Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
An icosahedral RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory Tobacco necrosis virus (see NECROVIRUS) for its replication.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.

A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (1/1515)

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (2/1515)

Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity.  (+info)

The polar flagellar motor of Vibrio cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force. (3/1515)

Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We examined the Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains and present the evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V. cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force.  (+info)

p53 and p16INK4A mutations during the progression of glomus tumor. (4/1515)

Glomus tumors are significantly rare tumors of carotid body. The great majority of these tumors are benign in character. Here we present two brothers with hereditary glomus jugulare tumor who had consanguineous parents. Radiotherapy was applied approximately 8 and 10 years ago for treatment in both cases. Eight years later, one of these cases came to our notice due to relapse. The mutation pattern of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15NK4B genes which have roles in the cell cycle, was analyzed in tumor samples obtained from the two affected cases in the initial phase and from one of these cases at relapse. The DNA sample obtained from the case in initial diagnosis phase revealed no p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A or p15INK4B mutation. He is still in remission phase. Despite the lack of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15INK4B mutation at initial diagnosis the tumor DNA of the other case in relapse revealed p53 codon 243 (ATG-->ATC; met-->ile) and p16 codon 97 (GAC-->AAC; asp-->asn) missense point mutations. No loss of heterozygosity in p53 and p16INK4A was observed by microsatellite analysis of tumoral tissues in these cases. P53 and p16INK4A mutations observed in relapse phase were in conserved regions of both genes. No previous reports have been published with these mutations in glomus tumor during progression. The mutation observed in this case may due to radiotherapy. In spite of this possibility, the missense point mutations in conserved region of p53 and p16INK4A genes may indicate the role of p53 and p16INK4A in tumor progression of glomus tumors.  (+info)

The meningococcal PilT protein is required for induction of intimate attachment to epithelial cells following pilus-mediated adhesion. (5/1515)

The ability of Neisseria meningitidis (MC) to interact with cellular barriers is essential to its pathogenesis. With epithelial cells, this process has been modeled in two steps. The initial stage of localized adherence is mediated by bacterial pili. After this phase, MC disperse and lose piliation, thus leading to a diffuse adherence. At this stage, microvilli have disappeared, and MC interact intimately with cells and are, in places, located on pedestals of actin, thus realizing attaching and effacing (AE) lesions. The bacterial attributes responsible for these latter phenotypes remain unidentified. Considering that bacteria are nonpiliated at this stage, pili cannot be directly responsible for this effect. However, the initial phase of pilus-mediated localized adherence is required for the occurrence of diffuse adherence, loss of microvilli, and intimate attachment, because nonpiliated bacteria are not capable of such a cellular interaction. In this work, we engineered a mutation in the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding protein PilT and showed that this mutation increased piliation and abolished the dispersal phase of bacterial clumps as well as the loss of piliation. Furthermore, no intimate attachment nor AE lesions were observed. On the other hand, PilT- MC remained adherent as piliated clumps at all times. Taken together these data demonstrate that the induction of diffuse adherence, intimate attachment, and AE lesions after pilus-mediated adhesion requires the cytoplasmic PilT protein.  (+info)

Differences in the ionic interaction of actin with the motor domains of nonmuscle and muscle myosin II. (6/1515)

Changes in the actin-myosin interface are thought to play an important role in microfilament-linked cellular movements. In this study, we compared the actin binding properties of the motor domain of Dictyostelium discoideum (M765) and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 (S1). The Dictyostelium motor domain resembles S1(A2) (S1 carrying the A2 light chain) in its interaction with G-actin. Similar to S1(A2), none of the Dictyostelium motor domain constructs induced G-actin polymerization. The affinity of monomeric actin (G-actin) was 20-fold lower for M765 than for S1(A2) but increasing the number of positive charges in the loop 2 region of the D. discoideum motor domain (residues 613-623) resulted in equivalent affinities of G-actin for M765 and for S1. Proteolytic cleavage and cross-linking approaches were used to show that M765, like S1, interacts via the loop 2 region with filamentous actin (F-actin). For both types of myosin, F-actin prevents trypsin cleavage in the loop 2 region and F-actin segment 1-28 can be cross-linked to loop 2 residues by a carbodiimide-induced reaction. In contrast with the S1, loop residues 559-565 of D. discoideum myosin was not cross-linked to F-actin, probably due to the lower number of positive charges. These results confirm the importance of the loop 2 region of myosin for the interaction with both G-actin and F-actin, regardless of the source of myosin. The differences observed in the way in which M765 and S1 interact with actin may be linked to more general differences in the structure of the actomyosin interface of muscle and nonmuscle myosins.  (+info)

GMAP-210, A cis-Golgi network-associated protein, is a minus end microtubule-binding protein. (7/1515)

