiments indicated that native EEA1 had the same hydrodynamic properties as the approximately 350-kDa crosslinked complex. Two-hybrid analysis indicated that N- and C-terminal fragments of EEA1 can interact with themselves, but not with each other, suggesting that EEA1 forms parallel coiled-coil dimers. The ability of the C-terminus of EEA1 to dimerize correlates with its ability to bind to Rab5 and early endosomes, whereas its binding to PtdIns3P is independent of dimerization. These data enable us to propose a model for the quaternary structure of EEA1.  (+info)

A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (7/43764)

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (8/43764)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

D4001 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determination of Weight-Average Molecular Weight of Polymers By Light Scattering , light scattering, polymers, weight-average molecular weight,
In this work, we present a generalization of our previous model, which allows us to account for the entire molecular weight distribution, as well as the long-chain branching. We develop a deeper insight into the vinyl group distribution among the molecules given the operating conditions of the modification process. We focus on the modification taking place in a press at constant temperature, under conditions where scission is not measurable. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL We develop a set of mass balances for the reacting species where the different lengths, number of vinyls and number of branching points are taken into account. A triple moment technique was used to calculate number and weight average molecular weights as well as average number of branching points for species having j vinyls, j=0, 1, 2 To calculate molecular weight distributions we apply another transform technique that makes use of probability generating function (pgf) definitions applied to the number and weight MWD, following the ...
The influence of molecular weight distribution and extrusion processing variables on the morphological features and orientation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) uniaxially extruded tubular films was investigated. In order to gain a better understanding of the orientation-crystallization behavior occurring during extrusion processing, the melt flow properties of the two HDPE resins with identical (14 600) values but different molecular weight distributions (/ = 10.3, 15.1), utilized in our previous study, were characterized by dynamic rheological experiments over the temperature range from 150 degrees C to 230 degrees C within the angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The experimental data were shifted to produce master flow curves. The how activation energy calculated from the shifting process was found to be 25.9 kJ/mol for resin 1 and 29.1 kJ/mol for resin 2. The characteristic relaxation time at 190 degrees C obtained by use of a ...
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not affected by antigenic stimulation and is apparently produced
In this study, we show how the combining an ACQUITY Advanced Polymer Chromatography (APC) System combined with a 2414 Refractive Index (RI) Detector and ACQUITY QDa Mass Detector can be used to simultaneously measure polymer molecular weight distribution and polymer additive detection.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extended Fujita approach to the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and other polymeric systems. AU - Harding, Stephen E.. AU - Schuck, Peter. AU - Abdelhameed, Ali Saber. AU - Adams, Gary. AU - Kök, M. Samil. AU - Morris, Gordon A.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - In 1962 H. Fujita (H. Fujita, Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis, Academic Press, New York, 1962) examined the possibility of transforming a quasi-continuous distribution g(s) of sedimentation coefficient s into a distribution f(M) of molecular weight M for linear polymers using the relation f(M)=g(s)·(ds/dM) and showed that this could be done if information about the relation between s and M is available from other sources. Fujita provided the transformation based on the scaling relation s=κsM0.5, where κs is taken as a constant for that particular polymer and the exponent 0.5 essentially corresponds to a randomly coiled polymer under ideal conditions. This method has been successfully ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular weight distribution of proteins synthesized in single, identified neurons of Aplysia. AU - Wilson, David L.. PY - 1971/1/1. Y1 - 1971/1/1. N2 - Parietovisceral ganglia from Aplysia californica were incubated in medium containing leucine-8H. Single, identified nerve cell somas were isolated from the ganglia, and their proteins extracted and separated by electrophoresis on 5 % SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The distribution of total or newly synthesized proteins from the single neurons was determined by staining or slicing and liquid scintillation counting of the gels. Experiments showed that: (a) a number of proteins were being synthesized in abundance in the nerve cells; (b) different, identified neurons showed reproducibly different labeling patterns in the gels; (c) cells R2 and R15, which showed different distributions of radioactivity in the gels, had similar staining patterns; and (d) there was significant incorporation into material of high (, 75,000) molecular weight ...
Four size exclusion chromatography (SEC) calibration techniques were tested for use in the molecular weight characterisation of Streptococcal Hyaluronic Acid (HA). An exponential equation, evaluated using the Hamielec method, was superior to the customary peak position method. It provided the most accurate estimates of the weight average molecular weight, Mw. The calibration was valid for HA in the range 800 - 2500 kDa, and permitted the calculation of both polydispersity and molecular weight distributions for HA from Streptococcal fermentations. This exponential calibration approach should have application in the characterisation of other large biopolymers, particularly where pore size of available SEC media is limiting ...
A mathematical model is developed for the molecular weight distribution (IMWD) of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polycondensation process based on the reaction mechanisms and the operating conditions. It employs the logical combination of the reaction extent method, the moment method and the statistical fitting technique. An optimization scheme is then discussed on the tracking of the desired MWD during the polymerization process.. ...
A method to evaluate molecular weight distribution (MWD) from dynamic moduli is presented here. It relies on the least-square fitting of the dynamic data to a model whose parameters depend on the...
This research is focused on the polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline homopolymers and 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline containing copolymers with well-defined structures. In addition, the potential of selected materials as polymer blend compatibilizers was briefly evaluated. The polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline was investigated with regard to the effects of initiator structures on molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution, living characteristics, and mechanisms and kinetics. The structure of initiators was shown to greatly affect the molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). The living nature of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) in chlorobenzene initiated by benzyl iodide, benzyl chloride/NaI, or chloroethyl ethyl ether/NaI has been established by Mn-conversion plots and sequential monomer addition experiments. However, the molecular weight distributions of these polymers were not as narrow as Poisson distributions, Mechanistic and kinetic ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Assessment of Small molecular weight inhibitors of the contact phase. AU - Bouckaert, Charlotte. AU - Zhu, Shu. AU - Diamond, Scott. AU - Pochet, Lionel. PY - 2016/5/27. Y1 - 2016/5/27. M3 - Other. Y2 - 25 May 2016 through 28 May 2016. ER - ...
Matossian, rogers A.; Rogers, P; Ledbetter, J A.; and Herzenberg, L A., Molecular weight determination of two genetically linked cell surface murine antigens: thb and ly-6. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 534 ...
A process for producing a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising: (1) 100 parts by weight of an olefin polymer which comprises ethylene and at least one α-olefin having 3 to 10 carbon atoms and in which the density is in the range of 0.85 to 0.91 g/cm3 and the molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn) which is the ratio of weight average molecular weight (Mw) and number average molecular weight (Mn) as calculated by a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is less than 3.5, (2) 5 to 300 parts by weight of a propylene polymer, (3) 5 to 250 parts by weight of an oil, and (4) 0.02 to 3 parts by weight of a radical initiator, which process comprises steps of previously mixing and heat-kneading the olefin polymer, the propylene polymer and the radical initiator; adding the oil in the stage in which cross-linking is at a proportion of 30 to 95% based on the cross-linking degree of the composition to be finally obtained; and further melt-kneading them to cross-link the same.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 1 328 591, filed as application number 01 974 468.9, based on the international application published as WO 02/33008, was granted on the basis twenty-three claims. Claim 1 as granted reads as follows (emphasis added):. 1. An aqueous coating composition comprising:. an ambient temperature crosslinkable water-dispersible polyester oligomer(s) less than 80% by weight soluble in water throughout the pH range of from 2 to 10, with a measured weight average molecular weight in the range of from 1,000 to 100,000 Daltons; and. a dispersed polymer(s) which is not a polyester oligomer, the dispersed polymer(s) having a lower limit of 10% by weight, with a measured weight average molecular weight ,=120,000 Daltons;. wherein said composition when drying to form a coating has the following properties:. i) an open time of at least 20 minutes at 23±2ºC;. ii) a wet edge time of at least 10 minutes at 23±2ºC;. iii) a thumb hard time of ,=48 hours at ...
A high solids coating composition useful as a clear coat for an automotive clear coat/color coat finish which contains about 40-80% by weight of a binder and correspondingly about 20-60% by of a liquid organic carrier; wherein the binder contains about: a. an acrylic solution polymer of polymerized monomers of ethylenically unsaturated esters of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and a hydroxy alkyl acrylate or methacrylate and the polymer has a hydroxyl no. of about 50-200 and a weight average molecular weight of about 4,000-20,000; b. a dispersed polymer of polymerized monomers having stabilizer resin segment that is soluble in the organic carrier and dispersed resin segment that is relatively insoluble in the organic carrier; c. a siloxane oligomer having --OH and --OR groups attached to the silane atoms of the oligomer where R is an alkyl group having 1-6 carbon atoms in the alkyl group or an aryl group and the oligomer has a weight average molecular weight of about 500-5,000; and d. an alkylated
Acetone powders prepared from leaf extracts of Tecoma stans L. were found to catalyze the oxidation of catechol to 3,4,3,4-tetrahydroxydiphenyl. Fractionation of the acetone powders obtained from Tecoma leaves with acetone, negative adsorption of the acetone fraction with tricalcium phosphate gel, and chromatography of the gel supernatant on DEAE-Sephadex yielded a 68-fold purified enzyme with 66% recovery. The enzyme had an optimum pH around 7.2. It showed a temperature optimum of 30° and the Km for catechol was determined as 2 x 10-4 m. The purified enzyme moved as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its activity was found to be partially stimulated by Mg2+. The reaction was not inhibited by o-phenanthroline and agr,agr-dipyridyl. The purified enzyme was highly insensitive to a range of copper-chelating agents. It was not affected appreciably by thiol inhibitors. The reaction was found to be suppressed to a considerable extent by reducing agents like GSH, cysteine, ...
The invention provides a polymerization process comprising polymerizing a reaction mixture comprising one or more monomer types, at least one catalyst, and at least one solvent, to form a polymer dispersion, and wherein the at least one catalyst is soluble in the at least one solvent, and wherein the polymer forms a dispersed phase in the solvent, and wherein the at least one solvent is a hydrocarbon. The invention provides a composition comprising an ethylene-based polymer comprising at least the following properties: a) a weight average molecular weight (Mw(abs)) greater than, or equal to, 60,000 g/mole; and b) a molecular weight distribution (Mw(abs)/Mn(abs)) greater than, or equal to, 2.3.
How is Viscosity Average Molecular Weight abbreviated? VAMW stands for Viscosity Average Molecular Weight. VAMW is defined as Viscosity Average Molecular Weight very rarely.
As a professional reliability third-party testing organization, T,C&A Lab can provide Molecular Weight Analysis service according related standards and industry requirements.
Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have shown good activity as anticoagulants by allosterically inhibiting thrombin, as well as promising agents for treating emphysema through inhibition of elastolysis, oxidation, and inflammation. Sulfated LMWLs are chemo-enzymatically synthesized from starting monomers caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acid into sulfated dehydropolymers known as CDS, FDS, and SDS. To further the LMWLs development as drugs, their structural composition and physicochemical characteristics were defined in this work. The molecular weight distribution profile of the sulfated LMWLs from size exclusion chromatography performed on a high pressure liquid chromatography system (SEC-HPLC) changed from bimodal when no surfactant is used in the mobile phase of the HPLC to unimodal when surfactant is used in the mobile phase. This indicates that some large molecular weight species, likely an aggregate of smaller molecular weight chains, are disrupted when surfactant is present. The
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Generation of well-relaxed all-atom models of large molecular weight polymer melts: A hybrid particle-continuum approach based on particle-field molecular dynamics simulations. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
Export Data And Price Of HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN , Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data. You can find previous two days HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data on Eximpulse Services. HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT RESIN Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not ...
Dahl, H M.; Truelsen, E; and Blair, G E., The purification and properties of two low-molecular-weight proteins required for the initiation of translation in ascites tumour cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1411 ...
A first step in characterizing a protein often involves determining its molecular weight. From this information, different proteins may be compared and the number of amino acid residues in a protein can be determined. Here, students determine the molecular weight of two unknown proteins by comparing their electrophoretic migration with the migration of standard proteins. The protein standards and unknowns have been pre-stained so that your students can follow ...
Multilayer thermoplastic film structures comprising at least one heat-sealable outer layer (A) and at least one core layer (B) are disclosed. Layer (A) has improved heat sealability after irradiation (e.g. electron beam). Layer (B) has improved shrinkage after irradiation. Layer (A) is a linear polyethylene having a melt index from about 2 to about 20 g/10 minutes, a density from about 0.88 to about 0.92 g/cc, a molecular weight distribution (I10 /I2) from about 5 to about 8, a fraction of the polyethylene having a degree of branching less than or equal to 2 methyls/1000 carbons of not more than 15% by weight and a fraction of the polyethylene having a degree of branching greater than or equal to 25 methyls/1000 carbons of not more than 25% by weight of the polymer. Layer (B) is a linear polyethylene having a melt index from about 0.05 to about 5 g/10 minutes, a density from about 0.88 to about 0.94 g/cc and a molecular weight distribution (I10 /I2) from about 8 to about 30.
This research investigated the relationships between molecular size and the TOC, TTHM, acid strength and color concentrations present in raw and coagulated water from Lake Washington. Three separate coagulants were utilized for investigation. There were: Al, Fe and Mg. Results indicated that the majority of the TOC, color and TTHM precursors were in the colloidal size range and removed by coagulation. The remaining TTHM precursors are mostly molecular and require a process other than coagulation for removal from the potable water before environmental standards are met.
