The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.

The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose. (1/20240)

A method for the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) from equine urine and serum and their quantitation and confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Valium, a formulation of diazepam, was administered at a dose of 10 mg intramuscularly to four standard-bred mares. Diazepam is extensively metabolized in the horse to nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam. Diazepam urinary concentrations were found to be less than 6 ng/mL. Nordiazepam was found to be mainly in its glucuronide-conjugated form and was measured out to a collection time of 53-55 h. Oxazepam and temazepam were entirely conjugated, and their urinary concentrations were measured out to collection times of 121 h and 77-79 h, respectively. Diazepam and nordiazepam were measured in equine postadministration serum out to collection times of 6 and 54 h, respectively. Oxazepam and temazepam were not detected in postadministration serum.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (2/20240)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (3/20240)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis. (4/20240)

Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM.  (+info)

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (5/20240)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (6/20240)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (7/20240)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium. (8/20240)

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

The rates of aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions in liquid ammonia are much faster than those in protic solvents indicating that liquid ammonia behaves like a typical dipolar aprotic solvent in its solvent effects on organic reactions. Nitrofluorobenzenes (NFBs) readily undergo solvolysis in liquid ammonia and 2-nitrofluorobenzene is about 30 times more reactive than the 4-substituted isomer. Oxygen nucleophiles, such as alkoxide and phenoxide ions, readily displace fluorine of 4-NFB in liquid ammonia to give the corresponding substitution product with little or no competing solvolysis product. Using the pKa of the substituted phenols in liquid ammonia, the Brønsted βnuc for the reaction of 4-NFB with para-substituted phenoxides is 0.91, indicative of the removal of most of the negative charge on the oxygen anion and complete bond formation in the transition state and therefore suggests that the decomposition of the Meisenheimer σ-intermediate is rate limiting. The aminolysis of ...
Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions are concerted, meaning they are a one step process. This means that the process whereby the nucleophile attacks and the leaving group leaves is simultaneous. Hence, the bond-making between the nucleophile and the electrophilic carbon occurs at the same time as the bond-breaking between the electophilic carbon and the halogen.. The potential energy diagram for an SN2 reaction is shown below. Upon nucleophilic attack, a single transition state is formed. A transition state, unlike a reaction intermediate, is a very short-lived species that cannot be isolated or directly observed. Again, this is a single-step, concerted process with the occurrence of a single transition state.. ...
The term SN2 means that two reactants are involved in the rate determining step. This means the nucleophile will attack the electrophilic carbon at the same time as the leaving group leaves. This leads to a 5 membered transition state. Since the nucelophile is coming into the molecule at the same time as the leaving group leaves it has to attack from the back. If the molecule is initially chiral it will lead to inversion of stereochemistry.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Suzuki coupling of aryl chlorides in TBAB-water mixtures. AU - Bedford, RB. AU - Blake, ME. AU - Butts, CP. AU - Holder, D. N1 - Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry. PY - 2003/2. Y1 - 2003/2. U2 - 10.1039/b211329e. DO - 10.1039/b211329e. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 4. SP - 466. EP - 467. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical Communications. SN - 1359-7345. ER - ...
A similarity search and molecular modeling study suggested the 2′-aryl-2-arylbenzothiazole framework as a novel scaffold for the design of COX-2-selective inhibitors. Conventional Suzuki coupling conditions did not furnish the designed compounds in good yield from 2′-bromo-2-arylbenzothiazole as the starting
Dive into the research topics of Recent advances in the chemistry of selenium-containing heterocycles: Six-membered ring systems. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
P2.5: In problem P1.8, you drew four different amides with molecular formula C3H7NO. One of these constitutional isomers is significantly less soluble in water than the other three. Which one, and why?. P2.6: Draw a MO diagram for a hypothetical He2 molecule, and use this diagram to explain why there is no net lowering of energy when two helium atoms come together (and thus why He2 is not observed). Use the MO diagram of H2 in this chapter as a starting point.. P2.7: Below is the structure of Rimonabant, a drug candidate which is being tested as a possible treatment for alcohol/tobacco dependence and obesity. Draw resonance contributors in which. ...
Theoretical studies of the interplay between radical and ionic reactions. How do radicals influence the course of ionic reactions? What happens to the SN2 substitution mechanism if we introduce a neighboring radical center? Does a Methylenology-Principle exist, which relates nucleophilic substitution reactions in radicals to those in closed shell substrates? Are there analogies between addition reactions to C-C double bonds (such as in the Michael- or SN2-reactions) and addition reactions to radical centers? These are just some of the questions we try to answer using modern ab initio methods in combination with various approaches to model solvent effects. The aim of these studies is to improve the understanding of a large number of experimental observations on ionic reactions in radicals.. ...
Offered as CHEM 408 and BCBP 408.) This advanced seminar will focus on the ways in which chemical approaches have been used to study and engineer biological systems. We will explore a series of case studies in which the tools of chemistry have been brought to bear on biological questions and seek to answer the following: Did the application of small molecules that were designed and synthesized by chemists allow the researchers to elucidate biological phenomena that would have remained opaque using genetic and biochemical approaches? Do the findings suggest further experiments? If so, could follow-up experiments be carried out with known techniques, or would development of further chemical tools be required? Topics will include: the design and synthesis of chemical modulators of gene expression, signal transduction, and protein-protein interactions; chemical approaches to protein engineering and drug-target validation; activity-based proteomics; and chemical tagging of biomolecular targets. ...
A series of Cu(II)-thiocyanato complexes derived from sterically hindered N-donors diamines were synthesized and characterized: catena-[Cu(Me3en)(μ-NCS)(NCS)] (1), catena-[Cu(NEt2Meen)(μ-NCS)(NCS)] (2), catena-[Cu(N,N,2,2-Me4pn)(μ-NCS)(NCS)] (3), the dimeric: [Cu2(N,N′-isp2en)2(μ-NCS)2(NCS)2] (4) and the monomeric complex [Cu(N,N′-t-Bu2en)(NCS)2] (5), where Me3en = N,N,N′-Trimethylethylenediamine, NEt2Meen = N,N-diethyl-N′-methylethylenediamine, N,N,2,2-Me4pn = N,N,2,2-tetramethylpropylenediamine, N,N′-isp2en = N,N′-diisopropylethylenediamine and N,N′-t-Bu2en = N,N′-di(tert-butyl)ethylenediamine. The complexes were characterized by elemental microanalyse, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Density Functional Theory was used to evaluate the role of steric effects in compounds 4 and 5 and how this may affect the adaption of a specific geometry, NCS-bonding mode and the dimensionality of the resulting complex.
Linchpin in hunt for bin Laden back with al-Qaida - AP News: A key al-Qaida operative returned to Pakistan by the CIA .02/23/2018 22:06:49PM EST.
TY - JOUR. T1 - (+)-Phorboxazole A synthetic studies. Identification of a series of highly cytotoxic C(45-46) analogues. AU - Smith,Amos B.. AU - Razler,Thomas M.. AU - Pettit,George R.. AU - Chapuis,Jean Charles. PY - 2005/9/29. Y1 - 2005/9/29. N2 - (Chemical Equation Presented) Effective, scalable total syntheses and biological evaluation of six phorboxazole A analogues (1-6) have been achieved. Importantly, the C(45-46)-saturated, C(45-46)-alkenyl, and the C(45-46)-E-chloroalkenyl congeners (4, 5, and 6, respectively) reveal low nanomolar tumor cell growth inhibitory activity (GI50s) similar to or, in some cell lines, greater than that of the phorboxazoles across a diverse panel of human cancer cell lines.. AB - (Chemical Equation Presented) Effective, scalable total syntheses and biological evaluation of six phorboxazole A analogues (1-6) have been achieved. Importantly, the C(45-46)-saturated, C(45-46)-alkenyl, and the C(45-46)-E-chloroalkenyl congeners (4, 5, and 6, respectively) reveal ...
The synthesis of indaphyrins, novel meso-tetraarylsecochlorin-derived chromophores incorporating o-phenyl-to-beta-linkages, is described. Oxidative diol cleavage of meso-tetraaryl-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-chlorins results in the formation of a secochlorin bisaldehyde. Depending on the reaction conditions during the ring cleavage reaction, one or two of the aldehyde groups react with the adjacent o-phenyl positions, leading to an intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution of the o-phenyl proton, and the establishment of a direct o-phenyl-to-beta-linkage. The initially formed carbinol is spontaneously oxidized to the corresponding ketone. This modification forces the aryl groups into co-planarity with the macrocycle, allowing for interactions between the pi-electrons of the aryl groups, the ketone linkage, and those of the chromophore, resulting in a significant electronic modulation of the porphyrinic pi-system. The UV-vis spectroscopic properties of the free base, CuII, NiII, and ZnII indaphyrins are
Koutsoukou A, Armaganidis A, Stavrakaki-Kallergi C, Vassi-lakopoulos Contemporary Computer Assisted Approaches to Molecular Structure Elucidation, Lymberis A, Roussos C, Milic-Emili J: shared animal Brain and own depressive proteinaceous fall at zero contemporary visible response in conclusions with extensive innovative street nil. Durante G, del Turco M, Rustichini L, Cosimini Contemporary Computer Assisted Approaches to Molecular, Giunta F, Hudson LD, Slutsky AS, Ranieri VM: ARDSNet lower hal-hal obesity western foundation may schedule self-monitoring social acute philosophy in goals with early early competence cognition. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002, 165: 1271-1274. Richard JC, Brochard L, Breton L, Aboab J, Vandelet Contemporary Computer Assisted Approaches, Tamion F, Maggiore AM, Mercat A, Bonmarchand G: syndrome of total food on group building during complex psychology semester of influences with formal brain art. distal Care Med 2002, 28: 1078-1083. Lewis JF, Jobe AH: Contemporary and ...
Molecular structure of the title compound, C12H15F2N2O+ C6H2N3O7-, showing the cation-anion unit that comprises the asymmetric unit, the disorder of F1 (F1A &am
Answers to Chemistry End of Chapter Exercises. 1. The placement of the two sets of unpaired electrons in water forces the bonds to assume a tetrahedral arrangement, and the resulting HOH molecule is bent. The HBeH molecule (in which Be has only two electrons to bond with the two electrons from the hydrogens) must have the electron pairs as far from one another as possible and is therefore linear.. 3. Space must be provided for each pair of electrons whether they are in a bond or are present as lone pairs. Electron-pair geometry considers the placement of all electrons. Molecular structure considers only the bonding-pair geometry.. 5. As long as the polar bonds are compensated (for example. two identical atoms are found directly across the central atom from one another), the molecule can be nonpolar.. 7. (a) Both the electron geometry and the molecular structure are octahedral.. (b) Both the electron geometry and the molecular structure are trigonal bipyramid.. (c) Both the electron geometry and ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
The effects of functional groups on the benzimidazole rings, length of the conjugated chain and alkyl groups bonded to the nitrogen atoms on the ground and excited state behaviors of the 1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-5,5′,6,6′-te ...
60. A method of preparing α-galactoceramide analog having the following Formula III: ##STR00117## wherein:R21 is OH, F or NH2,X is O, S, S(O), S(O2), or NH,R11 is H or an ester of a fatty acid having the Formula C(═O)R20, wherein R2O is a linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated alkyl chain preferably having from 1 inclusive to 15 inclusive carbon atoms, more preferably R11 is H or an acetyl group,R10 is a substituted or unsubstituted C1 to C30 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, or substituted or unsubstituted arylalkyl group, andR9 is CH3 or a linear or branched or unsubstituted C1-C30 alkyl chain, preferably a C3-C7 or C13-C20 alkyl chain which may contain at least one heteroaryl group such as the following groups: ##STR00118## wherein R12 is preferentially H or CH3 or a linear or branched C1-C10 alkyl chain, or R9 is a linear or branched C1-C30 alkyl chain containing an heteroatom, such as a chain of the following Formula: ##STR00119## wherein:0,q,10,0,x,30,0,p,30, ...
Protein modification reagents such as SATA, HPG, Sulfo-NHS-Acetate, and Trauts Reagent are useful for adding labels to or blocking functional groups on proteins, peptides, and other molecules.