We report that a peripheral Golgi protein with a molecular mass of 210 kD localized at the cis-Golgi network (Rios, R.M., A.M. Tassin, C. Celati, C. Antony, M.C. Boissier, J.C. Homberg, and M. Bornens. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125:997-1013) is a microtubule-binding protein that associates in situ with a subpopulation of stable microtubules. Interaction of this protein, now called GMAP-210, for Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210, with microtubules in vitro is direct, tight and nucleotide-independent. Biochemical analysis further suggests that GMAP-210 specifically binds to microtubule ends. The full-length cDNA encoding GMAP-210 predicts a protein of 1, 979 amino acids with a very long central coiled-coil domain. Deletion analyses in vitro show that the COOH terminus of GMAP-210 binds to microtubules whereas the NH2 terminus binds to Golgi membranes. Overexpression of GMAP-210-encoding cDNA induced a dramatic enlargement of the Golgi apparatus and perturbations in the microtubule network. These effects did not occur when a mutant lacking the COOH-terminal domain was expressed. When transfected in fusion with the green fluorescent protein, the NH2-terminal domain associated with the cis-Golgi network whereas the COOH-terminal microtubule-binding domain localized at the centrosome. Altogether these data support the view that GMAP-210 serves to link the cis-Golgi network to the minus ends of centrosome-nucleated microtubules. In addition, this interaction appears essential for ensuring the proper morphology and size of the Golgi apparatus.  (+info)

The proapoptotic activity of the Bcl-2 family member Bim is regulated by interaction with the dynein motor complex. (8/1515)

Bcl-2 family members that have only a single Bcl-2 homology domain, BH3, are potent inducers of apoptosis, and some appear to play a critical role in developmentally programmed cell death. We examined the regulation of the proapoptotic activity of the BH3-only protein Bim. In healthy cells, most Bim molecules were bound to LC8 cytoplasmic dynein light chain and thereby sequestered to the microtubule-associated dynein motor complex. Certain apoptotic stimuli disrupted the interaction between LC8 and the dynein motor complex. This freed Bim to translocate together with LC8 to Bcl-2 and to neutralize its antiapoptotic activity. This process did not require caspase activity and therefore constitutes an initiating event in apoptosis signaling.  (+info)