The process of the present invention may be used to prepare homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher alpha olefins having densities in the range of, for example, about 0.900-0.970 g/cm3 and especially 0.910-0.965 g/cm3; the polymers of higher density e.g. about 0.960 and above being homopolymers. Such polymers may have a melt index, as measured by the method of ASTM D-1238, condition E, in the range of for example, 0.1-200 dg/min, typically from about 0.1 to 150 dg/min., and especially in the range of about 0.1 to 120 dg/min. The polymers may be manufactured with narrow or broad molecular weight distribution. For example, the polymers may have a stress exponent, a measure of the molecular weight distribution, in the range of about 1.1-2.5 and especially in the range of about 1.3-2.0. Stress exponent is determined by measuring the throughput of a melt indexer at two stresses (2160 g and 6480 g loading) using the procedures of the ASTM melt index test method, and the ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeal lies against the decision of the opposition division posted on 25 January 1016 revoking European patent No. 1 453 911.. II. The decision of the opposition division to revoke European patent EP 1 453 911 was based on the claims as granted as the main request, on the first to eighth auxiliary requests filed with letter of 15 October 2015 and on the ninth auxiliary request filed during the oral proceedings before the opposition division on 15 December 2015.. Claim 1 of the main request read:. 1. A process for the preparation of polyethylene resins having a narrow molecular weight distribution that comprises essentially the steps of:. (i) providing a first metallocene-produced linear low density polyethylene (mLLDPE) resin having a density of from 0.920 to 0.940 g/cm**(3)_a MI2 of from 0.05 to 2 g/10 min and a molecular weight distribution in the range of from 2 to 4.5;. (ii) providing a second high density polyethylene (HDPE) prepared either with a ...
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The HPSEC-RI elution profiles of ethanol precipitated WE-AX isolated from flours and breads are shown in Fig. 3. The high molecular weight (HMW). polysaccharides present in the endosperm flours of population rye cultivars (Amilo, Diament and Kier) eluted as the single, sharp and symmetric populations in the high molar mass range of the column (11-14 ml). click here Amongst endosperm flour AX of hybrid rye cultivars, only polymers isolated from Koko cultivar had a similar distribution pattern to those of population ryes, with slightly broader distribution. The remaining profiles of AX from endosperm flour of hybrid cultivars (Stach and Konto) and from wholemeals of population cultivars, apart from the HMW populations also contained the low molecular weight (LMW) polymers, eluting at 14.5-17.5 ml. The high-symmetry peaks of endosperm flour AX (Amilo, Diament, Kier and Koko) were ascribed to their highest weight-average molecular weights (Mw) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) ( Table 2). While, the ...
A graft polymer containing a cyclic structure comprised of a polymer containing a cyclic structure graft-modified with an unsaturated compound containing a polar group, having a graft ratio of 10 to 150 mol %, having a weight average molecular weight of 1,000 to 1,000,000, and having a gel content of not more than 0.1 wt % or having a ratio (Ha/La) of high molecular weight side area (Ha) and low molecular weight side area (La) divided by a vertical line suspended from a peak top of a differentiated elution profile measured by gel permeation chromatography to a baseline of not more than 1.6, a method of production of the same, and a curable composition containing that graft polymer containing a cyclic structure and a curing agent.
The precursor proteins to the subunits of ubiquinol:cytochrome c reductase (cytochrome bc1 complex) of Neurospora crassa were synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate. These precursors were immunoprecipitated with antibodies prepared against the individual subunits and compared to the mature subunits immunoprecipitated or isolated from mitochondria. Most subunits were synthesized as precursors with larger apparent molecular weights (subunits I, 51,500 versus 50,000; subunit II, 47,500 versus 45,000; subunit IV (cytochrome c1), 38,000 versus 31,000; subunit V (Fe-S protein), 28,000 versus 25,000; subunit VII, 12,000 versus 11,500; subunit VIII, 11,600 versus 11,200). Subunit VI (14,000) was synthesized with the same apparent molecular weight. The post-translational transfer of subunits I, IV, V, and VII was studied in an in vitro system employing reticulocyte lysate and isolated mitochondria. The transfer and proteolytic processing of these precursors was found to be dependent on the mitochondrial ...
TY - GEN. T1 - An experimental approach of the effects of molecular weight on flow-induced crystallization. AU - Swartjes, F.H.M.. AU - Peters, G.W.M.. AU - Rastogi, S.. AU - Meijer, H.E.H.. N1 - Conference code: 15. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Conference contribution. BT - Polymer Processing Society : annual meeting, 15th, s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, May 31 - June 4, 1999 : proceedings. A2 - Anderson, P.D.. A2 - Kruijt, P.G.M.. PB - Polymer Processing Society. T2 - 15th Annual Meeting of the Polymer Processing Society (PPS-15). Y2 - 31 May 1999 through 4 June 1999. ER - ...
Nurkhamidah, S. and Woo, E. M. (2011), Effects of crystallinity and molecular weight on crack behavior in crystalline poly(L-lactic acid). J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122: 1976-1985. doi: 10.1002/app.34021 ...
Aqueous coating compositions consist essentially of: (a) a water-insoluble film-forming polymeric resin; (b) water-insoluble agglomerated particulate beads of urea, melamine or phenol and formaldehyde; (c) polyethers having the formulaH(OC.sub.x H.sub.2x).sub.n OHwhere x is from 2 to 4 and n is a number such that the polyether has a weight average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 1000; (d) pigments; and (e) water. The aqueous coating compositions are especially useful for imparting to metal coil a low gloss pigmented protective finish having good metal marking resistance.
Lipscomb, D.L.; Boudreaux, M.K.; Paxton, R.; Spano, J.; Welles, E.G.; Schumacher, J., 1997: Identification of thrombospondin as a high molecular mass protein released from activated equine platelets
Yang J.K., Epstein W.. Adenylate cyclase of Escherichia coli K12 has been purified 17,000-fold to near homogeneity from a 5-fold overproducing strain. One major band of Mr = 92,000 and several minor bands are seen on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the purest fractions. Identification of the enzyme with the 92,000-Da protein is based on the correlation of this band with activity when highly purified enzyme is eluted from ADP-sepharose columns. The native enzyme has a molecular weight of 95,000 determined by gel filtration, showing that the enzyme is active as a monomer. The purest enzyme has a specific activity of 700 nmol min-1 mg-1, indicating a turnover number of about 100 min-1. Our data indicate that there are only about 15 molecules of the enzyme in wild type cells of E. coli. In crude extracts, over 80% of the activity is soluble after centrifugation at 100,000 x g, indicating the enzyme is soluble or, at most, loosely membrane bound. The enzyme is only moderately ...
In analysis, our results show an unreasonable result. The majority of the failure is from the volume result. From Avogrados law we know that. As such, because the average volume (0.051 L) was low, the mol resulting from it is also low. A small mol results in a large Mr value, or in our case the Mr of Oxygen is too high.. -Another point to that is that if the experiment was assuming r.t.p, our results prove to be incorrect again. If we compared the mol, the actual mol results of andusing the ideal gas laws is different than if we calculated using normal Stoichiometry.. From Stoichiometry, the actual mol of is, and if we compared it to a ratio of 2:2, the actual mol value of is also 0.138 mol. However in our experiment using the gas law, our mol result was. Again this is due to the fact of the low amount of volume recorded.. -In addition to that point, from the section to: Calculate molar mass of Water using the mass of Hydrogen Peroxide , another flaw to the experiment was the amount of ...
In the current examine, we describe a new process using freezing-thawing to density gradient resolution of Nycodenz for one-step separation of organelles from the rat liver and subsequent proteome evaluation of subcellular fractions. To put together two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) profiles of tissue organelles, we carried out one-step subcellular fractionation of rat liver homogenate using …. One-step subcellular fractionation of rat liver tissue using a Nycodenz density gradient prepared by freezing-thawing and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis profiles of the main fraction of organelles. Read More ». ...
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
HSP25 is a member of the ubiquitous family of small heat shock proteins belonging to the big class of stress proteins. It is related to acquiring of cellular thermotolerance, can act as molecular chaperone, is able to inhibit polymerization of actin in vitro and can form high molecular weight complexes. In this thesis the isolation, structural and functional characteri-zation of this protein as well as its abundance in different tissues of rats suffering on patho-logical forms of hypertension is analyzed: · A method for rapid isolation of HSP25 out of Ehrlich-ascites-tumor (EAT) was estab-lished. From isolated HSP25 low and high molecular weight material could be obtained. · Analysis of high molecular weight complexes by means of electron microscopy and ana-lytical ultracentrifugation results in a structural model characterized by a cylindrical structure composed of four stacked rings each containing eight HSP25 monomers. · High-molecular weight complexes of recombinant HSP25 are organized as ...
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VisiBlot Standard I is a mixture of 10 recombinant proteins of a molecular weight range from 25 kDa to 150 kDa. Protein bands of 25 kDa, 45 kDa and 85 kDa are prestained allowing monitoring of protein separation during SDS PAGE. The remaining five proteins contain several IgG binding sites. Hence marker proteins bind to primary or secondary antibodies used in Western Blotting facilitating easy marker visualization on the transfer membrane. Because the proteins have no chromophore attached, the marker enables accurate molecular weight estimation. Recommended loading volume for a mini gel is 5 µl/lane. Ready-to-use, no reconstitution, further dilution or heating required Prestained bands for monitoring electrophoresis and membrane transfer Visualization of marker proteins on Western Blots by horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase-based immune-detection methods Molecular weight determination of proteins detected on transfer membrane
The molar mass of CuNO_3 is 125.55 g/mol Based on the formula youve given me, that compound would actually be copper (II) nitrate. Copper (I) nitrate is CuNO_3 Before we begin heres a tip: atomic weight of element xxnumber of atoms given by subscript = molar mass First, you want to have your handy dandy periodic table available so you can determine the atomic weight of Cu, N, O Cu has an atomic weight of 63.55 g/mol N has an atomic weight of 14.01 g/mol O has an atomic wight of 16.00 g/mol Based on the chemical formula, we have 1 atom of Cu, which would have an atomic weight of 63.55 g/mol Next, we have 1 atoms of N, and that has an atomic mass of 14.01 g/mol You have 3 atoms of O so we would multiply the atomic mass of O by 3 to obtain 48.00 g/mol. Now you want to add the mass of each atom together to obtain the molecular weight of the entire compound: 63.55 g/mol + 14.01 g/mol + 48.00 g/mol = 125.55 g/mol
Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
Browse professional translators on TM-Town in the field of Sodium Dodecylsulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and language pair of Danish to Hungarian including the top 10 translators by translation units
TY - JOUR. T1 - Controlling alginate gel degradation utilizing partial oxidation and bimodal molecular weight distribution. AU - Boontheekul, Tanyarut. AU - Kong, Hyun Joon. AU - Mooney, David J.. N1 - Funding Information: The author would like to thank NIDCR/NIH for financial support (RO1 DE13349), as well as Royal King Anandamahidol foundation (Thailand) for a graduate fellowship to T.B.. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - Degradability is often a critical property of materials utilized in tissue engineering. Although alginate, a naturally derived polysaccharide, is an attractive material due to its biocompatibility and ability to form hydrogels, its slow and uncontrollable degradation can be an undesirable feature. In this study, we characterized gels formed using a combination of partial oxidation of polymer chains and a bimodal molecular weight distribution of polymer. Specifically, alginates were partially oxidized to a theoretical extent of 1% with sodium periodate, which created acetal ...
Simultaneous measurement of the molecular weight distribution and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene content across the molecular weight distribution of ethylenepropylenediene terpolymer via a new size exclusion chromatographyultravioletrefractive index method Journal of Applied Polymer Science , 2016, 133 , 43911 Z. Zhou, M. Janco, R. Cong, D. Lee, C. Li...
We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration ...
Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were isolated from 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by anti-C1q affinity chromatography. The components were detected by silver stained sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and identified by the Western blot. The CIC were composed of 20 different polypeptides, including albumin, immunoglobulin, complement, and acute phase reactants. Two components (molecular weight 48 kD and 45 kD respectively) remained unidentified. The 48 kD polypeptide was found in CIC from six out of 14 patients (43%) with extra-articular RA, but from none of eight patients with vasculitic complications of other connective tissue diseases. All immunoreactants were more frequently found in the patients with extra-articular features of RA. Although these results emphasise that most CIC in RA are composed of endogenous proteins, the 48 kD polypeptide is a candidate for an extrinsic antigen in RA. ...
The key aims of polystyrene production methods are high molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution, good productivity, and high conversion rates of the styrene monomer to polymer. The molecular weight distribution of styrene polymerization is one of the most important factors as this property affects the end products impact and tensile strength, brittleness, hardness, and softening temperature. Optimizing the molecular weight distribution - and maintaining it in scale-up - is particularly important to ensure reproducible polystyrene production at large scales.. Polystyrene production methods have remained largely unchanged since they were first used commercially in 1931. Traditionally, batch emulsion, solution, or suspension polymerization methods have been the preferred choice for polystyrene manufacture. These methods offer limited control in molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and the conversion of monomer to polymer but have the benefit of enabling easy scale-up. ...
HIGHLIGHTS Integrin Antagonists and Other Low Molecular Weight Compounds as Inhibitors of Angiogenesis: New Drugs in Cancer Therapy** Athanassios Giannis* and Frank Riibsam Angiogenesis (neovascularization), the process by which new blood capillaries are formed from an already existing blood vessel, is of fundamental importance for a number of physiological and pathological events including embryogenesis, wound healing, chronic inflammation. and malignant processes.[] Due to the observation that an adequate blood supply is necessary for tumor growth, Folkman postulated in the early 1970s that inhibitors of angiogenesis are of potential use in cancer therapy.[] Subsequent investigations revealed that not only tumor growth but also tumor metastasis depends on angiogenesi~.[~] In recent years many endogenous regulators of angiogenesis have been isolated and identified. The most important positive regulators include growth factors like basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial ...
