The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.

Function annotation of an SBP-box gene in Arabidopsis based on analysis of co-expression networks and promoters. (1/2076)


Structural characterisation of the natively unfolded enterocin EJ97. (2/2076)


Phenotypic annotation of the mouse X chromosome. (3/2076)


Research resource: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor-mediated signaling network in LbetaT2 cells: a pathway-based web-accessible knowledgebase. (4/2076)


Structure of the cytoplasmic segment of histidine kinase receptor QseC, a key player in bacterial virulence. (5/2076)

QseC is a histidine kinase (HK) receptor involved in quorum sensing, a mechanism by which bacteria respond to fluctuations in cell population. We conducted a structural study of the cytoplasmic domain of QseC (QseC-CD) using X-ray crystallography. The 2.5 A structure of the apo-enzyme revealed that the kinase domain of QseC retains the overall fold of the typical HK kinase domain. The construct that we used is inactive in the autokinase reaction and its inactivity is most likely caused by its atypical dimerization interface, as compared to that observed in the T.maritima HK cytoplasmic domain structure. Restoration of the activity may require that the entire dimerization domain be present in the protein construct. QseC, which plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, is a promising drug target and the structure of QseC-CD provides a platform for developing more potent inhibitors of pathogen virulence.  (+info)

Rational redesign of porcine pepsinogen containing an antimicrobial peptide. (6/2076)


Experimental annotation of the human pathogen Candida albicans coding and noncoding transcribed regions using high-resolution tiling arrays. (7/2076)


Annotating conserved and novel features of primate transcriptomes using sequencing. (8/2076)


Molecular sequence annotation is the process of identifying and describing the characteristics, functional elements, and relevant information of a DNA, RNA, or protein sequence at the molecular level. This process involves marking the location and function of various features such as genes, regulatory regions, coding and non-coding sequences, intron-exon boundaries, promoters, introns, untranslated regions (UTRs), binding sites for proteins or other molecules, and post-translational modifications in a given molecular sequence.

The annotation can be manual, where experts curate and analyze the data to predict features based on biological knowledge and experimental evidence. Alternatively, computational methods using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms can be employed for automated annotation. These tools often rely on comparative analysis, pattern recognition, and machine learning techniques to identify conserved sequence patterns, motifs, or domains that are associated with specific functions.

The annotated molecular sequences serve as valuable resources in genomic and proteomic studies, contributing to the understanding of gene function, evolutionary relationships, disease associations, and biotechnological applications.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

Protein sequence analysis is the systematic examination and interpretation of the amino acid sequence of a protein to understand its structure, function, evolutionary relationships, and other biological properties. It involves various computational methods and tools to analyze the primary structure of proteins, which is the linear arrangement of amino acids along the polypeptide chain.

Protein sequence analysis can provide insights into several aspects, such as:

1. Identification of functional domains, motifs, or sites within a protein that may be responsible for its specific biochemical activities.
2. Comparison of homologous sequences from different organisms to infer evolutionary relationships and determine the degree of similarity or divergence among them.
3. Prediction of secondary and tertiary structures based on patterns of amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, and charge distribution.
4. Detection of post-translational modifications that may influence protein function, localization, or stability.
5. Identification of protease cleavage sites, signal peptides, or other sequence features that play a role in protein processing and targeting.

Some common techniques used in protein sequence analysis include:

1. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA): A method to align multiple protein sequences to identify conserved regions, gaps, and variations.
2. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): A widely-used tool for comparing a query protein sequence against a database of known sequences to find similarities and infer function or evolutionary relationships.
3. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Statistical models used to describe the probability distribution of amino acid sequences in protein families, allowing for more sensitive detection of remote homologs.
4. Protein structure prediction: Methods that use various computational approaches to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence.
5. Phylogenetic analysis: The construction and interpretation of evolutionary trees (phylogenies) based on aligned protein sequences, which can provide insights into the historical relationships among organisms or proteins.

A protein database is a type of biological database that contains information about proteins and their structures, functions, sequences, and interactions with other molecules. These databases can include experimentally determined data, such as protein sequences derived from DNA sequencing or mass spectrometry, as well as predicted data based on computational methods.

Some examples of protein databases include:

1. UniProtKB: a comprehensive protein database that provides information about protein sequences, functions, and structures, as well as literature references and links to other resources.
2. PDB (Protein Data Bank): a database of three-dimensional protein structures determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
3. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): a web-based tool that allows users to compare a query protein sequence against a protein database to identify similar sequences and potential functional relationships.
4. InterPro: a database of protein families, domains, and functional sites that provides information about protein function based on sequence analysis and other data.
5. STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins): a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions, including physical and functional associations.

Protein databases are essential tools in proteomics research, enabling researchers to study protein function, evolution, and interaction networks on a large scale.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

A nucleic acid database is a type of biological database that contains sequence, structure, and functional information about nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. These databases are used in various fields of biology, including genomics, molecular biology, and bioinformatics, to store, search, and analyze nucleic acid data.

Some common types of nucleic acid databases include:

1. Nucleotide sequence databases: These databases contain the primary nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA molecules from various organisms. Examples include GenBank, EMBL-Bank, and DDBJ.
2. Structure databases: These databases contain three-dimensional structures of nucleic acids determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Examples include the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB).
3. Functional databases: These databases contain information about the functions of nucleic acids, such as their roles in gene regulation, transcription, and translation. Examples include the Gene Ontology (GO) database and the RegulonDB.
4. Genome databases: These databases contain genomic data for various organisms, including whole-genome sequences, gene annotations, and genetic variations. Examples include the Human Genome Database (HGD) and the Ensembl Genome Browser.
5. Comparative databases: These databases allow for the comparison of nucleic acid sequences or structures across different species or conditions. Examples include the Comparative RNA Web (CRW) Site and the Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM) system.

Nucleic acid databases are essential resources for researchers to study the structure, function, and evolution of nucleic acids, as well as to develop new tools and methods for analyzing and interpreting nucleic acid data.

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)


* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short, single-pass DNA sequences that are derived from cDNA libraries. They represent a quick and cost-effective method for large-scale sequencing of gene transcripts and provide an unbiased view of the genes being actively expressed in a particular tissue or developmental stage. ESTs can be used to identify and study new genes, to analyze patterns of gene expression, and to develop molecular markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Computer graphics is the field of study and practice related to creating images and visual content using computer technology. It involves various techniques, algorithms, and tools for generating, manipulating, and rendering digital images and models. These can include 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, visualization, and image processing. Computer graphics is used in a wide range of applications, including video games, movies, scientific simulations, medical imaging, architectural design, and data visualization.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

"Likelihood functions" is a statistical concept that is used in medical research and other fields to estimate the probability of obtaining a given set of data, given a set of assumptions or parameters. In other words, it is a function that describes how likely it is to observe a particular outcome or result, based on a set of model parameters.

More formally, if we have a statistical model that depends on a set of parameters θ, and we observe some data x, then the likelihood function is defined as:

L(θ | x) = P(x | θ)

This means that the likelihood function describes the probability of observing the data x, given a particular value of the parameter vector θ. By convention, the likelihood function is often expressed as a function of the parameters, rather than the data, so we might instead write:

L(θ) = P(x | θ)

The likelihood function can be used to estimate the values of the model parameters that are most consistent with the observed data. This is typically done by finding the value of θ that maximizes the likelihood function, which is known as the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The MLE has many desirable statistical properties, including consistency, efficiency, and asymptotic normality.

In medical research, likelihood functions are often used in the context of Bayesian analysis, where they are combined with prior distributions over the model parameters to obtain posterior distributions that reflect both the observed data and prior knowledge or assumptions about the parameter values. This approach is particularly useful when there is uncertainty or ambiguity about the true value of the parameters, as it allows researchers to incorporate this uncertainty into their analyses in a principled way.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Markov Chains" is a term from the field of mathematics and probability theory, not medicine. Markov Chains are mathematical systems that undergo transitions from one state to another according to certain probabilistic rules. They are named after Russian mathematician Andrey Markov. These chains are used in various fields, including computer science, physics, economics, and engineering, but not commonly in medical definitions or contexts.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Sequence analysis in the context of molecular biology and genetics refers to the systematic examination and interpretation of DNA or protein sequences to understand their features, structures, functions, and evolutionary relationships. It involves using various computational methods and bioinformatics tools to compare, align, and analyze sequences to identify patterns, conserved regions, motifs, or mutations that can provide insights into molecular mechanisms, disease associations, or taxonomic classifications.