Solution 3 (EMS +2FOC on the shoulder and on the upperarm) HALLOW SHAFT MOTOR J1 J2J3 ELBOW HAND ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS CAN_SKIN2 CAN_FTSENSOR ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS CAN_SKIN2 CAN_FTSENSOR ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS 2 Absolute encoder 1 incremental enc 1 hall phase 1 motor phase 1 CAN_SKIN ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS 2 Absolute encoder 1 incremental enc 1 hall phase 1 motor phase 1 CAN_SKIN ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS 1 HALL sensor 1 MOTOR PHASE 1 Absolute encoder ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS 1 HALL sensor 1 MOTOR PHASE 1 Absolute encoder ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS ETH_IN ETH_OUT PS_DC_MOTORS PS_BLDC_MOTORS CAN_FTSENSORS
Molecular motor proteins use the energy released from ATP hydrolysis to generate force and haul cargoes alongcytoskeletal ?laments. Thus, measuring the force motors generate amounts to directly probing their function. We report onoptical trapping methodology capable of making precise in vivo stall-force measurements of individual cargoes hauled by molecular motors in their native environment. Despite routine measurement of motor forces in vitro, performing and calibrating suchmeasurements in vivo has been challenging. We describe the methodology recently developed to overcome these dif?culties,and used to measure stall forces of both kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein-driven lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Critically,by measuring the cargo dynamics in the optical trap, we ?nd that there is memory: it is more likely for a cargo to resume motion inthe same directionrather than reverse directionafter the motors transporting it detach from the microtubule under the force ofthe optical trap. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A chemically powered unidirectional rotary molecular motor based on a palladium redox cycle. AU - Collins, Beatrice S. L.. AU - Kistemaker, Jos C. M.. AU - Otten, Edwin. AU - Feringa, Ben L.. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - The conversion of chemical energy to drive directional motion at the molecular level allows biological systems, ranging from subcellular components to whole organisms, to perform a myriad of dynamic functions and respond to changes in the environment. Directional movement has been demonstrated in artificial molecular systems, but the fundamental motif of unidirectional rotary motion along a single-bond rotary axle induced by metal-catalysed transformation of chemical fuels has not been realized, and the challenge is to couple the metal-centred redox processes to stepwise changes in conformation to arrive at a full unidirectional rotary cycle. Here, we present the design of an organopalladium-based motor and the experimental demonstration of a 360° ...
Research in our lab is focused on motor proteins, which are molecular machines that drive cargo along tracks to specific sites in the cell, like a train running along a railway network to its specific destinations. New results now show that these molecular motor proteins may play a crucial role in the pathway that eliminates damaged mitochondria. In this project, we will use a number of techniques to identify how these motor proteins or its cargo hooks associate with the machinery that mediates cellular quality control. In addition, we will test whether eliminating the molecular motors inhibits turnover of damaged cell parts leading to an accumulation of non-functional mitochondria and reduced energy production. Relevance to Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s Disease ...
Designing molecular motors is rarely an intuitive process because behaviour at the molecular level is often very different to what we observe in our big world. … In the mechanical machines we are familiar with the parts (cogs, flywheels, pistons etc) do not move unless and until a force is applied to make them do so. At the molecular scale, however, molecules and their parts are constantly moving through Brownian motion and it is finding ways to control the directionality of that motion that is the key to developing working nanomachines. Now, scientists at the University of Manchester have invented a synthetic molecular motor that runs off chemical energy in a similar manner to the way that motor proteins use ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as a fuel …] In the man-made nanomotor, a synthetic molecular ring moves directionally around a molecular track powered by the motors catalysis of chemical reactions of a fuel. Remarkably, the motor mechanism depends on information transfer about the ...
A body fluid sampling system for use on a tissue site includes a single drive force generator. A plurality of penetrating members are operatively coupled to the force generator. The force generator moves each of the members along a path out of a housing with a penetrating member exit, into the tissue site, stops in the tissue site, and withdraws out of the tissue site. A flexible support member couples the penetrating members to define a linear array. The support member is movable and configured to move each of the penetrating members to a launch position associated with the force generator.
Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1 are opposite-polarity, microtubule-based motors that transport a wide variety of cargo in eukaryotic cells. Many cellular cargos demonstrate bi-directional movement due to the presence of ensembles of dynein and kinesin but are ultimately sorted with spatial and temporal precision. To investigate the mechanisms that coordinate motor ensemble behavior, we built a programmable synthetic cargo using three-dimensional DNA origami to which varying numbers of DNA oligonucleotide-linked motors could be attached, allowing control of motor type, number, spacing, and orientation in vitro. In ensembles of 1-7 identical-polarity motors, motor number had minimal affect on directional velocity, while ensembles of opposite-polarity motors engaged in a tug-of-war resolvable by disengaging one motor species.. ...
doc, Research in my laboratory focuses on spindle and chromosome dynamics and the mechanisms that ensure proper chromosome transmission and inheritance in dividing cells. Work in my laboratory and others over the past 5-10 years has identified molecular motor proteins as the force-generating proteins underlying movements of the spindle and chromosomes during cell division. Much of our current effort is directed towards understanding the mechanism of motor function, including the molecular basis of motor directionality, and the contribution of motor proteins to spindle and chromosome dynamics in living cells. ,br/, ,br/,During the past several years, we have used molecular genetics to determine the basis of the reversed directionality compared to kinesin of the Ncd motor protein, discovered in my laboratory. Ncd is a microtubule motor that is required for proper spindle assembly in oocytes and early embryos of Drosophila. We showed previously that Ncd moves on microtubules in the opposite ...