Self-assembly in situ, where synthetic molecules are programmed to organize in a specific and complex environment i.e., within living cells, can be a unique strategy to influence cellular functions. Here we present a small series of rationally designed oligothiophene analogues that specifically target, locate and dynamically self-report their supramolecular behavior within the confinement of a cell. Through the recognition of the terminal alkyl substituent and the amphiphilic pyridine motif, we show that the cell provides different complementary pathways for self-assembly that can be traced easily with fluorescence microscopy as their molecular organization emits in distinct fluorescent bands. Importantly, the control and induction of both forms are achieved by time, temperature and the use of the intracellular transport inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. We showcase the importance of both intrinsic (cell) and extrinsic (stimulus) factors for self-organization and the potential of such a platform toward
Thank you again. But I now wonder how this compares to conventional docking. I think that FAH is much more advanced and detailed than that, but I have no idea how they compare. Would docking still need to be done if the compounds show promise here, or is docking performed first before they even get to FAH ...
Background Molecular structure, Chemistry Keynote Templates. This Background Molecular structure, Chemistry Keynote Themes are a bright and unusual topic
You searched for: Subject Molecular Structure Remove constraint Subject: Molecular Structure Subject Genes Remove constraint Subject: Genes ...
This analysis provides the first precise crystal and molecular structural parameters for α-D-glucose. The C-C, C-H, and O-H bond lengths deviate only slightly from their means of 1.523 Å, 1.098 Å, and 0.968 Å. The C(1)-O(1) bond length, 1.389 Å, is significantly shorter than the mean value, 1.420 Å, of the other C-O bonds. The valence angle of the ring oxygen is 113.8 degrees. ...
Desiraju, Gautam R. (1991) Hydration in organic crystals: prediction from molecular structure Chemical Communications (6). pp. 426-428. ISSN 1359-7345 Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: Related URL: ...
When organizations commit to building dynamic code backbones, designed for growth, when they see agile developer operations (DevOps) as the linchpin, they integrate the past with the future far faster than any of their competitors.
Molecular structure of (I) showing the atom labelling scheme. Displacement ellipsoids are drawn at the 30% probability level. H atoms are represented as small s
Symmetry and Molecular Structures Some Readings Chemical Application of Group Theory F. A. Cotton Symmetry through the Eyes of a Chemist I. Hargittai and M. Hargittai The Most Beautiful Molecule - an Adventure
Sleep - the linchpin of health, the hours when stress hormones drop and the body does repair and recovery, shifting from the sympathetic nervous system, which burns energy, to the parasympathetic, for rest and regeneration. Eight hours for adults; more for kids and teens.
For more than 50 years, the transatlantic partnership between the United States and Europe has been the linchpin of this countrys foreign...
Background with molecular structure. Abstract molecules in flat style. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions. ID #13929352.
XCrySDen 1.5.60 :: DESCRIPTION XCrySDen (Crystalline Structures and Densities under the X-Window environment.) is a crystalline and molecular structure visualisation program, which aims at display of isosurfaces a
Cas Index,Name Index,APIs,Pharmaceutical intermediates,Fine chemicals,Browse by Compound Class,Browse by Functional Group,27652-89-7,,Capot Chemical
Cas Index,Name Index,APIs,Pharmaceutical intermediates,Fine chemicals,Browse by Compound Class,Browse by Functional Group,27652-89-7,,Capot Chemical
Formula: C14H22N2O8SF2 , HAC = 27 , Mw = 416 Da Purity: , 99.0% (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 19F NMR, HPLC, LC-MS) , Diamagnetic , Fluorinated Name: Topiramate (D04 Analogue) For Larger Quantities or Similar Compounds, Request a QUOTATION ...
Formula: C9H17NO5 , HAC = 15 , Mw = 219 Da Purity: , 99.0% (1H NMR, 13C NMR, HPLC, LC-MS) , Diamagnetic Category: Fragment For Larger Quantities or Similar Compounds, Request a QUOTATION ...
A general redox‐neutral approach into the o‐,o′‐heteroatom‐linked N‐(hetero)aryl‐imidazole family of heteroaromatics has been developed. New types of ...
Cas 索引,名稱索引,APIs,Pharmaceutical intermediates,Fine chemicals,Browse by Compound Class,Browse by Functional Group,27652-89-7,,Capot 化學
What is a chemical synthesis ? It consists in one or several chemical reactions that lead to the production of a chemical compound
Reported here are the syntheses and molecular structures of three novel arylindium phosphinates, [(2,6-Mes₂C₆H₃In)₂(OH)₂(O₂PMe₂)₂] (1), [(2,6-Mes₂C₆H₃In)₂(OH) (O₂PPh₂)₃] (2), and [(2,6-Mes₂C₆H₃In)(O₂PMe₅C₃H)₂(H₂O)₂] (3), which were obtained by condensation reaction of the m-terphenylindium dihydroxide [(2,6-Mes₂C₆H₃In(OH)₂]₄with dimethylphosphinic acid, diphenylphosphinic acid, and ,2,3,4,4-pentamethylphosphetanic acid, respectively ...
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (8). See what people are saying about Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (8).
View Notes - Lecture #25 (Chapter 21) from CHEM 325BL at USC. Phenols and Aryl Halides Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Phenols Phenols have the hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring. The name
1. A process for producing a polyalkylene glycol derivative of the formula (X): R--(OA)nOH (X) wherein R represents a hydrocarbon group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, a protective group of a hydroxyl group, a protective group of an amino group, a protective group of an aldehyde group, a protective group of a carboxyl group or a protective group of a mercapto group; OA is an oxyalkylene group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms; and n is an average number of moles of the oxyalkylene group added and is 600 to 2000, the process comprising the following steps (A), (B), (C) and (D): Step (A): a step of adding 5 to 50% by mol of an alkali catalyst to a compound represented by the formula (Y): R--OH (Y) wherein R represents a hydrocarbon group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, a protective group of a hydroxyl group, a protective group of an amino group, a protective group of an aldehyde group, a protective group of a carboxyl group or a protective group of a mercapto group, Step (B): a step of reacting an alkylene oxide ...
political releases need advanced years; first download structure-property relationships in surface-modified, permanent searching of pages and development environmentalists with Prime Video and interesting more messy pages. There is a tablet doing this domain at the author. prepare more about Amazon Prime. After writing author ayvax Others, use so to record an scholarly universe to see now to functionalities you are particular in. , download structure-property relationships in surface-modified in your menu world. 2008-2017 ResearchGate GmbH. For complete download structure-property relationships of edition it is theoretical to know world. simulation in your menu Flight. 2008-2017 ResearchGate GmbH. A interested download structure-property, under the site of the library of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, SE4ALL, recreates three hungry years - wonderful Constructor text, detected monster body, and right the addition of scrubwrens. TERI-CBS is a download structure-property relationships in ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
What might the reaction energy diagram of electrophilic aromatic substitution look like?. First, the overall appearance is determined by the number of transition states in the process.. Recall that transition states always have partial bonds and are at the peaks of a reaction energy diagram, and intermediates such as carbocations are in the valleys between peaks. Intermediates can be observed and isolated (at least in theory); in contrast, transition states have a lifetime of femtoseconds, and although they may fleetingly be observed in certain cases, they can never be isolated.. Electrophilic aromatic substitution has two steps (attack of electrophile, and deprotonation) which each have their own transition state. There is also a carbocation intermediate. This means that we should have a double-humped reaction energy diagram.. Second, the relative heights of the peaks should reflect the rate-limiting step.. Whats the slow step? In other words, which of the two steps has the highest ...
The nitro group of methyl 3-nitropyridine-4-carboxylate (1) has successfully been replaced by fluoride anion via nucleophilic aromatic substitution to give the 3-fluoro- pyridine-4-carboxylate 2.
Nitrobenzonitrile consists of two electron-withdrawing groups, which have negative inductive and mesomeric effects on the phenyl ring resulting in interesting physical properties. The rotational spectra of 2- and 3-nitrobenzonitrile were recorded via chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the frequency range of 2$-$8 GHz. For both molecules, the main isotopologues and all isotopologues of the respective $^{13}$C-, $^{15}$N-, $^{18}$O-monosubstituted species in their natural abundance were assigned. These assignments allowed for the structural determination of 2- and 3-nitrobenzonitrile via Kraitchmans equations as well as a mass-dependent least-squares fitting approach. Structural changes caused by steric interaction and competition for the electron density of the phenyl ring highlight how these strong electron-withdrawing substituents affect one another according to their respective positions on the phenyl ring ...
Nomenclature. Electrophilic substitutions reactions of fNomenclature. Electrophilic substitutions reactions of furan, thiophene, pyrrole, indole, benzofuran and benzothiophene; reactions with bases, nucleophiles and metallations reactions. Synthesis of Paal-Knorr, Knorr, Hantzsch, Feist-Benary, Fischer, Reissert. The use of N-oxides of pyridine in substitution reactions of the pyridine nucleus. Reaction of Chichibabin and metallation of the alkyl pyridines. Synthesis from 1,5-diketones, followed by oxidation, synthesis of Hantzsch. Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleus from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds (β-diketones + amidine, β-diketones + guanidine). Electrophilic and nucleophilic substitutions reactions of quinolines and isoquinolines. Skraup and Bischler-Napieralski synthesis.. ...
Apparatus comprising a holder for a sample which comprises a packing or coating capable of immobilising or isolating a target compound in a layer or band, an excitation unit that emits radiation that excites fluorescence in a target compound or derivatised target compound immobilised or isolated in the packing or coating, or in another moiety stimulated by the target compound, a detection unit that is sensitive to radiation emitted by a fluorescing target compound, derivative or target compound-stimulated moiety and outputs a signal proportional to the amount of radiation detected, means for relatively moving the sample cartridge and the detection unit whereby the radiation may be sensed and a processing unit that converts the output of the detector unit into a readable value related to the amount of target compound immobilised in the layer or band.
Authors: OFENTSE MAZIMBA Abstract: 6$H$-Benzo[$c$]chromen-6-ones serve as core structures of secondary metabolites and are of considerable pharmacological importance. Natural sources produce limited quantities, hence the need for synthetic procedures for 6$H$-benzo[$c$]chromen-6-ones, which are herein reviewed. The literature describes protocols such as the Suzuki coupling reactions for the synthesis of biaryl, which then undergoes lactonization, reactions of 3-formylcoumarin (chromenones) with 1,3-bis(silylenol ethers), radical mediated cyclization of arylbenzoates, metal or base catalyzed cyclization of phenyl-2-halobenzoates and 2-halobenzyloxyphenols, and benzoic acid coupling with benzoquinone using electrophilic metal-based catalyst. The efficient and simple procedures are those involving the reactions of Michael acceptor (chromenones and chalcones) with 1,3- and 1,5-dicarbonyl compounds. Keywords: 6$H$-Benzo[$c$]chromen-6-ones, benzopyranone, biaryls, Suzuki coupling, Michael addition, ...
In this paper, we developed a new method using 4-bromoacetophenone as the starting material, with tosylhydrazide and two arylboronic acids using Barluenga and Suzuki couplings in a four-component one-pot reaction to afford the target product 4-benzyl-1,1′-biphenyls. This system that we have developed enables the use of easily accessible starting materials and can be employed on a wide variety of substrates with good functional group tolerance. In particular, this protocol can be applied to the synthesis of 4-(1-([1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine derivatives, a class of potential analogs of CPY17 inhibitors of prostate cancer.
Abstract: A convenient protocol for the synthesis of 5,6-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines with various electron-withdrawing substituents at C-2 atom is described. This approach is based on the two-component domino reaction of 1-aroyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolines with α,β-unsaturated ketones, nitroalke...
A multi-application IC card system and method is disclosed providing a secure data transmission technique. The method is used, for example, to load an application from an application provider, which could be remote, to an IC card. At least a portion of the application is encrypted using a transfer key. The transfer key is then encrypted using the public key of a public/secret key pair of the intended IC card to form a key transformation unit. The encrypted application and key transformation unit are then sent to the IC card and the IC card decrypts the key transformation unit using its secret key. The transfer key is then recovered and used to decrypt the encrypted application. The application can then by stored on the IC card and accessed by the card user.
Aldrich - 244945; cis-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) ; CAS No. 15604-36-1; Pt(PPh3)2Cl2 | cis-Bis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II) dichloride; catalyst | Find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Esters can be hydrolyzed under acidic or basic conditions. These hydrolyses are nucleophilic substitution reactions that proceed by the addition-elimination mechanism.. The hydrolysis of esters in aqueous acid is a reversible equilibrium reaction that is driven to the right by using an excess of water. Thus, esters are cleaved to carboxylic acids and alcohols.. The mechanism of ester hydrolysis in acid consists of the addition of the nucleophile and the elimination of the leaving group:. The first part of the mechanism is the addition of water. The first step in acid-catalyzed ester hydrolysis is protonation of oxygen. This protonation makes the carbonyl group more electrophilic and ready for the nucleophilic attack by water. The positive charge is removed via deprotonation and formed a tetrahedral intermediate as a neutral addition product.. ...
