Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.ComputersAngiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.South AmericaPlants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.North AmericaFruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/277092)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/277092)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (3/277092)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (4/277092)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/277092)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/277092)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (7/277092)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (8/277092)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Evolution of a species specific determinant essay, buy custom Evolution of a species specific determinant essay paper cheap, Evolution of a species specific determinant essay paper sample, Evolution of a species specific determinant essay sample service online
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new usage of functionalized oligodeoxynucleotide probe for site-specific modification of a guanine base within RNA. AU - Onizuka, Kazumitsu. AU - Taniguchi, Yosuke. AU - Sasaki, Shigeki. PY - 2010/1/29. Y1 - 2010/1/29. N2 - Site-specific modification of RNA is of great significance to investigate RNA structure, function and dynamics. Recently, we reported a new method for sequence-and cytosine-selective chemical modification of RNA based on the functional group transfer reaction of the 1-phenyl-2-methylydene-1,3-diketone unit of the 6-thioguanosine base incorporated in the oligodeoxynucleotide probe. In this study, we describe that the functionality transfer rate is greatly enhanced and the selectivity is shifted to the guanine base when the reaction is performed under alkaline conditions. Detailed investigation indicated that the 2-amino group of the enolate form of rG is the reactant of the functionality transfer reaction. As a potential application of this efficient ...
In 2000 H. van den Berg published eleven articles. In 2001 H. van den Berg published five articles, published one book - monograph and published one chapter. In 2002 H. van den Berg published seven articles, published three chapters and published one book - monograph . In 2004 H. van den Berg published four articles. In 2005 H. van den Berg published three articles and published one chapter. In 2006 H. van den Berg published six articles. In 2007 H. van den Berg published seven articles. In 2009 H. van den Berg published one article. In 2010 H. van den Berg published three articles. In 2011 H. van den Berg published six articles. In 2012 H. van den Berg published two articles. In 2013 H. van den Berg published four articles. ...
We report the sequence of a 4.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a human melanoma library which bears high amino acid sequence identity to the yeast mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymerase (Mip1p). This cDNA contains a 3720-bp open reading frame encoding a predicted 140-kDa polypeptide that is 43% identical to Mip1p. The N-terminal part of the sequence contains a 13 glutamine stretch encoded by a CAG trinucleotide repeat which is not found in the other DNA polymerases gamma (Pol gamma). Multiple amino acid sequence alignments with Pol gamma from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia pastoris, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis and Mus musculus show that these DNA polymerases form a family strongly conserved from yeast to man and are only loosely related to the Family A DNA polymerases. ...
A short sequence of predominantly basic amino acids Pro-Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val from SV40 Large T is responsible for the normal nuclear location of the protein. Alteration of Lys-128 to each of six different residues other than Arg renders Large T cytoplasmic, whereas single amino acid changes in the surrounding region impair but do not prevent nuclear accumulation. When transposed to the amino terminus of cytoplasmic Large T species, or Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or of chicken muscle pyruvate kinase, the sequence around Lys-128 of Large T is able to direct the recipient protein to the nucleus. This demonstrates that these amino acids can be sufficient for nuclear location and can act as a nuclear location signal. A computer search of over 2500 proteins reveals that some other nuclear proteins (for example, BK virus Large T, SV40 VP2 and adenovirus 72kDa DNA binding protein) contain very similar basic tracts, but so too do some presumed non-nuclear proteins (for example, poliovirus ...
Alazawi W, Heath H, et al. Stat2 loss leads to cytokine-independent, cell-mediated lethality in LPS-induced sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(21):8656-8661, 2013 [95].. Arnold, ES, SC Ling, et al. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP- 43. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(8):E736- E745, 2013 [96].. Burdick RC, Hu WS, Pathak VK. Nuclear import of APOBEC3F-labeled HIV-1 preintegration complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(49):E4780-E4789, 2013 [97].. Chen J, Feigenbaum L, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes induced by pancreatic beta cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(33):13534- 13539, 2013 [98].. Feng MQ, Gao W, et al. Therapeutically targeting glypican-3 via a conformation-specific single-domain antibody in hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(12):E1083-E1091, 2013 [99].. Kim TS, Park JE, Shukla A, Choi S, Murugan RN, Lee JH, Ahn M, Rhee K, ...
Using rigorous statistical methods, we have identified and evaluated unusual properties of the distribution of charged residues within the sequences of eukaryotic cellular transcription factors. Virtually all transcription factors, including GAL4, c-Jun, C/EBP, CREB, Oct-1, Oct-2, Sp1, Egr-1, CTF-1, steroid and thyroid hormone receptors, and others, carry one or more highly significant charge clusters. For the most part these clusters (conserved within families of homologous proteins) are of positive net charge but contain also substantial numbers of acidic residues. Predominantly basic charge clusters are often, but not exclusively, associated with DNA-binding domains, and vice versa. Negative charge clusters of note occur only in the yeast protein PHO4 and in the proteins encoded at the Drosophila loci zeste (zeta) and knrl. This dearth of statistically significant negative charge clusters raises questions with respect to the generality of acidic activation domains. A number of sequences ...
RFC 7035 Relative Location October 2013 reference and relative locations while providing a baseline that is as accurate as possible. Both the baseline and the reference location are defined as either a geodetic location [OGC.GeoShape] or a civic address [RFC4776]. If the baseline location was expressed as a geodetic location, the reference MUST be geodetic. If the baseline location was expressed as a civic address, the reference MUST be civic. Baseline and reference locations MAY also include dynamic location information [RFC5962]. The relative location can be expressed using a point (2- or 3-dimensional) or a shape that includes uncertainty: circle, sphere, ellipse, ellipsoid, polygon, prism, or arc-band. Descriptions of these shapes can be found in [RFC5491]. Optionally, a reference to a map document can be provided. The reference is a URI [RFC3986]. The document could be an image or dataset that represents a map, floor plan, or other form. The type of document the URI points to is described ...
The M2 protein of the influenza A virus is a homotetrameric transmembrane proton channel implicated in several stages of the viral replication process. Each of its 97-residue monomers is known to include a transmembrane α-helix. but the structures of the N- and C-terminal domains have not yet been solved. A significant barrier to an atomic level understanding of the M2 protein is the difficulty associated with expression and purification of the full-length protein, which has primarily been studied in the form of truncated constructs covering the amphipathic helix and a short C-terminal segment. This C-terminal segment, which includes residues 46-62, has been shown for a truncated version of the protein to consist of an amphipathic helix lying on the membrane surface. Here, we present SDSL-EPR structural studies using full-length M2 constructs to examine sites 50-54 in the proposed amphipathic helix region of M2. Using power saturation data for the protein reconstituted into vesicles and CW ...