The presence of membrane tubules in living cells is essential to many biological processes. In cells, one mechanism to form nanosized lipid tubules is via molecular motor induced bilayer extraction. In this paper, we describe a simple experimental model to investigate the forces required for lipid tube formation using kinesin motors anchored to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) vesicles. Previous related studies have used molecular motors actively pulling on the membrane to extract a nanotube. Here, we invert the system geometry; molecular motors are used as static anchors linking DOPC vesicles to a two-dimensional microtubule network and an external flow is introduced to generate nanotubes facilitated by the drag force. We found that a drag force of ≈7 pN was sufficient for tubule extraction for vesicles ranging from 1 to 2 μm in radius. By our method, we found that the force generated by a single molecular motor was sufficient for membrane tubule extraction from a spherical ...
Molecular motors in living cells are involved in whole-cell locomotion, contractility, developmental shape changes, and organelle movement and positioning. Whether motors of different directionality are functionally coordinated in cells or operate in a semirandom tug of war is unclear. We show here that anterograde and retrograde microtubule-based motors in the flagella of Chlamydomonas are regulated such that only motors of a common directionality are engaged at any single time. A laser trap was used to position microspheres on the plasma membrane of immobilized paralyzed Chlamydomonas flagella. The anterograde and retrograde movements of the microsphere were measured with nanometer resolution as microtubule-based motors engaged the transmembrane protein FMG-1. An average of 10 motors acted to move the microsphere in either direction. Reversal of direction during a transport event was uncommon, and quiescent periods separated every transport event, suggesting the coordinated and exclusive ...
The ability of a neuron to regulate steady-state expression and transport dynamics of mRNA granules in axons and dendrites is believed to be modulated by mRNA binding proteins acting as adapters for molecular motors. While previous work has shown that ZBP1-mediated localization of β-actin mRNA into axons depends on microtubules (Zhang et al., 1999, 2001), it remains unclear what molecular motors are involved in the directed transport of ZBP1. Kinesin motors have been shown to play an important role in the transport of mRNAs and mRNA binding proteins in neurons (Kanai et al., 2004; Dictenberg et al., 2008). In these studies, perturbation of kinesin leads to a reduction in RNA granule localization in neuronal processes and impaired dynamics. Here, we report that perturbation of myosin Va leads to an opposite phenotype, characterized by increased levels and transport dynamics of ZBP1 in axons. These findings suggest that transport dynamics for ZBP1 and perhaps other mRNA granule components are ...
Molecular motors play important roles within a biological cell, performing functions such as intracellular transport and gene transcription. Recent experimental work suggests that there are many plausible biochemical mechanisms that molecules such as myosin-V could use to achieve motion. To account for the abundance of possible discrete-stochastic frameworks that can arise when modeling molecular motor walks, a generalized and straightforward graphical method for calculating their dynamic properties is presented. It allows the calculation of the velocity, dispersion, and randomness ratio for any proposed system through analysis of its structure. This article extends work of King and Altman [A schematic method of deriving the rate laws of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375-1378 (1956)] on networks of enzymatic reactions by calculating additional dynamic properties for spatially hopping systems. Results for n-state systems are presented: single chain, parallel pathway, divided ...
Nathan Derr, Ph.D., assistant professor of biological sciences at Smith College, will present Investigating the Emergent Behavior of Teams of Cytoskeletal Motors Using DNA Origami and Single-Molecule Microscopy.. The Derr lab pursues the biophysical and cell biological mechanisms of the cytoskeletal molecular motors dynein and kinesin. The group studies these molecular machines in two ways: 1) at the level of individual motors to better understand how they convert ATP into the productive work required by the cell, and 2) in small ensembles that allow us to observe how these motors interact with one another at the nanoscale. In these studies, the lab often employs techniques from the field of DNA structural nanotechnology. The Derr lab also pursues synthetic biology and the application of molecular motors to engineered nanoscale transport devices.. ...
PHARM 560 Cellular and Molecular Physiology: Molecular Machines in Human Disease. Emile Boulpaep. This course focuses on understanding the processes that transfer molecules across membranes at the cellular, molecular, biophysical, and physiological levels. Students learn about the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, generate electrical currents, or perform mechanical displacement. Emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the molecular structures of membrane proteins, their normal function, and abnormal function in human disease. The interactions among transport proteins, their normal function, and abnormal function in human disease are also a focus. The interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behaviors of cells and tissues are also stressed. Molecular motors are introduced and their mechanical relationship to cell function is explored. Students read papers from scientific literature that establish the connections between ...