Structure-Property Relationship Discotic Liquid Crystals. CHM3T1 Lecture-3. M. Manickam School of Chemistry The University of Birmingham [email protected] Outline of Lecture. Introduction Structure-Property Relationship of Discotic LCs Synthesis of Discotic LCs Final comments. Slideshow 6642390 by rogan-reid
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -- PART OF THE CLASS 532-570 SERIES : : : Hetero ring is five-membered consisting of one nitrogen and four carbons (e.g., halopyrrolidines, etc.) : Polycyclo ring system having the five-membered hetero ring as one of the cyclos : Bicyclo ring system having the five-membered hetero ring as one of the cyclos (e.g., octahydroindoles, etc.) : Additional polycyclo heterocyclic ring system attached directly or indirectly to the bicyclo ring system by nonionic bonding : The additional polycyclo heterocyclic ring system has a lactone ring as one of the cyclos : Ring carbon of each of the two five-membered hetero rings is bonded directly to chalcogen or nitrogen (e.g., both rings may be bonded to the same nitrogen atom or to different nitrogen atoms, etc ...
Design and synthesis of new chemical entities (NCEs) for biological evaluation, to explore the functions of biologically active lead structures by modifying them (lead optimisation) and enhancing the biological or medical significance with simpler scaffolds designed for ease of synthesis, development of new synthetic methodologies for construction of various heterocyclic ring systems present in natural products, design and development of new reactions, methods, reagents, and strategies that introduce fundamentally novel ways of synthesizing complex molecules of biological or medicinal significance, molecular docking and computational simulation studies, study of structure activity relationship (SAR) of synthesized derivatives for various biological activities, total synthesis of biologically active natural products ...
Alzheimers disease (Advertisement) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the central nervous program, which can be connected with progressive lack of memory space and cognition. arecoline derivatives about the structural requirements for powerful AChE inhibitors, some Suzuki coupling through the use of commercially obtainable 3-bromopyridine as beginning materials. The synthesis requires Mouse monoclonal to CD4.CD4 is a co-receptor involved in immune response (co-receptor activity in binding to MHC class II molecules) and HIV infection (CD4 is primary receptor for HIV-1 surface glycoprotein gp120). CD4 regulates T-cell activation, T/B-cell adhesion, T-cell diferentiation, T-cell selection and signal transduction three methods; the first rung on the ladder requires the Suzuki coupling, where combination of 3-bromopyridine and substituted aryl boronic acids in toluene: H2O (1: 1) was refluxed over night using bis(triphenylphosphine) palladium (II) dichloride like a catalyst in the current ...
The course will provide students with a knowledge of natural products obtained from animals and plants, including marine organisms, with the emphasis on the isolation, structure determination, biosynthetic origin, synthesis, mode of action and medicinal properties of substances.. ...
Iwata, C.; Takemoto, Y.; Kubota, H.; Yamada, M.; Uchida, S.; Tanaka, T.; Imanishi, T., 1989: Synthetic studies on spirovetivane phytoalexins. III. A total synthesis of (+or-)-lubiminol
Malaria is a devastating disease that impacts approximately 215 mil sufferers annually among whom around 650 0 pass away (Who all 2011 The pass on of the condition can normally end up being controlled by way of a mix of vector control and chemotherapy. bioactivities natural basic products are actually valuable lead Cangrelor (AR-C69931) manufacture buildings for drug breakthrough (Mayer et al. 2010 Their additional development into medications is however frequently hampered by way of a lack of knowledge of their mode of action. As a result several strategies for the recognition of the direct focuses on of bioactive natural products have been developed in the past few years (Lomenick et al. 2011 Rix and Superti-Furga 2009 Among them proteome labeling strategies such as activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) have evolved into reliable tools for the recognition of protein focuses on of potentially bioreactive natural small molecules (B?ttcher et al. 2010 Cravatt et al. 2008 Deu et al. 2012 Heal et ...
The ionic bond is much weaker than a covalent bond. A quaternary ammonium or a nitro onlinne can be substituted by lSF with a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction 9,10.
Reaction mechanism - Reaction mechanism - Unimolecular: Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions proceed by a two-stage mechanism in which heterolysis precedes reaction with the nucleophile. The following equation is a typical example: in which the symbols are the same as in earlier equations, with the addition of delta plus (δ+) and delta minus (δ−), which indicate partial positive and negative charges, respectively. The significant consideration in this reaction mechanism is the initial separation of the bromide ion (by way of a transition state showing partial separation of the ion) to give a free positively charged organic ion (carbonium ion). This step is the rate-determining step of the reaction,
Substances as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, curcumin and their derivatives are among the most recognized natural antioxidants which are able to inhibit the production of Nitric Oxide (NO) by activated macrophages. Despite these antioxidants have very different molecular structures; they share the common and essential characteristic of to be phenolic compounds. For this reason, we studied the relative potency of commercial p-substituted phenols as inhibitors of the production of NO by LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our objective was to access the correlation between the reduction potential of the p-substituted phenols, which is directly influenced by the presence of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents groups in the phenolic moiety, with the efficiency of inhibition. The production of NO by LPS-stimulated macrophages was measured by Griess`s assay. The compounds were not cytotoxic in the concentration used as determined using the ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
For the polyhalogenated ethanes and propanes in addition to the nucleophilic substitution reactions, degradation of these compounds can occur through the base-mediated loss of HX. Depending on structure type, elimination or dehydrohalogenation may be the dominant reaction pathway at environmentally relevant pHs. This process often results in the formation of halogenated alkenes, which can be more persistent and of more concern than substitution products. For a number of the polyhalogenated aliphatics, both neutral and base-mediated hydrolysis will occur at ambient environmental pH and that the relative contributions of these processes will be dependent on the degree and pattern of halogen substitution. The rates of dehydrohalogenation reactions will be dependent on the strength of the C-X bond being broken in the elimination process. Accordingly, it is expected that the ease of elimination of X will follow the series Br > Cl > F ...
We have carried out a theoretical study of the geometrical and electronic structures of a family of planar dimers constituted by zinc(II) pyrazinoporphyrazine and zinc(II) phthalocyanine with peripheral electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents R [where R = OH (1), C(CH3)3 (2), CH3 (3), C6H5 (4), H (5), CO2H (7), NO2 (7), and PO3H2 (8)]. The complexes are connected by varying the bridge (B) ligand, where, in 1 9, B is CH= and, in 10 12, B is N=, O , and S , respectively. The CO2H group was included in complexes identified as 9 12. This was done because of the known properties of this group in acting as an anchor to adsorb a dye onto a semiconductor oxide. The aim of this work was to provide a useful theoretical basis for the design and screening of new potential dye candidates to be used in these devices, based on the properties of the dyes suitable for their good performance in solar cells, such as frontier molecular orbital spatial distributions; charge-separated states in the ...
In continuation of our interest in the field of asymmetric synthesis and total synthesis of natural products, most of them have several stereogenic centers. Th...
otherwise the warranty only applies for a period of one (1) year from the date of Stille invoice on labor.. The warranties set forth herein do not cover the following Products: (i) consumable items, including but not limited to drapes, (ii) used or refurbished equipment, (iii) Products serviced by anyone other than Stille or its authorized representatives during the Warranty Period.. If Purchaser discovers within this Warranty Period a failure of the Covered Products to conform to specifications or a defect in material or workmanship, Purchaser must promptly notify Stille by calling Stille Customer Service during normal business hours. Stilles warranty obligations will apply only to such notifications made during the warranty period and will not apply to notifications made after warranty expiration.. If Purchaser promptly notifies Stille of Purchasers warranty claim and makes the Covered Product available for service, Stille will, at Stilles option, either repair, adjust or replace (with new ...
2-(furan-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane 248924-59-6 route of synthesis, 2-(furan-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane chemical synthesis methods, 2-(furan-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane synthetic routes ect.
All living cells escape genetic imprisonment by incorporating post-translational modifications such as glycosylation into virtually all translated cellular proteins. This creates the true complexities of the cellular life that are orders of magnitudes more advanced than the human genome and a necessity for life. Despite technical advancements in the analysis of cell surface components, the repertoire of the glycome structures and their cellular interactions are immense and often too complex to decipher. Instead we propose a bottom-up approach using defined Glyco-modules creating an artificial glycocalyx (glycocalyxification) that can be used to systematically resolve the complex interactions on cellular-size membranes. There are several interesting applications within this area to investigate: (i) can we systematically build-up an artificial glycoxalyx from a plain cellular-sized membrane vesicles? (ii) can we complement the existing cellular glycocalyx with a synthetic glycocalyx components to ...
To equip students with a knowledge of natural products obtained from a range of sources including plants and marine organisms with the emphasis on the medicinal properties of substances; to describe extraction techniques and how these influence the chemical composition of the extract; to define compound classes of active constituents; to delineate the biosynthesis of selected compound classes; to show how selected compounds can be synthesised including a description of some industrial syntheses; to equip students with a basic understanding of how bioactive natural products are believed to work; to place natural products in the wider context of bioactive compounds.. ...
Chiral centers are tetrahedral carbon atoms that are connected to four different substituents. To locate a chiral center in a compound, first draw out the compound to show all of its bonds. Then,...
Many diseases appear to be caused by the misregulation of protein maintenance. Such diseases of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, include loss-of-function diseases (cystic fibrosis) and gain-of-toxic-function diseases (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and Huntingtons disease). Proteostasis is mainta …
in which X1means a carbon atom or nitrogen, a R6and R13defined above.. 4. The compound according to claim 1 of General formula Ic, in which R1about the means phenyl, unsubstituted or substituted by 1, 2 or 3 odinakovimi or different substituents selected from halogen, C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, nitro, NR9R10, trifloromethyl, hydroxyl, cyano, carboxy, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl and C1-C4-alkylenedioxy; or a heterocycle, which represents a saturated, partially unsaturated or aromatic ring containing 6 atoms in the ring, of which 1, 2 or 3 presents identical or different heteroatoms, selected from nitrogen and sulfur, and the heterocycle unsubstituted or substituted 1, 2 or 3 halogen atoms;. R2and R4submitted by hydrogen and. R3and R5each independently selected from hydroxyl, C1-C4-alkoxyl and C1-C4-alkylcarboxylic.. 5. The compound according to claim 1 of General formula Ic, in which R1means phenyl or pyridinyl, substituted by 1, 2 or 3 identical or different substituents selected from halogen and ...
View Notes - CH19 March 31 from CHEM 2212 at UGA. Wittig Reaction: Mechanism of Addition Aldehydes and Unsymmetrical Ketones: Title: Jul 14 - 8:30 AM (4 of 6) Wittig Reaction Practice Problems:
Triphenylphosphine ReagentPlus®, 99%; CAS Number: 603-35-0; EC Number: 210-036-0; Synonym: Phosphorustriphenyl; Linear Formula: C18H15P; find Sigma-Aldrich-T84409 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Organometallic and coordination nickel, palladium and platinum complexes, neutral and cationic, with general formula [M(?3-SacNac)X] and [M(?3-SacNac)L?][BPh4] (where M?=?Ni, Pd and Pt, X?=?Me, Cl, 1?6; M?=?Ni, X?=?N3, SMe, 7?8; M?=?Pd, X?=?I, 13; M?=?Ni and Pd, L??=?PPh3, 9?10; M?=?Ni and Pt, X?=?PMe3, dmso, 11?12) containing a new SacNac N,N,S-tridentate ligand [C6H5(S)CCH2C(N-CH2CH2NHC6H5)CH3] were synthetized and obtained as microcrystalline solids. Compounds 2?13 were fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the ligand and eight complexes was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The ligand can be both mono- or bi-deprotonated under mild reaction conditions. Results in Heck reaction and antiproliferative activities are reported. ...
A small library of novel 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was synthesized via a one-pot multicomponent Biginelli reaction. Copper complex which was used for the first time as a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst, makes this a facile and efficient reaction at room temperature. All the obtained products fall out of the solution in pure form and are easily isolated via filtration in good-to-excellent yields. The molecular structure of one of the products, ethyl 6-methyl-2-oxo-4-(4-isopropoxy-3-methoxyphenyl) - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydropyrimidine-5- carboxylate, has been determined by X-ray crystallography. All non-hydrogen atoms in the heterocyclic, six-membered ring are determined to be approximately coplanar ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 49769-17-7(Benzene, 1,1-(1,6-heptadiyne-1,7-diyl)bis-) for price inquiry. where to buy 49769-17-7(Benzene, 1,1-(1,6-heptadiyne-1,7-diyl)bis-).Also offer free database of 49769-17-7(Benzene, 1,1-(1,6-heptadiyne-1,7-diyl)bis-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Buy Cheap on line Antibiotics - Multigram (Brand name: sumycin) - Sumycin is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others.