In this work, three isotactic linear polypropylenes, with weight average molecular weights between 56 250 - 75 850 g/mol, have been characterized at 230 oC over a very wide shear rate range. A low shear rate primary Newtonian plateau, a pseudoplastic region and a well developed secondary Newtonian plateau were identified for all the polypropylene melts. Flow activation energy at low (E0) and high (E∞) shear rates was found to be 56.590 kJ/mol and 25.204 kJ/mol, respectively. For the first time, it has been discovered that the secondary Newtonian viscosity, η∞, depends linearly on the weight average molecular weight, Mw, in log-log scale as η∞ = 1.19. 10-6 M 1.084 . The observed slope close to 1 w between η∞ and Mw suggests that polymer chains in the melt are disentangled at the secondary Newtonian plateau region. This conclusion is supported by the experimental observation that the high shear rate flow activation energy E∞ for given PP melts is comparable with the flow activation ...
article{9ffe9df9-5a4c-440c-bdd1-534be5ba851a, abstract = {We report a case of a 5-year-old child who suffered an oral allergy syndrome and lip angiedema after eating grapes. We obtained a positive prick test with commercial grape extract and a positive prick-by-prick test with pulp and peel of fresh white grape (Moscatel variety) and pulp and peel of blue grape. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting revealed specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in the patients serum against a 94,000 molecular-weight antigenic band. Lip open challenge was positive.}, author = {Rodriguez, Angel and Trujillo, María Jesús and Matheu, Victor and Baeza, María Luisa and Zapatero, Lidia and Martinez, Maribel}, issn = {0905-6157}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {289--290}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, series = {Pediatric Allergy and Immunology}, title = {Allergy to grape: a case report}, url = {}, volume ...
Background: Prawns and shrimp certainly are a regular cause of sea food allergy mediated by IgE antibodies. adjustments. Quickly the shell and meats of each varieties had been combined in 1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) and extracted overnight in 4 °C under regular blending. The homogenates had been centrifuged at 14 000 rpm at 4 °C for a quarter-hour. The supernatants had been sterile-filtered lyophilised and kept at after that ?20 °C until make use of. For preparation of the boiled extracts the homogenates of the prawns were boiled for 5 minutes before extraction as described above. The protein concentration of each extract was decided using the Total Protein Kit (Sigma-Aldrich UK) and bovine serum albumin as a standard. SDS-PAGE of prawn extracts Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed as described by Nakano et al. (17) with some modifications. The samples of the extracts were heated at 97 °C for 4 minutes and Precision Plus Protein ...
Filaments with a diameter of 80-120 Å have been prepared from 14-d-old chick embryonic skeletal muscle, using a physiological salt solution and gel filtration chromatography. The filaments obtained are composed of the two known muscle intermediate-filament proteins, vimentin and desmin, as well as the vimentin- and desmin-associated high molecular weight protein, synemin (230,000 mol. wt). In addition, they contain a previously unidentified high molecular weight protein (280,000 mol wt) which differs from synemin by isoelectric point, molecular weight, and immunological reactivity. Immunofluorescence on cultured myogenic cells,using antisera to the 280,000-dalton polypeptide, has revealed that this protein has the same spatial distribution as desmin, vimentin, and synemin in both early myotubes, where it associates with cytoplasmic filaments, and late in myotubes, where it is associated with myofibril Z lines. Examination by immunofluorescence of frozen sections of developing embryonic skeletal ...
Pantothenase (EC from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C. ...
The molecular weight is very commonly used as a synonym of molar mass, particularly for molecular compounds; however, the most authoritative sources define it differently (see molecular mass). The formula weight is a synonym of molar mass that is frequently used for non-molecular compounds, such as ionic salts. The molar mass is an intensive property of the substance, that does not depend on the size of the sample. In the International System of Units (SI), the base unit of molar mass is kg/mol. However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. The mole was defined in such as way that the molar mass of a compound, in g/mol, is numerically equal (for all practical purposes) to the average mass of one molecule, in daltons. Thus, for example, the average mass of a molecule of water is about 18.0153 daltons, and the molar mass of water is about 18.0153 g/mol. For chemical elements without isolated molecules, such as carbon and metals, the molar mass is computed ...
High Molecular Weight DNA Markers from Invitrogen,High Molecular Weight DNA Markers are suitable for sizing linear double-stranded DNA from 9 to 48 kb on low-percentage agarose gels. The 13 bands consist of 8.3- to 48.5-kb fragments generated from restriction endonuclease digests of Lambda DNA (cIind1ts857 Sam7). Ethidium bromide staining causes t,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The effect of low molecular weight water-insoluble hydrocarbon additives on the formation of colloidal particles in suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate and vinyl acetate has been...
0136] Presently preferred propylene homopolymers and copolymers useful certain exemplary embodiments of this disclosure typically have: 1) a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of at least 30,000 Da, preferably at least 50,000 Da, more preferably at least 90,000 Da, as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and/or no more than 2,000,000 Da, preferably no more than 1,000,000 Da, more preferably no more than 500,000 Da, as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC); and/or 2) a polydispersity (defined as Mw/Mn, wherein Mn is the number average molecular weight determined by GPC) of 1, preferably 1.6, and more preferably 1.8, and/or no more than 40, preferably no more than 20, more preferably no more than 10, and even more preferably no more than 3; and/or 3) a melting temperature Tm (second melt) of at least 30° C., preferably at least 50° C., and more preferably at least 60° C. as measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and/or no more than 200° C., ...
Biomarkers are often masked by high abundant proteins or may be susceptible to proteolysis. This application note from Shimadzu Scientific Instruments illustrates the ability to enrich low abundant, low molecular weight proteins directly from serum while excluding high molecular weight proteins. The ability to differentially trap proteins based on bait chemistry is also examined.
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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0002]The present invention relates to catalysts component for the polymerization of ethylene and its mixtures with olefins CH2═CHR, wherein R is an alkyl, cycloalkyl or aryl radical having 1-12 carbon atoms, comprising Ti, Mg, halogen, and a particular electron donor compound. The catalyst of the invention is suitably used in (co)polymerization processes of ethylene to prepare (co)polymers having narrow Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) and high bulk density. The MWD is an important characteristic of ethylene polymers in that it affects both the rheological behavior, and therefore the processability, and the final mechanical properties. In particular, polymers with narrow MWD are suitable for films and injection molding in that deformation and shrinkage problems in the manufactured article are minimized. The width of the molecular weight distribution for the ethylene polymers is generally expressed as melt flow ratio F/E, which is the ratio between the melt index measured by a load of 21.6 ...
Domestic protein purification instrument company on the characteristics of molecular sieve chromatography protein purification system-Suzhou Sepure Instruments Inc.-Domestic protein purification instrument company on the characteristics of molecular sieve chromatography protein purification system
Number Average Molecular Weights (Fundamentals and Determination) by Bonnar Robert U. (ISBN: 978-1-258-79647-1); Published by Literary Licensing, LLCin Aug 2013. Compare book prices on to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic gene coding for low-M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase from bovine liver has been carried out. The two histidine residues in the enzyme have been mutated to glutamine; both single and double mutants were produced. The mutated and non-mutated sequences have been expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins, in which the low-M(r) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase was linked to the C-terminal end of the maltose-binding protein. The fusion enzymes were easily purified by single-step affinity chromatography. The mutants were studied for their kinetic properties. Both single mutants showed decreased kcat. values (30 and 7% residual activities for His66 and His72 respectively), and alterations of the Ki values relative to four-competitive inhibitors were observed. The kinetic mechanism of p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis in the presence of both single mutants was determined and compared with that of the non-mutated enzyme. The rate-determining step ...
It will calculate the total mass along with the elemental composition and mass of each element in the compound. To calculate the molar mass of a compound with multiple atoms, sum all the atomic mass of the constituent atoms. Mass percentage of the elements in the composition To prepare 1 L of 0.5 M sodium chloride solution, then, as per the formula, use 29.22 g of sodium chloride (0.5 mol/L * 1L * 58.44 g/mol = 29.22 g). Table salt (sodium chloride) (NaCl - Molecular mass), molar mass. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F. You can use parenthesis or brackets []. 0.1M NaCl = Moles/.025L. The molar mass of any molecule is how much mass (in grams) the molecule has per mole. Molarity = Moles/Liters. Molar concentration, also known as molarity, and can be denoted by the unit M, molar. Molar mass of NaCl, Sodium Chloride is 58.44277 g/mol. In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number ...
The purification of glutamate dehydrogenase from sheep rumen mucosa on DEAE-cellulose afforded two enzyme fractions with glutamate dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme fraction II (tissue glutamate dehydrogenase) was freed of contaminating proteins in the subsequent purification step on Sephadex G-200. The approximate relative molecular weight (260 000) of tissue glutamate dehydrogenase (fraction II) was determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and the approximate relative molecular weight of its polypeptide chain (48 000) was established by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in SDS. The pH-optimum of fraction II was 7.9. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of the enzymatic reaction was examined and the following apparent Michaelis constants were found for the individual substrates: NADH 6.25 . 10-5 mol/l, 2-oxoglutarate 4.5 . 10-3 mol/l, and NH4+ 77 . 10-3 mol/l.. ...
Polysaccharides from sunflower stalk pith (SSP) were extracted by hot water and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). The chemical analyses suggested both fractions dominated in galacturonic acids with small amount of neutral sugars, indicating their identity as pectins. The yield of water-extractable pectin (WEP) and SHMP-extractable pectin (SEP) were 1.8% and 11.0%, respectively. The detailed structure of each fraction was investigated by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), FT-IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and 1D & 2D NMR spectroscopy. The weight average molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity for WEP and SEP were 57.2 kDa, 0.48 dL/g and 23.1 kDa, 0.50 dL/g, respectively. FT-IR spectra confirmed WEP and SEP had characteristic pectin-like structures and the degree of esterification (DE) was calculated to be 92% and 64 %, respectively. Methylation analysis demonstrated that 1,4-GalpA residues dominated all the sugar linkages, while other linkage types including 1,2-Rhap, ...
Chitosan Protasan UP G 210 (FA=0.17, weight-average molecular weight of 162,000) was obtained from Pronova Biomedical AS, Oslo, Norway. The low-molecular weight oligomer of N-glucosamine was obtained by chemical depolymerisation of chitosan using NaNO2 and subsequent reduction by NaBH as described by Tcmmeraas et al.t 2001, where the molecular weight was controlled by the amount of NaNO2 relative to the amount of chitosan. The fraction of acetylated units was controlled by heterogeneous deacetylation to obtain FA of less than 0.001 as determined by proton NMR-spectroscopy as described previously (Varum et al, 1991). Typically, 1.0 gram of chitosan was dissolved in 100 ml of 2.5% aqueous acetic acid, dissolved oxygen was removed by bubbling nitrogen gas through the solution for 5 minutes, and 5 ml of a freshly prepared solution of NaNO2 in distilled water (10 mg/ml) was added. The reaction was allowed to proceed for 4 hours in darkness, whereafter the depolymerized chitosan was conventionally ...
BioAssay record AID 743310 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: SAR confirmation of uHTS small molecule inhibitors of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, LMPTP, in a fluorescence-based, VHR-1 (dual specificity phosphatase 3) selectivity assay.
A coating composition useful for a finish for automobiles and trucks in which the film forming binder contains reactive binder components of about (a) 25-94% by weight, based on the weight of the binder, of an acrylic polymer having at least two reactive anhydride groups composed of polymerized monomers of an ethylenically unsaturated anhydride and polymerized monomers from the group consisting of alkyl methacrylate, alkyl acrylate and any mixtures thereof, wherein the alkyl groups have 1-8 carbon atoms and the polymer has a weight average molecular weight of about 2,000-50,000; (b) 5-50% by weight, based on the weight of the binder, of a glycidyl component having at least two reactive glycidyl groups; (c) 1-40% by weight, based on the weight of the binder, of a self-stabilized dispersed resin; and the composition contains about 0.1-5% by weight; based on the weight of the binder, of a catalyst.
Both SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and Western blotting are vital and very common methodology for protein extraction and ...
An improved purification procedure for the isolation of ribonuclease H(hybrid nuclease; RNA-DNA-hybrid ribonucleotidohydrolase, EC from the thymus of 4-to 6-months-old calves yields two highly active forms of the enzyme, designated as ribonuclease H1 and H2. Their isoelectric points are 5.0 +/- 0.05 and 5.25 +/- 0.05, respectively; their molecular weight, estimated from gel filtration, is in both cases 64,000 +/- 2000. On sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, two principal bands were identified, with molecular weights of 32,000 and 21,000. The nature of the nucleotides at the 3-OH terminals, produced initially by the enzymic hydrolysis of hybridized RNA, was examined and shown to be a function of the divalent metal ion employed as activator. ...