In a medical context, sequence analysis can be applied to diagnose genetic disorders, predict disease susceptibility, inform treatment decisions, and guide research in personalized medicine. For example, analyzing the sequence of a gene associated with a particular inherited condition can help identify the specific mutation responsible for the disorder, providing valuable information for genetic counseling and family planning. Similarly, comparing the sequences of pathogens from different patients can reveal drug resistance patterns or transmission dynamics, informing infection control strategies and therapeutic interventions.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the "Monte Carlo method" is actually a term from the field of mathematics and computer science, not medicine. It refers to a statistical technique that allows for the modeling of complex systems by running multiple simulations with random inputs. This method is widely used in various fields such as physics, engineering, and finance, but it is not a medical concept or term.

A controlled vocabulary in a medical context refers to a specific set of standardized terms and phrases that are used in clinical documentation and communication. These vocabularies are often created and maintained by professional organizations or governmental bodies to ensure consistency, accuracy, and interoperability in the sharing and retrieval of health information.

Controlled vocabularies can include terminologies such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), and RxNorm, among others. By using a controlled vocabulary, healthcare providers can more easily share and analyze health data, support clinical decision-making, and facilitate accurate coding and billing.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Natural Language Processing" (NLP) is actually a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It involves developing algorithms and software to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a valuable way.

In a medical context, NLP can be used to analyze electronic health records, clinical notes, and other forms of medical documentation to extract meaningful information, support clinical decision-making, and improve patient care. For example, NLP can help identify patients at risk for certain conditions, monitor treatment responses, and detect adverse drug events.

However, NLP is not a medical term or concept itself, so it doesn't have a specific medical definition.

Data mining, in the context of health informatics and medical research, refers to the process of discovering patterns, correlations, and insights within large sets of patient or clinical data. It involves the use of advanced analytical techniques such as machine learning algorithms, statistical models, and artificial intelligence to identify and extract useful information from complex datasets.

The goal of data mining in healthcare is to support evidence-based decision making, improve patient outcomes, and optimize resource utilization. Applications of data mining in healthcare include predicting disease outbreaks, identifying high-risk patients, personalizing treatment plans, improving clinical workflows, and detecting fraud and abuse in healthcare systems.

Data mining can be performed on various types of healthcare data, including electronic health records (EHRs), medical claims databases, genomic data, imaging data, and sensor data from wearable devices. However, it is important to ensure that data mining techniques are used ethically and responsibly, with appropriate safeguards in place to protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

A human genome is the complete set of genetic information contained within the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of most human cells. It includes all of the genes, which are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins, as well as non-coding regions of DNA that regulate gene expression and provide structural support to the chromosomes.

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and is estimated to contain around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003 as part of the Human Genome Project, which has had a profound impact on our understanding of human biology, disease, and evolution.

The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced or present in an organism, system, organ, or cell at a certain time under specific conditions. It is a dynamic collection of protein species that changes over time, responding to various internal and external stimuli such as disease, stress, or environmental factors. The study of the proteome, known as proteomics, involves the identification and quantification of these protein components and their post-translational modifications, providing valuable insights into biological processes, functional pathways, and disease mechanisms.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Gene Ontology (GO) is not a medical term, but rather a bioinformatics term used to describe a controlled vocabulary or ontology for describing molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components in which genes and gene products are involved. It provides a standardized way to represent and share information about gene function across different species.

The GO ontology is organized as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where each term has defined relationships with other terms, allowing for the representation of complex biological concepts. The GO terms can be used to describe molecular functions such as enzymatic activities or binding interactions, biological processes such as metabolic pathways or signal transduction cascades, and cellular components such as organelles or subcellular structures.

GO analysis is a common approach in bioinformatics for interpreting large-scale genomic data, such as microarray or next-generation sequencing experiments, to identify genes that are involved in specific biological processes or molecular functions of interest.

RNA Sequence Analysis is a branch of bioinformatics that involves the determination and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) molecules. This process includes identifying and characterizing the individual RNA molecules, determining their functions, and studying their evolutionary relationships.

RNA Sequence Analysis typically involves the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies to generate large datasets of RNA sequences, which are then analyzed using computational methods. The analysis may include comparing the sequences to reference databases to identify known RNA molecules or discovering new ones, identifying patterns and features in the sequences, such as motifs or domains, and predicting the secondary and tertiary structures of the RNA molecules.

RNA Sequence Analysis has many applications in basic research, including understanding gene regulation, identifying novel non-coding RNAs, and studying evolutionary relationships between organisms. It also has practical applications in clinical settings, such as diagnosing and monitoring diseases, developing new therapies, and personalized medicine.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding. Programming languages are a field of study in computer science and are not related to medicine. They are used to create computer programs, through the composition of symbols and words. Some popular programming languages include Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript. If you have any questions about programming or computer science, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

Proteomics is the large-scale study and analysis of proteins, including their structures, functions, interactions, modifications, and abundance, in a given cell, tissue, or organism. It involves the identification and quantification of all expressed proteins in a biological sample, as well as the characterization of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and functional pathways. Proteomics can provide valuable insights into various biological processes, diseases, and drug responses, and has applications in basic research, biomedicine, and clinical diagnostics. The field combines various techniques from molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and bioinformatics to study proteins at a systems level.

High-throughput nucleotide sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), refers to a group of technologies that allow for the rapid and parallel determination of nucleotide sequences of DNA or RNA molecules. These techniques enable the sequencing of large numbers of DNA or RNA fragments simultaneously, resulting in the generation of vast amounts of sequence data in a single run.

High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized genomics research by allowing for the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes. It has numerous applications in basic research, including genome assembly, gene expression analysis, variant detection, and methylation profiling, as well as in clinical settings, such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, identification of pathogens, and monitoring of cancer progression and treatment response.

Some common high-throughput sequencing platforms include Illumina (sequencing by synthesis), Ion Torrent (semiconductor sequencing), Pacific Biosciences (single molecule real-time sequencing), and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (nanopore sequencing). Each platform has its strengths and limitations, and the choice of technology depends on the specific research question and experimental design.

Protein interaction mapping is a research approach used to identify and characterize the physical interactions between different proteins within a cell or organism. This process often involves the use of high-throughput experimental techniques, such as yeast two-hybrid screening, mass spectrometry-based approaches, or protein fragment complementation assays, to detect and quantify the binding affinities of protein pairs. The resulting data is then used to construct a protein interaction network, which can provide insights into functional relationships between proteins, help elucidate cellular pathways, and inform our understanding of biological processes in health and disease.

A fungal genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a fungus. It includes all the genes and non-coding regions that are essential for the growth, development, and survival of the organism. The fungal genome is typically haploid, meaning it contains only one set of chromosomes, unlike diploid genomes found in many animals and plants.

Fungal genomes vary widely in size and complexity, ranging from a few megabases to hundreds of megabases. They contain several types of genetic elements such as protein-coding genes, regulatory regions, repetitive elements, and mobile genetic elements like transposons. The study of fungal genomes can provide valuable insights into the evolution, biology, and pathogenicity of fungi, and has important implications for medical research, agriculture, and industrial applications.

The transcriptome refers to the complete set of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and other non-coding RNAs, that are present in a cell or a population of cells at a given point in time. It reflects the genetic activity and provides information about which genes are being actively transcribed and to what extent. The transcriptome can vary under different conditions, such as during development, in response to environmental stimuli, or in various diseases, making it an important area of study in molecular biology and personalized medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "knowledge bases" is a general term that refers to structured collections of knowledge in a specific field or area, and it is not a medical term with a defined meaning in the medical field. Knowledge bases can be found in many fields, including medicine, and they typically take the form of databases or repositories of information that are used to store, organize, and retrieve knowledge. In the medical field, knowledge bases might include information about diseases, treatments, medications, and other medical topics. They can be used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to access accurate and reliable information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "search engine" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of information technology and refers to a software system or application that searches for items in a database, on the World Wide Web, or within an intranet and returns relevant results based on specific keywords or phrases input by the user. Examples of popular search engines include Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

If you have any medical questions or concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Automated Pattern Recognition in a medical context refers to the use of computer algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques to identify, classify, and analyze specific patterns or trends in medical data. This can include recognizing visual patterns in medical images, such as X-rays or MRIs, or identifying patterns in large datasets of physiological measurements or electronic health records.