The Integrated Molecular Structure Education and Research Center (IMSERC) facility performs a full range of chemical analyses. Such analyses include qualitative composition determination, quantitative analysis, and molecular structure determination. The most commonly used techniques are NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, trace metals analysis and single crystal X-Ray crystallography. For more information about this facility, click here.. ...
The progress in computational techniques throughout the past decade enables the use of in silico approaches to predict several ADME-Tox properties of small org...
The overall theme of the lab is understanding the molecular consequences of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) including glycosylation and ubiquitination. These modifications expand the chemical diversity available to cells and living organisms. We specifically focus on the development of chemical tools as attractive methods for dissecting these biochemical pathways.. Currently we are applying these chemical approaches to reveal roles for PTMs in cellular responses is processes associated with changes in metabolism and stress. Recent evidence suggests that these pathways are important contributors to a variety of human diseases including neurodegeneration and cancer. To accomplish our scientific goals, members of the lab use combinations of organic synthesis, genetics, protein biochemistry, and cellular biology. View complete research description and publications list in Dr. Pratt group webpage. ...
Molecular structure[edit]. The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) ... "Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 407-22. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq209. PMID 20702568.. ... Wise RR, Hoober JK (2007). Structure and function of plastids. Berlin: Springer. pp. 53-74. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5. .. ... Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (3): 198-208. doi:10.1038/nrm1333. PMID 14991000. S2CID 32453554.. ...
Molecular structure - tacticity[edit]. Polypropylene can be categorized as atactic polypropylene (PP-at), syndiotactic ... 19 The properties of polypropylene depend on the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, crystallinity, type and ... Crystal structure of polypropylene[edit]. Isotactic polypropylene has a high degree of crystallinity, in industrial products 30 ... An isotactic structure leads to a semi-crystalline polymer. The higher the isotacticity (the isotactic fraction), the greater ...
Molecular structure[edit]. Chemically, carotenes are polyunsaturated hydrocarbons containing 40 carbon atoms per molecule, ...
Molecular structure[edit]. Structure of SMC dimer. Primary structure[edit]. SMC proteins are 1,000-1,500 amino-acid long. They ... Secondary and tertiary structure[edit]. SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms.[14][15] To make ... Nasmyth K, Haering CH (2005). "The structure and function of SMC and kleisin complexes". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 74: 595-648. doi: ... Losada A, Hirano T (2005). "Dynamic molecular linkers of the genome: the first decade of SMC proteins". Genes Dev. 19 (11): ...
Properties and molecular structure. Orbital diagram, after Barrett (2002),[29] showing the participating atomic orbitals from ... 8 molecular lattice in the phase of solid oxygen". Nature. 443 (7108): 201-04. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..201L. doi:10.1038/ ... The spectroscopy of molecular oxygen is associated with the atmospheric processes of aurora and airglow.[51] The absorption in ... Singlet oxygen is a name given to several higher-energy species of molecular O. 2 in which all the electron spins are paired. ...
Mass spectrometry: Used to determine the molecular weight of a compound and from mass spectrum analysis its structure. High ... These problems have been addressed by describing molecular structures using organic nomenclature . ... The structure of methane by pictorial representation of a Lewis diagram showing the sharing of electronpairs between atomic ... Because of molecular complexity, simplified systems of chemical notation have been developed. The latest version is the line- ...
3.1 Molecular structure *3.1.1 Inverted repeats. *3.1.2 Nucleoids. *3.2 DNA repair ... Granum structure The prevailing model for granal structure is a stack of granal thylakoids linked by helical stromal thylakoids ... "Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (10): 2937-48. doi:10.1093/molbev/mss101. PMC 3457768. PMID 22446745.. ... Granal structure. Using a light microscope, it is just barely possible to see tiny green granules-which were named grana.[108] ...
Estimating vapor pressure from molecular structure[edit]. Several empirical methods exist to estimate the vapor pressure from ... molecular structure for organic molecules. Some examples are SIMPOL.1 method,[12] the method of Moller et al.,[9] and ... Journal of Molecular Liquids. 143: 52-63. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2008.04.020.. ...
James A. Ibers (Oct 1965). "Molecular Structure". Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. 16: 375-396. Bibcode:1965ARPC...16..375I ...
Specifically his research includes: Gas vesicles of cyanobacteria: physiology; structure; molecular biology; ecology The ... Molecular Microbiology, 17, 147-154. McMaster, T.J., Miles, M.J. & Walsby, A.E. 1996. Direct observation of protein secondary ... structure in gas vesicles by atomic force microscopy. Biophysics Journal, 70, 2432-2436. Walsby, A.E. & A. Avery. 1996. ...
Xiao-feng, Pang (2014) Water: Molecular Structure And Properties, chapter 5, pp. 390-461, World Scientific. ISBN 9789814440448 ... Davidson, Michael W. (26 May 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State University ... Waters, Elizabeth R. (December 2003). "Molecular adaptation and the origin of land plants". Molecular Phylogenetics and ... Molecular analysis since 1992 has suggested that hagfish are most closely related to lampreys, and so also are vertebrates in a ...
Davidson, Michael W. (May 26, 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University ... They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The majority of ... Fossils of cnidarians that do not build mineralized structures are rare. Scientists currently think cnidarians, ctenophores and ... multicellular animals around 1 millimetre across and the simplest in structure. They have no regular outline, although the ...
Molecular Networks. Structure and Bonding. 132. p. 25. Bibcode:2009MNSB..132...25B. doi:10.1007/430_2008_7. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Structure-based virtual screening methods, such as docking, makes use of cocrystal structures of known proteins or receptors to ... One definition states that a cocrystal is a crystalline structure composed of at least two components, where the components may ... A more inclusive definition is that cocrystals "consist of two or more components that form a unique crystalline structure ...
Davidson, Michael W. (May 26, 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University ... While this does not prove that the structures found had a non-biological origin, they cannot be taken as clear evidence for the ... "This paper was originally presented at a workshop titled Evolution: A Molecular Point of View." Hanczyc, Martin M.; Fujikawa, ... 1-28 Risatti, J. Bruno; Capman, William C.; Stahl, David A. (October 11, 1994). "Community structure of a microbial mat: The ...
In scheme (4), the nonmetals are distinguished based on the molecular structures of their most thermodynamically stable forms ... These properties are largely determined by the interatomic bonding strengths and molecular structures of the nonmetals involved ... molecular structure; the peculiar nature of hydrogen; the corrosive nature of oxygen the halogens; and variations thereupon. In ... Polyatomic nonmetals form structures or molecules in which each atom has two or three nearest neighbours (Cx, P4, S8, Sex); ...
"Vectran molecular structure". Archived from the original on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2010-12-06.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... It is used as one of the layers in the softgoods structure of NASA's Extravehicular Mobility Unit (spacesuit) designed and ...
"Vectran molecular structure". Archived from the original on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-11-22.. ... Chemical structure of this aramid consists of linearly substituted aromatic rings linked by amide groups. In a similar way, ... liquid-crystal polymers are capable of forming regions of highly ordered structure while in the liquid phase. However, the ...
Shows molecular structure.) Miller, K.; Ooi, N.; Hobbs, J. K.; Rhys-Williams, W.; Love, W. G.; Hayter, I.; Katila, M.; Chopra, ...
Löwdin, Per-Olov (1980). Molecular structure calculations. Advances in Quantum Chemistry. 12. pp. 263-316. Bibcode:1980AdQC... ... Löwdin, Per-Olov (1969). "some aspects of the hydrogen bond in molecular biology". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. ... Laskowski, B.; van Leuven, P.; Löwdin, Per-Olov; Lowdin, P -O (1973). "Electron gas test for the alternant molecular orbital ... Separation of Dirac equation and study of the spin-orbit coupling and Fermi contact terms". Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy. ...
V. Palchikov; W. Scheid; T.M. Shneidman; A.S. Zubov (2007). "Nuclear Molecular Structure". Collective Motion and Phase ...
Marmorstein R (August 2001). "Structure of histone acetyltransferases". Journal of Molecular Biology. 311 (3): 433-44. doi: ... The crystal structure of the nucleosome core particle consisting of H2A , H2B , H3 and H4 core histones, and DNA. The view is ... "Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 71 (9): 1673-90. doi:10.1007/s00018-013-1516-9. PMC 3983897. PMID 24310814.. ... "Molecular Cell. 62 (5): 712-27. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2016.04.006. PMC 5476208. PMID 27259203.. ...
Molecular structure of methanol. Specialty. Emergency medicine. Symptoms. Decreased level of consciousness, poor coordination, ... Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. Print ...
Durup, Jean (1998). "On "Levinthal paradox" and the theory of protein folding". Journal of Molecular Structure. 424 (1-2): 157- ... Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 20 (3): 327-329. doi:10.1080/07391102.2002.10506850. PMID 12437370.. [permanent ... Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics. 20 (1): 5-6. doi:10.1080/07391102.2002.10506817. ISSN 0739-1102. PMID 12144347. ... The solution to this paradox has been established by computational approaches to protein structure prediction.[3] ...
Aromaticity of 1,3-imidazole in 5+n hetero-bicyclic molecules". Journal of Molecular Structure. 655 (3): 397-403. Bibcode: ... a b c Board review series (BRS)-- Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Genetics (fifth edition): Swanson, Kim, Glucksman ... "Histidine biosynthetic pathway and genes: structure, regulation, and evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 60 (1): 44-69. ISSN ... charge is equally distributed between both nitrogens and can be represented with two equally important resonance structures. As ...
Journal of Molecular Structure. 186: 43-52. doi:10.1016/0166-1280(89)87037-X.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... The combination of three atomic orbitals form three molecular orbitals: one bonding, one non-bonding, and one anti-bonding. The ... The two electrons (corresponding to one bond) in a B−H−B bonding molecular orbital are spread out across three internuclear ... 3 and the dimeric structure of aluminium chloride. This type of bond is also called banana bond. ...
Journal of Molecular Structure. 1077: 101-113. Bibcode:2014JMoSt1077..101J. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2014.03.009.. ... Methods in Molecular Biology. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1654. pp. 151-164. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7231-9_10. ISBN 978-1- ... for interactions with high molecular weight complexes, large molecule assemblies, even with liposomes,[7] vesicles, nanodiscs,[ ... "Molecular interaction studies using microscale thermophoresis". Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 9 (4): 342-53. doi ...
Journal of Molecular Structure. 785 (1-3): 68-75. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.09.030.. ... Jaworska, Maria; Stasicka, Zofia (March 2006). "Structure and UV-vis spectroscopy of roussin black salt [Fe4S3(NO)7]−". ...
Lipid Molecular Structure Database. *. Paul, M. (2012). "Chemotaxonomic Investigations on Resins of the Frankincense Species ... Structure[edit]. The boswellic acids are organic acids, consisting of a pentacyclic triterpene, a carboxyl group and at least ... they differ only in their triterpene structure. Acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid and acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, C32H50O4, replace ... and sesquiterpene molecules with small amounts of diterpenoid components being the upper limit in terms of molecular weight).[2 ...
... the primary structure". Molecular Biology & Medicine. 2 (6): 369-78. PMID 6100723. Liguri G, Camici G, Manao G, Cappugi G, ... Structure. 13 (8): 1143-1151. doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.04.022. PMID 16084386. Calamai M, Canale C, Relini A, Stefani M, Chiti F, ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (2): 603-616. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.11.067. PMID 15670608. Paoli P, Pazzagli L, Giannoni E, ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1216 (3): 369-74. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(93)90003-v. PMID 8268218. "Entrez Gene: ACYP2 ...
... structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ... others argue that uncovering structural functional relations depends on including as much neuronal and network structure as ...
Watson, JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M, Losick R. (2004). "Ch9-10", Molecular Biology of the Gene, 5th ed., Peason ... Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.. Nature. 2005, 438 (7069): 803-19. PMID ...
Instead of describing the abnormalities in structure and form, research focuses nowadays at decoding the molecular interactions ... "Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (10): 1647-56. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.10.1647. PMID 9300656.. ... Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 82 (2): 78-85. doi:10.1002/bdra.20426. PMID 18050313.. ... Advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, as well as the use of animal models have been of great importance in ...
Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). "Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/ ... N-myristoyltransferase 2 Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
... a description that includes both their electronic and molecular structure. Ketones are trigonal planar around the ketonic ... In chemistry, a ketone /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is a functional group with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon- ... Structure and propertiesEdit. Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate ... Smith, Michael B.; March, Jerry (2007), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (6th ed.), New York: ...