SUMMARY: The passive permeability properties of the plasma-membrane of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Duncan) resemble those of a classical lipid membrane such as that considered by Overton in 1899. In general, solutes carrying more than four water molecules flow across the plasma-membrane only very slowly under an electrochemical gradient. The plasma-membrane is the effective osmotic barrier to small molecular weight solutes and prevents the escape of internal components having a total osmotic concentration corresponding to c. 1 molal sucrose. The protoplast is prevented from swelling by the cell wall which withstands a hydrostatic thrust of some 20 to 30 atmospheres pressure exerted against it by the plasma-membrane in distilled water. The pores in the cell wall, although large enough to permit rapid diffusion of small molecular weight solutes, are too small to allow a dextran of mol. wt. 10,000 to penetrate. The cell wall acts as the osmotic barrier for large molecular weight components, preventing
Atomic mass is measured via mass spectrometry. Molar mass is computed from the atomic weight. There are no units of measurement for atomic masses because these are relative masses meaning these are unitless. So the atomic mass is measured by calculating the mass of protons and neutrons. Whereas the Molar Mass is the grams per moles of a specific element. (or a specific compound by adding the molar mass of each element in the compound). The molar mass had units (g/moles) and the atomic mass is unitless ...
Poly(ethylene succinate) (PES) with weight-average molecular weight above 60,000 g mol-1 was efficiently obtained by enzymatic ring opening polymerization of cyclic oligo(ethylene succinate)s c(ES)n, which in turn were prepared by lipase-catalysed cyclocondensation in solution of dimethyl succinate and ethylene glycol. The methodology was demonstrated to be also applicable to the synthesis of high molecular weight PES-copolyesters containing butylene succinate, e-hydroxycaproate or L-lactate units with a random distribution ...
Pneumococcus DNA, of weight-average molecular weight 1.6 million by light scattering, had a weight-average length of 4300 A by electron microscopy. Thus, the average mass per unit length was 370 molecular-weight units per A, or approximately two times that expected (208) for a Watson-Crick double helix. This corresponds to an average of 3.6 strands per molecule, which is close to that obtained by other methods. Morphologically, all the particles in the micrographs were relatively stiff, and had a cross-sectional height of 20 to 30 A. Some divided into two stiff branches of the same height, apparently double helical. Where the branches combined into one (minimally four-stranded) structure they apparently lay side by side in close association.. ...
The catalytic (M2) and regulatory (M1) subunits of calf thymus ribnucleotide reductase have been purified to homogeneity. Each runs as a single band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with polypeptide molecular weights of 84,000 for M1 and 58,000 for M2. Additional evidence for homogeneity was obtained using high performance liquid gel chromatography. The native M1 subunit is predominately monomeric (R(,s) = 37 A) under experimental conditions while the M2 subunit is oligomeric (R(,s) = 53 A). The quaternary structure of the native M2 protein was evaluated by chemical cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate. The results demonstrate that native M2 protein exists in a dimer-tetramer equilibrium. The amino acid composition of the complementary subunits of the ribonucleotide reductase has been determined. Significant compositional homology exists between the M1 polypeptide and its E. coli (B1) counterpart. However, comparative analytical peptide mapping reveals that the M1 and B1 polypeptides have
A controlled release composition containing a physiologically active substance in high content, suppressing the initial excess release, and achieving a stable release speed over a long period of time is provided. A controlled release composition comprising (1) a physiologically active substance or salt thereof in an amount of about 14% (w/w) to about 24% (w/w) based on the total composition weight, (2) hydroxynaphthoic acid selected from the group consisting of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid or salt thereof, and (3) a lactic acid polymer or salt thereof having a weight-average molecular weight of 15000 to 50000 in which the content of polymers having molecular weights of 5000 or less is about 5% by weight or less, wherein the molar ratio of said hydroxynaphthoic acid or salt thereof to said physiologically active substance or salt thereof is from 3:4 to 4:3.
The present work shows the characterization of Phaseolus acutifolius variety latifolius, on which little research has been published, and provides detailed information on the corresponding lectin. This protein was purified from a semi-domesticated line of white tepary beans from Sonora, Mexico, by precipitation of the aqueous extract with ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on an immobilized fetuin matrix. MALDI TOF analysis of Phaseolus acutifolius agglutinin (PAA) showed that this lectin is composed of monomers with molecular weights ranging between 28 and 31 kDa. At high salt concentrations, PAA forms a dimer of 63 kDa, but at low salt concentrations, the subunits form a tetramer. Analysis of PAA on 2D-PAGE showed that there are mainly three types of subunits with isoelectric points of 4.2, 4.4, and 4.5. The partial sequence obtained by LC/MS/MS of tryptic fragments from the PAA subunits showed 90-100% identity with subunits from genus Phaseolus lectins in previous reports. The
A new model based on a combination of the polymeric multigrain and multilayer models has been developed to predict the polymerization rate, particle growth, morphology, effective parameters on broadening of the molecular weight distribution, number and weight average of the molecular weight, isotacticity index and bulk density of polymer. Mathematical correlations and the kinetics used in this model are based on the polymeric multigrain and the multilayer models, respectively. In the modeling, multiplicity of active site using different kinetics parameters as well as deactivation of catalyst during the polymerization have been considered,. Moreover, it considers mass transfer effects on polymerization characteristics. The Effects of physico-chemical aspects of catalyst associated with the polymerization in slurry phase are also considered in this model. In addition, the effects of more important model parameters including time step, number of layers and number of active sites on the produced polymer
TY - JOUR. T1 - An electrophoretic difference between surface and secreted IgM of murine splenocytes. AU - Melcher, U.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - μ chains on the surface of murine splenocytes are more heterogeneous on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than both secreted and intracellular μ chains labeled with [3H]tyrosine. No difference in heterogeneity among cell surface, secreted, or intracellular L chains was detected. The possible role of carbohydrate in μ chain heterogeneity is discussed.. AB - μ chains on the surface of murine splenocytes are more heterogeneous on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than both secreted and intracellular μ chains labeled with [3H]tyrosine. No difference in heterogeneity among cell surface, secreted, or intracellular L chains was detected. The possible role of carbohydrate in μ chain heterogeneity is discussed.. UR - UR - ...
An aliphatic polyester polymer compositions and preparation method thereof. The invention provides a bioresorbable aliphatic polyester copolymer, comprising the reaction product of a first polyester, a second polyester, and a coupling agent. Specifically, the first polyester and second polyester have the same repeat units, but different weight average molecular weights. Methods for preparing the aliphatic polyester copolymer are provided, in which the first polyester reacts with the second polyester in the presence of the coupling agent, undergoing copolymerization.
Formula:Fe(c2h3o2)3 Enter a chemical formula to calculate molar mass,The molar mass calculator can be used in Chemical industry and medicine industry.
Formula:FeOOH.H2O Enter a chemical formula to calculate molar mass,The molar mass calculator can be used in Chemical industry and medicine industry.
Analysis of zymograms with SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis containing gelatin as substrate, and performed on samples of haemolymph or fat body taken from Rhodnius prolixus inoculated or not with Enterobacter cloacae, demonstrated distinct patterns of protease activities: (i) in the haemolymph two proteases were induced in insects inoculated with bacteria; (ii) two proteases were detected in the fat bodies derived from non-inoculated controls or insect inoculated with sterile culture medium; (iii) haemolymph and fat body had both the same apparent molecular weights proteases (46 and 56 kDa); and (iv) these enzymes were characterized as metallo-proteases. The association of these enzymes in Rhodnius infected with bacteria was discussed. ...
Polyolefins having a molecular weight distribution Mw /Mn of ≧3 and which may be monomodal, bimodal or multimodal are obtained by polymerization or copolymerization of olefins of the formula RCH═CHR, in which a catalyst system comprising an aluminoxane and a transition-metal component (metallocene) is used, the transition-metal component comprising at least one zirconocene of the formula I ##STR1## and at least one zirconocene of the formula Ia or alternatively at least 2 zirconocenes of the formula I.
The wine that won the International Gold is called Ferguson Estate 2011, a blend of 57% Cabernet, 32% Merlot, and 11% Cab Franc. It was racked five times over its 22 months aging and is, having come from a vineyard planted only six years ago, astoundingly integrated, refined, subtle, and richly reflective of both its terroir and the glorious, brooding Walla Walla Valley fruit. The Ferguson Vineyard, named for Martys wifes parents, Jean and Baker Ferguson, is the sole property of LEcole and is an 18 acre plot situated on a high-elevation hillside just outside Milton-Freewater, Oregon. The purity and clarity of Ferguson is uncanny; most wineries dont produce juice like this even from 60 - 80 year old vines. The flavors are bell-clear, resonant blackberries, black plums, and Bing cherries, graced with mocha, graphite, glove leather, sweet herbs, and fresh figs - all underpinned by a breath-taking, distinct stratum of crushed stones, lime, and mineral soils. Its every bit as remarkable as you ...
Molecular Weight[edit]. The molecular weight is important as to whether the polymer can be melt electrospun. For linear ... a low molecular weight (below 30,000g/mol) can result in broken and poor quality fibers.[7] For high molecular weights (above ... Many melt electrospun fibers reported use molecular weights between 40,000 and 80,000 g/mol [4] or are blends of low and high ... molecular weight polymers.[8] Voltage[edit]. Modifying the voltage does not greatly effect the resulting fiber diameter, ...
... has a molecular mass of 3823.5 Da and consists of a single chain of 37 amino acid residues. These residues are cross- ... Molecular weight. 3823.5 Da. *v. *t. *e. AmmTX3, produced by Androctonus mauretanicus, is a scorpion toxin of the α-KTX15 ...
Unique_ID, XCA3464366 , ,ClogP, 5.825 , ,Vendor, Sigma , ,Molecular Weight, 499.611 Multiple-lines data items are also ... "Description of several chemical structure file formats used by computer programs developed at Molecular Design Limited". ...
Molecular weight Inhibitory power Details Blood plasma α1-antitrypsin 52 kDa Also known as serum trypsin inhibitor ... 2.2 times weight A mixture of six different inhibitors Bovine pancreas and lung Aprotinin 6.5 kDa 2.5 times weight Also known ... 1.2 times weight A mixture of several different inhibitors. All also bind chymotrypsin to a lesser degree. ... 1.2 times weight The ovomucoids are a mixture of several different glycoprotein protease inhibitors ...
Molecular weight (Da) 72.6 Melting point (°C) −155 Boiling point (°C) −48.5 ...
Heat-shock proteins are named according to their molecular weight. For example, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 (the most widely studied ... "Molecular Immunology. 68 (2 Pt A): 85-8. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.04.007. PMC 4623969 . PMID 25953005.. ... Ritossa F (1962). "A new puffing pattern induced by temperature shock and DNP in drosophila". Cellular and Molecular Life ... Extracellular heat-shock proteins can be sensed by our immunity as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP).[26] They are ...
For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator and were within 0.01g/mol of ... "Molecular Weight Calculator". Lenntech. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals ... Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of ... One of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superposable. Missing or empty ,title= (help ...
For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator and were within 0.01g/mol of ... "Molecular Weight Calculator". Lenntech. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals ... Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of ... One of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superposable. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman ...
"Protein Molecular Weight". Retrieved 2019-10-05. Vivès, Eric; Brodin, Priscille; Lebleu, Bernard (1997- ... WaTx is a macromolecule with an estimated weight of 3.86 kDa, which consists of 33 amino-acid residues. Its amino-acid sequence ...
The total molecular weight is 268.86 kD. FAM208b has an isoelectric point of 5.72. FAM208b has an instability index of 53.64, ... "Protein Molecular Weight". Bioinformatics. Scilico. Retrieved 1 May 2018. Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2016). "Isoelectric Point ... April 2016). "An inter-species protein-protein interaction network across vast evolutionary distance". Molecular Systems ...
For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator and were within 0.01g/mol of ... ISBN 978-3-90639-051-2. "Molecular Weight Calculator". Lenntech. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP". ... Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of ... Due to the potential for stunted growth, the USFDA advises monitoring the height and weight of children and adolescents ...
For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator and were within 0.01g/mol of ... "Molecular Weight Calculator". Lenntech. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals ... Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of ... Recent evidence has shown that ΔFosB also represses the c-fos gene that helps create the molecular switch-from the induction of ...
Molecular Weight (kg/kmol) 86.2 Boiling point (°C) −43.8 Saturated liquid density (25°C), kg/m3 1138 ...
"Molecular weight of KCl". Retrieved 2018-11-04.. *^ Burgess, J. (1978). Metal Ions in Solution. New York ...
"Protein Molecular Weight Calculator". Retrieved 2018-02-25. "MOTIF: Searching Protein Sequence Motifs ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 14 (12): 8292-303. doi:10.1128/MCB.14.12.8292. PMC 359368. PMID 7969165. Lipp JJ, Marvin MC, ... Molecular Cell. 1 (4): 611-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80061-1. PMID 9660945. "Genomatix: Matrix Library information". www. ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 32 (4): 868-79. doi:10.1128/MCB.06261-11. PMC 3272973. PMID 22184064. "Antibodypedia - CDK16 ...
Molecular weight is 55.914. The heat of vapourisation is 25.6 kJ/mol. Trimethylborane was first described in 1862 by Edward ...
According to Compute pI, this protein has a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa, which is the same molecular weight ... "Compute PI/Molecular Weight". ExPasy.[permanent dead link] "Tissue expression of TMEM151A - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas ... Sigma-Aldrich demonstrates that TMEM151A has a molecular weight of approximately 55 kDa which suggests that the protein may ... Molecular Psychiatry. 22 (7): 1015-1025. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.174. ISSN 1359-4184. PMC 5461220. PMID 27777418. Conti, Anna (2011 ...