Аннотация доклада: A new algorithm Zebra and a corresponding web-server have been developed to systematically study diverse protein superfamilies and identify the subfamily-specific positions (SSPs) - conserved only within functional subfamilies but different between them - that seem to be responsible for different substrate specificity, catalytic activity, stability, etc. [1]. It is known from experimental enzymology that mutations in the active site can change enantioselectivity, substrate specificity and catalytic promiscuity more effectively than distant ones. However, both close and distant mutations can be important for activity and stability thus highlighting complexity of evolutionary adaptation. Therefore, to identify functionally important SSPs a novel scoring function is suggested that incorporates structural information as well as physicochemical and residue conservation in protein subfamilies. The algorithm does not require pre-defined subfamilies and can propose ...
Human cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) is a zinc finger DNA binding protein of unknown function. The human CNBP cDNA was used as a probe to isolate four structurally distinct but highly homologous mouse liver cDNA clones. Each of the mouse clones exhibited extraordinary sequence conservation with human CNBP cDNA, and the predicted mouse amino acid sequence identities with human CNBP protein ranged from 99 to 100%. Genetic mapping of CNBP genes in interspecific and intersubspecific mouse backcrosses revealed two loci that hybridize to CNBP cDNA at high stringency, located on chromosomes 5 and 6. The subcellular distribution of the CNBP protein was characterized with a specific polyclonal antibody generated against a synthetic peptide from the carboxyl terminus. CNBP was found in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum in subcellular fractions from mouse liver, but was undetectable in nuclear fractions. These data suggest that CNBP is a member of a highly conserved family of
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Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format Reported/Curator concluded; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format Reported/Curator concluded; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
The three-dimensional structure of a ternary complex of the purine repressor, PurR, bound to both its corepressor, hypoxanthine, and the 16-base pair purF operator site has been solved at 2.7 A resolution by x-ray crystallography. The bipartite structure of PurR consists of an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and a larger carboxyl-terminal corepressor binding and dimerization domain that is similar to that of the bacterial periplasmic binding proteins. The DNA-binding domain contains a helix-turn-helix motif that makes base-specific contacts in the major groove of the DNA. Base contacts are also made by residues of symmetry-related alpha helices, the "hinge" helices, which bind deeply in the minor groove. Critical to hinge helix-minor groove binding is the intercalation of the side chains of Leu54 and its symmetry-related mate, Leu54, into the central CpG-base pair step. These residues thereby act as "leucine levers" to pry open the minor groove and kink the purF operator by 45 degrees. ...
Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
Affects function: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
The DNA sequence of the whole of the short unique region (U S ) and that of part of the short terminal repeat (TR S ) of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) were determined. HVT U S is 8·6 kbp long and contains eight potential open reading frames (ORFs). Seven of these have counterparts in the U S of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The homologous proteins include US1, US2, US10, protein kinase (US3) and the glycoproteins gD, gI and gE. In addition, HVT contains one ORF which has a counterpart in the U S of Marek's disease virus (MDV) but is not homologous to any other known herpesvirus gene. Although HVT and MDV proteins encoded by U S genes have evident similarities with proteins encoded by alphaherpesviruses, multiple alignment analysis of predicted amino acid sequences show that HVT proteins are more closely related to MDV proteins than to homologous proteins of mammalian alphaherpesviruses. The percentage amino acid identity between HVT and MDV U S -encoded proteins ranges from 35 to 65, the
Appropriate C-terminal cleavage of a CTL epitope by the proteasome is a crucial step in the formation of precursor peptides leading to MHC presentable TCR ligands. A single residue exchange, flanking the C-terminal amino acid, obliterates accurate proteasome-mediated cleavage. This leads to the generation of peptide precursors that are neither suitable for TAP translocation nor for MHC class I binding. In this case an N to D exchange is caused by a single nucleotide mutation (N = AAC or AAT codon; D = GAC or GAT codon). An alternative explanation for the lack of epitope presentation of the Friend homologue could be the lower MHC class I-binding affinity. The Friend sequence harbors an alternative anchor residue Y instead of F, the binding affinity of the peptide for the MHC class I-Kb molecule has been studied in detail and published in our previous paper (31). The binding affinity of the Y peptide is ∼5-fold lower than that of the F peptide. However, the affinity of this peptide is still very ...
Philus transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79: 2393 2397. 47. Duffin PM, Seifert HS DNA uptake sequence-mediated enhancement of transformation in Neisseria
A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing ...
SHANGHAI, May 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- A first full-length class B GPCR crystal structure reveals novel receptor activation mechanisms.
The Runt related transcription factors (RUNX) are recognized as key players in suppressing or promoting tumor growth. RUNX3, a member of this family, is known as a tumor suppressor in many types of cancers, although such a paradigm was challenged by some researchers. The TGF-β pathway governs major upstream signals to activate RUNX3. RUNX3 protein consists of several regions and domains. The Runt domain is a conserved DNA binding domain and is considered as the main part of RUNX proteins since. Herein, we compared the effects of Runt domains and full-Runx3 in cell viability by designing two constructs of Runx3, including N-terminal region and Runt domain. We investigated the effect of full-Runx3, N-t, and RD on growth inhibition in AGS, MCF-7, A549, and HEK293 cell lines which are different in TGF-β sensitivity, in the absence and presence of TGF-β. The full length RUNX3 did not notably inhibit growth of these cell lines while, the N-t and RD truncates showed different trends in these cell lines.
Effect: The variants effect on the proteins function, in the format R/C where R is the value reported by the source and C is the value concluded by the curator; + indicating the variant affects function, +? probably affects function, +* affects function, not associated with individuals disease phenotype, # affects function, not associated with any known disease phenotype, - does not affect function, -? probably does not affect function, ? effect unknown, . effect not classified ...