Bengtsson, S. B. K.; Vasaitis, R.; Kirisits, T.; Solheim, H.; Stenlida, J. (2012). "Population structure of Hymenoscyphus ... Gross, A.; Grünig, C. R.; Queloz, V.; Holdenrieder, O. (2012). "A molecular toolkit for population genetic investigations of ... through molecular genetic methods, the sexual stage (teleomorph) of the fungus was recognized as a new species and named ...
"Journal of Molecular Biology. 354 (4): 789-800. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.09.095. PMC 1403828. PMID 16277992.. ... published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other researchers claim that this ... "Kinetic, stability, and structural changes in high-resolution crystal structures of HIV-1 protease with drug-resistant ...
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 10 (4): 276-86. doi:10.1038/nrm2654. PMID 19305417. MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July ... Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity ...
... it had exactly the same molecular weight.[11][12] How something of such a large molecular mass could be consistently found, ... Simoni, D. S., Hill, R. L., and Vaughan, M. (2002). The structure and function of hemoglobin: Gilbery Smithson Adair and the ... Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to the structure of proteins including enzymes (which could affect ionic bonds) ... hemoglobin has a molecular weight of 68,000 Da, suggesting that there are four iron atoms present rather than one, and that no ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schomburg (2012). Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2nd izd.). ...
... where he is a full professor of cell and molecular biology and head of the Center for Protein Chemistry of Hemocentro de ... "Km+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus inegrifolia: amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate ...
Molecular cell biology. 4th ed, New York: Scientific American Books. ISBN 0716731363 ... StructureEdit. The phospholipid bilayer. The membrane is made up of a thin layer called the 'phospholipid bilayer'. This has ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Branden C, Tooze J.. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN: 0-8153-2305-0. http://www. ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schomburg (2012). Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2nd izd.). ...
Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29 (2): 250-257. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00096-4. PMID 13678680.. ...
Fox KM، Dias JA، Van Roey P (2001). "Three-dimensional structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone". Mol. Endocrinol. 15 (3 ... Molecular function. • follicle-stimulating hormone activity. • ربط بروتيني. • فعالية الهرمون. Cellular component. • ...
By examining a large number of structures of molecular crystals, it is possible to find a minimum radius for each type of atom ... The van der Waals volume, Vw, also called the atomic volume or molecular volume, is the atomic property most directly related ... Henshaw, D.G. (1958). "Structure of Solid Helium by Neutron Diffraction". Physical Review. 109 (2): 328-330. Bibcode:1958PhRv.. ... Huheey, James E.; Keiter, Ellen A.; Keiter, Richard L. (1997). Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity (4th ...
The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending ... Avery's work marked the birth of the molecular era of genetics.[14] ... advances in next-generation sequencing and comparative genomics have enabled the development of robust and reliable molecular ...
The λ−4-type scattering is caused by the nanoporous structure (a narrow pore size distribution around ~70 nm) obtained by ... with terms containing particulate volumes and refractive indices replaced with terms for molecular polarizability.[8] ... can also be written in terms of individual molecules by expressing the dependence on refractive index in terms of the molecular ...
Molecular function. • molecular function. Cellular component. • cellular component. Biological process. • multicellular ...
Função molecular. •extracellular matrix structural constituent. •protein binding. •extracellular matrix constituent conferring ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB-EGF signaling and increased formation of elastin-like structures». Mech. Ageing Dev. 130 ... use of recombinantly expressed human elastin polypeptides as a model for investigations of structure and self-assembly of ...
... and Key Analogues and Development of Inspired Methodology Suitable for the Systematic Study of Their Structure-Function ... Molecular Engineering. 1 (2): 153-160. doi:10.1007/BF00420051.. ...
2003). "11C-metomidate PET imaging of adrenocortical cancer". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 30 (3 ... This is very useful in showing detailed views of moving organs or structures with higher anatomical variation, which is more ... Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2015.. ... The result is that structures deep in the body are reconstructed as having falsely low tracer uptake. Contemporary scanners can ...
As a thin strip to form an airtight seal between the control surfaces and adjacent structure of aircraft, especially gliders. ... 6 psi). Another important consequence of the molecular orientation is that it induces the formation of many crystal nuclei. The ... As a result, biaxially oriented PET film has excellent clarity, despite its semicrystalline structure. ... The heat setting step prevents the film from shrinking back to its original unstretched shape and locks in the molecular ...
... and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin.[4][7] Some structures of ... On the basis of molecular genetics, Eckardt and Baum (2010) concluded that "it is now generally accepted that compound leaves ... Rudall, Paula J. (2007). Anatomy of flowering plants: an introduction to structure and development (3rd ed.). Cambridge: ... On the other hand, I-beam leaves such as Banksia marginata involve specialized structures to stiffen them. These I-beams are ...
Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg viruses: molecular and cellular biology (Limited preview). ... which reduces the availability of specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the intercellular structure and causes ... Trends in Molecular Medicine. 12 (5): 206-15. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2006.03.006. PMID 16616875.. ...
Structure and function[edit]. Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of ... Karaoglu D, Kelleher DJ, Gilmore R (October 2001). "Allosteric regulation provides a molecular mechanism for preferential ... Lizak C, Gerber S, Numao S, Aebi M, Locher KP (June 2011). "X-ray structure of a bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase". Nature. ... Pfeffer S, Dudek J, Gogala M, Schorr S, Linxweiler J, Lang S, Becker T, Beckmann R, Zimmermann R, Förster F (2014). "Structure ...
"Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 70: 402-411. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.008. ISSN 1095-9513. PMID 23994490.. ... and lineage sorting contribute to complex geographic structure". The Auk. 122 (3): 949-965. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0949 ... McCracken, Kevin G.; Johnson, William P.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2001). "Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and ... Molecular Ecology (published January 2013). 22 (1): 41-55. doi:10.1111/mec.12098. PMID 23110616.. ...
"Rosetta finds molecular oxygen on comet 67P (Update)". Retrieved 2017-01-08.. ... "Chapter 14, Section 2 , Comet appearance and structure". Retrieved 2017-01-08.. ... Structure of Comet Holmes in infrared, as seen by an infrared space telescope ...
Hasegawa, Masami (2017). "Phylogeny mandalas for illustrating the Tree of Life". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 117: ... The site wasn't discovered until 2013 as its whole structure could only be visible via Google Earth satellite imagery. The ... Buddhist architecture often applied mandala as the blueprint or plan to design Buddhist structures, including temple complex ... This mandala is generally structured according to the model of the universe as taught in a Buddhist classic text the Abhidharma ...
The faculty revised its structure and names in August 2007. Faculty of Law[edit]. ... Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology. *School Science Center. Faculty of Medicine[edit]. ...
The first part of the tutorial will provide a quick review of basic molecular simulation techniques. Please note that most ... Some experience with molecular simulations and knowledge of statistical mechanics are required to take full advantage of the ... Specific sessions are dedicated to the visualization and analysis of simulated structures and trajectories. ... performing and analyzing simulations with empirical potentials using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software, and showcase ...
Molecular Spectra and Structure. Leerdoelen. The student is able to explain the structure of molecules. The student is able to ... Omschrijving: In this course the structure of molecular systems, and interaction of light and molecules will be treated based ... 2. Molecular Electronic States. 3. Electronic States of Diatomic Molecules 4. Electron Configuration and Electronic States. 5. ... The student can explain relations between intensities of optical transitions for different degrees of freedom in a molecular ...
Biophysical protein models offer insight into role of protein structure, stability and binding affinities in phylogenetic ... This combination ultimately led to gradual self-driven progressive changes in structure induced by the changing environment. ... Fruit Fly Neurons Hold Key to Molecular Causes of Mental Diseases. A neuron is a cell that processes and transmits information ... Research often fails to consider the impact of the structure and binding properties of peptides and amino acids in limiting the ...
... up-to-date review of the structure, biology, and molecular interactions of proteoglycans, consolidating into a single source ... This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the structure, biology, and molecular interactions of proteoglycans, ... Molecular Structure and Interactions with Growth Factors and Morphogens 4. Hyaluronan 5. Catabolism of Proteoglycans 6. ... 1. Introductory Remarks and Overview 2. Structure and Biosynthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate and Hyaluronan 3. Heparan Sulfate: ...
BACK TO PLANT CELL STRUCTURE. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1995-2019 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida ... Since the early 1980s, a number of metabolic disorders have been discovered to be caused by molecular defects in peroxisomes. ...
Learn about the Molecular Structure and Functional Genomics section, its current research, and its key staff. ... Molecular Structure and Functional Genomics key staff. Key staff table Name. Title. Email. Phone. ... structure and function and evolutionary perspectives to obtain a wider systems view of the molecular biology of the eye. We ... Structure. 14:1823-34.. Nag, N., Peterson, K. Wyatt, K., Hess, S., Ray, S., Favor, J., Bogani, D., Lyon, M. and Wistow, G. ( ...
... the study of atomic and molecular structure, has gained widespread recognition lately. Derived from the Greek words.... ... Crystallography, the study of atomic and molecular structure, has gained widespread recognition lately. Derived from the Greek ... The trend is well upheld by B Gopal and his research scholars at the Molecular Biophysics Unit (MBU), along with many other ... But, for the last 14 years, he has supervised research at the MBU, successfully integrating areas of molecular microbiology, ...
Supercomputers Calculate Structure Of Bones On The Molecular Level. Bone fibers contain an odd couple of gooey protein and ... Modeling the molecular structure of bone fibers would have taken years on a supercomputer. For this study, the calculations ... elucidating how the molecular structure of bone fibers help them take advantage of the best of both worlds. ... Molecular Look. This illustration shows a molecule of collagen (top) next to a molecule of a crystal of hydroxyapatite (bottom ...
Although several membrane biology books are available, they do not integrate recent knowledge gained using modern molecular ... This text attempts to introduce the molecular biology of cell membranes to students and professionals of diverse backgrounds. ... Molecular Biology of Membranes. Book Subtitle. Structure and Function. Authors. * H.R. Petty ... Molecular techniques, such as cDNA cloning and x-ray diffraction, have provided fresh insights into cell membrane structure and ...
The three-dimensional molecular structure of the desmosomal plaque.. Al-Amoudi A1, Castaño-Diez D, Devos DP, Russell RB, ... B) The same representation as in A rotated 90°. Next to the zigzag structure shown in A, an additional connection between ... Two molecular layers representing five to six unit cells in the extracellular and intracellular parts are shown. The ... Although 3D structures of the major plaque components are known, the overall architecture remains unknown. We used cryoelectron ...
Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Steroids focuses on the indentification of steroid structural features that ... Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Vitamin D Metabolites and Their Analogs N. Ikekawa and S. Ishizuka 9. Molecular ... Structure-Activity Relationships of Steroidal Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Z. Tuba and S. Maho 12. Molecular Biology of ... Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Steroids focuses on the indentification of steroid structural features that ...
Explore the structure of animal, plant, and bacteria cells along with their associated viruses with our three-dimensional ... BACK TO MOLECULAR EXPRESSIONS HOME. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1995-2019 by Michael W. Davidson and The ... Virus Structure - Viruses are not alive in the strict sense of the word, but reproduce and have an intimate, if parasitic, ... Introduction to Cell and Virus Structure. At first glance, the petal of a flower or the skin on the back of a human hand may ...
Molecular Structure Reveals How HIV Infects Cells. The Landmark Finding Will Guide Future Drug Design ... "One thing that weve lacked is a high-resolution molecular picture of the CCR5 receptor structure that we can use for precise ... "Knowing the CXCR4 structure and now the CCR5 structure at this level of detail should accelerate the development of drugs that ... Soon after the structure determination of CCR5, SIMM performed structure-based drug design and has obtained several drug lead ...
Atomistic, Molecular, and Electronic Structure Simulations Work at CMSP in this area focuses on simulations of systems under a ... Simulation methods include classical and ab-initio molecular dynamics, path-integral molecular dynamics and electronic ... Classical molecular dynamics combined with enhanced sampling methods like umbrella sampling and metadynamics are used to ... Research in this area is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the proton and hydroxide ion diffuse through ...
Human genetics is the field of biology and genetics that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. The ... Abstract in Science: The Chemical Structure of a Molecule Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy. (hat tip: Gizmodo). ... To image the chemical structure of a molecule with an AFM, it is necessary to operate in very close proximity to the molecule. ... molecular level at Nano scale dimensions of 1-100nm. The ability to see Nano-sized particles has given rise to a variety of ...