... low molecular weight aromatics > cyclic alkanes > high molecular weight aromatics = polar polymers Physical properties: Shape ... Lignin is useful due to its low weight material and the fact that it is more environmentally friendly than other alternatives. ... CSIRO Molecular Science, Bag 10, Clayton South MDC, Vic 3169, Australia; Gunatillake, Pa (2003-10-01). "Biodegradable synthetic ... International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10 (9): 3722-3742. doi:10.3390/ijms10093722. ISSN 1422-0067. PMC 2769161. PMID ...
e = Polymer of estradiol phosphate (~13 repeat units). f = Relative molecular weight or estradiol content per repeat unit. ... US patent 2928849, Högberg Knut Bertil; Fernö Ove Birger & Linderot Torsten Ove Enok et al., "High-molecular weight derivatives ... Fernö O, Fex H, Högberg B, Linderot T, Veige S (1958). "High Molecular Weight Enzyme Inhibitors. 3. Polyestradiol Phosphate ( ... higher molecular weight than estradiol due to the presence of its C17β phosphate ester.[36][15] Because PEP is a prodrug of ...
Molecular weight (g mol−1) 164.97 Vapor-liquid equilibrium (mL) 208 Flammability limits 7% in air ... With a molecular formula of C3H4Cl2F2O and a condensed structural formula of CHCl2CF2OCH3, the International Union of Pure and ... pronounced weight loss, elevation of serum sodium, chloride, osmolality and blood urea nitrogen. The urine of these patients ... according to Graham's law the rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to molecular mass.[61] After an extensive search, ...
Broadening of molecular weight distribution. The recycling of PET bottles is meanwhile an industrial standard process that is ... When PET degrades, several things happen: discoloration, chain scissions resulting in reduced molecular weight, formation of ... Results are decreased reactivity during re-polycondensation or re-SSP and broadening the molecular weight distribution. ... In the Soviet Union, PET was first manufactured in the laboratories of the Institute of High-Molecular Compounds of the USSR ...
First, the high molecular weight protein produced by some multiple myeloma patients was recognized to be a tumor-produced γ- ... Kabat, E. A. (1939). "The molecular weight of antibodies". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 69 (1): 103-118. doi:10.1084/jem. ... Heidelberger, M.; Pedersen, K. O. (1937). "The molecular weight of antibodies". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 65 (3): 393- ... with a molecular weight of 990,000 daltons. In accordance with its large size, the new antibody was originally referred to as γ ...
The molecular weight is 25kDa. Homologs were found mostly in primates. The homolog with the furthest divergence would be the ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 13 (2): 397-406. doi:10.1074/mcp.M113.035600. ISSN 1535-9476. PMC 3916642. PMID 24309898. " ... "Uncertainty in the Timing of Origin of Animals and the Limits of Precision in Molecular Timescales". Current Biology. 25 (22): ...
BI-MwA-Molecular Weight Analyzer. The BI-MwA is a multiangle light scattering detector suitable for Size-exclusion ... It determines the absolute molecular weight of proteins and polymers. BI-200SM-Research Goniometer and Full Laser Light ... Specializing in protein, polymer and particle characterization, with techniques in zeta potential, molecular weight, ... molecular mass and absolute molar mass analysis. Product designs started when their founders were postdoctoral students in the ...
396-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Diczfalusy E, Fernö H, Fex B, Högberg B, Kneip P (1959). "High Molecular Weight Enzyme Inhibitors ... weight gain, feminization, and gynecomastia may occur. Fosfestrol is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors. It ...
The same studies appeared to show that the molecular weight of proteins fell into a few well-defined classes related by ... However, it was difficult to determine the exact molecular weight and number of amino acids in a protein. Svedberg had also ... Wrinch summarized her model and the supporting molecular-weight experimental data in three review articles. Having proposed a ... Astbury, WT; Woods HJ (1931). "The Molecular Weight of Proteins". Nature. 127 (3209): 663-665. Bibcode:1931Natur.127..663A. doi ...
AA: Aminoaciduria; AD:autosomal dominant; AR: autosomal recessive; LFT's: Liver function tests; LMWP: low molecular weight ... Burtis, C.A.; Ashwood, E.R. and Bruns, D.E. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 5th Edition. ...
Svedberg, The; Chirnoagă, Eugen (1928). "The molecular weight of hemocyanin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 50 (5 ...
High Molecular Weight Poly(alkoxy- and aryloxyphosphazenes)". Inorganic Chemistry. 5 (10): 1709-1715. doi:10.1021/ic50044a016. ... High Molecular Weight Poly(diaminophosphazenes)". Inorganic Chemistry. 5 (10): 1716-1718. doi:10.1021/ic50044a017.CS1 maint: ... with Molecular Weight Control". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117 (26): 7035-7036. doi:10.1021/ja00131a040.CS1 ... More than 700 different polyphosphazenes are known, with different side groups (R) and different molecular architectures. Many ...
"Absolute Molecular Weight of Polyaniline". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (48): 16770-1. doi:10.1021/ja055327k. ...
The benefit of exercise occurs regardless of the person's initial weight or subsequent weight loss.[72] High levels of physical ... Sun T, Han X (2019). "Death versus dedifferentiation: The molecular bases of beta cell mass reduction in type 2 diabetes". ... Maintaining normal weight, exercising, eating properly[1]. Treatment. Dietary changes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery[1] ... Weight loss surgery in those who are obese is an effective measure to treat diabetes.[120] Many are able to maintain normal ...
... and are more volatile than alcohols and carboxylic acids of comparable molecular weights. These factors relate to the ... The ketone carbon is often described as "sp2 hybridized", a description that includes both their electronic and molecular ...
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Little, TJ; Horowitz, M; Feinle-Bisset, C. "Role of cholecystokinin in appetite control and body weight regulation". Obesity ... "FitWatch - Free Online Calorie Counter & Diet Tracker / Weight Loss Tools and Calculators." FitWatch RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 ... Eldredge, K. L.; Agras, W. S. (1994). "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (11): 1154-1166. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025725. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 9364773.. ... Weight 75-100 cm 45-55 cm 6-7.5 cm 9-14 kg ...
... it had exactly the same molecular weight.[11][12] How something of such a large molecular mass could be consistently found, ... hemoglobin has a molecular weight of 68,000 Da, suggesting that there are four iron atoms present rather than one, and that no ... he developed the theory necessary to measure molecular weight.[12] During this time, Svedberg's attention shifted from gold to ... This gave hemoglobin a resulting weight of approximately 16,000 dalton (Da) but it was uncertain whether this value was a ...
The van der Waals volume, Vw, also called the atomic volume or molecular volume, is the atomic property most directly related ... Tabulated values of van der Waals radii are obtained by taking a weighted mean of a number of different experimental values, ... The molecules in a molecular crystal are held together by van der Waals forces rather than chemical bonds. In principle, the ... By examining a large number of structures of molecular crystals, it is possible to find a minimum radius for each type of atom ...
2003). "11C-metomidate PET imaging of adrenocortical cancer". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 30 (3 ... for a 70 kg person-dose is likely to be higher for higher body weights).[31] ... Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2015.. ... Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. PET has been widely used ...
Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg viruses: molecular and cellular biology (Limited preview). ... and difficulty returning to pre-illness weight.[26][38] Problems with vision may develop.[39] It is recommended that survivors ... Trends in Molecular Medicine. 12 (5): 206-15. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2006.03.006. PMID 16616875.. ...
The brolga was formerly placed in the genus Grus but a molecular phylogenetic study published in 2010 found that the genus, as ... The weight can range from 3.7 to 8.7 kilograms (8.2 to 19.2 lb).[4][9] ... This was further confirmed by molecular studies of their DNA.[6] These also showed that the brolga is more closely related to ...
Chu LF, Angst MS, Clark D (2008). "Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in humans: molecular mechanisms and clinical considerations". ... A pressure algometer and standardized monofilaments or weighted pinprick stimuli are used for assessing pressure and punctate ...
Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the ... Medical nutrition therapy is done by dietitians and is prescribed for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, weight and eating ... Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen ...
On this basis, one needle produced food for about 0.19 mg dry weight of apical growth, 3 mm3 wood, one-quarter of a new needle ... A new classification and linear sequence based on molecular data can be found in an article by Christenhusz et al.[7] ... In 1961, needles as old as 13 years remained on the tree.The ash weight of needles increased progressively with age from about ... 1964),[16] the needles constituted 17.5% of the over-day weight. Undoubtedly, the proportions change with time. ...
... at Ohio State for Ohio residents placed it as the fifth-most expensive public university and slightly beneath the weighted ... Molecular Biology & Genetics. 74 Neuroscience & Behavior. 81 Oncology. 16 Pharmacology & Toxicology. 50 ...
Molecular and Cellular Probes. 31: 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2016.08.003. PMID 27523487. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 ... Effective January 2008, the CDC gives equal weight to laboratory evidence from 1) a positive culture for B. burgdorferi; 2) two ... "Molecular Medicine. 14 (3-4): 205-12. doi:10.2119/2007-00091.Rupprecht. PMC 2148032. PMID 18097481. Archived from the original ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ...
Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... 5α-Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was 2.4 times more potent than testosterone at maintaining normal prostate weight and duct lumen ...
Solid State Structures of Alkali Metal Ion Complexes Formed by Low-Molecular-Weight Ligands of Biological Relevance". In Astrid ... Standard atomic weight (u)[note 7][58][59]. 6.94(1)[note 8]. 22.98976928(2). 39.0983(1). 85.4678(3). 132.9054519(2). [223][note ... Thus, the trend for the densities of the alkali metals depends on their atomic weights and atomic radii; if figures for these ... Due to having the lowest atomic weight and the largest atomic radius of all the elements in their periods, the alkali metals ...
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. *Braided fishing line. *Fishing. *Fish hook. *Fluorocarbon ... Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight (thicker lines are more visible to fish). Factors ...
"Molecular Therapy. 12 (5): 842-51. doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.03.017. PMID 16257382. Archived from the original on 12 September ... Pressure areas where the brain tissue has been compressed by a tumor also appear hyperintense on T2-weighted scans and might ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... On MRI, they appear either hypodense or isointense (same intensity as brain tissue) on T1-weighted scans, or hyperintense ( ...
Georg F. Weber (22 July 2015). Molecular Therapies of Cancer. Springer. pp. 314, 316. ISBN 978-3-319-13278-5.. ... steroidal AR antagonists are able to increase prostate weight and accelerate prostate cancer cell growth in the absence of more ... Peter B. Farmer; John M. Walker (6 December 2012). The Molecular Basis of Cancer. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 232-. ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ...
"Molecular Diagnostics for Lassa Fever at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Lessons Learnt from Two Years of ... "Mapping Transmission Risk of Lassa Fever in West Africa: The Importance of Quality Control, Sampling Bias, and Error Weighting ...
The small Eurasian weed Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in the study of the molecular biology of ... of their dry weight, and may be useful in soil remediation or even bio-mining.[20] ... Although a substantial effort was made through molecular phylogenetic studies, the relationships within the Brassicaceae have ... "Phylogenetic placement of two enigmatic genera, Borthwickia and Stixis, based on molecular and pollen data, and the ...
... that differ in their molecular weight.[8][9][10] The PR-B is the positive regulator of the effects of progesterone, while PR-A ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (9): 3102-15. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.9.3102-3115.2000. PMC 85605. PMID 10757795.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (2): 1182-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.2.1182. PMC 116047. PMID 9891052.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (8): 4471-87. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.8.4471. PMC 109033. PMID 9671457.. ...
... diet and weight modification and planning for end-stage kidney failure. Impaired kidney function has systemic effects on the ...
"The Habsburg Lip", Topics in the History of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Fall 2000. Retrieved on 2013-03-05. ... Fareed M, Afzal M (2014). "Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: a population-based child ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537-543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790. PMID 9159931.. ... It can constitute as much as 50% of a whale's body weight. Calves are born with only a thin layer of blubber, but some species ...
Hideyuki Mannena & Steven S.-L. Li (1999). "Molecular evidence for a clade of turtles". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. ... Charles Darwin noted that the Galapagos tortoise had a bladder which could store up to 20% of its body weight.[97] Such ... While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the ... Classically, turtles were considered to be related to the primitive anapsid reptiles.[32] Molecular work has usually placed ...
Weight loss groups[edit]. Some weight loss groups aim to make money, others work as charities. The former include Weight ... School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. "Physiological Validation of the ... Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals[edit]. Main article: Weight loss effects of water ... The first weight-loss book to promote calorie counting, and the first weight-loss book to become a bestseller, was the 1918 ...
Science In Medicine: The JCI Textbook Of Molecular Medicine. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 1061 ff. ISBN 0763750832.. ... When weighing up the influence of different factors on behavior, students gave desires and intentions the strongest weight for ...
... is introduced to remove particles whose minimum size corresponds to molecular weight approximately 10,000 (or about 10 nm ...
The molecular weight may be calculated from the molecular formula [3] of the substance; it is the sum of the atomic weights [4 ... weight of a molecule [1] of a substance expressed in atomic mass [2] units (amu). ... Molecular weight. Molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule . A molecule can be viewed as an ... Molecular Weight. Resources. Molecular weight (MW) is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule. (Although ...
Molecular Weight Marker. 2 Items *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Molecular Weight Marker, 25 µg (100 µL; 0.25 µg/µL) Item #211473A *. ... Molecular Weight Marker, 50 µg (200 µL; 0.25 µg/µL) Item #211473 *. ...
Peptide molecular weight is a number without units that is derived from the ratio of an average mass of a peptide molecule that ... Molecular weight analyzer software is often used to calculate peptide molecular weight numbers, as the calculations can be ... For instance, if one component had a molecular weight of 50 and another had a molecular weight of 100, then the molecules in ... a peptide molecular weight calculator is often used to determine the new molecular weight. ...