The goal of automated pattern recognition is to assist healthcare professionals in making more accurate diagnoses, monitoring disease progression, and developing personalized treatment plans. By automating the process of pattern recognition, it can help reduce human error, increase efficiency, and improve patient outcomes.

Examples of automated pattern recognition in medicine include using machine learning algorithms to identify early signs of diabetic retinopathy in eye scans or detecting abnormal heart rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs). These techniques can also be used to predict patient risk based on patterns in their medical history, such as identifying patients who are at high risk for readmission to the hospital.

An archaeal genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in an archaea, a single-celled microorganism that is found in some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The genome of an archaea contains all the information necessary for its survival, including the instructions for building proteins and other essential molecules, as well as the regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Archaeal genomes are typically circular in structure and range in size from about 0.5 to over 5 million base pairs. They contain genes that are similar to those found in bacteria and eukaryotes, as well as unique genes that are specific to archaea. The study of archaeal genomes has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of life on Earth and has helped scientists understand the adaptations that allow these organisms to thrive in such harsh environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

I must clarify that there is no specific medical definition for "Software Design." Software design is a term used in the field of software engineering and development, which includes the creation of detailed plans, schemas, and models that describe how a software system or application should be constructed and implemented. This process involves various activities such as defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, data structures, and algorithms required to build the software system.

However, in the context of medical software or healthcare applications, software design would still refer to the planning and structuring of the software system but with a focus on addressing specific needs and challenges within the medical domain. This might include considerations for data privacy and security, regulatory compliance (such as HIPAA or GDPR), integration with existing health IT systems, user experience (UX) design for healthcare professionals and patients, and evidence-based decision support features.

PubMed is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical literature search engine and database maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It provides access to life sciences literature, including journal articles in medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, and preclinical sciences.

PubMed contains more than 30 million citations and abstracts from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Many of the citations include links to full-text articles on publishers' websites or through NCBI's DocSumo service. Researchers, healthcare professionals, students, and the general public use PubMed to find relevant and reliable information in the biomedical literature for research, education, and patient care purposes.

A "gene library" is not a recognized term in medical genetics or molecular biology. However, the closest concept that might be referred to by this term is a "genomic library," which is a collection of DNA clones that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. These libraries are used for various research purposes, such as identifying and studying specific genes or gene functions.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

Enzymes are complex proteins that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions in the body. They help to lower activation energy required for reactions to occur, thereby enabling the reaction to happen faster and at lower temperatures. Enzymes work by binding to specific molecules, called substrates, and converting them into different molecules, called products. This process is known as catalysis.

Enzymes are highly specific and will only catalyze one particular reaction with a specific substrate. The shape of the enzyme's active site, where the substrate binds, determines this specificity. Enzymes can be regulated by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of inhibitors or activators. They play a crucial role in many biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

Pseudogenes are defined in medical and genetics terminology as non-functional segments of DNA that resemble functional genes, such as protein-coding genes or RNA genes, but have lost their ability to be expressed or produce a functional product. They are often characterized by the presence of mutations, such as frameshifts, premature stop codons, or deletions, that prevent them from being transcribed or translated into functional proteins or RNAs.

Pseudogenes can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication followed by degenerative mutations, retrotransposition of processed mRNA, and the insertion of transposable elements. While they were once considered "genomic fossils" with no biological relevance, recent research has shown that pseudogenes may play important roles in regulating gene expression, modulating protein function, and contributing to disease processes.

It's worth noting that there is ongoing debate in the scientific community about the precise definition and functional significance of pseudogenes, as some may still retain residual functions or regulatory potential.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Biological processes refer to the series of interactions and reactions that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. These processes are often complex and involve multiple systems and structures within the body. They can include things like metabolism, cell division, growth and development, respiration, circulation, immune response, and digestion, among others.

Biological processes are typically regulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they can be influenced by various internal and external stimuli. The study of biological processes is a key area of focus in the field of biology, as understanding these processes can shed light on how living organisms function, grow, reproduce, and respond to changes in their environment.

In medical terms, understanding biological processes is essential for developing effective treatments for various diseases and conditions. By studying the underlying mechanisms that contribute to disease, researchers can identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and develop new drugs or other treatments designed to modulate specific biological processes.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) are segments of messenger RNA (mRNA) that do not contain information for the synthesis of proteins. They are located at the 5' end (5' UTR) and 3' end (3' UTR) of the mRNA, outside of the coding sequence (CDS). The 5' UTR contains regulatory elements that control translation initiation, while the 3' UTR contains sequences involved in mRNA stability, localization, and translation efficiency. These regions do not code for proteins but play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

A disease is a condition that impairs normal functioning and causes harm to the body. It is typically characterized by a specific set of symptoms and may be caused by genetic, environmental, or infectious agents. A disease can also be described as a disorder of structure or function in an organism that produces specific signs or symptoms. Diseases can range from minor ones, like the common cold, to serious illnesses, such as heart disease or cancer. They can also be acute, with a sudden onset and short duration, or chronic, lasting for a long period of time. Ultimately, a disease is any deviation from normal homeostasis that causes harm to an organism.

A helminth genome refers to the complete set of genetic information present in the DNA of a helminth organism. Helminths are parasitic worms that include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes). The genome of a helminth includes all of the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other functions.

The study of helminth genomics has provided important insights into the biology and evolution of these parasites, as well as their interactions with their hosts. For example, genomic studies have identified potential drug targets and vaccine candidates, and have helped to elucidate the mechanisms of host-parasite coevolution.

It's worth noting that the size and complexity of helminth genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some helminth genomes are relatively small and compact, while others are large and complex, with a high degree of genetic diversity. The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), for example, has a genome size of approximately 120 megabases, while the tapeworm Schistosoma mansoni has a genome size of over 360 megabases.

Overall, the study of helminth genomics is an important area of research that has the potential to inform the development of new strategies for preventing and treating helminth infections, which affect millions of people worldwide.

Prokaryotic cells are simple, single-celled organisms that do not have a true nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. They include bacteria and archaea. The genetic material of prokaryotic cells is composed of a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm, along with small, circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Prokaryotic cells have a rigid cell wall, which provides protection and support, and a flexible outer membrane that helps them to survive in diverse environments. They reproduce asexually by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compared to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and have a simpler structure.

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

Medline is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical bibliographic database, which is a component of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)'s PubMed system. It contains citations and abstracts from scientific literature in the fields of life sciences, biomedicine, and clinical medicine, with a focus on articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Medline covers a wide range of topics, including research articles, reviews, clinical trials, and case reports. The database is updated daily and provides access to over 26 million references from the years 1946 to the present. It's an essential resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and students in the biomedical field.

"Word processing" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the use of computer software to create, edit, format and save written text documents. Examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and Apple Pages. While there may be medical transcriptionists who use word processing software as part of their job duties to transcribe medical records or reports, the term itself is not a medical definition.

Synteny, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the presence of two or more genetic loci (regions) on the same chromosome, in the same relative order and orientation. This term is often used to describe conserved gene organization between different species, indicating a common ancestry.

It's important to note that synteny should not be confused with "colinearity," which refers to the conservation of gene content and order within a genome or between genomes of closely related species. Synteny is a broader concept that can also include conserved gene order across more distantly related species, even if some genes have been lost or gained in the process.

In medical research, synteny analysis can be useful for identifying conserved genetic elements and regulatory regions that may play important roles in disease susceptibility or other biological processes.

Crowdsourcing is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe the process of obtaining ideas, services, or content by soliciting contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet. In a medical context, crowdsourcing may be used in research, clinical trials, or patient care to gather data, opinions, or solutions from a diverse group of individuals. For example, researchers may use crowdsourcing to gather data on the symptoms and experiences of patients with a particular condition, or clinicians may use it to get input on challenging diagnostic cases.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) are complex systems of molecular interactions that regulate the expression of genes within an organism. These networks consist of various types of regulatory elements, including transcription factors, enhancers, promoters, and silencers, which work together to control when, where, and to what extent a gene is expressed.

In GRNs, transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of target genes, either activating or repressing their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular signals that modulate the activity of transcription factors, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions.