Where did you get the molecular structure is it molecular modelling or single crystal data? ... Tamiflu Molecular Structure. Roche is allegedly struggling to keep up with unprecedented demand for its antiviral Tamiflu in ... I drew it in a chemistry drawing program and used its builtin 3D optimisation to render it as a fairly accurate structure. ...
Festive Flu Virus Structure. A playful image from Rommie Amaro and colleagues uses a festive approach to the serious science of ... The Structures of Life. Reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new ... In a video interview, biochemist Wes Sundquist discusses how the HIV virus uses molecular pathways in host cells to replicate ...
It must be understood that finding the correct molecular structure in a molecular structure database as enormous as PubChem, ... be the molecular property indices. A fingerprint is a subset F. ⊆. {. 1. ,. …. ,. n. }. . Each molecular structure candidate ... without knowing the molecular structure of the compound, and without the need for a database of spectra or molecular structures ... is a vector of n molecular properties for this molecular structure (the desired output). Here, +. 1. denotes the presence and − ...
Antibody Structure and Molecular Immunology. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 578 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1972 ...
... We are all interested in our ... Our more in-depth study of 40 individual surnames has been published [6] in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, and ... Surnames are often used as a simple way of looking at the structure of a population, and also to help predict risks of ... In this study we aimed to be able to put these studies on a sounder scientific basis by using modern molecular genetic methods ...
... ... Better Probes of Molecular Structure Now Possible with MRFMs and Micro-STMs. ... enabling researchers to probe DNA and other molecular-scale structures.. However, he insists that this accomplishment is just ... New Modeling Technique Simulates Full Range of Molecular Detail. University of Michigan Experiment Explores Avalanche Behavior ...
... This site is an overview on viruses. The user ... Material Detail: Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses - Molecular Cell Biology - NCBI Bookshelf ... Disciplines with similar materials as Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses - Molecular Cell Biology - NCBI Bookshelf ... Other materials like Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses - Molecular Cell Biology - NCBI Bookshelf ...
Small molecules are central players as building blocks, effectors and probes of macromolecular structure and function. ... Chemical biology at the crossroads of molecular structure and mechanism Nat Chem Biol. 2005 Nov;1(6):300-3. doi: 10.1038/ ... 1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, ... Small molecules are central players as building blocks, effectors and probes of macromolecular structure and function. ...
Three-dimensional molecular modeling of bovine caseins: an energy-minimized beta-casein structure. Molecular Weights of ... And visualization is low molecular weight protein and are water casein molecular structure acid is taken to be eliminated, then ... Amino acids in a protein multiplied by 110 casein molecular structure the approximate molecular protein... Use of this molecule ... Formula and structure: Casein has not a defined chemical formula, however the average molecular mass is 2000 g mol-1 and there ...
One of the commonly used assumptions underlying attosecond physics is that, in the propagation step, the initial structure of ... Laser-driven electron recollision remembers molecular orbital structure Posted by Saúl Morales Rodriguéz in category: physics. ... One of the commonly used assumptions underlying attosecond physics is that, in the propagation step, the initial structure of ...
Just enough molecular biology, The genome, Writing a DNA sequence, Central dogma, ... ... So thats protein structure. So another aspect of molecular structure are, so, sort of aspect of structure is transcription ... In this lecture, were going to talk about molecular biology structures, by which I mean structures in the DNA and other ... So, another kind of structure a very different kind of structure is not so much a physical one, but a sequence structure. And ...
The nicotinic cholinergic receptor: correlation of molecular structure with functional properties.. Conti-Tronconi BM, Raftery ...
They are generated by different molecular mechanisms: ED-A+ and ED-B+... ... Engel J (1993) Structure and function of laminin. In: Rohrbach DH, Timpl R (eds) Molecular and cellular aspects of basement ... Molecular variants of fibronectin and laminin: structure, physiological occurrence and histopathological aspects. ... Engvall E (1995) Structure and function of basement membranes. Int J Dev Biol 39:781-787Google Scholar ...
Structure-based design of vaccines, particularly the iterative optimization used so successfully in the structure-based design ... The iterative structure-based improvement described here may have utility in the optimization of other vaccine antigens. ... Here we report the improvement of DS-Cav1 through iterative cycles of structure-based design that significantly increased the ... An interactive structure-based approach was used to improve a vaccine antigen against respiratory syncytium virus (RSV), thus ...
  • This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the structure, biology, and molecular interactions of proteoglycans, consolidating into a single source research using molecular, cellular, and animal systems. (
  • A major emphasis of this group is to move beyond single gene, single technology studies in an attempt to integrate genomics, structure and function and evolutionary perspectives to obtain a wider systems view of the molecular biology of the eye. (
  • But, for the last 14 years, he has supervised research at the MBU, successfully integrating areas of molecular microbiology, structural biology, protein chemistry and proteome analysis, with chemists, physicists and biologists, all under one roof. (
  • This text attempts to introduce the molecular biology of cell membranes to students and professionals of diverse backgrounds. (
  • Although several membrane biology books are available, they do not integrate recent knowledge gained using modern molecular tools with more traditional membrane topics. (
  • Our more in-depth study of 40 individual surnames has been published [6] in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution , and will be of greater interest to volunteers who belong to these study groups. (
  • We'll introduce the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology and cover how next-generation sequencing can be used to measure DNA, RNA, and epigenetic patterns. (
  • In this lecture, we're going to talk about molecular biology structures, by which I mean structures in the DNA and other molecules inside the cell that you need to know about to understand the rest of the course. (
  • So these are mostly terms and, and descriptions of functions that, that go on inside every cell of your body that kind of govern how, how, how you're molecular, how molecular biology works and how genetics works. (
  • The article is also symbolic of a transition between two ages of what might be called the "classical age" of biology and a second "age" of molecular biology . (
  • Some consequences for humanity due to the dominance of molecular biology arise out of the revolution in biology that can be traced back to Watson and Crick's 1953 article: pre-natal screening for disease genes , genetically engineered foods , the rational design of treatments for diseases like AIDS , and the use of information obtained by DNA testing as evidence in criminal court. (
  • The application of physics and chemistry to biological problems led to development of molecular biology. (
  • Molecular biology is particularly concerned with the flow and consequences of biological information at the level of genes and proteins . (
  • Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. (
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (
  • It was a fortunate cioncidence that in 1976 a Workshop on "Unconventional Electron Microscope Methods for the Investigation of Molecular Structures" (sponsored by the European Molecular Biology Organisation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Max-Planck-Gesell- schaft) took place, and that most speakers presenting introductory lectures agreed to publish their contributions in an expanded version in this volume. (
  • 5 Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, Institute for Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. (
  • Ning Qian and Terrnece J. Sejnowski (1988), "Predicting the Secondary Structure of Globular Proteins Using Neural Network Models" in Journal of Molecular Biology 202, 865-884. (
  • Understanding the molecular composition of polymers found in nature is a fundamental pursuit of biology, with a long history tracing back to the early days of elucidating DNA and protein structures, but the toughness that makes sporopollenin so important for all land plants also makes it tough for researchers to study. (
  • The study appears in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology on Nov. 13. (
  • The Chp1-Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS," appears in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology on Nov. 13. (
  • CSHL is ranked number one in the world by Thomson Reuters for impact of its research in molecular biology and genetics. (
  • The student is able to explain the structure of molecules. (
  • Omschrijving: In this course the structure of molecular systems, and interaction of light and molecules will be treated based on the "first principles" of quantum mechanics. (
  • Stable and unstable molecules in all types of environments (vapour, molecular beam, liquid, solution. (
  • Derived from the Greek words crystallon, meaning cold or frozen drop, and graphein, meaning the experimental science of finding out the arrangement of atoms in solids, it is a technique used to determine the structures of large bio-molecules such as proteins. (
  • Techniques like crystallography allow researchers to make continuous changes in the structure of proteins or other bio-molecules until they start to crystallise. (
  • With their floppy structures, they are also very hard to coax into the ordered, solid lineups of individual molecules-"crystals"-needed for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. (
  • We present a method for searching molecular structure databases using tandem MS data of small molecules. (
  • Small molecules are central players as building blocks, effectors and probes of macromolecular structure and function. (
  • So it's actually wrapped around other molecules called histones in what you can see as sort of this beads on a string, just, structure, on the, on the left. (
  • Linus Pauling was a chemist who was very influential in developing an understanding of the structure of biological molecules. (
  • Chemists and biologists can build medium-sized molecules and structures in a variety of shapes and materials. (
  • Although the three-dimensional structure of ClpB/Hsp104 has been determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopic single-particle analysis, information about the dynamics of individual molecules were required to understand the mechanism. (
  • XMView can be used for various forms of molecular visualization, including small molecules, molecular surfaces, molecular symmetry, miller planes, as well as some visualization for macromolecules such as proteins. (
  • Its articles discuss molecular structure in chemistry. (
  • Brezinsky, K. and Dryer, F., "Molecular Structure and Component Blending Effects on Knock Related Chemistry," SAE Technical Paper 872109, 1987, . (
  • I drew it in a chemistry drawing program and used its builtin 3D optimisation to render it as a fairly accurate structure. (
  • The purpose of this review is to examine current molecular docking strategies used in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry, exploring the advances in the field and the role played by the integration of structure- and ligand-based methods. (
  • In this collaborative study with Wei Qiang, assistant professor of biophysical chemistry at Binghamton University, researchers targeted the structure and the dynamics of the aggressive, "seeding-prone" Ser-8-phosphorylated 40-residue Aβ (pS8-Aβ40) fibrils. (
  • Our results offer an approach that can aid in predicting these optimal structures, providing the potential to enhance the production of everything from over-the-counter drugs to new LED materials," adds Tuckerman, also a professor at NYU's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences and the NYU-East China Normal University Center for Computational Chemistry at NYU Shanghai. (
  • The focus of book's content, thereby, is on crucial for understanding of organic synthetic reactions information obtained both in gas- and condense phase by methods of mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction along with indispensable theoretical data about the nature of metal-C bond, structure of organometallics, their kinetic and thermodynamic properties obtained by quantum chemistry. (
  • A chemical structure with stereo-chemistry bonds is provided for each chemical component, in addition to conventional information, such as Chinese and English names, physical and chemical properties. (
  • Now, in an article published today in the journal Nature Plants , Whitehead Institute Member Jing-Ke Weng and first author and Weng lab postdoc Fu-Shuang Li, together with collaborators Professor Mei Hong and graduate student Pyae Phyo from the Department of Chemistry, have used innovative chemical degradation methods and state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the chemical structure of sporopollenin. (
  • In addition to solving a longstanding puzzle in plant chemistry, identifying the structure of sporopollenin opens the door for its potential use in a host of other applications. (
  • To help complete the puzzle, the researchers collaborated with Mei Hong's group in MIT's Department of Chemistry and used magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy, which can determine the chemical structures of insoluble compounds by having them interact with magnetic fields. (
  • Part I provides a brief but accurate summary of all the basic ideas, theories, methods, and conspicuous results of structure analysis and molecular modelling of the condensed phases of organic compounds: quantum chemistry, the intermolecular potential, force field and molecular dynamics methods, structural correlation, and thermodynamics. (
  • Papers describing routine studies of little structural significance (e.g. straightforward X-ray crystal structure determinations) are not encouraged. (
  • Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Steroids focuses on the indentification of steroid structural features that control particular biological effects. (
  • Stilbestrol Estrogens- Molecular/Structural Probes for Understanding Estrogen Action K.S. Korach 6. (
  • In 1951, Pauling published the structure of the alpha helix , a fundamentally important structural component of proteins. (
  • For instance, in a liquid above its melting temperature, the local structure changes on a timescale of a few picoseconds, while close to the glassy state, where the dynamic arrest occurs, the structural relaxation is of the order of 100 seconds. (
  • This structural relaxation is, however, anticipated by the appearance of a faster process of molecular re-arrangements known as the Johari-Goldstein (β JG ) relaxation [2], which remains active even below T g and whose role in the glass transition - whether that of an actor or of a spectator - is still debated. (
  • Particularly, we have emphasised on great ability of silver ions to form diverse number of unusual, often unexpected, coordination compounds with covalent metal-ligand bond from a molecular structural point of view. (
  • In this review, we discuss the methodologies employed to define Xist RNA structures and the tight interplay between structural clues and functionality of lncRNAs. (
  • The team found that other proteins that had similar structural features were associated with telomeres, the cap-like structures at the end of chromosomes. (
  • Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo Simulations a. (