NCAM in vertebrates and its related molecules, apCAM in Aplysia, fasciclin II in Drosophila, and OCAM in mammals, play key roles in various aspects of brain development and functions. In this study, we have identified and characterized three members of the NCAM gene family in zebrafish, designated as zNCAM, zOCAM, and zPCAM. Three molecules exhibit similar domain organization: an amino-terminal signal peptide, five immunoglobulin-like domains, two fibronectin type III-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic region. A novel molecule zPCAM is most closely related to zNCAM with 66% amino acid identity. Diversity in the extracellular region of zPCAM is generated by insertion of two different types of variable alternatively spliced exons. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that three molecules were specifically expressed by the central and peripheral nervous systems from early developmental stages in region-specific and cell-type-specific manners. For example, ...
Interactions between GPCRs and their cognate G proteins are known to involve several different domains on both the receptor and the G protein heterotrimer. Within Gα, the best characterized GPCR contact site is the extreme C terminus where residues at positions -3 and -4 are particularly important for specific receptor recognition (Conklin et al., 1993, 1996; Kostenis et al., 1997c; Bahia et al., 1998; Blahos et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2002). We have recently demonstrated the importance of the linker I region of Gαq proteins in constraining the fidelity of receptor recognition. A highly conserved glycine residue in linker I (glycine 66) regulates coupling selectivity indirectly by playing a role in the specificity of nucleotide exchange within Gαq induced by ligand-activated GPCRs (Heydorn et al., 2004). Here, we analyzed 1) the relationship between the linker I region and the extreme C terminus of Gα in determining selective GPCR coupling and 2) whether different GPCRs use different Gα ...
The Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB12 is a light-inducible, flavonol-specific activator of flavonoid biosynthesis. The transactivation activity of the AtMYB12 protein was analyzed using a C-terminal deletion series in a transient A. thaliana protoplast assay with the goal of mapping the activation domain (AD). Although the deletion of the last 46 C-terminal amino acids did not affect the activation capacity, the deletion of the last 98 amino acids almost totally abolished transactivation of two different target promoters. A domain swap experiment using the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain revealed that the region from positions 282 to 328 of AtMYB12 was sufficient for transactivation. In contrast to the R2R3-MYB ADs known thus far, that of AtMYB12 is not located at the rearmost C-terminal end of the protein. The AtMYB12 AD is conserved in other experimentally proven R2R3-MYB flavonol regulators from different species ...
Lower vertebrate species, including Xenopus laevis, exhibit restricted antibody diversity relative to higher vertebrates. We have analyzed more than 180 VH gene-containing recombinant clones from an unamplified spleen cDNA library by selective sequencing of JH and CH positive clones following iterative hybridization screening with family-specific VH probes, 11 unique families of VH genes, each associated with a unique genomic Southern blot hybridization pattern, are described and compared. Considerable variation in the number of hybridizing components detected by each probe is evident. The nucleotide sequence difference between VH families is as great as, if not more than, that reported in other systems, including representatives of the mammalian, avian, and elasmobranch lineages. Some Xenopus Ig gene families encode alternative amino acids at positions that are otherwise invariant or very rarely substituted in known Igs. Furthermore, variations in complementarity determining region sequences ...
Two distinct IL-1 receptors have been identified as shown by the cloning studies of Sims and coworkers. Both receptors are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The type I receptor is an 80 kDa transmembrane protein, 552 amino acids long, with a single 22 amino acid transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail of 213 amion acids. Its extracellular ligand-binding region consists of three immunoglob-ulin-like domains. The type II receptor is a 60 kDa protein and is similar to the type I receptor in its extracellular and transmembrane regions. The type II receptor has a short cytoplasmic tail of 29 amino acids and is incapable of signal transduction. The type II receptor actually competitively inhibits IL-1 activity by acting as a decoy receptor for IL-1, and regulates the level of extracellular IL-1.. IL-1 acts on target cells by binding with high affinity (Kd of 10~10 m) to IL-1 type I receptors. Type I receptors are found on T cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, fibroblasts and ...
Identification of Critical Amino Acid Residues in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 IN Required for Efficient Proviral DNA Formation at Steps prior to Integra
Alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene is often used as a mechanism for generating protein variants with diverse functions (reviewed by McKeown, 1992). In the case of transcription factor genes, alternative splicing frequently gives rise to protein isoforms with distinct or even opposing transcriptional activities (reviewed by Foulkes and Sassone‐Corsi, 1992). However, few cases are known where the DNA sequence specificity of a transcription factor is altered by alternative splicing. Pax6 belongs to this class of genes which normally code for transcription factors with modular DNA‐binding domains such as the mammalian WT‐1, the Drosophila Tramtrack and CF2 zinc finger proteins (Bickmore et al., 1992; Gogos et al., 1992; Read and Manley, 1992). Here we have demonstrated that a second Pax gene, Pax8, also codes for alternative splice products with drastically different DNA‐binding specificities.. The paired domain is a bipartite DNA‐binding region consisting of an ...
Nine integrin alpha subunits contain an additional domain (termed A or I) that is inserted into the head region, where it plays a central role in ligand binding: thus, recombinant I domains recapitulate many of the ligand-binding properties of the intact integrin. The first crystal structure of an I domain shows that it adopts the dinucleotide-binding fold, with a central mostly parallel beta sheet surrounded on both sides by amphipathic alpha helices. At the C-terminal end of the beta sheet is a conserved metal binding site that has been called the metal ion-dependent adhesion site, or MIDAS motif. Mutagenesis studies have shown that the MIDAS motif and exposed side chains on the surrounding surface are required for ligand binding, and are thus likely to form the ligand contact sites. Comparison between two different crystal forms of the alphaM-I domain led to the proposal that affinity regulation occurs via changes in metal coordination at the MIDAS motif that are linked to tertiary changes ...
A new kind of high avidity binding molecule, termed peptabody was made by harnessing the result of multivalent interaction. 85 kDa, with interchain disulfide bonds. Pab-S could be dissociated under denaturing and reducing circumstances and reassociated like a pentamer with full-binding activity. This intrinsic feature has an easy method to mix Pab substances with two different peptide specificities, creating heteropentamers with bispecific and/or chelating properties thus. binding actions for different receptors. A robust method of developing artificial ligands emerges by MCC950 sodium novel inhibtior the testing of huge phage libraries, displaying billions of different polypeptide sequences fused with coat proteins on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage (1, 2). For example, isolation of new peptide ligands allowed the mapping of antibody binding sites, the characterization of important residues in HLA-DR molecules, and the identification of protease substrates or inhibitors (for review see ...