Protein molecular weight markers are used to calculate sample molecular weights, to monitor the progress of an electrophoretic ... Biotinylated Molecular Weight Marker. Biotinylated molecular weight markers contain biotin-conjugated proteins which, following ... Non-Denaturing Molecular Weight Marker. Our Non-Denaturing Marker contains 5 separate proteins suitable for use in a native ... 5 µl of a 1:20 dilution of the Ultra-low Range Molecular Weight Marker (M3546) was run on a 10-20% Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE gel, ...
molecular weight synonyms, molecular weight pronunciation, molecular weight translation, English dictionary definition of ... molecular weight. n. The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule. Also called relative molecular mass . n the ... Related to molecular weight: Low molecular weight heparin. molecular weight. n.. The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms ... Molecular weight - definition of molecular weight by The Free Dictionary ...
A process is disclosed for the preparation of low molecular weight, essentially 100 percent solids, liquid, acrylic-based ... the polymers of this invention are of sufficiently low molecular weight (about 750 to 5000 number average molecular weight (Mn ... 10 to 50 weight percent of another acrylic monomer, 5 to 40 weight percent of a hydroxy-containing monomer, and 1 to 5 weight ... Because of the liquid nature of the low molecular weight polymers of the instant invention, they may be utilized in any of a ... will help you search for Molecular Weight Of Salt, guaranteeing youll find the best price out there! So, ... High Molecular WeightMolecular Weight LeadMolecular Weight MoleculeMolecular Weight NitrogenMolecular Weight OilMolecular ... Weight OxygenMolecular Weight PotassiumMolecular Weight SodiumMolecular Weight SolubilityMolecular Weight Solution ... Molecular Weight Of Salt See All 38 products in Molecular Weight Of Salt ...
The Low Molecular Weight DNA Ladder ranges from 25bp-766 bp and is supplied with a free vial of Gel Loading Dye, Purple (6X), ... Low Molecular Weight DNA Ladder This product is available in our Quick-Load Purple format - enjoy the convenience of a ready-to ... Low Molecular Weight DNA Ladder. N3233SVIAL. -20 1 x 0.1 ml 500 µg/ml ... Low Molecular Weight DNA Ladder. N3233LVIAL. -20 1 x 0.5 ml 500 µg/ml ...
Purchase Regulation of Macromolecular Synthesis By Low Molecular Weight Mediators - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Regulation of Macromolecular Synthesis by Low Molecular Weight Mediators contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Regulation ... Molecular Interactions in the Initiation of rRNA Synthesis in Prokaryotes. The Regulation of RNA Polymerase by Guanosine 5- ... of Macromolecular Synthesis by Low Molecular Weight Mediators held at Hamburg on May 29-31, 1979. The book discusses the ...
Becoming overweight at a young age can trigger a molecular chain reaction that leads some girls to experience puberty early, ... Molecular link between body weight, early puberty identified Enzyme that can activate or suppress puberty gene behaves ... Molecular link between body weight, early puberty identified. Oregon Health & Science University ... molecular-link-between-body-weight-early-puberty-identified Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1038/. s41467 ...
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene - Wikipedia. ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene - Wikipedia. ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene - Wikiwand. ...
The molecular mass is estimated using the weights of all of the elements contained in... ... The molecular weight of air is approximately 28.97 g/mol. ... What is the molecular weight of HCl?. A: The molecular weight ... How do you find molecular weight?. A: The molecular weight of a molecule is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in ... What is the molecular weight of potassium?. A: The molecular weight of potassium is 39.0983 g/mol. It is a very light and ...
High Molecular Weight DNA Markers are suitable for sizing linear double-stranded DNA from 9 to 48 kb on low-percentage agarose ... High Molecular Weight DNA Markers are suitable for sizing linear double-stranded DNA from 9 to 48 kb on low-percentage agarose ... AquaMax DW4 from Molecular Devices. 6. GenePix Pro Microarray Image Analysis Software from Molecular Devices. 7. adenosine 5-O ... Acuity Enterprise Microarray Informatics Software from Molecular Devices. 9. SlowFade Antifade Kit from Molecular Probes ( ...
RNA and protein molecular weight markers. Use the DNA molecular weight markers for both conventional and pulsed field gel ... What are Molecular Weight Markers?. Molecular weight markers, or ladders, are a set of standards that are used for determining ... Protein molecular weight markers consist of proteins whose weight is measured in kDa. They are most commonly used in SDS-PAGE ... Molecular Weight Markers. We offer a wide variety of DNA and RNA ladders and markers for conventional gel electrophoresis ...
he GenomePlex® Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification Kit (WGA4) is designed to amplify the genome of a single cell resulting in a million-fold amplification yielding microgram quantities of genomic DNA.
Dextran de alto peso molecular es un expansor de volumen plasmático hecho de fuentes naturales de azúcar (glucosa). Funciona ... Qué es dextran de alto peso molecular?. Dextran de alto peso molecular es un expansor de volumen plasmático hecho de fuentes ... No se sabe si dextran de alto peso molecular pasa a la leche materna o si le puede hacer daño al bebé lactante. Dígale a su ... Qué debería discutir con el profesional del cuidado de la salud antes de recibir dextran de alto peso molecular?. Usted no debe ...
Fauchery L., Uroz S., Buée M., Kohler A. (2018) Purification of Fungal High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Environmental ... Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1775) ... Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1775. Humana Press, New York, NY. * DOI ...
ultra high molecular weight polyethylene; UHMWPE. *^ Lewin (1996-07-09). Handbook of Fiber Science and Technology ... "Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2018) (Learn how and when to ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. Also known as high- ... Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is synthesized from its monomer ethylene, which is bonded together to form ...
The low molecular weight of RNAs of adenovirus 2-infected cells.. Mathews MB, Pettersson U. ...
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... "high molecular weight (HMW-HA)"; everything in between is "low molecular weight (LMW-HA)". For scientific papers it may be ... HA of higher molecular weight can be digested by a variety of enzymatic and nonenzymatic [18, 29, 32, 72, 73] pathways to 50- ... Size Matters: Molecular Weight Specificity of Hyaluronan Effects in Cell Biology. Jaime M. Cyphert, Carol S. Trempus, and ... J. D. Powell and M. R. Horton, "Threat matrix: low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) as a danger signal," Immunologic Research, ...
... Jaime M. Cyphert, Carol S. Trempus, and ... that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. This review ...
What is Molecular Weight?. In more modern contexts, molecular mass is used instead of the more antiquated term molecular weight ... The molecular mass, or weight, of a given molecule is the mass of one molecule of a given substance relative to the unified ... The molecular mass of a molecule is computed by taking the sum of the molecular masses of all of the isotopes that compose it. ... we suffer no large error from adding the molecular masses of isotopes together to get the molecular mass of the molecules they ...
... The distinguishing feature of commercial polymers is that they have molecular weights far in ... The molecular weight is then given in terms of the equivalent polystyrene molecular weight and must be so noted. Rarely, it is ... Consider a plot of the fraction of a plastic sample with a specified molecular weight versus molecular weight as show below. ... The selectivity of this process for molecular weight is outstanding and the range of molecular weights which can potentially be ...
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Glutenins are high-molecular weight seed storage proteins of wheat endosperm. Thought to be responsible for the visco-elastic ... Glutenin, low molecular weight subunitAdd BLAST. 337. Keywords - PTMi. Disulfide bond. Proteomic databases. PRoteomics ... Glutenins are high-molecular weight seed storage proteins of wheat endosperm. Thought to be responsible for the visco-elastic ... sp,P10385,GLTA_WHEAT Glutenin, low molecular weight subunit OS=Triticum aestivum OX=4565 PE=3 SV=1 ...
What is the molecular weight of each chemical compound whose formula is given below? Given Atomic Weights:. H = 1 ; C = 12 ; N ...
Production of specific-molecular-weight hyaluronan by metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis 168.. Jin P1, Kang Z2, Yuan P1 ... Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) has attracted much attention because of its many potential applications. Here, we ... with a molecular weight range of 1.40×10(6)-1.83×10(6)Da. When leech hyaluronidase was actively expressed after N-terminal ... allowing the production of LMW-HAs with a molecular weight range of 2.20×10(3)-1.42×10(6)Da. Our results confirm that this ...
Molecular ties between lack of sleep and weight gain At a Glance. *Researchers found that sleep restriction altered ... Erin Hanlon and Eve Van Cauter at the University of Chicago wanted to better understand how sleep and weight gain interact ... Sleep deprivation has also been associated with higher risks of weight gain and obesity in recent years. ...
  • The global low molecular weight heparin market size was valued at US$ 2,882.6 Mn in 2017 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 6.7% during the forecast period (2018 - 2026). (
  • Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparin for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative patients. (
  • Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications. (
  • Natural heparin consists of molecular chains of varying lengths, or molecular weights. (
  • Chains of varying molecular weights, from 5000 to over 40,000 Daltons, make up polydisperse pharmaceutical-grade heparin. (
  • LMWHs are defined as heparin salts having an average molecular weight of less than 8000 Da and for which at least 60% of all chains have a molecular weight less than 8000 Da. (
  • 2008. Various methods of heparin depolymerisation are used in the manufacture of low-molecular-weight heparin. (
  • To determine, through pharmacokinetic parameters, the ideal dosing protocol for dalteparin (a low molecular weight heparin) and unfractionated heparin for women desiring pregnancy who have evidence of an acquired (specifically, antiphospholipid syndrome) or inherited thrombophilia. (
  • The best dosing strategy for either unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin will be the one exhibiting the best balance between a modified Akaike information criterion value, residual sum of squares, and coefficient of determination. (
  • Treatment of VTE involves the administration of heparin, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or coumarin derivatives. (
  • They require treatment with low weight molecular heparin, a medication that needs to be injected under the skin daily for 6 months or longer. (
  • Rationale: a number of recent phase III randomized trials have shown a survival benefit of a treatment with subcutaneous low-molecular weight heparin in patients with advanced solid malignancies. (
  • Aspirin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are both commonly employed pharmacologic methods of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after orthopaedic surgery. (
  • The specific aim of this study is to compare the post operative incidence of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) between patients who receive low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus aspirin for prophylaxis after having undergone pelvic or lower extremity orthopaedic oncology surgery (primary bone sarcomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and metastatic osseous disease). (
  • In this study we also identify the FGF molecular pathways involved in heparin-induced tumor endothelial cell inhibition as well as determination of the in vivo specific tumor inhibition across different LMWHs. (
  • In this report, the global Low Molecular Weight Heparin Sodium market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • Protein molecular weight markers, sometimes identified as protein standards or protein ladders, are used to estimate the molecular weight of proteins of interest, to monitor the progress of electrophoretic separation or transfer, and as a positive control for analysis conditions. (
  • It is designed for observing protein separation during SDS-PAGE, verifying membrane transfer efficiency, and approximating the molecular weight of proteins. (
  • SigmaMarkers™ encompass the range of molecular weights common to most proteins and their subunits. (
  • Glutenins are high-molecular weight seed storage proteins of wheat endosperm. (
  • A major problem in drug delivery is the effective absorption of high molecular weight material such as proteins and peptides across biological membranes. (
  • 1,2 The resulting suspension is transferred to a free-floating RecoverEase kit cup where the digested proteins and low molecular weight contaminants are removed by dialysis (16 to 48 hours), leaving behind fully hydrated DNA, which is ready for immediate use. (
  • Thermo Scientific™ SuperSignal Molecular Weight Protein Ladders (20 to 150KDa) are a ready-to-use mix of recombinant proteins with IgG-binding sites that provide reliable and proportional band intensities in stained gels and immunoblots developed with chemiluminescent, fluorescent, chromogenic or other detection systems. (
  • The SuperSignal Molecular Weight Protein Ladders and SuperSignal Enhanced Molecular Weight Protein Ladders contain a ready-to-use stabilized mixture of eight recombinant proteins ranging in size from 20 to 150kDa. (
  • The low molecular weight (LMW) serum proteome is that protein/peptide fraction from which high molecular weight proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, transferrin, and lipoproteins, have been removed. (
  • One of the fundamental oversights of serum protein depletion methodologies, however, is that many important low molecular weight (LMW) 1 proteins or peptides can be concomitantly removed by this sample preparation process as well. (
  • Protein markers are used to calculate molecular weights of proteins in a sample that is run on a gel. (
  • Methods classically used to extract organic matrix proteins eliminate potential low molecular weight matrix components, since cut-offs ranging from 3.5 to 10 kDa are used to desalt matrix extracts. (
  • Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. (
  • Learn about the Viscotek SEC-MALS 20, a multi angle light scattering detector that can be used to measure the absolute molecular weight of proteins, synthetic and natural polymers, as well as molecular size expressed as the radius of gyration, Rg. (
  • High-molecular-weight proteins having M protein reactivity were isolated without acid or alkaline digestion. (
  • PAGEmark™ Blue PLUS Protein Markers A blue protein standard with 12 prestained proteins covering a wide range of molecular weights:10-240kDa in Tris-Glycine buffer and9-235kDa in Bis-Tris (MOPS) buffer or Bis-Tris (MES) buffer. (
  • IBI's Molecular Weight Protein Markers are designed for the determination of approximate molecular weights of proteins by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis. (
  • The protein markers are a mixture of purified proteins of known molecular weights supplied in a ready-to-use loading buffer. (
  • 5 µl of a 1:20 dilution of the Ultra-low Range Molecular Weight Marker ( M3546 ) was run on a 10-20% Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE gel, fixed with 5% gluteraldehyde and stained with EZBlue ( G1041 ). (
  • A molecular-weight size marker, also referred to as a protein ladder, DNA ladder, or RNA ladder, is a set of standards that are used to identify the approximate size of a molecule run on a gel during electrophoresis, using the principle that molecular weight is inversely proportional to migration rate through a gel matrix. (
  • There are two common methods in which to construct a DNA molecular-weight size marker. (
  • As with experimental samples, the conditions of the gel can affect the molecular-weight size marker that runs alongside them. (
  • Can I use your BSA as a molecular weight marker? (