Cytoskeletal motor proteins generate mechanical forces, which drive numerous cellular processes that are essential for life.  Research in our laboratory is focused on elucidating the function of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated myosin motor proteins.  The context for our studies is the ‘brush border’: an array of actin-based protrusions known as microvilli, which extend from the surface of polarized epithelial cells.  In the gut, the brush border serves as the sole site of nutrient absorption and a barrier to micro-organisms that reside in the lumenal space.  Using an approach that combines biophysics, biochemistry, and cell biology, we are currently studying mechanisms that control microvillar dynamics, morphology, and function. We have also begun to dissect the mechanism of microvillar assembly, which was jump started by our recent elucidation of the entire brush border proteome.  A broad long-term goal is to develop our understanding of molecules and
Cytoskeletal motor proteins generate mechanical forces, which drive numerous cellular processes that are essential for life.  Research in the Tyska laboratory is focused on elucidating the function of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated myosin motor proteins.  The context for our studies is the ‘brush border’: an array of actin-based protrusions known as microvilli, which extend from the surface of polarized epithelial cells.  In the gut, the brush border serves as the sole site of nutrient absorption and a barrier to micro-organisms that reside in the lumenal space.  Using an approach that combines biophysics, biochemistry, and cell biology, we are currently studying mechanisms that control microvillar dynamics, morphology, and function. We have also begun to dissect the mechanism of microvillar assembly, which was jumpstarted by our recent elucidation of the entire brush border proteome.  A broad long-term goal is to develop our understanding of molecules and
The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. We work with three ATPases that belong to the type IV secretion system: TrwB, TrwD and TrwK. These three motors are inserted in the inner membrane of the cell and are involved in different functions: DNA transport, protein unfolding and protein transport through the secretion channel, respectively. The results obtained with TrwB have enabled us to propose a common mechanism that could be shared by all members of this family of ATPases, regardless of their role. Continuing with this project, we will carry out structural and biochemical ...
Did you know inside our bodies are little motors that carry cargo inside of our cells? That is right our bodies have biological motors. These motors help to move important items inside of our cells. The motors move along tracks inside of our cells, the tracks start at the center of our cells and grow outward. The biological motors move along until they reach the place they need to go.
Understanding how tiny molecular motors called myosins use energy to fuel biological tasks like contracting muscles could lead to therapies for muscle diseases and cancers, says a team of researchers led by Penn State College of Medicine scientists.
Conversion of undirected energy input into directed motion on molecula. Molecular Motor Crossing The Frontier Of Classical To Quantum Tunneling Motion
Researchers have successfully used DNA origami to make smooth-muscle-like contractions in large networks of molecular motor systems, a discovery which could be applied in molecular robotics.
Get this from a library! RNA polymerases as molecular motors. [Henri Buc; Terence Strick; Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain);]
DNA transfer across membranes and between cells by conjugation is a clear example of a rapid and natural way to acquire new genetic information, not only between bacteria, but also between yeast, plants and even animal cells. All conjugative systems contain a key protein in the membrane to carry out this process: the DNA transporter. In our system, the DNA transporter is TrwB and its crystallographic structure has been recently solved. The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. To analyze the activity of TrwB, we are going to apply an emerging technique: nanotechnology, which ...
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2 2 FailuresReasonsCountermeasures Press cylinder doesnt work 1)Cylinder solenoid EDI valve voltage shorted, disconnected or burnt. 2)Cylinder limitation control switches no signal. 1)To check the voltage of electric circuit or to replace the coil. 2)To check cylinder limitation control switches. Oil temperature too high 1)Poor cooling efficient of cooler. 2)Cooler blocked by limescale. 1)To increase cooling water flowing volume and pressure. 2)To clean or to replace cooler. Oil pressure increasing irregularly 1)Scraps blocked in pump or tank. 2)Air entered into internal of pump. 3)Impeller of pump wears out. 1)To clean pump & oil filter. 2)To check O-ring fixed screws on the flange of oil sucking tube. 3)To replace the impeller. Non pressure 1)Pressure adjusting valve blocked. 2)Coil of directional valve burnt. 3)Directional valve circuit disconnected. 4)Directional valve breakdown. 1)To clean pressure adjusting valve. 2)To replace new coil. 3)To check circuit connection. 4)To replace new ...
Description: Apparatus wherein the pump and motor are constructed to operate when completely surrounded by the fluid to be pumped ...
WikiWealths Five Forces analysis evaluates the five factors that determine industry competition. Add your input to apollo-food-holding-berhads five forces template. See WikiWealths tutorial for help. Is WikiWealth missing any analysis? Check out our entire database of free five forces reports or use our five forces generator to create your own. Remember, vote up apollo-food-holding-berhads most important five forces statements.. ...
About a month ago, I was presenting an idea to make drones faster on race tracks: The so called side force generators (SFGs) enable racing drones to drift less during turns, making them potentially faster. The placement of the wings is very critical and mentioned in more detail in my earlier post on SFGs. Some people tested the SFGs and confirmed the enhanced flight characteristics. Other people didnt try and didnt believe that SFGs could help. I must agree that the concept of the SFGs is not so easy to understand. That is why I will explain it in more detail here ...
About a month ago, I was presenting an idea to make drones faster on race tracks: The so called side force generators (SFGs) enable racing drones to drift less during turns, making them potentially faster. The placement of the wings is very critical and mentioned in more detail in my earlier post on SFGs. Some people tested the SFGs and confirmed the enhanced flight characteristics. Other people didnt try and didnt believe that SFGs could help. I must agree that the concept of the SFGs is not so easy to understand. That is why I will explain it in more detail here ...