Hematopoietic antigen receptors such as the TCR, the B cell receptor, or Fc receptors are generally composed of at least two different subunits, one representing the ligand binding site, the other being responsible for signal transduction after receptor engagement. The molecular structure of these two subunits reflects their different tasks for eliciting cellular responses. Thus, the ligand binding site normally comprises a long extracellular domain (serving as recognition element), an α-helical transmembrane domain that carries at least one charged amino acid, and a very short cytoplasmic segment devoid of any signaling motifs. In contrast, the signal-transducing component is composed of a very short extracellular domain (lacking an external ligand), a transmembrane domain that also contains a charged amino acid (to allow stable interaction with the ligand binding subunit), and a comparably long cytoplasmic tail carrying particular amino acid motifs, which are necessary for signal ...
GWAS and more recently whole-exome/genome sequencing have generated a massive expansion in the number of candidate disease genes. Animal models will have an essential role in validating candidate genes and understanding their role in pathobiology. Advances in targeted genome engineering with TALENs and CRISPRs now makes it feasible for individual laboratories to generate heritable and precise sequence modifications of their gene of interest in any organism. Zebrafish are an attractive model system because they share the vast majority of human disease genes. Genome editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 and TALENs permit heritable and precise sequence modification of the genome. In this session I will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the new genome editing tools and compare these methods to existing gene knock-down approaches. I will provide a brief overview of how we are applying these exciting genome editing tools to generate more informative models of human disease.. ...
Yeast two-hybrid system. The C-terminal regions of mGluRs (ct-mGluRs) and the GABAB2 subunit of GABA receptors were amplified by PCR from plasmids encoding the full-length rat receptors or by reverse transcriptase (RT)-mediated PCR from rat brain total RNA. The amplified fragments were subcloned in frame into a bait plasmid, pAS2-1 (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). The appropriate integrity of inserts was verified by DNA sequencing. In yeast two-hybrid screening, an adult rat brain cDNA library fused to the GAL4 activation domain (MATCHMAKER GAL4 cDNA library; Clontech) was cotransformed into yeast Y190 (Clontech) with the bait plasmid containing the ct-mGluR2 sequence. Colony selection and β-galactosidase reporter gene assay were performed as described previously (Dev et al., 1999). Yeast two-hybrid screening of tamalin-binding proteins from a rat brain cDNA library was conducted with use of the bait plasmid containing the full-length rat tamalin sequence.. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. Four ...
Author Summary Intrinsically unstructured/disordered proteins (IUPs/IDPs) do not adopt a stable structure in isolation but exist as a highly flexible ensemble of conformations. Despite the lack of a well-defined structure these proteins carry out important functions. Many IUPs/IDPs function via binding specifically to other macromolecules that involves a disorder-to-order transition. The molecular recognition functions of IUPs/IDPs include regulatory and signaling interactions where binding to multiple partners and high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play a crucial role. Due to their specific functional and structural properties, these binding regions have distinct properties compared to both globular proteins and disordered regions in general. Here, we present a general method to identify disordered binding regions from the amino acid sequence. Our method targets the essential feature of these regions: they behave in a characteristically different manner in isolation than bound to their partner
We have mapped determinants for species‐specific interactions of Par components (Figure 6). Operon repression involves a specific interaction between ParA and the operator DNA. The specific determinant includes a HTH motif in the N‐terminal region of ParA and probably contacts the operator directly. Direct binding of ParA to the operator sequence has been shown previously (Davis et al., 1992).. Specific enhancement of repression by ParB was shown to be due to a protein-protein interaction with ParA rather than direct recognition of the operator by ParB. This is consistent with the observation that ParB does not appear to bind to the operator by itself, and does not cause any qualitative modification of the footprint of ParA bound to operator DNA (Davis et al., 1992). The ParA-ParB interaction involves determinants in the C‐terminal region of ParA and the N‐terminal end of ParB (Figure 6). ParA and ParB interact directly in vitro (Davis et al., 1992). Thus it is likely that the mapped ...
The tumor suppressor protein, p53, is mutated or dysregulated in nearly all human cancers(1). The amino terminal domains are essential for transcriptional activation in stressed cells and play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and senescence. The transactivation (TAD) and proline rich domains in this region are dynamic and intrinsically disordered; lacking stable secondary or tertiary structure. This region contains multiple binding sites; arguably, the most significant of these is for p53s negative regulator, the E3 ligase, MDM2. An important, but less understood interaction involving the single stranded DNA binding protein, RPA70A, is hypothesized to be involved in maintaining genome integrity(2-4). Additionally, the amino terminus contains an important single nucleotide polymorphism that has demonstrated different affinity for MDM2 and is of significant biological importance in the induction of apoptosis (5). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
K(v)3.4 belongs to the shaw subfamily of shaker-type potassium channels. It conducts fast inactivating, high threshold currents in the central nervous system and in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The corresponding mouse gene, Kcnc4, consists of five exons spanning a region of 20 kb. Approximately 700 bp of regulatory sequence were delineated. It is GC rich and lacks typical TATA and CAAT motifs. Instead, seven Sp-1 and three E-box elements define putative regulatory sequences. The mouse K(v)3.4 mRNA has a size of 3639 bp, 1120 bp of which are 3 untranslated region. A transcript initiated from an alternative 5-exon was identified by RACE and verified by genomic analysis. This isoform, designated K(v)3.4d, is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and probably results from alternative promoter usage. It encodes a channel protein with a novel N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. It lacks the conserved sequence motifs encoding the shaw-type tetramerization domain and the ball peptide, which ...
Comparative genomics is a powerful means of uncovering important functional DNA elements through DNA sequence conservation [63], but identification of mouse Dxz4 was initially discovered not through primary DNA sequence conservation but instead through conservation of DNA sequence organization within a syntenic region of the mouse genome. This work led to the subsequent identification of DXZ4 in a diverse group of distantly related mammals. DNA sequence comparisons revealed a highly conserved region within each DXZ4 monomer that corresponds to the CTCF binding motif that is bound by CTCF in all mammals tested thus far. Furthermore, the highly conserved sequence immediately adjacent to the Ctcf consensus site suggests a second DNA binding protein may associate alongside Ctcf. Therefore, on the basis of conservation, several features of DXZ4 appear to have functional importance in eutherian mammals: CTCF binding, tandem-repeat organization, expression, and location downstream of PLS3.. In primates ...
Researchers have just made an important discover in how chromosomes are recognized and repaired after suffering a complete breakage. ...