The structure and behavior of GRNs can be represented as a network of nodes (genes) and edges (regulatory interactions), with the strength and directionality of these interactions determined by the specific molecular mechanisms involved. Understanding the organization and dynamics of GRNs is crucial for elucidating the underlying causes of various biological processes, including development, differentiation, homeostasis, and disease.

'Structural homology' in the context of proteins refers to the similarity in the three-dimensional structure of proteins that are not necessarily related by sequence. This similarity arises due to the fact that these proteins have a common evolutionary ancestor or because they share a similar function and have independently evolved to adopt a similar structure. The structural homology is often identified using bioinformatics tools, such as fold recognition algorithms, that compare the three-dimensional structures of proteins to identify similarities. This concept is important in understanding protein function and evolution, as well as in the design of new drugs and therapeutic strategies.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hypermedia" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hypermedia is a general term used in information technology and computing to describe a non-linear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, text, and hyperlinks. It allows users to navigate through the information in a flexible, non-sequential manner by clicking on hyperlinks that connect related pieces of information.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

A genome in the context of insects refers to the complete set of genetic material, including all of the DNA and RNA, that is present in the cells of an insect. The genome contains all of the genes that provide the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the insect. It also includes non-coding regions of DNA that may have regulatory functions or may be the result of historical processes.

The genome of an insect is typically divided into several chromosomes, which are structures in the cell's nucleus that contain long stretches of DNA. The number and appearance of these chromosomes can vary between different species of insects. For example, some insects may have a diploid number of two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent), while others may have a haploid number of a single set of chromosomes.

The genome size of insects can also vary significantly, with some species having genomes that are only a few hundred million base pairs in length, while others have genomes that are several billion base pairs long. The genome sequence of an insect can provide valuable insights into its evolutionary history, as well as information about the genes and regulatory elements that are important for its biology and behavior.

Metagenomics is the scientific study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. This field of research involves analyzing the collective microbial genomes found in a variety of environments, such as soil, ocean water, or the human gut, without the need to culture individual species in a lab. By using high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools, metagenomics allows researchers to identify and study the functional potential and ecological roles of diverse microbial communities, contributing to our understanding of their impacts on ecosystems, health, and disease.

Alternative splicing is a process in molecular biology that occurs during the post-transcriptional modification of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules. It involves the removal of non-coding sequences, known as introns, and the joining together of coding sequences, or exons, to form a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule that can be translated into a protein.

In alternative splicing, different combinations of exons are selected and joined together to create multiple distinct mRNA transcripts from a single pre-mRNA template. This process increases the diversity of proteins that can be produced from a limited number of genes, allowing for greater functional complexity in organisms.

Alternative splicing is regulated by various cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that bind to specific sequences in the pre-mRNA molecule and influence which exons are included or excluded during splicing. Abnormal alternative splicing has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Biological ontologies are formal representations of knowledge in the biological sciences, which consist of standardized vocabularies and relationships between them. They provide a way to represent and organize complex concepts and relationships in a machine-readable format, enabling computational analysis and integration of diverse biological data. Ontologies can capture various levels of biological organization, from molecular interactions to whole organisms and ecosystems. Examples of widely used biological ontologies include the Gene Ontology (GO) for molecular functions and processes, the Cell Ontology (CL) for cell types, and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology for small molecules.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Online Systems" is not a medical term. It generally refers to computer systems or networks that are connected to the internet and can be accessed remotely. In a medical context, it could refer to various online tools and platforms used in healthcare, such as electronic health records, telemedicine systems, or medical research databases. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "workflow" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in many fields, including healthcare, to describe a series of steps or tasks that are necessary to complete a process or task. In the context of healthcare, workflows often refer to the processes and procedures involved in delivering care to patients.

A medical definition of "workflow" might be:

The sequence of tasks or activities involved in providing clinical care to patients, including assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, intervention, monitoring, and follow-up. Workflows may involve multiple healthcare providers, such as physicians, nurses, therapists, and other staff members, and may be supported by technology, such as electronic health records (EHRs) or other clinical information systems. Effective workflow design is critical to ensuring safe, timely, and efficient care delivery.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Protein interaction maps are graphical representations that illustrate the physical interactions and functional relationships between different proteins in a cell or organism. These maps can be generated through various experimental techniques such as yeast two-hybrid screens, affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) followed by mass spectrometry. The resulting data is then visualized as a network where nodes represent proteins and edges represent the interactions between them. Protein interaction maps can provide valuable insights into cellular processes, signal transduction pathways, and disease mechanisms, and are widely used in systems biology and network medicine research.

In the context of medicine, classification refers to the process of categorizing or organizing diseases, disorders, injuries, or other health conditions based on their characteristics, symptoms, causes, or other factors. This helps healthcare professionals to understand, diagnose, and treat various medical conditions more effectively.

There are several well-known classification systems in medicine, such as:

1. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), it is used worldwide for mortality and morbidity statistics, reimbursement systems, and automated decision support in health care. This system includes codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.
2. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - published by the American Psychiatric Association, it provides a standardized classification system for mental health disorders to improve communication between mental health professionals, facilitate research, and guide treatment.
3. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) - developed by the WHO, this system focuses on an individual's functioning and disability rather than solely on their medical condition. It covers body functions and structures, activities, and participation, as well as environmental and personal factors that influence a person's life.
4. The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors - created by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), it is used to describe the anatomical extent of cancer, including the size of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and distant metastasis (M).

These classification systems help medical professionals communicate more effectively about patients' conditions, make informed treatment decisions, and track disease trends over time.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Untranslated regions (UTRs) of RNA are the non-coding sequences that are present in mRNA (messenger RNA) molecules, which are located at both the 5' end (5' UTR) and the 3' end (3' UTR) of the mRNA, outside of the coding sequence (CDS). These regions do not get translated into proteins. They contain regulatory elements that play a role in the regulation of gene expression by affecting the stability, localization, and translation efficiency of the mRNA molecule. The 5' UTR typically contains the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes or the Kozak consensus sequence in eukaryotes, which are important for the initiation of translation. The 3' UTR often contains regulatory elements such as AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites that can affect mRNA stability and translation.