Axonal transport is a critical aspect of neuronal cell biology. While the understanding of the biophysical property of the microtubule motors has been established, the regulation of motor proteins are much less well understood, especially in vivo. In this presentation, I will discuss our past and current effort in characterizing the regulatory mechanisms of KIF1A mediated trafficking of synaptic vesicle precursors and dynein mediated retrograde trafficking ...
Calorie goal workouts: Sole F63 treadmill incorporates the latest technology to come up with a machine that provides efficient workouts.. One of the installed technology is the Calorie goal workout plan. The treadmill allows you to choose between different calorie workouts. This will be important if you are trying to lose weight and calorie goals are what you need. While any treadmill workout can ensure weight loss, having a machine that is specially designed for calorie workouts will make the losing weight process easier. You can also choose manual workouts if you do not need the calorie workout plan.. Quiet track and motor: This Sole treadmill makes a favorable machine for those that like listening to music during workout. Anyone that has used noisy treadmills knows how disturbing the sound of a loud motor can be. With the Sole F63, noisy treadmills will be your last concern. This is because its track and motor are designed to run quietly.. You can therefore keep your attention on the TV or ...
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A molecular motor that organizes the genome into distinct neighborhoods by forming loops of DNA has been characterized by researchers at MIT and the Pasteur Institute in France.
The ability of cells to survive and participate in a community, such as the human body, requires a logistical network that distributes nutrients, cellular contents, and information at biologically reasonable time-scales. How does a robust, adaptable system emerge from the sum of individual hard-wired molecular agents operating in a noisy environment? For example, motor proteins deliver cargo along intracellular filaments to appropriate sites in a network of molecular compartments whose connectivity is slowly becoming elucidated. However, surprisingly little is known about what these motor proteins do, specifically, (1) where they go in cells, (2) what they transport, and (3) how their activity is regulated. To address these basic questions, we modified motor proteins so they could be visualized in live cells and recovered with their physical binding partners. Individual motor proteins were also removed from cells to determine the overall effect on different cellular trafficking pathways. We found that
The generator set comprised a ten-pole d.c. main generator and an eight-pole d.c. overhung auxiliary generator. Maximum current for the main generator is 3,700 amp, a one hour rating is 2,700 amp, continuous current is 2,460 amp, a maximum voltage of 890V and a rated output of 1,080rpm. The auxiliary generator has a continuous output of 75kW and a steady tension of 175V. Weight for the combined set is 16,600lb with a maximum diameter of five feet, length over coupling flange is 64.4in. The six traction motors are six pole d.c. series-wound units with the drive taken up by a pinion to a resilient gear wheel on the axle. Each motor has a one hour rating of 194kW at 900amp, a continuous rating of 200kW at 820amp, a maximum starting current of 1,230 amp. Individual motor weight is 4,620lb. The reduction gears have a ration of 15:69. Force ventilation is provided, the motors are also self ventilated with a built in fan which maintains a higher pressure within the motor, preventing the ingress of dust ...
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Molecular machines in biology http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1289-molecular-machines-in-biology Biological machines: from mills to molecules 4 More th
I am looking for a taligate acutuator. - My hatchback will not close all the way. The sitch or the motor on the trucnck lid will not completely recess a...
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Kinesin motor protein, molecular model. Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo around the cell along microtubules. - Stock Image F009/6428
We identified axonal defects in mouse models of Alzheimers disease that preceded known disease-related pathology by more than a year; we observed similar axonal defects in the early stages of Alzheimers disease in humans. Axonal defects consisted of swellings that accumulated abnormal amounts of microtubule-associated and molecular motor proteins, organelles, and vesicles. Impairing axonal transport by reducing the dosage of a kinesin molecular motor protein enhanced the frequency of axonal defects and increased amyloid-β peptide levels and amyloid deposition. Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimers disease. ...
Many species of bacteria actively propel themselves in a low Reynolds number environment via the rotation of one or more flagella. At the base of each flagella, you find Natures version of the rotary motor, called the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM). At a diameter of 50 nm and composed of about a dozen different proteins, the BFM is able to rotate at hundreds of hertz, change direction within milliseconds, and attain very high thermodynamic efficiencies. Moreover, the motor can sense the environmental conditions and dynamically adapt its power output accordingly. This talk will introduce some of the basic physical mechanisms underlying the operation of this remarkable molecular machine which drives bacterial motility, with a particular focus on the motors ability to sense its mechanical environment.. ...
Microtubules (MT) are required for the efficient transport of membranes from the trans-Golgi and for transcytosis of vesicles from the basolateral membrane to the apical cytoplasm in polarized epithelia. MTs in these cells are primarily oriented with their plus ends basally near the Golgi and their minus-ends in the apical cytoplasm. Here we report that isolated Golgi and Golgi-enriched membranes from intestinal epithelial cells possess the actin based motor myosin-I, the MT minus-end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its in vitro motility activator dynactin (p150/Glued). The Golgi can be separated into stacks, possessing features of the Golgi cisternae, and small membranes enriched in the trans-Golgi network marker TGN 38/41. Whereas myosin-I is present on all membranes in the Golgi fraction, dynein is present only on the small membrane fraction. Dynein, like myosin-I, is associated with membranes as a cytoplasmic peripheral membrane protein. Dynein and myosin-I coassociate with membranes ...