Evidence that the transcriptional unit identified corresponds to fl(2)d: Several lines of evidence indicate that the transcriptional unit described above corresponds to fl(2)d. First, the site of P-element insertion in the fl(2)dP mutant disrupts the longer Fl(2)d ORF (Figures 2A and 4A). Second, sequence analysis of genomic DNA from fl(2)d1 flies, a recessive temperature-sensitive mutant of fl(2)d, revealed a single G to A nucleotide change at nucleotide position 939. This results in an amino acid change from aspartic acid to asparagine at position 180 of the longer version of Fl(2)d ORF (Figure 4, A and B). Third, sequence analysis of genomic DNA from fl(2)d2/+ heterozygous flies also revealed DNA alterations that are consistent with the stronger, non-sex-specific phenotype associated with this mutation (Granadinoet al. 1992). Because fl(2)d2 is lethal in homozygosis, DNA from fl(2)d2/+ heterozygous flies was amplified by PCR to generate products that span the complete ORF. The profile of the ...
Distribution of the mRNA/peptide in the cardiovascular system Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA under low hybridization stringency with a 42-mer synthetic oligonucleotide probe corresponding to amino acid residues 7-20 of ET, showed that three different restriction fragments were always detected regardless of the restriction endonucleases used. The nucleotide sequences encoding amino acid residues of the three ETs are highly conserved among the three genes, with 77-82% of the nucleotide residues being identical [2]. By contrast, the nucleotide sequences upstream from the mature peptides are very poorly conserved. These observations suggest that although the three genes are evolutionally relatively distant from each other, the genes evolved from a common ancestral gene under strong pressure to preserve mature ET sequences. The three peptides were designated ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 [5]. ET-1 is the original peptide corresponding to that detected in the culture medium of porcine aortic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TTC4, a novel human gene containing the tetratricopeptide repeat and mapping to the region of chromosome 1p31 that is frequently deleted in sporadic breast cancer. AU - Su, Guanfang. AU - Roberts, Terry. AU - Cowell, John Kenneth. PY - 1999/1/15. Y1 - 1999/1/15. N2 - The 1p31 region shows loss of heterozygosity in up to 50% of human breast cancers, indicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this location. We have mapped six novel ESTs to a 15-Mb contig of yeast artificial chromosomes spanning the critical region of 1p31. One of these ESTs was localized within the contig to the region most commonly undergoing loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer. The corresponding gene sequence for this EST was established by cDNA cloning and RACE procedures. This gene is 2 kb long and contains a tetratricopeptide repeat motif and a coiled-coil domain. This family of genes has been implicated in a wide variety of functions, including tumorigenesis. This is the fourth member of the ...
Press release about the Basel Committee issuing final guidelines on identification and management of step-in risk (25 October 2017). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision released today the final Guidelines on identification and management of step-in risk. Step-in risk refers to the risk that a bank provides financial support to an entity beyond, or in the absence of, its contractual obligations should the entity experience financial stress.
We have developed three computer programs for comparisons of protein and DNA sequences. They can be used to search sequence data bases, evaluate similarity scores, and identify periodic structures based on local sequence similarity. The FASTA program is a more sensitive derivative of the FASTP program, which can be used to search protein or DNA sequence data bases and can compare a protein sequence to a DNA sequence data base by translating the DNA data base as it is searched. FASTA includes an additional step in the calculation of the initial pairwise similarity score that allows multiple regions of similarity to be joined to increase the score of related sequences. The RDF2 program can be used to evaluate the significance of similarity scores using a shuffling method that preserves local sequence composition. The LFASTA program can display all the regions of local similarity between two sequences with scores greater than a threshold, using the same scoring parameters and a similar alignment ...
On Feb 8, 2012, at 8:52 AM, Brad Kemper wrote: , On Feb 8, 2012, at 1:28 AM, Alex Mogilevsky ,[email protected], wrote: , ,,, From: Brad Kemper [mailto:[email protected]] ,,, Sent: Tuesday, February 07, 2012 6:34 PM ,,, ,,, What it the purpose of this restriction? If authors wants that behavior, they can ,,, just set position:relative on the first block. Why must it be prescribed as a ,,, containing block? ,, ,, Set position:relative on first region or root element of named flow? , , Im confused by the question, because root element of named flow is meaningless to me (or, has been meaningless, or should be meaningless). The root of any HTML document Id the HTML element viewport, and there is only one root per document. , , I had meant that the author could set position:relative on first region, instead of the first region being the ICB. It seems like that would amount to the same effect, except that it wouldnt be mandatory (the author could leave the first region as static, and ...
Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 16-32. ... Groombridge 1982 , title=The IUCN Amphibia - Reptilia Red Data Book *^ Bradford 2017 ,title= Health Survey Including Selected ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60: 183-191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.026. PMID 21459152.. ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... However, molecular data does not support the traditional arrangement; it is now clear that "near passerines" and "higher ... Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G. P. (2003): Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae ( ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-7. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 . ... This was criticized, and an early DNA sequence study was based on erroneous data and subsequently retracted. There was then an ... They were especially common in the gut with Clostridia DNA sequence counts between 26% and 85% relative to total sequence ... Retrieved 3 August 2010 Avise, J. C.; Nelson, W. S. & Sibley, C. G. (1994) "DNA sequence support for a close phylogenetic ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 1-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 . ... Media related to Turkey vulture at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cathartes aura at Wikispecies Turkey vultures on eNature. ... 1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 327-346. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.010. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 15925523. ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15697 ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... "Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960" (PDF). Journal of ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... 22 October 2015). "A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing". Nature. 526 (7574 ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... Johansson, Ulf S.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2003). "Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae ( ... Witt, C.C. (2004), Rates of Molecular Evolution and their Application to Neotropical Avian Biogeography, Ph.D. dissertation, ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... Molecular investigation of the Bucconidae in 2004 indicated that the nunlets (genus Nonnula) diverged from the common ancestor ... Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2003). "Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae ( ... Witt, C.C. (2004), Rates of Molecular Evolution and their Application to Neotropical Avian Biogeography, Ph.D. dissertation, ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2003). "Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae ( ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org. 2 (4): 543-547. doi: ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (1): 140-151. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00159-3. PMID 15022765. Mayr, G. (February ...
Molecular sequence data indicates Tadarida is not a monophyletic taxon. The closest relative of Tadarida aegyptiaca of Africa ... "Toward a Molecular Phylogeny for the Molossidae (Chiroptera) of the Afro-Malagasy Region". Acta Chiropterologica. 13 (1): 1-16 ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... but molecular and morphological studies indicate they are not such close relatives. They have been placed in their own orders, ...