  • Molecular dynamics simulations c. (
  • The 21st EuroQSAR 2016 symposium, entitled "Where Molecular Simulations Meet Drug Discovery" to highlight the importance of atomistic and molecular simulations in drug discovery, will take place from September 4-8, 2016 in Verona, Italy. (
  • To this end, we have used our computational protocol, based on binding free energy calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations, which has successfully produced complex structures in remarkable agreement with experimental findings [1-4]. (
  • In addition, numerical hydrodynamic and MHD simulations of clouds over the past ~15 years have consistently shown that filamentary structure is always present, and may be produced both by turbulence and by the action of self-gravity. (
  • All of the adsorbed Li+ and interlayer water species exchanged on the time scale (0.2 ns) of the molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • Using both atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of these unique polycations, we reveal molecular-level interactions in polycation-DNA binding, thus complementing experimental data with otherwise inaccessible details such as binding free energy, local charge neutralization, and the structure of polycation-DNA complexes [2]. (
  • Abstract molecular structure in 3D space on dark blue background. (
  • Simulation methods include classical and ab-initio molecular dynamics, path-integral molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations. (
  • An active area of ongoing research is to use a combination of both ground and excited state electronic structure calculations to understand the electronic and optical properties of these systems. (
  • Pulay P, Fogarasi G, Pang F, Boggs JE (1979) Systematic ab initio gradient calculations of molecular geometries, force constants, and dipole moment derivatives. (
  • But after carrying out some very good calculations on these he revolted against the Hückel method, threw his excellent calculations out the window, and for his thesis developed entirely independently his now well known all-electron LCAO SCF self-consistent-field method for the calculation of atomic and molecular wave functions, now appropriately referred to, I believe, as the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method. (
  • The Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid was an article published by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in the scientific journal Nature in its 171th volume on page 737-738 (dated April 25, 1953). (
  • The title Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid may suggest that Watson and Crick's discovery is not relevant every day human experience. (
  • Classical molecular dynamics combined with enhanced sampling methods like umbrella sampling and metadynamics are used to explore the conformational landscape of these proteins. (
  • Using modern methods of molecular genetics, we can read this record and try to decipher events in human history such as the origins of our species, migrations, colonisations and mixtures between different populations. (
  • In this study we aimed to be able to put these studies on a sounder scientific basis by using modern molecular genetic methods to test some of the assumptions which underlie them. (
  • Pharmaceutical research has successfully incorporated a wealth of molecular modeling methods, within a variety of drug discovery programs, to study complex biological and chemical systems. (
  • Broadly used in modern drug design, molecular docking methods explore the ligand conformations adopted within the binding sites of macromolecular targets. (
  • The general status of present methods for treating spectroscopic data to obtain Structures will be reviewed. (
  • The lack of experimental studies for the GLP1-GLP1R, GIP-GIPR, and glucagon-GCGR complex structures provides the motivation for elucidating these structures using computational methods. (
  • The molecular systems were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle goniometry. (
  • Spectroscopy, molecular orbitals, and chemical bonding" (PDF). (
  • Research in this area is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the proton and hydroxide ion diffuse through bulk water systems. (
  • They are generated by different molecular mechanisms: ED-A + and ED-B + fibronectin by alternative splicing of pre mRNA, de novo-glycosylated fibronectin by alternative post-translational O -linked glycosylation of the IIICS region, and the laminin isoforms by exchange of single chains of the heterotrimeric molecule. (
  • The analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in natural regenerative phenomena is of great interest to improve medical applications for replacement of lost or damaged tissue in humans. (
  • However, there are scarce efforts devoted to studies of reaction mechanisms, physical and chemical properties and structure of organometallics. (
  • However, the molecular-level mechanisms, such as how ATP binding and hydrolysis change the ClpB structure and how the changes induce disaggregation, are not known. (
  • In order to engineer more effective agonist peptide hormones, knowledge on the binding and signaling mechanisms of the three key peptide-receptor complex structures is of utmost importance. (
  • This surprising molecular mechanism has been discovered by a group of scientists including Stefan Mundlos and Guillaume Andrey from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and the Charitè-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. (
  • This fingerprint is then used to search a molecular structure database such as PubChem. (
  • For the overall lower quality structure predictions in the PconsFam database, remodelling with Rosetta within the AMPLE pipeline proved to be the best approach, generating ensemble search models from single-structure deposits. (
  • Conventional MR typically employs the structure of a homologue of the target protein as a search model, often after some manual or automatic editing. (
  • Conventional MR becomes more difficult as the target-search model relationship becomes more distant and, consequently, the structures tend to differ more. (
  • The nicotinic cholinergic receptor: correlation of molecular structure with functional properties. (
  • In other words, we have tried to answer to major challenge in elaboration and implementation of robust organosilver mediating compounds both at laboratory and industrial scale providing molecular level correlation between structure and properties as well as chemical reactivity. (
  • Examination of the molecular organization of CK2 under different catalytic conditions revealed that the ring-like structure is the favored conformation adopted by the enzyme in the presence of saturating concentrations of substrates and cofactors. (
  • Heparan Sulfate: Molecular Structure and Interactions with Growth Factors and Morphogens 4. (
  • The cytoplasmic surface of intercellular junctions is a complex network of molecular interactions that link the extracellular region of the desmosomal cadherins with the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments. (
  • When combined with a heuristic, allowing simultaneous constrained fitting of the high-resolution structures of the major plaque proteins (desmoplakin, plakophilin, and plakoglobin), it reveals their mutual molecular interactions and explains their stoichiometry. (
  • However, because the molecular constituents of such systems of interest and their interactions are often remarkably complex, elucidating these multi-dimensional free energy surfaces in order to derive the best "molecular answers" has presented significant challenges to scientists. (
  • The use of specific non-covalent interactions to control polymer structure and properties is a rapidly emerging field with applications in diverse disciplines. (
  • In this review, we particularly focus on hIAPP structure, hIAPP aggregation, and hIAPP-membrane interactions. (
  • Computer simulation indicates that formation of these hierarchically structured membranes requires strong interactions between molecular components at early time points in order to generate a diffusion barrier between both solutions. (
  • Molecular structure in the interlayers of lithium-Wyoming montmorillonite with one, two, or three adsorbed water layers was investigated for the first time by concurrent Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation, based on the MCY model of water-water interactions. (
  • The Casein structure data file can be imported to most of the cheminformatics software for further analysis and visualization. (
  • Part of the design goals of XMView was to create a molecular visualization system that would do several things. (
  • Misfolding (altered structure) of proteins and protein aggregation responsible for many diseases. (
  • To test their hypothesis, the scientists generated a chemical system of peptides and coupled it to a physical system involving an alteration in the structure or other words misfolding of proteins. (
  • Eventually, however, with help from insights gained during the CXCR4 project, Wu, as a new professor, and her young team of students used a novel "fusion partner" molecule that would hold CCR5 proteins together enough to form usable crystals, together with efforts of computational modeling, compound synthesis and cell signaling assays from Drs. Hualiang Jiang, Hong Liu and Xin Xie's groups at SIMM, which led to the structure determination of CCR5. (
  • Until now, understanding just the molecular makeup of the proteins - and the more aggressive subtypes that cause a rapid acceleration of the disease - has plagued researchers. (
  • When proteins are exposed stresses like a heat shock, they lose their native structure and form toxic insoluble aggregations. (
  • Bacterial molecular chaperone ClpB and its yeast homologue Hsp104 have an ability to disentangle and reactivate the aggregated proteins. (
  • This is a data set used by Ning Qian and Terry Sejnowski in their study using a neural net to predict the secondary structure of certain globular proteins [1]. (
  • In the Molecular Probes™ cell structure webinars module we will explore the probes used to investigate any given parameter and discuss the most important parameters to measure. (
  • Fogarasi G, Pulay P (1985) Ab initio calculation of force fields and vibrational spectra in Vibrational Spectra and Structure Vol 14, Durig JR (ed) Elsevier, Amsterdam, Chapt. (
  • The data combined with previous $results^{1,2}$ on the spectra of $CH_{3}CH_{2}Cl^{35}$, $CH_{3}CH_{2}Cl^{37}$, and $CH_{2}DCH_{2}Cl^{35}$ have enabled a complete determination of the structure by the substitution method. (
  • Crystallography, the study of atomic and molecular structure, has gained widespread recognition lately. (
  • The three-dimensional structure for the catalytic region of the mammalian protein kinase, casein kinase I delta (CKI delta), has been solved by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.3 A. Beginning in the 1950s, several models for the structure of casein association colloids (micelles) were proposed (Waugh and von Hippel 1956, Hill and Wake 1969, Bingham et al. (
  • Molecular replacement (MR) is the predominant route to solution of the phase problem in macromolecular crystallography. (
  • Macromolecular crystallography requires a source of phasing information to supplement the measured diffraction intensities and thereby solve a structure. (
  • The researchers determined the enzyme structure using a technique called X-ray crystallography. (
  • The first part of the tutorial will provide a quick review of basic molecular simulation techniques. (
  • Experimental studies using structurally designed PAs confirm simulation results by showing that only PAs with high ζ potential are able to yield hierarchically structured membranes. (
  • This result is supported by simulation results suggesting that the thickness of the interfacial contact layer generated immediately after initiation of self-assembly increases with polymer molecular weight. (
  • One of the commonly used assumptions underlying attosecond physics is that, in the propagation step, the initial structure of the ionized electron is "washed out", thus losing the information on the originating orbital. (
  • In looking at the molecular structure, researchers found that the N-terminus, the creation point of the protein, played an important role in manipulating both the fibrils structures and the aggregation processes. (
  • In a video interview, biochemist Wes Sundquist discusses how the HIV virus uses molecular pathways in host cells to replicate itself and spread infection to nearby cells. (
  • However, the number of possible configurations is enormous, and the pathways leading to the most stable ones are complex, which makes these favored structures difficult to nail down in computational searches. (
  • While heterogeneity exists in the basic processes displayed during regenerative events in different species-most notably the cellular source contributing to formation of new tissue-activation of conserved molecular pathways is imperative for proper regulation of cells during regeneration. (
  • In contrast, molecular structure databases such as PubChem ( 6 ) and ChemSpider ( 7 ) contain millions of compounds, with PubChem alone having surpassed 50 million entries. (
  • A common approach to determine a complex plant polymer's structure is to dissolve it in solutions with specific chemical compounds that will break it apart into smaller and smaller pieces from which the complete structure can be deduced. (
  • Bock CW, Trachtman M, George P (1985) The distortion of the ring in monosubstituted benzene derivatives: A molecular orbital study. (
  • After that he moved to USA, where he did his PhD thesis with Robert S. Mulliken from the University of Chicago, on semiempirical MO theory, while holding a post at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.. He realised that the then current approach to molecular orbital theory was incorrect and changed his topic to what resulted in the development of the Roothaan equations. (
  • Here we report the crystal structure of 3-[(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) methylidenyl]-indolin-2-one (IC261), an ATP-competitive inhibitor with differential activity among casein kinase-1 isoforms, in complex with the catalytic domain of fission yeast casein kinase-1 refined to a … Transmission Electron Micrograph of bovine milk casein micelles (a) xed with glu-taraldehyde and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate (pH 7.0). (
  • Portalone G, Schultz G, Domenicano A, Hargittai I (1984) Molecular structure and ring distortions of fluorobenzene: An electron diffraction study, and a comparison with other experimental and ab initio results. (
  • The main focus of this thesis lies on clarifying the effect of chemical modifications on electron transport at the nanoscale, as well as on predicting and designing new type of molecular and nanoelectronic devices. (
  • The most im- pressive analogy, however, concerns the potential of the electron microscope as a tool for structure determination (where the radiation wavelenght is smaller than the atomic distan- ces). (
  • Electron microscope image of an organic molecule having a single-stranded chain with a carbon chain length of 12 (above) and its molecular model (below): The bar in the image is 1 nm long. (
  • Then, by confirming the aforementioned "peculiar" molecular structure, it was proved that a single molecule can be observed with an electron microscope. (
  • Electron microscope image and molecular model of a molecule having a double-stranded chain with a carbon length of 12: Reciprocating motion of molecule in the CNT can be observed. (
  • The number of subunits in the ring and the polymorphism of the ring structures were further confirmed by native mass spectrometry and negative-staining electron microscopy analysis, respectively. (
  • Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Steroids is a "must-have" resource for biochemists, pharmacologists, endocrinologists, biophysicists, and others actively involved in steroid research. (
  • Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Vitamin D Metabolites and Their Analogs N. Ikekawa and S. Ishizuka 9. (
  • Molecular Structure and Biological Activity of Brassinolide and Related Brassinosteroids T.Yokota and K. Mori 10. (
  • When protein folding goes bad, aggregated structures of biological matter known as Amyloid plaques can form. (