Single molecule fluorescence imaging is a powerful tool for studying protein dynamics. I have leveraged the power of single molecule imaging in studying two proteins systems: Molecular Motors and Gene Editing Proteins. Kinesin walks on cellular roads called microtubules and transports cellular cargos. Kinesin is one of the many types of molecular motors present in living cells. Generally, multiple kinesin motors are present on a single cargo during transport. Therefore, it is important to fundamentally understand how multiple motors work with each other during transport of the cargo to its destination. For understanding this, we design an in vitro assay, that we call force gliding assay. With this assay, dynamics of multiple kinesins (from 2-8) and its effect on cargo velocity can be simultaneously tracked when these kinesins transport a common cargo. Furthermore, we show that kinesins dynamically interact to overcome roadblocks. Consequently, multiple kinesins acting as a team may play a ...
The Mechanism of Motor Protein-based Force Generation. Molecular motor proteins are practically ubiquitous in cellular activities requiring movement, and mutations in motors or defects in motor regulation can have drastic effects. In order to understand the consequences of these defects, we are determining the detailed structural mechanisms employed by cytoskeletal proteins in order to 1) produce directed force along protein filaments and 2) mediate interactions with their various intra- or intermolecular protein targets. For ATP-driven molecular motors, as well as the GTP-driven G-protein family of molecular switches, conformational states are governed by the presence or absence of the nucleotideγ-phosphate. An intriguing question is how such a small conformational change can be sensed by the protein and amplified, sometimes by several orders of magnitude, in order to achieve the various cellular functions of these proteins. We are currently focusing on determining the structures of various ...
1990-1994 华东师范大学 数学. 主要研究方向:. 主要从事偏微分方程数值解、积分方程数值解、分子马达数学模型的建立与分析等相关生物物理与生物数学问题的研究。. 发表文章. 1、Properties of tug-of-war model for cargo transport by molecular motors, Yunxin Zhang Physical Review E 79, 061918 (2009). 2、Dynamics of the tug-of-war model for cellular transport, Yunxin Zhang and Michael E. Fisher Physical Review E 82, 011923 (2010). 3、Cargo transport by several motors, Yunxin Zhang, Physical Review E 83,011909 (2011). 4、Periodic one-dimensional hopping model with transitions between nonadjacent states, Yunxin Zhang, Physical Review E 84, 031104 (2011). 5、Growth and shortening of microtubules: a two-state model approach, Yunxin Zhang, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 286(2011), 39439-39449.. ...
To see if the motor can be arrested in a particular configuration by the help of a ligand, so that it becomes dysfunctional and inhibits cell division leading to apoptosis.
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Ron Vale (UCSF/HHMI): Molecular Motor Search - Myosin to Kinesin. See what people are saying about Ron Vale (UCSF/HHMI): Molecular Motor Search - Myosin to Kinesin.
3:30-4:30 Finish up any experiments. Wrap-up discussion.. Biological physicists Drs. Weihong Qiu and Bo Sun will introduce you to the Advanced Light Microscopy Facility and demonstrate how researchers use advanced microscopy methods to observe the actions of individual biological molecules. Work with these investigators to study the real-time movement of molecular motor proteins actively transporting cargo along microtubules and reconstruct the morphology and migration of breast cancer cells using a Zeiss total internal reflection fluorescence. (TIRF) microscope and a Leica laser scanning confocal (LSC).. Visit the Applied Magnetics Laboratory at Oregon State University where scientists are developing novel characterization techniques and applications for magnetic materials, devices and nanoparticles as biosensors, in imaging diagnostics, and drug delivery.. Opportunities for roundtable discussions with scientists and graduate students to ask questions and brainstorm ideas for collaborative ...
Discover what controls how fast tiny molecular motors in our body pull through a single strand of DNA. How hard can the motor pull in a tug of war with the optical tweezers? Discover what helps it pull harder. Do all molecular motors behave the same?
The ability to move is key for bacteria like some strains of salmonella and E. coli to efficiently spread infections. They can propel themselves forward using threads, known as flagella, powered by the flagellar rotary motor. But how this rotary motor is powered has been a mystery among scientists. Now, researchers from UCPH show that the bacterial flagellar motor is powered by yet another even tinier, rotary motor.
Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. Mutations that stimulate flhDC expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 197 No.19, 3087-3096 (2015).. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K.A., Turner, L., and Berg, H.C. Asymmetry in the clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12846-12849 (2010).. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K. A. & Berg, H. C. Switching of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load. J. Mol. Biol. 390, 394-400 (2009). Bates, D., Epstein, J., Boyle, E., Fahrner, K., Berg, H. and Kleckner, N. The Escherichia coli baby cell column: a novel cell synchronization method provides new insight into the bacterial cell cycle. Molec. Microbiol. 57, 380-391 (2005). Fahrner, K.A., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Bacterial flagellar switching under load. Nature 423, 938 (2003). Scharf, B.E., Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. CheZ has no effect on flagellar motors activated by CheY13DK106YW. J. Bacteriol. 180, 5123-5128 (1998). Fahrner, K.A., Block, S.M., Krishnaswamy, S., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Robustness analysis of cellular systems using the genetic tug-of-war method. AU - Moriya, Hisao. AU - Makanae, Koji. AU - Watanabe, Kenji. AU - Chino, Ayako. AU - Shimizu-Yoshida, Yuki. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Robustness is one of the principles of design inherent to biological systems. Cellular robustness can be measured as limits of intracellular parameters such as gene expression levels. We have recently developed an experimental approach coined as genetic Tug-Of-War (gTOW), which we used to perform robustness analysis in yeast. Using gTOW, we were able to measure the upper limit of expression of gene targets. In this review, we first elaborate on how the gTOW method compares to current mathematical simulation models prevalently used in the determination of robustness. We then explain the experimental principles underlying gTOW and its associated tools, and we provide concrete examples of robustness analysis using gTOW, i.e. cell cycle and HOG pathway gene expression ...