December 2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biol. Lett. 2 (4): 543-7. doi ... Based on molecular sequencing and fossil dating, Neoaves appeared to radiate after the K-Pg boundary. They even produced giant ... At present the most informative sequence of dinosaur-bearing rocks in the world from the K-Pg boundary is found in western ... In North America, the data suggests massive devastation and mass extinction of plants at the K-Pg boundary sections, although ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 ... The group was proposed following an alignment of nuclear intron sequences by Shannon Hackett et al. in 2008, it was formally ... However, the technique requires very extensive genomic data - in the 2011 paper, approximately 200,000 retroposon-containing ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-7. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC ... ISBN 0-19-854012-4. Sibley, Charles G.; Jon E. Ahlquist (1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular ... Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. Accessed 2007 ...
2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi: ... it is easy to see that fossil data, compared to molecular data, tends to be more accurate in general, but also to underestimate ... As of the mid-2000s, new fossil and molecular data provide an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders ... Attempts made to reconcile the molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial. On the other hand, two factors must be ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2: 1-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC 1834003 . ... Biologists can then use this data to deduce which birds are at risk of lead poisoning. Condor Watch enables volunteers, or ... Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. Accessed ... Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (1): 269-280. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl158. PMID 17062634. Carr, Robert S. (2012). Digging ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. The Royal Society Publishing. 2 (4): 543-547. doi: ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (1): 140-151. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(03)00159-3. PMID 15022765. Ericson, Per G. P.; ... Recent molecular studies have suggested a relation with grebes, while morphological evidence also strongly supports a ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC ... Based on analysis of DNA sequence data - notably β-fibrinogen intron 7 - Fain and Houde considered the families of the ... Initial mtDNA cytochrome b sequence analysis agreed with earlier morphological and DNA-DNA hybridization studies insofar as ... Mariaux, Jean; Braun, Michael J. (1996). "A Molecular Phylogenetic Survey of the Nightjars and Allies (Caprimulgiformes) with ...
... integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543-547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. PMC ... Sibley, Charles G., and Ahlquist, Jon E. (1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale ...
December 2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: Integration of molecular sequence data and fossils" (PDF). Biology Letters. 2 (4 ... Molecular studies such as DNA-DNA hybridization (Sibley & Ahlquist, 1990)[full citation needed] and sequence analyses fail to ... Recent molecular studies have suggested a relation with flamingos while morphological evidence also strongly supports a ... 1990): Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, ...
... inferred from ribosomal sequence data". Zoologica Scripta. 43 (5): 519-530. doi:10.1111/zsc.12066. ISSN 0300-3256. Willems, Wim ... Later, molecular studies have shown that these groups were not monophyletic. One subgroup of Dalyellioida, Fecampiida, does not ... Although Rhabdocoela is a highly supported group in molecular studies, there is no clear morphological synapomorphy that unites ... Tessens, Bart; Janssen, Toon; Artois, Tom (2014). "Molecular phylogeny of Kalyptorhynchia (Rhabdocoela, Platyhelminthes) ...
More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA ... RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding. • RNA ... "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
The detection of linkage disequilibrium in molecular sequence data. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The detection of linkage disequilibrium in molecular sequence data.. R C Lewontin ... The detection of linkage disequilibrium in molecular sequence data.. R C Lewontin ... The detection of linkage disequilibrium in molecular sequence data.. R C Lewontin ...
... nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data - Volume 104 Issue 4 - Mattias DAHLMAN, Eric DANELL, Joseph W. SPATAFORA ... Views captured on Cambridge Core between ,date,. This data will be updated every 24 hours. ... Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of ...
Methods in Molecular Biology) (9781627035132) and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at ... 1. Deep Sequencing Data Analysis (Methods in Molecular Biology) Published by Humana Press (2013) ... Authoritative and practical, Deep Sequencing Data Analysis seeks to aid scientists in the further understanding of key data ... Authoritative and practical, Deep Sequencing Data Analysis seeks to aid scientists in the further understanding of key data ...
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ... Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Summary. Locale: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ... You are here: Locale , Canada , Alberta , Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ... Our data demonstrate that the EF-hand and other parts of the carboxyl tail of PCL are not determinants of channel activation/ ...
Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Houston, United States ... You are here: Locale , United States , Texas , Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Houston, United States ... Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Houston, United States. Summary. Locale: Houston, United States ... Our data further support the notion of molecular heterogeneity of galactosemia and suggest that galactosemia mutations and GALT ...
View ALL Data Sets Molecular Biology (Promoter Gene Sequences) Data Set Below are papers that cite this data set, with context ... Return to Molecular Biology (Promoter Gene Sequences) data set page. Ken Tang and Ponnuthurai N. Suganthan and Xi Yao and A. ... of real credit card transactions and two molecular biology sequence analysis data sets, were used in our experiments. The ... The six data sets are landsat, optdigits, vehicle, DNA thyroid disease and vowel data sets. Landsat. The Landsat data set is ...
Independence from the source datas format is achieved through a description language and ad hoc translators, which make the ... SEView is a Java applet that represents known or predicted elements of a protein or nucleotide sequence. It replaces or ... SEView: a Java applet for browsing molecular sequence data Junier, T. ; Bucher, P. ... SEView is a Java applet that represents known or predicted elements of a protein or nucleotide sequence. It replaces or ...
Rheonix will present data from a user-defined assay for STIs and data that demonstrates new capabilities of its Encompass ... Rheonix to Present Data on User-Defined Tests and Next-Generation Sequencing Library Preparation with its Automated Molecular ... When sequenced on the Illumina platform, the resulting libraries yielded NGS sequence data indistinguishable from the labor- ... Rheonix will present data from a user-defined assay for STIs and data that demonstrates new capabilities of its Encompass ...
With the help of data generated from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza ... S-OtrH3N2 viruses: use of sequence data for description of the molecular characteristics of the viruses and their relatedness ... S-OtrH3N2 viruses: use of sequence data for description of the molecular characteristics of the viruses and their relatedness ... 4 Institut Pasteur, Unit of Molecular Genetics of RNA Viruses, Department of Virology, Paris France 5 French National Centre ...