  • BSA, Molecular Biology Grade ( NEB# B9000 ) is not designed to be used as a molecular weight marker. (
  • The molecular weight marker mix also contains a special pink tracking dye to monitor the electrophoresis run and membrane transfer without the need for additional colored markers. (
  • The global molecular weight marker market was valued at $265.36 million in 2014 and is poised to grow at a CAGR of 12.23 % between 2014 and 2019, to reach $472.47 million in 2019. (
  • On the basis of end users the global molecular weight marker market report is segmented into academic research institutes, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations and other end users. (
  • Thus, this protein represents a new molecular marker of oncoviral transformation. (
  • The standard DNA molecular weight marker is an essential tool for all kinds of work involving DNA analysis by electrophoresis technique. (
  • The result had not only led to understand the orientation of putative genes in the viral genome, but also revealed several advantageous characteristics of the genome to use as raw material in the development of standard DNA molecular weight marker. (
  • The research strategy for development of standard DNA molecular weight marker was then carefully drawn. (
  • Toward this end, studies on the extent to which polymers' physical properties, such as [T.sub.g], molecular weight , and chemical structure, influence the process of interface formation and interfacial thickness are necessary. (
  • The distinguishing feature of commercial polymers is that they have molecular weights far in excess of the entanglement molecular weight of about 10,000 g/mole. (
  • A polymer lubricant comprising a copolymer salt of a low molecular weight copolymer acid of an alpha-olefin and an alpha,beta-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid, a composition containing the lubricant, and a method for processing polymers containing the lubricant. (
  • Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (CAS No. Other kinds of industrial polymers were observed to produce lethal atmospheres under less drastic conditions than either form of Teflon. (
  • The focus of this dissertation is to develop a fundamental understanding of process-structure-property relationship in two different classes of polymers: semi-crystalline Ultra High Molecular Weight Polytetrafluoroethylene (UHMWPTFE) and amorphous glassy double network (DN) epoxies. (
  • Method for preparing low molecular weight polymers. (
  • A process for producing polymers of low molecular weight, which process comprises partially hydrogenating an unsaturated polymer forming a partially hydrogenated polymer and reacting the partially hydrogenated polymer with an acyclic alkene in the presence of a metathesis catalyst based on Ru-based or Os, wherein the polymer resulting low molecular weight has a number average molecular weight of at least 7,500 and less than 250,000 g / mol. (
  • This invenci6n relates to a process for preparing polymers of low molecular weight which may include one or more functional groups. (
  • Therefore, a process for preparing polymers of low molecular weight which are particularly functionalized It would be desirable. (
  • Unstained markers provide more precise determination of molecular weight. (
  • Explore markers and ladders for molecular biology applications like PCR. (
  • mPAGE™ Unstained Protein Standard is suitable for molecular weight determination after SDS-PAGE or Western blotting and serves as a standard to calibrate the mobility of prestained markers. (
  • High Molecular Weight DNA Markers are suitable for sizing linear double-stranded DNA from 9 to 48 kb on low-percentage agarose gels. (
  • Although the concept of molecular-weight markers has been retained, techniques of development have varied throughout the years. (
  • New inventions of molecular-weight markers are distributed in kits specific to the marker's type. (
  • More recently, another method for constructing DNA molecular-weight size markers is being employed by laboratories. (
  • Molecular Weight protein markers are used as standards in gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine the molecular size of analysed protein samples. (
  • The report also includes a segmentation of the molecular weight markers on the basis of staining type. (
  • Molecular weight markers are widely used in life science research. (
  • DNA molecular weight markers by size consist of 5 segments: below 50 base pair (bp), 50 bp to 100 bp, 100 bp to 1 kilo base pair (kb), 1 kb to 5 kb and above 5 kb. (
  • Bioline offers a wide range of molecular weight markers with loading buffer in a single tube, enabling accurate DNA sizing and mass determination of DNA. (
  • Dr. Boonyanath Nathwong, BIOTEC researcher, revealed the launch of locally made 100 basepair and 1 kilobase standard DNA molecular weight markers. (
  • The idea to produce the 2 ranges of standard DNA molecular weight markers was actually originated from a research project related to rice tungro bacilliform virus - Chainat isolate (RTBVCN). (
  • In the following year, a system for commercial scale production of the standard DNA molecular weight markers from the prototype clones was another success. (
  • And in late 2005, BIOTEC agreed to transfer the technology for production of the two ranges standard DNA molecular weight markers to private sector, BioExcellence Co. Ltd. (
  • Today, BioExcellence has marketed the local made standard DNA molecular weight markers for 6 months with good response from various users. (
  • molecular weight, weight of a molecule of a substance expressed in atomic mass units (amu). (
  • it is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms making up the molecule. (
  • For example, water has the molecular formula H 2 O, indicating that there are two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen in a molecule of water. (
  • Peptide molecular weight is a number without units that is derived from the ratio of an average mass of a peptide molecule divided by one-twelfth the mass of a atom of carbon 12. (
  • They range from a residue molecular weight, which is the actual weight minus water, of 57.05 for the smallest molecule, glycine, up to 156.19 for the largest molecule, arginine. (
  • The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule. (
  • The sum of the atomic weights of the atoms contained in a molecule. (
  • The molecular weight of a molecule is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the molecule. (
  • To find its molecular weight, add the molecular weight of one molecule of hydro. (
  • Why would a larger or smaller molecule of identical, monotonous molecular structure have different effects? (
  • The molecular mass, or weight, of a given molecule is the mass of one molecule of a given substance relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (a number that is 1/12th the mass of one isotope of carbon-12). (
  • For most amounts of substance, using the molar mass will result in less errors, but the entire system becomes very error prone when substituting molar mass for the molecular mass of a single molecule and doing calculations at that level. (
  • The molecular mass of a molecule is computed by taking the sum of the molecular masses of all of the isotopes that compose it. (
  • The molecular mass of a molecule can also be measured with mass spectrometry. (
  • Because mass spectrometry uses this method, the resulting weight is reported as the monoisotopic mass of the molecule. (
  • This means we are assuming that the molecular mass in question is one in which the molecule contains only the most common isotopes and doing so by measuring the sum of the masses of their atoms. (
  • The molecular machine in question is a switchable rotaxane, a ring-shaped molecule held on a short chain by two blocking groups, making it resemble a dumbbell with a collar around the handle. (
  • The number of repeating units determines the properties of the molecule such as molecular weight. (
  • The molecular weight (or molar mass) of a substance is the mass of one mole of the substance, and can be calculated by summarizing the molar masses of all the atoms in the molecule. (
  • Molecular weight cut-off refers to the lowest molecular weight solute in which 90% of the solute is retained by the membrane, or the molecular weight of the molecule that is 90% retained by the membrane. (
  • also i know that an increase in molecular weight is related to an increase in the size of the molecule and the larger the molecule the less permeable the membrane is to that molecule, so does that mean that as the molecular weight increases, the less permeable the membrane becomes and therefore it takes more time for hemolysis? (
  • A proprietary plasmid is digested to completion with appropriate restriction enzymes to yield 11 bands suitable for use as molecular weight standards for both agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • Some substances, especially ionic compounds such as common salt, are not made up of molecules and thus have neither a molecular formula nor a molecular weight. (
  • thus a comparison of the weights of equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure is equivalent to a direct comparison of the weights of molecules of the gases. (
  • However, if the substance ionizes or does not completely separate into molecules, the molecular weight so determined will be erroneous. (
  • The methods may give different results, since usually the molecules of a substance such as a polymer do not all have exactly the same molecular weight. (
  • These methods determine an average molecular weight for the molecules in the sample. (
  • The number-average molecular weight determined by the ultracentrifuge method gives a value that is equal to the weight of the sample divided by the number of molecules in the sample. (
  • Although this may be the same value as the number-average molecular weight if all the molecules have nearly the same weight, it will be higher if some of the molecules are heavier than others. (
  • For instance, if one component had a molecular weight of 50 and another had a molecular weight of 100, then the molecules in the second compound would weigh twice as much as those in the first compound. (
  • If they were both combined in equal grams, the lower weight compound would have twice as many molecules present in the mixture, since they only weighed half as much, and, instead of a 50/50 concentration, there would be a concentration of approximately 66/33. (
  • Avogadro's number , which represents how many molecules exist in a mole, must also be used when determining a peptide's volume from the peptide molecular weight. (
  • Hyaluronan signaling properties are unique among other biologically active molecules, that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. (
  • Different papers use interchangeably terms such as "short-fragment HA," "low molecular weight HA," and "HA oligosaccharides" to describe HA molecules from a few disaccharides up to over 700 kDa. (
  • Einstein's equation E = mc 2 equates a change in energy to a change in mass, but when this number is very small (on the scale of 10-9), we suffer no large error from adding the molecular masses of isotopes together to get the molecular mass of the molecules they make when combined through these weak electrical forces. (
  • When using mass spectrometry on larger molecules, chemists will use the average molecular mass of its isotopes because the likelihood that one is dealing with many different kinds of isotopic mixes is higher. (
  • The ultimate aim of creating such molecular-scale devices is to use them as switching units or logic gates in a future computer based on molecules instead of silicon chips. (
  • The team has succeeded in applying a layer just a few molecules thick of a particular molecular machine to a glass surface. (
  • Since more than 98% of the 14C-labelled amino acids were incorporated into low molecular weight molecules, these probably form the bulk of newly synthesized organic matrix components. (
  • In addition, low molecular weight heparins can also be chemoenzymatically synthesized from simple disaccharides. (
  • BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation by the use of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) has been shown to lead to a survival advantage in cancer patients. (
  • It is an amino acid with a molecular formula of C2H5NO2. (
  • The Molecular Weight (also referred to as the Formula Weight) of a chemical compound is calculated by adding the atomic weights of the atoms (elements) that constitute the compound. (
  • What is the molecular weight of each chemical compound whose formula is given below? (
  • To calculate the molecular mass of Glucose we need to know the molecular formula for Glucose. (
  • You should be able to calculate any molecular mass from a molecular formula: you can use my periodic table to lookup atomic masses. (
  • The Molecular Weight Calculator was initially written to allow chemists to find the molecular weights of a given formula. (
  • endstream endobj startxref 2136 0 obj stream Also below is the molecular weight and c hemical formula for each of the component esters. (
  • Molecular Formula: Formula Weight: 0. (
  • Molecular formula: C18.7H34.6O2 Molecular weight, g/mol: 286.6-292.4 Relative density @ 25 ºC, g/cm³: 0.880 Purity, wt. (
  • Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE , UHMW ) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene . (
  • Ultra- high-molecular -weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene .Also known as high-modulus polyethylene , (HMPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 3.5 and 7.5 million amu. (
  • Ultra - high - molecular - weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is synthesized from its monomer ethylene, which is bonded together to form the base polyethylene product. (
  • Ultra- high-molecular -weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene .Also known as high-modulus polyethylene , (HMPE), or high-performance polyethylene (HPPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 2 and 6 million amu. (
  • Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a unique thermoplastic polymer with excellent performances. (
  • It has ultra-high molecular weight and extreme rheological behaviour, which make it a worldwide challenge to process UHMWPE continuously with little or without processing aids. (
  • Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a unique thermoplastic polymer possessing outstanding physical and mechanical performances such as good wear and corrosion resistance, low coefficient of friction, high impact strength at cryogenic temperatures, good environmental stress-cracking resistance, non-toxic and acceptable biocompatibility [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • UHMWPE has extremely high molecular weight of up to several millions g/mol, which is several times larger than HDPE with a molecular weight of 200,000 g/mol. (
  • Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market (UHMWPE) worth 2.16 Billion USD by 2021 - The Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) market is projected to reach USD 2.16 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 9.9% from 2016 to 2021. (
  • Therefore water that contains only atoms of deuterium, called heavy water, has a higher molecular weight than ordinary water. (
  • Disclosed is a catalytic process for the production of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons from lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. (
  • b) withdrawing from said reaction zone a higher molecular weight hydrocarbon-containing stream. (
  • 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said temperature is in the range of 1100 to 1200 C., said space velocity is in the range of 6,000 to 36,000 hr -1 and at least 20 mole percent of said lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. (
  • 6. The process of claim 5 wherein 40 or more mole percent of said methane containing hydrocarbon gas is converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. (
  • 7. The process of claim 6 wherein said higher molecular weight hydrocarbon stream is rich in ethylene or aromatics or both. (
  • b) withdrawing from said reaction zone a higher molecular weight hydrocarbon-containing stream, wherein the carbon-containing reaction products in said stream comprises greater than 90 mole percent higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. (
  • 9. The process of claim 8 wherein at least 20 mole percent of said lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. (
  • DSC heating curves for virgin PTFE with low molecular weight below 3 × 10 5 have a single peak, whereas curves for higher molecular weight samples have double peaks. (
  • A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 10 % was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight. (