... molecular biology and bioinformatics have created the need for DNA annotation. DNA annotation or genome annotation is the ... An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it ... For annotations of different digital media, see web annotation and text annotation. Annotation Practices are highlighting a ... PDF annotation Subject indexing Semantics Tag (metadata) Text annotation Web annotation XPS annotation "Definition of DATA ...
The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 7 (4): 273-81. ... Klug A (October 1999). "Zinc finger peptides for the regulation of gene expression". Journal of Molecular Biology. 293 (2): 215 ... "SNP linked to Gene ZNF280D(geneID:54816) Via Contig Annotation". NCBI. Retrieved 10 May 2014. "Genomatix". Genomatix. Retrieved ... Nagase T, Kikuno R, Nakayama M, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (August 2000). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human ...
McHardy AC, Kloetgen A (2017). "Finding Genes in Genome Sequence". In Keith JM (ed.). Bioinformatics. Methods in Molecular ... In molecular biology and genetics, DNA annotation or genome annotation is the process of describing the structure and function ... "Review on the Computational Genome Annotation of Sequences Obtained by Next-Generation Sequencing". Biology. 9 (9): 295. doi: ... Annotation projects often rely on previous annotations of an organism's genome; however, these older annotations may contain ...
Strozzi F, Mazza R, Malinverni R, Williams JL (February 2009). "Annotation of 390 bovine miRNA genes by sequence similarity ... In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcribed as ~70 ... International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium (December 2004). "Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome ... "Next-generation sequencing of the Chinese hamster ovary microRNA transcriptome: Identification, annotation and profiling of ...
Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry Specification). PharmGKB gives drug/compound and its annotation. Transcripts: This ... Since the 1980s, sequence information has become increasingly abundant; subsequently many laboratories realized this and began ... Annotation unification: Different data sources often offer annotations with heterogeneous naming system. Annotation unification ... unique wealth of combinatorial annotations of human genes. Annotation combinatory: Using GeneDecks, one can get a set of ...
Visualization of gene expression (heatmaps, volcano plot), molecular interaction networks (through Cytoscape), protein sequence ... and protein structure data (e.g., MarkUs). Integration of gene and pathway annotation information from curated sources as well ... sets and sequences. Dataset history tracking - complete record of data sets used and input settings. Integration with 3rd party ... sequence, and structure data. geWorkbench is the Bioinformatics platform of MAGNet, the National Center for the Multi-scale ...
June 2003). "CDS annotation in full-length cDNA sequence". Genome Research. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 13 (6B): 1478- ... Oliver JL, Marín A (September 1996). "A relationship between GC content and coding-sequence length". Journal of Molecular ... In DNA, the coding region is flanked by the promoter sequence on the 5' end of the template strand and the termination sequence ... The gene that would have been transcribed can be silenced by targeting a specific sequence. The bases in this sequence would be ...
"Sequence-based feature prediction and annotation of proteins". Genome Biology. 10 (2): 206. doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-2-206. PMC ... He received his PhD in molecular biology in 1988 from the Autonomous University of Madrid. From 1989 to 1994 he was a ... 2011). "Exome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations of the splicing factor SF3B1 gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia". ... Valencia is Doctor Honoris cause of the Danish DTU and elected member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO). ...
However, recent genome sequencing and annotation of S. endobioticum has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms of ... Very little is known about the pathogenesis of S. endobioticum at a molecular level. Indeed, this is true of chytrids more ... The lack of hemicellulases may allow the pathogen to evade defense responses triggered by damage-associated molecular patterns ...
... provides information on the resistant genes, their sequences, and their molecular functions. The database has over 700 ... 2013). "Gene Ontology annotations and resources". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (Database issue) (Database issue): D530-D535. doi: ... The former's data is compiled from NCBI while the annotations are from UniProt and Gene Ontology. ... confirmed genes and over 150,000 predicted genes that are organized by molecular function and resistant phenotypes. As of May ...
... molecular biology and bioinformatics have created the need for DNA annotation. DNA annotation or genome annotation is the ... Improvements in DNA sequencing technology has meant that the cost of sequencing a new genome sequence has steadily fallen (in ... Rather than sequence a chromosome in one go, it would be sequenced piece by piece (with the prior knowledge of approximately ... The genome sequence of an organism includes the collective DNA sequences of each chromosome in the organism. For a bacterium ...
As the process keeps going down we're reaching the point where every genome that can be sequenced will be sequenced. Lisacek, F ... From 1988 onward it has been a collaborative project with the Data Library group of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory ... His most important contribution is the input of human knowledge by careful manual annotation in protein-related data. While ... A little while later he created ENZYME, a nomenclature database on enzymes as well as SeqAnalRef, a sequence analysis ...
Following annotation, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enables visualization of metabolic pathways and molecular ... Blast2GO (B2G) enables Gene Ontology based data mining to annotate sequence data for which no GO annotation is available yet. ... Functional annotation of the assembled transcripts allows for insight into the particular molecular functions, cellular ... Whereas high sequence coverage for a genome may indicate the presence of repetitive sequences (and thus be masked), for a ...
... and functional annotation of biological sequences. Karlowski graduated in molecular biology from the Faculty of Biology at the ... and evolutionary molecular biology analyses. Karlowski is an expert in bioinformatics, molecular biology, molecular genetics, ... From 1991 to 1996 Karlowski continued his education in the area of plant molecular genetics in the frame of the Adam Mickiewicz ... His research concentrated on molecular mechanisms of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of leguminous plants. He defended his Ph.D. ...
The comparison of the sequences from these genes are sometimes used in molecular analysis to construct phylogenetic trees, for ... Several databases provide alignments and annotations of LSU rRNA sequences for comparative purposes: RDP, the Ribosomal ... Hedin, Marshal C.; Maddison, Wayne P. (March 2001). "A Combined Molecular Approach to Phylogeny of the Jumping Spider Subfamily ... Eperon, I. C.; Anderson, S.; Nierlich, D. P. (1980-07-31). "Distinctive sequence of human mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes". ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... Chang WL, Lee DC, Leu S, Huang YM, Lu MC, Ouyang P (Aug 2003). "Molecular characterization of a novel nucleolar protein, pNO40 ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
The organizers provided 48,000 sequences for the community with the task to prediction Gene Ontology annotations for each of ... Different algorithms are evaluated by their ability to predict the Gene Ontology (GO) terms in the categories of Molecular ... Due to the relatively low cost of genome sequencing, determining gene and protein sequences is fast and inexpensive. Thousands ... The Critical Assessment of Functional Annotation (CAFA) is an experiment designed to provide a large-scale assessment of ...
MolQuest is the most comprehensive, easy-to-use desktop application for sequence analysis and molecular biology data management ... Solovyev V, Salamov A. (2011). "Automatic Annotation of Microbial Genomes and Metagenomic Sequences". In R.W. Li (ed.). ... He is interested in genome structural and functional annotation and applying it for rational design of biological systems. ... The Fgenesb bacterial genome annotation pipeline based on Markov chain models was significantly superior to other approaches, ...
2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNAD sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. Bibcode: ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome ... Family with sequence similarity 49 member A FAM98A: Family with sequence similarity 98 member A FAM136A: Family with sequence ... These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the ...
The draft sequence of the 21 chromosomes enabled for the first time the annotation of 124,201 genes and comparative ... These sequences anchored to many molecular markers on genetic maps, provided a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid ... At that time whole genome sequencing approaches did not yield any high quality sequence assemblies due to the extremely high ... "Wheat Genome Sequencing Gets Major Boost". International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 15 March ...
"A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biology. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (5): 1275-86. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.01.013. PMID 15713480. Weller S, Cajigas I, Morrell J, ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. Bibcode:1999Natur.402..489D. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID ...
... provides a standard for annotations and metadata on biosynthetic gene clusters and their molecular products. MIBiG is a Genomic ... For each lanthipeptide in this set, the sequence of the core peptide was scanned for strings or sub-sequences of the type Ser/ ... For the extrinsic search, the input DNA sequence is run through a large database of sequences whose genes have been previously ... Overview: 1,012,863 RNA sequences from 92,684 organisms contributed to RNAcentral. The shortest sequence has 1,253 nucleotides ...
The gene ontology (GO) annotation for 165 plant species and GO enrichment analysis is available. The Molecular Signatures ... NASQAR (Nucleic Acid SeQuence Analysis Resource) is an open source, web-based platform for high-throughput sequencing data ... Exome sequences from women who had experienced SPTB were compared to those from females from the 1000 Genome Project, using a ... "NASQAR: Nucleic Acid SeQuence Analysis Resource". Yu G, Wang LG, Han Y, He QY (May 2012). "clusterProfiler: an R package for ...