Abstract 5592: Molecular classification of triple negative breast cancer via RNA-sequencing data. Kevin J. Thompson, Xiaojia ... Molecular classification of triple negative breast cancer via RNA-sequencing data. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 105th ... Abstract 5592: Molecular classification of triple negative breast cancer via RNA-sequencing data ... Abstract 5592: Molecular classification of triple negative breast cancer via RNA-sequencing data ...
The Genomics & Sequencing Data Integration, Analysis and Visualization Symposium is a part of the Molecular Medicine Tri- ... Molecular Medicine Tri-Conference: Genomics & Sequencing Data Integration, Analysis and Visualization Symposium. ... As data shifts between research, sequencing labs, and the clinic, there is an ever-increasing volume of information generated ... Globus Genomics is a robust, scale on-demand solution that provides end-to-end research data management for Next-Gen Sequencing ...
Bioinformatics: Volume 1: Data, Sequence Analysis and Evolution. 2008. (Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 452). illus. XII, ... Examines a selection of methods involving the generation and organization of data, including sequence data, RNA and protein ... structures, microarray expression data and functional annotations, methods for discovering the functional components of genomes ...
EARLY EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTA AS INFERRED FROM THE COMBINED PHYLOGENY OF MULTIPLE MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA(Coevolution of Earth ... EARLY EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTA AS INFERRED FROM THE COMBINED PHYLOGENY OF MULTIPLE MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA(Coevolution of Earth ... EARLY EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTA AS INFERRED FROM THE COMBINED PHYLOGENY OF MULTIPLE MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA(Coevolution of Earth ... EARLY EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTA AS INFERRED FROM THE COMBINED PHYLOGENY OF MULTIPLE MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA(Coevolution of Earth ...
... develop Bayesian inference to determine the posterior probability that a four-taxon topology is correct given the sequence data ... The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequences presents unusual problems for statistical inference. For ... Bayesian hypothesis testing of four-taxon topologies using molecular sequence data.. *. Janet S. Sinsheimer, Jessica A Lake, ... article{Sinsheimer1996BayesianHT, title={Bayesian hypothesis testing of four-taxon topologies using molecular sequence data.}, ...
Molecular biology : Coordination of sequence data. / Lesk, Arthur.. In: Nature, Vol. 314, No. 6009, 01.12.1985, p. 318-319.. ... Molecular biology : Coordination of sequence data. In: Nature. 1985 ; Vol. 314, No. 6009. pp. 318-319. ... Molecular biology: Coordination of sequence data. Nature. 1985 Dec 1;314(6009):318-319. https://doi.org/10.1038/314318b0 ... Lesk, A. (1985). Molecular biology: Coordination of sequence data. Nature, 314(6009), 318-319. https://doi.org/10.1038/314318b0 ...
To this end, a number of approaches for estimating telomere length from whole-genome sequencing data have been proposed. Here ... We also apply the method to a cancer cell data, uncovering an interesting relationship with the underlying telomerase genotype. ... Telomerecat also accounts for interstitial telomeric reads and presents a novel approach to dealing with sequencing errors. We ... The proliferation of whole genome sequencing represents an unprecedented opportunity to glean new insights into telomere ...
The nucleotide sequence of a 300-bp fragment of the ITS2 was determined by direct sequencing and nucleotide divergence used for ... The resulting phylogenetic tree expressing interspecific relationships in genusTetranychus agrees with morphological data. The ... DNA sequence data were used to examine phylogenetic relationships between six species of economically important Tetranychidae ... Molecular approach in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae): Preliminary data on ribosomal DNA sequences. @article{ ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Denmark ... Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Denmark. Summary. Locale: Denmark ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in Denmark ... The data suggest that the purified human GalNAc-transferase is a novel member of a family of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases, ...
Amino Acid Sequence Subjects Molecular Sequence Data ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Molecular Sequence Data Genre Articles ✖ ... Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Genes, Homeobox. Molecular Sequence Data. Archival Collection:. Profiles in Science. 3. The ... Amino Acid Sequence. Cloning, Molecular. Genes, Homeobox. RNA, Messenger. Molecular Sequence Data. Archival Collection:. ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Amino Acid Sequence ✖Remove constraint Subjects: ...
Sequence data analysis, molecular species hypotheses[edit]. Sequences were aligned with ClustalW (reference), and maximum ... Cox1sequencing for community ecology[edit]. In Trigonopterus, it is possible to merely rely on cox1 sequence data to arrive at ... Maximum likelihood analyses of cox1 data included 1,002 Trigonopterus cox1 sequences and seven outgroups. The resulting cox1 ... Sequencing delivers objective data on taxa of incredible diversity but mostly without a solid taxonomic foundation and should ...
... data analysis in molecular biology and evolution) is an integrated software package for converting, manipulating, statistically ... Posted by admin at 8:32 am Tagged with: Analysis, DAMBE, Evolution, Molecular Biology, Sequence Data 2,645 views. Sorry, the ... DAMBE 5.3.48 - Sequence Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution. DNA / Genome Analysis ... Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:1720-1728. Xia, X., and Xie. Z., 2001. DAMBE: Data analysis in molecular biology and ...
... Mabrouk, Mai S.; Hamdy, Marwa; Mamdouh ... BIOINFTool: Bioinformatics and sequence data analysis in molecular biology using Matlab. Login ... genome sequences, and gene expression data. Techniques developed by computer scientists have enabled researchers at Celera ... resources that aid in the analysis of data. We can use these tools to analyze the data and interpret the results in a ...
... an appropriate set of non-O-glycosylatable sequences is hard to find. Three sequences from similar post-translational ... In particular, if a binary response is used to distinguish between O-glycosylated and non-O-glycosylated sequences, ... Thus, predicting the likelihood of O-glycosylation with sequence and structural information using classical regression analysis ... 4 , BMC Molecular and Cell Biology. Fig. 4. From: Ridge regression estimated linear probability model predictions of O- ...
The model is used to analyze a genetic data set collected from a pain genetics project. We find that DNA haplotype GAC from ... The model provides a general procedure for identifying the number and types of optimal DNA sequence variants that are expressed ... model for the haplotype analysis of SNPs to estimate the effects of genetic imprinting expressed at the DNA sequence level. ... genetic markers for revealing the genetic architecture of complex traits in terms of nucleotide combination and sequence. Here ...