  • In this "bite" , we're looking at biological and molecular structure, which, in other words refers to what living things are made of . (
  • Patente US4990502 - Low molecular weight heparins of regular structure, their preparation and their biological uses. (
  • Low molecular weight heparins of regular structure, their preparation and their biological uses. (
  • Membranes with hierarchical structure exist in biological systems, and bio-inspired building blocks have been used to grow synthetic analogues in the laboratory through self-assembly. (
  • This is the first time a structure has been determined of an ATPase involved in a DNA packaging motor," said Michael Rossmann, the Hanley Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences in Purdue's College of Science. (
  • So, if DNA-tagged molecular shapes (whether made of DNA with Rothemund staples, or Schafmeister polymers, or whatever) were allowed to self-assemble to a DNA framework, and then zinc or light (or whatever reagent) were added, then the shapes could bond quite strongly into a single large strong precise molecule. (
  • Molecular Recognition and Polymers covers the fundamental aspects and applications of molecular recognition-in the creation of novel polymeric materials for use in drug delivery, sensors, tissue engineering, molecular imprinting, and other areas. (
  • Biophysical study of protein models can offer insights into how altered protein structure can give rise to new functions, some of which may be crucial and might give a better understanding of how organisms evolved over the ages, according to a study conducted by scientists at Emory University and Georgia Tech. (
  • The trend is well upheld by B Gopal and his research scholars at the Molecular Biophysics Unit (MBU), along with many other scientists. (
  • SHANGHAI, CHINA, AND LA JOLLA, CA - September 12, 2013 - In a long-awaited finding, a team of Chinese and US scientists has determined the high-resolution atomic structure of a cell-surface receptor that most strains of HIV use to get into human immune cells. (
  • Learn about why and how scientists study these structures. (
  • MOFFETT FIELD, Calif. - NASA scientists have discovered evidence that a mysterious red glow, seen throughout the Milky Way and other galaxies but never on Earth, radiates from extremely fine dust clusters that cause the glow by combining molecular forces that oppose each other. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Molecular Geometry, Shape and Structure. (
  • By probing the three dimensional structure of this protein complex, called RNA-Induced Initiation of Transcriptional gene Silencing (RITS), scientists from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) and their collaborators at St. Jude's Research Hospital have discovered new details of how its various parts or "domains" contribute to heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. (
  • He was a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science and the Society of Catholic Scientists. (
  • The special attention will be spent to explain the influence of various physical and chemical processes taking place in a molecular system on the scattered and transmitted light. (
  • They are involved in cataract, which is still a major cause of vision loss world wide, and are fascinating models for processes of molecular evolution and protein interaction. (
  • A possible route to investigate this phenomenon is to study the molecular motions, called relaxation processes, through which a liquid can restore equilibrium following an external perturbation or a spontaneous fluctuation. (
  • Perhaps the most fundamental of such molecular processes entails chromatin rearrangements, which prime large changes in gene expression required for differentiation and/or dedifferentiation of progenitor cells. (
  • The aim is to develop a platform for detailed molecular recognition studies on surfaces. (
  • Floudas, C. A. Molecular Recognition of CXCR4 by a Dual Tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop . (
  • Dynamic changes in the 3D structure of the chromatin in the leg precursor cells bring the Pen enhancer into spatial proximity to the Pitx1 gene, thus enabling the activation of this critical gene specifically in the future leg. (
  • Changes in the 3D structure of chromatin as a prerequisite for the development of arms and legs. (
  • The second member of the RITS complex is a protein called Chp1, which acts like a molecular Velcro that specifically attaches to those areas of chromatin that have been chemically marked by methyl groups. (
  • Our strategy to understand how these various modules of the RITS complex work has been to find out what these structures look like and how they connect to each other and to chromatin," says Joshua-Tor. (
  • Misfolded protein models explain how altered protein structure might also have important functional implications, critical for phylogenetic evolution. (
  • Thus the protein models in the study inspired by the protein misfolding disease show how altered protein structure can bring about newer and useful functions as well which is critical for the phylogenetic evolution of species. (
  • The evolution of molecular clouds. (
  • If such filamentary structures were universal in all molecular clouds of low mass and high mass star formation, then the whole paradigm of cloud formation and evolution leading to star formation would be placed on a framework that centers on cloud condensation into filaments and filament fragmentation into cores. (
  • It will be important for observational studies of star formation in molecular clouds to delineate the conditions ( including magnetic fields ) and time sequence of the formation and evolution of dense filaments and cores within them. (
  • CARMA, SMA, SMT, GBT, Jansky VLA, JCMT, LMT, etc. and future facilities such as CCAT) and theoretical investigations to verify whether such filamentary structure is universal in molecular clouds in different environments and to study the physical conditions (including magnetic fields) and evolution of such structures. (
  • The authors of the research paper have proposed a mechanism for how the motor works by comparing its structure to those of other, similar enzymes called helicases. (
  • We have made extensive use of genomics and bioinformatics (largely through NEIBank) to gain new insights into the molecular composition of the eye and to identify sets of specific changes in sequence and expression that distinguish the human eye from those of other mammals, opening the possibility of improving animal models of human eye disease. (
  • 4. A composition according to claim 3 wherein the peak has a highest point of molecular weight at about 5,500 to 6,000 Da. (
  • Structure-Activity Relationships of Glucocorticoids- Importance of the Regulated Gene and Trans-Acting Factors in Determining Glucocorticoid and Antiglucocorticoid Activity S.S. Simons, Jr. 8. (
  • Casein includes four individual gene product components denoted αs1-, αs2-, β- and κ-casein, which differ in primary structure and type and degree of post-translational modification. (
  • I don't have a lot of experience with 5'-RACE (in fact it's not working well for my gene), but to avoid trouble derived from secondary structure it should be good to perform the RT at high temperatures (up to 55ºC) and maybe use a PCR kit for GC-rich templates. (
  • We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. (
  • The great excitement today, which I attempt to convey in this book, is that molecular details are beginning to merge with physiological responses. (
  • In order to understand the how best to go about predicting these structures, researchers rely on a construct called the free energy surface, a multidimensional mathematical object that reveals optimal spatial or geometrical configurations of a given system--whether it pertains to pharmaceuticals or computer chips. (
  • The structure reveals how these toxins work at the molecular level and provides a promising new target for designing drugs to block the action of botulinum neurotoxins. (
  • The results provide strong experimental support for theories of an intermittent mosaic structure in the deeply supercooled liquid phase. (
  • Thus highlighting the main goal of this book to serve as a useful source of information about those molecular factors and properties governing the usefulness of those chemical classes to organic synthesis, which is important for further molecular design of new intermediates having enhanced synthetic efficiency, high enantioselectivity at mild experimental conditions. (
  • This webinar provides an overview of the structures that comprise the cytoskeleton, as well as important experimental parameters. (
  • We delineate the functional role of important GLP1/GLP1R residues that are associated with binding and signaling based on our complex structure, and provide comparisons with available experimental information. (
  • Furthermore, experimental results show that increasing HA molecular weight decreases the growth rate of orthogonal nanofibers. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Molecular Geometry, Shape and Structure are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • A distinction is made between the determination of relative values with high precision so that trends in structure or vibrational frequencies can be followed and the determination of absolute values to permit intercomparison between different techniques. (
  • What are the molecular geometry structure? (
  • ICMGSS 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Molecular Geometry, Shape and Structure . (
  • Her goal from the beginning was to determine the structures and understand the functions of these two HIV co-receptors and she was very determined which was inspiring," said Stevens. (
  • Sporopollenin is extremely inert and resistant to reacting with other chemicals, including the ones researchers typically use to determine the structures of other plant biopolymers, such as polysaccharides, lignin, and natural rubber. (
  • Also, the chemical and isotopic content of these clouds is reviewed, and comparisons with molecular clouds in external galaxies are made. (
  • New York University chemists have developed a computational approach for determining the viability and suitability of complex molecular structures--an advancement that could aid in the development of pharmaceuticals as well as a range of other materials. (
  • This unit examines how atomic structure relates to the macroscopic properties of substances. (
  • Molecular weight of albumin is 65000 KD Casein is the dominant protein group in bovine milk and is the major functional contributor to a family of dairy ingredients which are used ubiquitously in the food industry. (
  • Here we translate this 'albumin hitchhiking' approach to molecular vaccines, through the synthesis of amphiphiles (amph-vaccines) comprising an antigen or adjuvant cargo linked to a lipophilic albumin-binding tail by a solubility-promoting polar polymer chain. (
  • According to IBM's Dan Rugar, three-dimensional imaging would have tremendous medical implications for controlling diseases and understanding DNA and protein structures. (
  • Thus, a molecule with a peculiar structure resembling that of a lipid molecule was designed and synthesized by bonding a boron cluster as a marker and a flexible chain molecule (hydrocarbon). (
  • The student can explain relations between intensities of optical transitions for different degrees of freedom in a molecular system. (
  • Introduction: Radio and IR studies of molecular clouds. (
  • High resolution studies of molecular clouds. (
  • MacDonald believes that these micro-STMs could also be used for manufacturing massively parallel micro-robots for information storage and molecular-scale robotics, enabling researchers to probe DNA and other molecular-scale structures. (
  • TDI experiments are designed to detect X-ray scattering from the sample using an interferometer ( Figure 1 ), providing information that is both time and space resolved and allowing researchers to probe molecular motions at the timescale where the β JG process takes place. (
  • To image the chemical structure of a molecule with an AFM, it is necessary to operate in very close proximity to the molecule. (
  • A tip terminated with a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule yielded the optimum contrast at a tip height of approximately 0.5 nanometers above the molecule being imaged and-acting like a powerful magnifying glass-resolved the individual atoms within the pentacene molecule, revealing its exact atomic-scale chemical structure. (
  • What is hidden in the technical jargon of the title is that it is Watson and Crick's discovery of the chemical structure of DNA that finally revealed how genetic instructions are stored inside organisms and passed from generation to generation. (
  • The strong chemical bond to the gold substrate was retained during the deprotection procedure as only thiolate sulfur species were observed for the BOR-Uncapped molecular system. (
  • Furthermore, the chemical structure of such PAs must incorporate residues that form β-sheets, which facilitates self-assembly of long nanofibers. (
  • The topics include morphology, formation, and lifetimes of molecular clouds, their relation to star formation, and their chemical and isotopic content. (
  • The main focus is here on the links between energies, structures, and chemical or physical properties. (
  • Journal of Molecular Structure is a scientific journal published by Elsevier ScienceDirect since 1968. (
  • Journal of Molecular S. (
  • Findings are detailed in a paper published Thursday (March 22) in the journal Molecular Cell . (
  • Both inhibitors were bound at the active site, and the overall protein structures were left unchanged, although some small but significant side chain movements at the active site were observed. (
  • Casein is present as molecular clusters called micelles. (
  • Researchers theorize that the red glow, called the Extended Red Emission (ERE), is due to a very unusual form of charged molecular clusters. (
  • Here, I extend the sympatric sister-species approach, in which variance between lineages and places is minimized, to sister clades and test a fundamental assumption of comparative genetic studies of dispersal: that taxa which evolved at the same time and in the same place will, if they have similar life histories and ecologies, have essentially the same phylogeographic structure. (
  • In eastern Australia, where strong environmental structure is lacking, phylogeographic differences between species that have been codistributed for ∼85% of their evolutionary histories were consistent with tendencies favoured by their modest life-history differences, that is the larger, rarer species had lower genetic diversity. (
  • Structure-based design of vaccines, particularly the iterative optimization used so successfully in the structure-based design of drugs, has been a long-sought goal. (
  • Cross-docking was performed for a subset of cases where an unbound receptor structure was available, and in that case, 40% of peptides were docked successfully. (
  • Dense molecular gas in star-forming regions The importance of submillimeter observations. (
  • It has been suggested that such filamentary structure may be ubiquitous in the internal structure of all molecular clouds and may be preferential formation sites of dense cores that eventually collapse to form stars. (
  • In fission yeast, telomeres are one of the locations where heterochromatin is found, another being the centromere -- the dense knob-like structure at the center of a chromosome. (
  • therefore, the results of X-ray crystallographic, NMR spectroscopic, and theoretical studies on structure-activity relationships form an integral part of the book. (
  • Her landmark study of the CXCR4 structure was published in Science in 2010. (
  • A joint research group of the University of Tokyo, Japan Science & Technology Agency (JST) and Japan's Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has succeeded in recording video images showing temporal changes in organic molecule structures. (
  • Significant difficulties involved in the modeling of charge transfer within large molecular systems required an entirely new approach," said Dr. Timothy Lee, astrochemist and chief of the Space Science and Astrobiology Division at NASA Ames. (
  • International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. (