2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. Bibcode: ... Methods In Molecular Biology. Vol. 477. pp. 195-206. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-517-0_15. ISBN 978-1-60327-218-6. PMID 19082948. ... "Entrez Gene: ribonucleotide reductase M2". Pavloff N, Rivard D, Masson S, Shen SH, Mes-Masson AM (1992). "Sequence analysis of ...
He has studied repeated sequences in the DNA of mice and produced molecular maps of mouse chromosomes, which were used to ... He has been at the forefront of new approaches in mutagenesis and phenotyping for the functional annotation of the mouse genome ... He pioneered studies of repeated sequences in the mouse genome and the use of novel approaches to generate molecular maps of ... A particular focus has been the use of mouse models to elucidate the molecular basis of genetic deafness. With Karen Steel, he ...
May 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur. ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome ... family with sequence similarity 46, member B FAM46C: family with sequence similarity 46, member C FAM76A: family with sequence ... Family with sequence similarity 63, member A FAM78B: family with sequence similarity 78, member B FAM89A: encoding protein ...
... is the Arabidopsis thaliana genetic and molecular database - TAIR. Phytozome, in turn, stores the assemblies and annotation ... "International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration - INSDC". "Top". "The European ... molecular function and biological process (Gene Ontology). In addition to databases that contain specific molecular information ... So, the concept of Genomic Selection (GS) arises in order to use all molecular markers in the selection and allow the ...
... containing well known sequences comprehensive of Unique Molecular Identifiers that are used to quantify small RNAs in a sample ... The small RNAs are finally quantified by assigning molecules to transcript annotations from different databases (Mirbase, ... Small RNA sequencing (Small RNA-Seq) is a type of RNA sequencing based on the use of NGS technologies that allows to isolate ... Illumina sequencing: it offers a good method for small RNA sequencing and it is the most widely used approach. After the ...
2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. Bibcode: ... HADHB is a functional molecular target of ERα in the mitochondria, and the interaction may play an important role in the ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 2009). "Clinical and molecular aspects of Japanese patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency". Mol. Genet. ...
... community-based annotation of biological databases through Wikipedia, for example, annotation of the Rfam database through ... As of 2012, he has been Head of Protein Sequence Resources at EMBL-EBI. Bateman has also been involved in promoting the use of ... part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Cambridge, UK. He has led the development of the Pfam biological ... He has also been involved in the use of Wikipedia for community-based annotation of biological databases. Bateman received a ...
... provides manually curated annotations of intrinsically disordered proteins from the literature. Here we report recent ... 21 Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular (IBMC) and Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S), Universidade do ... DisProt: intrinsic protein disorder annotation in 2020 Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Jan 8;48(D1):D269-D276. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz975 ... The new annotation interface has made the curation process faster and more effective. We recently showed that new DisProt ...
Gene based annotation is based on the fact that non-synonymous mutations can alter the protein sequence and that splice site ... Functional prediction of variants effect in different biological processes is pivotal to pinpoint the molecular mechanism of ... Variant annotation tools use machine learning algorithms to predict variant annotations. Different annotation tools use ... SNP functional annotation is typically performed based on the available information on nucleic acid and protein sequences. ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... Structure of MDM2 with low molecular weight inhibitor with aliphatic linker.. Help ...
Proteins that have the ability to recognise and bind DNA sequences can be classified either according to their DNA-binding ... motif or based on the sequence of the target nucleotides. W ... This study can serve as a basis for annotation and distribution ... Further, sequence domain families were mapped to structures in the protein databank (PDB) and the protein domain structure ... Collation and analyses of DNA-binding protein domain families from sequence and structural databanks S. Malhotra and R. ...
The sequence-structure relationship of three new subfamilies was examined by molecular modelling. I provide structural models ... The domain within your query sequence starts at position 1082 and ends at position 1105; the E-value for the LRR domain shown ... In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. In addition, ... Novel Molecular Architecture of YopM-a Leucine-rich Effector Protein from Yersinia pestis. ...
Molecular genetics - DNA sequencing Blood DNA sequence analysis Molecular genetics/Cytogenetics - Bioinformatic analysis DNA ... Data annotation and interpretation ... Molecular genetics - DNA sequencing Purified PCR product DNA ... Microbiology - Molecular biology - Microbial DNA and/or RNA sequencing Extracted DNA; Extracted RNA Sequenced DNA utilising ... Microbiology - Molecular biology - Microbial genotyping Plasma Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequencing for drug ...
Explore all the features of Geneious Prime including sequence alignment, mapping, Sanger and NGS analysis, molecular cloning ... Molecular Cloning. *View plasmid maps, automatically annotate vectors, and copy-paste sequences with annotations ... Sequence Analysis. *Trim, assemble, and view Sanger sequencing trace files. *Correct base calls and create consensus sequences ... Transfer annotations by similarity or using an alignment. Real time prediction of DNA translations, consensus sequences, DNA ...
... we employed nanopore-based whole-genome sequencing and subsequently conducted a detailed genome annotation. The genome.... ... Current Issues in Molecular Biology). Source: Current Issues in Molecular Biology - March 27, 2024 Category: Molecular Biology ... Current Issues in Molecular Biology). Source: Current Issues in Molecular Biology - March 27, 2024 Category: Molecular Biology ... Current Issues in Molecular Biology). Source: Current Issues in Molecular Biology - March 27, 2024 Category: Molecular Biology ...
Molecular modelling in high-quality scientific databases and software tools using Expasy, the Swiss Bioinformatics Resource ... You can also query Molecular modelling into a selection of SIB databases in parallel ... UniProtKB family classification and annotation MyHits Relationships between protein sequences and motifs ...
The Molecular Observation Network is a national open science network designed to produce a comprehensive database of molecular ... The Joint Genome Institute (JGI) will perform and prepare sequencing, metagenome analyses, MONet samples, assembly files, and ... annotation. Data will be publicly accessible and available for download from the EMSL MONet database and through JGIs portals. ... The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is leading an effort to improve the understanding around the molecular ...
However, linking the sequence information to biological phenomena by interpreting the assembled data remains a significant ... Establishing a fundamental understanding of the specific molecular biology of a species begins with reconstructing its genome ( ... AnnoVis- Annotation and visualization of de novo genome and transcriptome assemblies. 281ANV. *Project Leaders: Inanc Birol ... For instance, annotations may describe the processes involved in the environmental services of a species, indicate the wood ...
We work to develop computational methods for analyzing large-scale sequencing data to help characterize molecular mechanisms of ... gene and alternative splicing annotation, RNA editing, microbial comparative genomics, miRNA genomics and computational vaccine ... Our molecular oncology experts consult on preclinical studies, use of human tissues, interpretation of data and molecular ... To compute these motions, we use the molecular dynamics program CHARMM. We hope to use our understanding of the molecular ...
This work highlights the discovery and validation of molecular markers in CCA identified through omics approaches. The possible ... and expression of organisms genome that involves DNA sequencing and assembly as well as analysis of an annotation of structure ... With advanced molecular techniques, along with genes and proteins that have been identified as molecular markers for CCA, some ... The whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed several KRAS mutations, which are considered to be a potential diagnosis for CCA [41- ...
... tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular ... portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence ... Processing Sequence Annotation Data Using the Lua Programming Language. Yutaka Ueno, Masanori Arita, Toshitaka Kumagai, Kiyoshi ... This paper studies sequencing and mapping methods that rely solely on pooling and shotgun sequencing of clones. First, we ...
"The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3. ..." in: Nature, Vol. 440, Issue 7088, pp. 1194-8, (2006) ( ... "Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel GABAB-related G-protein coupled receptor." in: Brain research. Molecular ...
AutoFACT will serve as a useful annotation tool for smaller sequencing groups lacking dedicated bioinformatics staff. It is ... We have compared AutoFACT to four well-established annotation pipelines. The error rate of functional annotation is estimated ... a fully automated and customizable annotation tool that assigns biologically informative functions to a sequence. Key features ... The usual process involves similarity searches of a given sequence against one or more databases, an arduous process for large ...
The molecular sequence of this clone aligns with the gene accession number as a point of reference only. However, individual ... OTI Annotation. This clone was engineered to express the complete ORF with an expression tag. Expression varies depending on ... Sequence Data. ORF Nucleotide Sequence (showhide) >RC206508 ORF sequence. Red=Cloning site Blue=ORF Green=Tags(s). ... Protein Sequence (showhide) >RC206508 protein sequence. Red=Cloning site Green=Tags(s). ...
The low computational cost of GPSite enables rapid genome-scale binding residue annotations for over 568,000 sequences, ... Here, we combined molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and functional study to reveal the molecular ... Add a comment + Open annotations. The current annotation count on this page is being calculated. Data availability. All data ... where N is the number of all sequences and pi is the probability of the amino acid in all sequences. A large value of the unit ...