  • This is an interdisciplinary course, and the goal is to involve students who have either a strong computer science background or a strong background in molecular biology (such as students in the genetics graduate program), but not necessarily both. (ubc.ca)
  • Studies of genetic variation in natural populations at the sequence level usually show that most polymorphic sites are very asymmetrical in allele frequencies, with the rarer allele at a site near fixation. (genetics.org)
  • The new genetic revolution is fuelled by Deep Sequencing (or Next Generation Sequencing) apparatuses which, in essence, read billions of nucleotides per reaction. (abebooks.com)
  • Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been widely accepted as a robust and cost-effective approach for clinical genetic testing of small sequence variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it was impossible to identify the population of blue whales the individuals belonged to, due to the lack of strong population genetic signals in the mitochondrial control region sequences. (sljol.info)
  • This is a multi-institutional effort to aggregate detailed genetic (and molecular) data in connection with treatments and physician reported outcomes in patients with advanced cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Incorporating genetic variant data into the electronic health record (EHR) in discrete computable fashion has vexed the informatics community for years. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic sequence test results are typically communicated by the molecular laboratory and stored in the EHR as textual documents. (cdc.gov)
  • Rasmus Nielsen is certainly one of these researchers, and his work so far has merged many population genetic and phylogenetic aspects of biological research under the umbrella of molecular evolution. (springer.com)
  • In severe early-onset epilepsy, precise clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis is complex, as many metabolic and electro-physiological processes have been implicated in disease causation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It also uncovers unexpected genetic mechanisms and emphasizes the power of WGS as a clinical tool for making molecular diagnoses, particularly for highly heterogeneous disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This web-based application performed pairwise comparisons of HIV-1 protease and partial reverse transcriptase to measure sequence relatedness and identify sequences that were highly genetically similar at a genetic distance of ≤0.015 substitutions per site ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. (plos.org)
  • Modern molecular phylogenetic data provide the framework for reconstructing this evolutionary history and for asking deeper questions about the origin of the genetic inventions that have played a role in the radiation of the green lineage, a group that contains nearly all levels of vegetative morphology, from single cells to filaments to well-organized colonies to complex terrestrial plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Analysis of sub-type specific mutation data from the BC cohort demonstrates an increased mutational load in ECM-related proteins, particularly the myosins, along with increased TP53 clonality in the non-LAR subtypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several studies have focused on the evolution of HIV-1, but there is little information to link sequence similarities and evolutionary histories of HIV-1 to the epidemiological information of the infected individual. (washington.edu)
  • In the field of molecular evolution, inferences about past evolutionary events are made using molecular data from currently living species. (springer.com)
  • Most studies in molecular evolution rely heavily on statistical procedures based on stochastic process modelling and advanced computational methods including high-dimensional numerical optimization and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. (springer.com)
  • This book provides an overview of the statistical theory and methods used in studies of molecular evolution. (springer.com)
  • This book is suitable for statisticians seeking to learn more about applications in molecular evolution and molecular evolutionary biologists with an interest in learning more about the theory behind the statistical methods applied in the field. (springer.com)
  • Most relevant statistical concepts are introduced in the book in the context of their application in molecular evolution, and the book should be accessible for most biology graduate students with an interest in quantitative methods and theory. (springer.com)
  • His is an associate editor of the Journal of Molecular Evolution and has published more than fifty original papers in peer-reviewed journals on the topic of this book. (springer.com)
  • I find Statistical Methods in Molecular Evolution very interesting and useful. (springer.com)
  • This book gives an overview of his interests and current achievements in molecular evolution. (springer.com)
  • The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It may be less widely appreciated by molecular evolutionary biologists that the statistical phylogenetic revolution in molecular evolution has also been mirrored in the increasing application of statistical phylogenetic reasoning in macroevolutionary and systematic studies of the fossil record [ 14 - 17 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The evolution of DNA sequencing from these nascent protocols to today's high-throughput technologies has occurred at a breathtaking pace 3 . (nature.com)
  • Pollen data "sensu" Dreyer (1996) supports the clades retrieved in this study, whereas very few morphological characters could be plotted as potential synapomorphies for these clades. (nrf.ac.za)
  • The resultant phylogenetic reconstruction thus supports palynological data of this subsection, and indicates the urgent need for a revision of the current morphological classification of Salter (1944). (nrf.ac.za)
  • Current projects in the lab include molecular phylogenetic analyses of familial and ordinal level relationships in the arthrodontous mosses, studies of hybridization using molecular and morphological markers, and investigations of cryptic speciation within geographically widespread species. (duke.edu)
  • Morphological and molecular information is being used to explore geographic patterns in phylogenetic diversity within the peatmosses. (duke.edu)
  • As you'll know if you've been keeping up with the results of the various big molecular and morphological analyses - and who hasn't - the avian cladogram is gradually coming together, though areas of debate and disagreement remain. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the 'morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Previous studies using morphological and molecular datasets suggested that the MRCA of crown penguins was approximately 16 Myr [ 1 , 5 , 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • But just as new informatics approaches and massive data sets have dramatically improved language translation and image recognition, we predict that massive DNA-sequence data sets coupled with phenotypic information will enable researchers to deduce the biological functions encoded within genome sequences. (nature.com)
  • Sequencing delivers objective data on taxa of incredible diversity but mostly without a solid taxonomic foundation and should help pave the road for the eventual formal naming of new species. (wikisource.org)
  • Our results provide an estimate of the distribution of fitness effects of weakly selected mutations and provide a possible explanation for why the molecular clock is fairly constant across taxa and time. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Han, Ho-Yeon, Norrbom, Allen L. (2008): A new species of Philophylla Rondani (Diptera: Tephritidae: Trypetini) from New Caledonia, recognized based on female postabdominal structure and molecular sequence data. (gbif.org)
  • Rheonix will present data from a user-defined assay for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as data that demonstrates new capabilities of its system in next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. (businesswire.com)
  • Due to the rapid development of "-omics" technology, such as DNA microarrays [ 1 ] and next-generation sequencing (NGS) [ 2 , 3 ], scientists are now able to quantify large numbers of transcripts from organisms simultaneously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used DNA microarray data available on-line. (uci.edu)
  • Based on microarray data from Stanford Microarray Database, two hNAT pairs were found to display significant inverse expression patterns before and after insulin injection. (mendeley.com)
  • Methods for estimating divergence times from molecular data have improved dramatically over the past decade, yet there are few studies examining alternative taxon sampling effects on node age estimates. (hindawi.com)
  • Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. (abebooks.com)
  • 2008. (Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 452). (koeltz.com)