  • The use of LMWH needs to be monitored closely in patients at extremes of weight or in-patients with renal dysfunction. (
  • see table 1) Table 1 Molecular weight (MW) data and anticoagulant activities of currently available LMWH products. (
  • There are several PVA grades, with different molecular weights and chain sizes, due to their large field of application, so it is important to study how these characteristics affect the properties of the films. (
  • In this study, we synthesize various 13 C labeled PLLA samples with different molecular weights. (
  • Lung clearance of soluble radioaerosols of different molecular weights in systemic sclerosis. (
  • Also known as high-modulus polyethylene , ( HMPE ), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 3.5 and 7.5 million amu . (
  • Each chain is bonded to the others with so many van der Waals bonds that the whole of the inter-molecular strength is high. (
  • High molecular weight tropomyosins regulate osteoclast cytoskeletal morphology. (
  • Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. (
  • Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. (
  • These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments. (
  • Although the estimated elimination half-life is long (about 11 days with a range of 6-24 days), the high molecular weight (about 154,000) should limit fetal exposure, at least in the first half of pregnancy The drug should be avoided in pregnancy, however, based on the animal data, the mechanism of action, and its combination with doxorubicin. (
  • wikipedia .org/wiki/Ultra-high-molecular. (
  • Ultra-high-molecular-weight . (
  • wikipedia .org/wiki/IPX_Ultra-high-molecular. (
  • IPX 2000 Ultra- high-molecular -weight polyethylene (IPX 2000, IPX UHMW, IPX UHMW-PE, IPX-UHMW-PE) is an engineered polyethylene compound developed to maintain many traits of UHMW, while increasing abrasion resistance, UV stability and decreasing friction and thermal expansion. (
  • Ultra-high-molecular-weight . (
  • Ultra - high - molecular . (
  • Also known as high-modulus polyethylene , (HMPE), or high-performance polyethylene (HPPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 2 and 6 million u. (
  • While everyone seems to agree on designating HA over 1 million Da "high molecular weight," the nomenclature of smaller-size HA is nebulous. (
  • SOSA is a summary parameter comprising all high-molecular-weight superoxide scavengers in a biological sample. (
  • High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. (
  • New Protocols for Isolating High- Molecular-Weight Genomic DNA ( Rapidly reco. (
  • Stratagene now offers updated protocols to isolate and purify high-molecular-weight genomic DNA using the RecoverEase DNA isolation kit. (
  • Fully hydrated high-molecular-weight DNA is ready to use in molecular biological applications in less than 24 hours. (
  • The RecoverEase DNA isolation kit is designed to isolate very high-molecular-weight genomic DNA by reducing the shearing forces that take place in traditional methods using phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. (
  • These benefits, along w ith higher packaging efficiencies, make the RecoverEase DNA isolation kit the recommended method for purifying high-molecular-weight genomic DNA from blood, bone marrow, and cultured cells. (
  • ,4 Because the shuttle vector is nearly 50-kb long and is present in multiple copies within the genome of the animal, efficient packaging is contingent on genomic DNA preparations of very high-molecular weight. (
  • The latter technique was taken from Stratagenes Big Blue DNA isolation kit, whic h uses a modified phenol-chloroform extraction and an ethanol precipitation protocol optimized for isolating high-molecular-weight genomic DNA from transgenic animals containing lambda shuttle vectors. (
  • It is helpful for us to understand the processing characteristics and methods for such thermoplastic polymer with ultra-high molecular weight. (
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (CAS No. For the production of densified PTFE powder, there is known a process comprising pyrolysing high molecular weight PTFE to decrease a molecular weight (cf. (
  • UHMW (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) and PTFE Sheet (PolyTetraFlouroEthylene) are very similar materials, and yet very different at the same time. (
  • Style TF1500 PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) is a high molecular weight polymer and one of the most versatile plastics known to man. (
  • High-molecular weight PTFE resins have high crystallinity and therefore very high melting points, typically as high as 320-342°C (608-648°F). Polytetrafluoroethylene has the lowest coefficient of friction of any known substance. (
  • It has a high-molecular-weight, and consists only of carbon and fluorine. (
  • The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). (
  • It was not possible to state a conclusive relationship between PVA molecular weight and the materials properties, but in general, PVA with medium molecular weight and high extrusion temperature profile promote an increase of mechanical properties of the sheets. (
  • For the isolation of high molecular weight genomic DNA from a variety of samples, including animal tissues, cultured cells, whole blood, bacterial and yeast. (
  • The main characteristics of the AA6518 are: Very high Molecular weight more than 16 million, very high viscosity at 5 g/l: >1500 cps. (
  • High Molecular Weight Poly(I:C) comprises long strands of inosine poly(I) homopolymer annealed to strands of cytidine poly(C) homopolymer. (
  • T161 High Molecular Weight Polyisobutylene Succinimide T161 is a high molecular weight ashless dispersant prepared from highly reactive isobutylene(Mn=2300) by thermal adduction process. (
  • Global Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) Market Insights, Forecast to 2026 - Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) market is segmented by region (country), players, by Type, and by Application. (
  • Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) market is segmented by region (country), players, by Type, and by Application. (
  • Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) Market Research Report 2020 - Download free PDF Sample: #UltraHighMolecularWeightPolyethylene #MarketAnalysis The global Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW PE) market is valued at US$ xx million in 2020 is expected to reach US$ xx million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2021-2026. (
  • Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 - Download free PDF Sample: #UltraHighMolecularWeightPolyethylene #MarketAnalysis Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is a simple linear background polyethylene possessing unique properties such as noise resistance, low coefficient of friction, excellent chemical resistance, self-lubrication, bio-compatible, wear resistance, and electric insulation resistance. (
  • Download free PDF Sample: #UltraHighMolecularWeightPolyethylene #MarketAnalysis Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is a simple linear background polyethylene possessing unique properties such as noise resistance, low coefficient of friction, excellent chemical resistance, self-lubrication, bio-compatible, wear resistance, and electric insulation resistance. (
  • Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market trends research and projections for 2019 - 2025 - The Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Market trends are analysis from recent past with an eye on coming years in this report that also offers projections for Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Industry targeted at helping in business decisions. (
  • Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene Rope Market Insights and Forecast to 2026 - Download free PDF Sample: #UltraHighMolecularPolyethyleneRope #MarketAnalysis Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene Rope market is segmented by Type, and by Application. (
  • Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, (2nd ed. 10.51-10.67. (
  • Not only are there a variety of chemical element molecular weights to account for in amino acid sequences that make up peptides, but there are also other factors to consider. (
  • Evidence shows, for example, that low molecular weight peptides are important regulators in biology . (
  • Our results suggest that these low molecular weight components may be peptides, which can be involved in the regulation of coral skeleton mineralization. (
  • What is ultra molecular polyethylene? (
  • In this lab activity, students prepare solutions of polyethylene glycol of known molecular weight at different concentrations. (
  • Viscometry data is then measured for several solutions of polyethylene glycol of unknown molecular weight. (
  • At the EMI Twente we therefore do not use single solutes but a mixture of dextranes or polyethylene glycols (PEG) covering a broad molecular weight range around the expected MWCO. (
  • We recommend loading 0.5 µg of the Low Molecular Weight DNA Ladder diluted in sample buffer. (
  • As a result, a DNA "ladder" composed of DNA pieces of known molecular mass is created on the gel. (
  • A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. (
  • years, We are able to produce and supply the low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate and our low molecular weight . (
  • The low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate has a molecular weight of about 1000-3000 dalton.It could be used either. (
  • These molecular weights may be determined by measurement of sedimentation rate in an ultracentrifuge, by light-scattering photometry, or by other methods. (
  • This number-average molecular weight can also be determined by other methods based on measurement of colligative properties. (
  • The manufacturers of plastics raw materials pay close attention to the molecular weight of the products they produce, and they capture this with a measurement of properties such as melt flow rate and intrinsic viscosity. (
  • Malvern's OMNISEC is a Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) / Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) system for the measurement of absolute molecular weight, molecular size, intrinsic viscosity, branching and other parameters. (
  • All sodium edta molecular weight wholesalers & sodium edta molecular weight manufacturers come from members. (
  • Identification and characterization of neuroendocrine pathways involved in the regulation of seasonal body weight cycles von: Khorooshi, Mohammad H. (
  • The number average, weight average, z-average and viscosity average. (
  • Presumably HA receptors need a minimal molecular size to engage the ligand, but further size increase should have no effect on receptor recognition. (
  • Exclusions may include, but are not limited to, shipping options, products of certain size, weight, manufacturer price restrictions or products with savings/discounts already applied. (
  • BSA, Molecular Biology Grade ( NEB# B9000 ) run on SDS PAGE will give a major band at this size. (
  • The molecular weight of a polymer can be determined using several methods such as size exclusion chromatography and dilute solution viscometry. (
  • Triple detection delivers the ultimate in polymer analysis - absolute molecular weights are determined by light scattering detection and molecular size and solution behavior comes from the light scattering and viscometry detectors. (
  • Additionally, the crystallite size along the side-chain (100) direction decreases, whereas the conjugation length increases with increasing molecular weight. (
  • What Is Peptide Molecular Weight? (
  • The peptide molecular weight can also be described as one mole of the peptide in grams, as a mole is a quantity of the peptide that is equal to its molecular weight. (
  • It is important to know peptide molecular weight numbers in processes such as peptide synthesis, as the weight can be used to determine the concentration of molecular components. (
  • Molecular weight analyzer software is often used to calculate peptide molecular weight numbers, as the calculations can be complicated otherwise. (
  • When two or more amino acids are combined, a peptide molecular weight calculator is often used to determine the new molecular weight. (
  • Determining an accurate peptide molecular weight has important applications in a variety of research. (
  • 1. A drug delivery composition which is suitable for transmucosal delivery and which comprises a plurality of microspheres adapted to gel in contact with the mucosal surface and active drug associated with each microsphere, the composition being substantially free of an enhancer, characterised in that the drug is for systemic delivery and is a peptide having a maximum molecular weight of 6000, and the microspheres comprise starch, gelatin, collagen or dextran. (
  • 9. A drug delivery composition according to claim 1 wherein the peptide has a molecular weight of at least 1000. (
  • Cuál es la información más importante que debo saber sobre dextran de alto peso molecular? (
  • Qué es dextran de alto peso molecular? (
  • Dextran de alto peso molecular es un expansor de volumen plasmático hecho de fuentes naturales de azúcar (glucosa). (
  • Dextran se usa para tratar la hipovolemia (disminución del volumen de plasma sanguíneo en circulación), que puede resultar de una cirugía, trauma o lesión, quemaduras graves u otras causas de sangrado. (
  • Dextran puede también usarse para fines no mencionados en esta guía del medicamento. (
  • Qué debería discutir con el profesional del cuidado de la salud antes de recibir dextran de alto peso molecular? (
  • No se conoce si dextran de alto peso molecular causará daño al bebé nonato. (
  • Highly accurate molecular weights are sometimes determined by using the mass spectrograph . (
  • Also called relative molecular mass . (
  • The molecular mass is estimated using the weights of all of the elements contained in air. (
  • Note that the Atomic Weight (also referred to as the Relative Atomic Mass) of an element is the number of times an atom of an element is heavier than an atom of hydrogen. (
  • In more modern contexts, molecular mass is used instead of the more antiquated term molecular weight. (
  • Now we add these three numbers together to get the molecular mass of Glucose. (
  • Now you could try calculating the molecular mass of an inorganic substance. (
  • Relative molecular mass (Mr) is the mass relative to the dalton and has no units . (
  • Starting at the molecular level, water has a molecular mass of 18.015 g/mol. (
  • Is there any free public software that will calculate molecular weights from captured DNA agarose gel images (TIF files etc)? (
  • Rounded to three decimal places, the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.008 amu and that of oxygen is 15.999 amu. (
  • Since atomic weights are average values, molecular weights are also average values. (
  • For example, since the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16, the molecular weight of water (H 2 O) is 1 + 1 + 16, or 18. (
  • Thus, hydrogen is treated as the reference, whose atomic weight is taken as 1. (
  • 8. The process of claim 7 wherein the reaction solvent comprises 100 percent, by weight, benzyl alcohol. (
  • What is the molecular weight of glycine? (
  • Glycine has a molecular weight of slightly over 75 grams/mole. (
  • Teflon 6, a lower molecular weight polymer than Teflon 1, produced more toxic pyrolysis products. (
  • We doesn't provide chloride molecular weight products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (
  • Based on the molecular weights of each of these components and their respective ratios in air, adding them together will estimate the molecular weight of air. (
  • Identification and determination of molecular weight of allergenic bands by comparison with Allergen database: An allergen database ( contains approved and officially recognized allergens. (
  • Analytic techniques for the determination of molecular weight can be broken down into primary and secondary techniques based on whether or not standards are needed to calibrate the analytic instrument. (
  • An absolute determination of molecular weight for a single sample using light scattering, for example, might take the better part of a week including sample preparation, filtration, running the experiment and preparation of Zimm plots. (
  • Zinc sulphate monohydrate Molecular formulation:ZnSO4H2O Specifications: Item Index ZnSO4H2O 94.7 % min Zn 34.5 %min As 5 ppm max Pb 20ppm max Cd 30ppm max Fineness passed 250 mesh sieve 95.0 %max Applicatio. (
  • 4. The process of claim 3 wherein said lower molecular weight hydrocarbon is methane. (
  • The molecular weight of copper is 63.546 multiplied by the number of atoms present in the sample. (