with G + C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3533 genes, 3414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10 ... We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the ... Molecular genomics analysis. DNA purification, sequencing, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis. DNA isolation, ... The heavy metal resistance gene search for P. mirabilis SCDR1 contigs were investigated using PGAAP and PATRIC gene annotation ...
Genome Sequencing, Assembly & Annotation 5 μg of DNA of phages 645, 340, ViridusJM2 (JM2), PastusJM3 (JM3) and P113g was ... Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2 ed.. *23. Sanders, M. E., and T. R. Klaenhammer. 1981. Evidence for Plasmid Linkage ... a) the first amplicon is a sequence of SEQUENCE ID NO: 9;. (b) the second amplicon is a sequence of SEQUENCE ID NO: 10; and. (c ... a) the first amplicon is a sequence of SEQUENCE ID NO: 9;. (b) the second amplicon is a sequence of SEQUENCE ID NO: 10; and. (c ...
Manually curated GO annotations reflect our best understanding of the basic molecular function, biological process, and ... Nuclear localization sequence-binding protein that imports various proteins to the nucleus; involved in mitotic exit; localizes ... Many of these annotations are made based on GO annotations (or mappings to GO annotations) assigned by the authors, rather than ... These annotations are NOT reviewed by a curator. Currently, all computational GO annotations for S. cerevisiae are assigned by ...
Contribute to the functional annotation of microbiome sequencing data. *Better understand metabolic host-microbiota ... Zentrum: European Molecular Biology Laboratory. Forschungsschwerpunkte:. *Improve our understanding of how the gut microbiome ...
sequence-based families: implications for structural genomics and function annotation in genomes.. Nucleic Acid Research, 30, ... Journal of Molecular Biology, 324, 331-347.. Rami, B. and Udgaonkar, J.B. (2002). pH jump onduced folding and unfolding studies ...
In transcriptome-wide applications, such methods will provide accurate structure annotations on the target side. Source code of ... Sequence information can be optionally added to the query. The target sequence is pre-processed to obtain local base pairing ... In this scenario, the query consists of a base pairing probability matrix, which can be derived either from a single sequence ... Current homology search tools for structured RNAs are either based entirely on sequence similarity (such as blast or hmmer) or ...
The availability of genomic sequences of several Verticillium species triggered an explosion of genome-scale investigations of ... Sequencing and annotation of the Ophiostoma ulmi genome. BMC Genomics 14:1162 [Google Scholar] ... Physiology and molecular aspects of Verticillium wilt diseases caused by V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Mol. Plant Pathol. 7:271 ... Sequencing and annotation of the Ophiostoma ulmi genome. BMC Genomics 14:1162 [Google Scholar] ...
Validate sequenced constructs using powerful alignment tools. *Customize plasmid maps with flexible annotation and ... SnapGene Viewer is free software that allows molecular biologists to create, browse, and share richly annotated sequence files. ... This recognition sequence is asymmetric, so ligating blunt ends generated by BmgBI will not always regenerate a BmgBI site. ... The maps, notes, and annotations in the zip file on this page are copyrighted material. This material may be used without ...
You are here: Home , Sequence: MGYG000000872_01263. Basic Information , Genomic context , Full Sequence , Enzyme annotations , ... Molecular Weight. Isoelectric Point. 336. MGYG000000872_13,CGC2. 38258.08. 5.2427. Genome Property. Genome Assembly ID. Genome ... SignalP and Lipop Annotations help This protein is predicted as LIPO Other. SP_Sec_SPI. LIPO_Sec_SPII. TAT_Tat_SPI. TATLIP_Sec_ ... CAZy signature domains , CDD domains , CAZyme hits , PDB hits , Swiss-Prot hits , SignalP and Lipop annotations , TMHMM ...
Next-generation sequencing strategies have been successful in understanding the evolution of infectious diseases as well as ... facilitating the development of molecular diagnostics and treatments. Thousands of genomes are being generated weekly to ... From 210 sequencing runs present in Bioproject PRJNA691556 (Gupta et al., 2021), 120 were paired-end sequencing performed with ... A comparison of whole genome sequencing of sars-cov-2 using amplicon-based sequencing, random hexamers, and bait capture.. ...
Sequence cutoff Minimum hmmsearch full-sequence score for the protein to be considered a hit to this HMM. ... HMMs and BlastRules also contribute to structural annotation by NCBIs Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) (Read more ... Gene Ontology (GO) terms: controlled vocabulary that define the function of genes with respect to three categories: molecular ... The number of RefSeq proteins with sequence and domain scores above the HMMs sequence and domain cutoffs, respectively. ...
  • By combining comparative analysis with Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Conserved Domains Database (CDD), and Pfam annotations, we predicted 228 potential carbohydrate-active enzymes related to plant polysaccharide degradation (PPD). (
  • Beautiful visualizations of annotated genomes and assemblies displayed in a highly customizable sequence view. (
  • Automate external database searches to continuously receive the latest information on genomes, sequences, and protein structures. (
  • As the sequencing and gene annotation projects of entire genomes of many species are headed towards completion (see, e.g. [13] ), massive mapping efforts in biology are now focused on how the genes interact. (
  • Developments in sequencing technologies and the sequencing of an ever-increasing number of genomes have revolutionised studies of biodiversity and organismal evolution. (
  • This accumulation of data has been paralleled by the creation of numerous public biological databases through which the scientific community can mine the sequences and annotations of genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes of multiple species. (
  • As of August 10, 2000, draft sequence was available for 87% of the human genome (, and at least 39 prokaryotic genomes, including those of more than a dozen human pathogens, had been completely sequenced (
  • Several independent high-throughput methods for differential gene expression (including SAGE and differential display) may enable function annotation of sequenced genomes [ 2 ] . (
  • We sequenced the whole genomes of 21 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in 2013-2014 by ARSP. (
  • MLVA using PCR before whole-genome sequencing. (
  • To understand the genetic factors underlying its pathogenicity, enzymatic degradation, and secondary metabolism, we analysed the whole genome of A. westerdijkiae and compared it with eight other sequenced Aspergillus species. (
  • Targeted sequencing of multiple genes of interest is a rapid, cost-effective alternative to whole exome sequencing (WES) or whole genome sequencing and is becoming more commonly used in clinical laboratories. (
  • Vanillin production in Pseudomonas: whole-genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. (
  • The Database of Protein Disorder (DisProt, URL: provides manually curated annotations of intrinsically disordered proteins from the literature. (
  • Proteins that have the ability to recognise and bind DNA sequences can be classified either according to their DNA-binding motif or based on the sequence of the target nucleotides. (
  • This study can serve as a basis for annotation and distribution of DNA-binding proteins in genome(s) of interest. (
  • In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. (
  • A distance-based phylogenetic treeyielded a classification into 11 subfamilies, nine exclusively containingplant sequences and two subfamilies of bacterial proteins. (
  • The superfamily of leucine-rich repeat proteins can be subdivided into at least six subfamilies, characterised by different lengths and consensus sequences of the repeats. (
  • Foldseek aligns the structure of a query protein against a database by describing the amino acid backbone of proteins as sequences over a structural alphabet. (
  • Despite the success of sequence-based homology inference, many proteins cannot be annotated because detecting distant evolutionary relationships from sequences alone remains challenging [ 9 ]. (
  • To increase speed, a crucial idea is to describe the amino acid backbone of proteins as sequences over a structural alphabet and compare structures using sequence alignments [ 15 ]. (
  • These proteins have totally different molecular weights, subcellular localizations, low instability index vary and not less than 40% of sequence id with different microalgal lipases. (
  • For some pathogens, consideration may need to be given to the presence of mutations in targeted gene sequences or proteins. (
  • This database allows traditionally labor-intensive molecular analysis methods to be converted into a high-throughput workflow. (
  • High-throughput methods for assessment of function are clearly required if this wealth of primary sequence information is to be used. (
  • Molecular typing by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was determined from closed genome assemblies using a custom bioinformatics pipeline (wgsMLVA). (
  • Employing bioinformatics, we explored the molecular pathways and cascades linked to drug resistance following upregulation of these genes. (
  • Assembling the large volume of data generated by sequencing technologies into coherent information has been a primary focus of the bioinformatics field. (
  • His interests include Bordetella molecular pathogenesis and gene expression bioinformatics. (
  • EGE also develops epigenomic methodologies, profiling strategies, and bioinformatics tools, applicable to population-based cohorts and molecular epidemiology studies coordinated by IARC researchers and external collaborators. (
  • My role in the group, is to bridge the wet and dry lab, working both with molecular biology and bioinformatics. (
  • My education at Lund University have given me a broad and solid foundation in both molecular biology and bioinformatics, allowing me to freely travel between the fields and combining them in my research. (
  • It is a machine learning-based approach and utilizes amino acid features, Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, evolutionary conservation, and annotations of functional sites. (
  • Complete genomic sequences of microbial pathogens and hosts offer sophisticated new strategies for studying host-pathogen interactions. (
  • 4. Letunic I, Bork P. Interactive tree of life (iTOL) v3: an online tool for the display and annotation of phylogenetic and other trees. (
  • We constructed a phylogenetic tree of A. westerdijkiae and eight other sequenced Aspergillus species and found that the sister group of A. westerdijkiae was the A. oryzae - A. flavus clade. (
  • Here, we present a compilation of DNA and protein databases, as well as bioinformatic tools for phylogenetic reconstruction and a wide range of studies on molecular evolution. (
  • We provide a protocol for information extraction from biological databases and simple phylogenetic reconstruction using probabilistic and distance methods, facilitating the study of biodiversity and evolution at the molecular level for the broad scientific community. (
  • Submit sequences directly to GenBank. (
  • VADR: validation and annotation of virus sequence submissions to GenBank. (
  • YANG Y, SHAO A, VIHINEN M. PON-All: Amino Acid Substitution Tolerance Predictor for All Organisms [J]. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 2022, 9. (
  • Genome sequence-based molecular characterization was performed using either completed assemblies or individual sequencing reads. (
  • Our molecular oncology experts consult on preclinical studies, use of human tissues, interpretation of data and molecular characterization of cells and tumor tissue. (
  • In silico research combining evaluation of sequences homologies and bioinformatic instruments allowed the identification and preliminary characterization of 14 putative lipases expressed by Chlorella vulagaris . (
  • Ravi K, García-Hidalgo J, Brink DP, Skyvell M, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Lidén G. Physiological characterization and sequence analysis of a syringate-consuming Actinobacterium. (
  • Phylogeneticrelationships within the Bet v 1 family, defined as the group of proteinswith significant sequence similarity to Bet v 1, were determined byaligning 264 Bet v 1-related sequences. (
  • The most widely used approach to protein annotation and analysis is based on sequence similarity search [ 5 - 8 ]. (
  • Transfer annotations by similarity or using an alignment. (
  • Establishing a fundamental understanding of the specific molecular biology of a species begins with reconstructing its genome (DNA) and transcriptome (RNA). (
  • We used 454 sequencing to generate 1.48 million reads from cDNA generated from embryo, larva, and pupae of T. biloba and assembled a transcriptome consisting of 24,495 contigs. (
  • The T. biloba transcriptome is a critical resource for performing large-scale RNA-Seq investigations of gene expression patterns, and is the first transcriptome sequenced in this Dipteran family. (
  • The molecular interactions of genes and gene products underlie fundamental questions of biology. (
  • The team also developed three visualization tools to assess the quality of assemblies and their annotations. (
  • Real time prediction of DNA translations, consensus sequences, DNA and protein sequences. (
  • BLAST search against sequences in NCBI databases or set up a custom database and BLAST it locally. (
  • This study provides an overview of the genetic aberrations in this cohort of Chinese IC patients and demonstrates the power of next generation sequencing in IC. (
  • With a precise molecular diagnosis, physicians can provide accurate treatment strategies and genetic counseling for patients and their family members. (
  • 9.1 and re-annotation of Pseudomonas putida CalA as a vanillin reductase. (
  • Improve your mapping accuracy and decrease your analysis time with simple sequence assembly and easy editing of contigs. (
  • Ensure accurate downstream analysis with extensive NGS pre-processing tools producing clean sequence data. (
  • The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3. (
  • This means that I have a role in the research from when we receive tissue biopsies from women with PCOS, sequencing it and performing the data analysis and drawing biological conclusions. (
  • The In-vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging Center conducts multidisciplinary research on cellular and molecular imaging related to cancer. (
  • These studies demonstrate the feasibility of machine learning-based molecular cancer classification. (
  • Molecular paThwayS criTical for cancer developMenT and progreSSion, ThuS enhancing The evidence baSe direcTly relevanT To STudieS of cancer cauSaTion and prevenTion. (
  • This is achieved through mechanistic studies of functionally important epigenetic "driver" genes and molecular pathways altered by specific cancer risk agents and by the application of cutting-edge epigenomics in conjunction with unique biospecimens from population-based cohorts (Figure 1). (
  • Molecular Diagnostic and Prognostication Assays for the Subtyping of Urinary Bladder Cancer Are on the Way to Illuminating Our Vision. (
  • Therefore, identification of potential molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity would be beneficial for CCA diagnosis and patient prognosis as well as targeting therapeutics [ 8 , 14 ]. (
  • hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds Data source: Genome annotation encompasses the practice of capturing data about a gene product, and GO annotations use terms from the GO to do so. (
  • RESULTS: Structural comparisons ofrepresentative members of already known protein families structurallyrelated to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47structures with non-identical sequences. (
  • However, linking the sequence information to biological phenomena by interpreting the assembled data remains a significant challenge. (
  • Some enhance annotations, others predict molecular interactions, however few add on to current data. (
  • DNA microarrays exploit primary sequence data to measure transcript levels and detect sequence polymorphisms, for every gene, simultaneously. (
  • Genomic sequencing will provide the data needed to unravel the complexities of the host-pathogen interaction. (
  • The multilocus sequence type, multiantigen sequence type, presence of determinants of antimicrobial resistance and relatedness among the isolates were all derived from the sequence data. (
  • Further, sequence domain families were mapped to structures in the protein databank (PDB) and the protein domain structure classification database (SCOP). (
  • Mauno Vihinen is well-known for his experience and interest in investigating variations and their effects whether they emerge at molecular levels (DNA, RNA protein), in structural context or in the cellular networks and pathways. (
  • For instance, annotations may describe the processes involved in the environmental services of a species, indicate the wood quality of forestry products, and reveal infection patterns of pathogens in the food chain. (
  • Here we report recent developments with DisProt (version 8), including the doubling of protein entries, a new disorder ontology, improvements of the annotation format and a completely new website. (
  • The GO ontology and annotation files are freely available from the GO website in a number of formats, or can be accessed online using the GO browser AmiGO. (
  • id: GO:0000016 name: lactase activity ontology: molecular_function def: "Catalysis of the reaction: lactose + H2O=D-glucose + D-galactose. (
  • The evidence code comes from a controlled vocabulary of codes, the Evidence Code Ontology, covering both manual and automated annotation methods. (
  • It is because sequence annotations don't all the time implicate perform, and molecular interactions are sometimes irrelevant to a cell's or organism's survival or propagation. (
  • Large-scale sequencing and assembly have not been performed in any sepsid, and the lack of a closely related genome makes investigation of gene expression challenging. (
  • Similarly, by using host gene microarrays, one can explore host response at the level of gene expression and provide a molecular description of the events that follow infection. (
  • First, whereas sequence search tools employ fast and sensitive prefilter algorithms to gain orders of magnitude in speed, no comparable prefilters exist for structure alignment. (
  • The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is leading an effort to improve the understanding around the molecular and microscale processes of carbon in soils. (
  • The Joint Genome Institute (JGI) will perform and prepare sequencing, metagenome analyses, MONet samples, assembly files, and annotation. (
  • We have collated the DNA-binding families by integrating information from both protein sequence family and structural databases. (
  • The DNA-binding families, with no structural information, were clustered together into potential superfamilies based on sequence associations. (
  • Structural alphabets thus reduce structure comparisons to much faster sequence alignments. (
  • We hope to use our understanding of the molecular motions for the prediction of membrane protein structures using new computational methods. (
  • Automatically annotate a new genome based on existing patterns and annotations in public or local databases. (
  • The goal is to find homologous sequences from which properties of the query sequence can be inferred, such as molecular and cellular functions and structure. (
  • with higher molecular weights corresponding to the addition of known repeat monomers. (
  • Understanding the molecular basis of tissue specific gene regulation and signaling will contribute to better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease. (
  • biological process, operations or sets of molecular events with a defined beginning and end, pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. (
  • GO is not static, and additions, corrections and alterations are suggested by, and solicited from, members of the research and annotation communities, as well as by those directly involved in the GO project. (
  • Similar to traditional PCR-based approaches, wgsMLVA uses primer sequences to identify 6 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) sites which contain a varying set of short sequence repeats ( 2 ). (
  • We recently showed that new DisProt annotations can be effectively used to train and validate disorder predictors. (
  • His interests are in the development and use of molecular methods for pathogen discovery, human microbial ecology, genomewide host and microbial responses to infection, and Bordetella pathogenesis. (
  • The website includes a redesigned graphical interface, a better search engine, a clearer API for programmatic access and a new annotation interface that integrates text mining technologies. (
  • This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the cell-type-specific mechanisms and regulatory networks in the goat ovary, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying goat prolificacy. (
  • It uses a multiple k-mer length approach combined with a second meta-assembly to extend transcripts and recover more bases of transcript sequences than standard single k-mer assembly. (
  • Design and test PCR and sequencing primers, and create your own searchable primer database. (
  • By understanding the molecular details of this interaction, we can identify virulence-associated microbial genes and host-defense strategies and characterize the cues to which they respond and mechanisms by which they are regulated. (
  • Alleles for common molecular typing loci (ptxP, ptxA, ptxB, fimH, and prn ) were assigned by genome alignment to a curated set of wild-type and deficient alleles using high-stringency. (
  • Validate your cloning with a visual tool for automating sequence alignment during batch plasmid validation. (