Thursday February 28, 2013. A hybrid approach to studying the structure and mechanism of the motor protein dynein. Gira Bhabha, Ron Vale Lab, UCSF. Motor proteins play critical roles in intracellular transport and motility, which are required for many cellular functions, including mitosis. Dyneins are large microtubule-based negative-end directed motor proteins that belong to the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family of proteins. Dynein dysfunction is linked to several pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. The molecular mechanism of dynein remains obscure, in part due to the challenge posed by its large size and inherent flexibility. We are using a combination of methods, including structural biology, microscopy and bioinformatics to better understand dynein evolution, structure and mechanism. Single-particle electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography have provided structural snapshots of the yeast cytoplasmic dynein motor domain in ...
Empowered by a $1.2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Arizona State University scientist Wayne Frasch is deciphering how one of the world’s smallest molecular motors works in living cells. In ...
Understanding how tiny molecular motors called myosins use energy to fuel biological tasks like contracting muscles could lead to therapies for muscle diseases and cancers, says a team of researchers led by Penn State College of Medicine scientists.
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Our goal is to understand how kinesin motors function in live cells, that is, in the presence of relevant cargo and regulatory proteins and under the physical and physiological constraints of the cytoplasm. We use a variety of methods, from biophysical to cell biological, to investigate kinesin motors from the single molecule to the cellular level. Relevant questions include: How do kinesin motors bind their cargoes and become activated for transport? How do kinesin motors navigate the complex microtubule network in cells? How do multiple motors on the surface of a cargo coordinate their activities ...
Our goal is to understand how kinesin motors function in live cells, that is, in the presence of relevant cargo and regulatory proteins and under the physical and physiological constraints of the cytoplasm. We use a variety of methods, from biophysical to cell biological, to investigate kinesin motors from the single molecule to the cellular level. Relevant questions include: How do kinesin motors bind their cargoes and become activated for transport? How do kinesin motors navigate the complex microtubule network in cells? How do multiple motors on the surface of a cargo coordinate their activities ...
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Shifts in the balance between nucleotide-favorable and nucleotide-unfavorable conformations of myosin motors encode duty ratios and ADP release rates, demonstrating the power of an ensemble perspective for uncovering sequence-function relationships.
sagebrush gardener:. …So what forces are causing the enzymes, proteins, DNA, etc. to go to the right place at the right time and do their jobs?. I agree the intricacies of these subcellular machines are fascinating. You bring up an interesting question. If you try to get down to the basic mechanisms driving such intracellular processes as transport, DNA helix unwinding, etc. it is mostly the action of molecular motors or progressive enzymes, driven by energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP. Binding energies of the ATP molecule are released to free energy by catalytic enzymes with the addition of water molecules.. The deeper question, which I had never looked into before, is precisely how this energy is transformed into force and work in moving the molecular motor. There are a lot of different types of molecular motors, but they mostly seem to move unidirectionally along some sort of macromolecular track or substrate. Apparently the precise mechanisms are mostly unknown for certain at ...
Hi everyone, Im left handed and it is becoming increasing difficult to turn on a right handed lathe. Does anyone know if the motor on the H8259 lathe by Grizzly can be set to turn in both directions? I know that with chucks and screw mount...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
But the real issue here was not the all important hull length rule that IS important for sailing events. The real reason that the guys hobie wasnt going faster was because the hobie didnt offer enough resistance to impeded the maximum performance of the prop, and virtually the same propeller was on all three trolling motors. The larger trolling motors could probably put a PA on plane IF it had the right prop on it. Props on trolling motors are designed to move big boats slow. If osmeone got off their butts and designed a prop to maximise speed for a PA itd be a beast, and a real headturner. I bet their are better props than the stock ones on trolling motors already out there on the shelf. Anyone ...
Building natures extraordinary machines - new insights, new technologies Lawrence Lee and his team are building natures extraordinary molecular machines such as the bacterial flagellar motor − a rotary engine that can rotate five times faster than an F1 engine. They hope to uncover one of Natures best-kept secrets − how so many brainless molecules self-assemble into sophisticated nanoscopic machines. These machines often surpass man-made technologies with their function, efficiency, scale and robustness.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probing the stochastic, motor-driven properties of the cytoplasm using force spectrum microscopy. AU - Guo, Ming. AU - Ehrlicher, Allen J.. AU - Jensen, Mikkel H.. AU - Renz, Malte. AU - Moore, Jeffrey R.. AU - Goldman, Robert D.. AU - Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer. AU - Mackintosh, Frederick C.. AU - Weitz, David A.. PY - 2014/8/14. Y1 - 2014/8/14. N2 - Molecular motors in cells typically produce highly directed motion; however, the aggregate, incoherent effect of all active processes also creates randomly fluctuating forces, which drive diffusive-like, nonthermal motion. Here, we introduce force-spectrum-microscopy (FSM) to directly quantify random forces within the cytoplasm of cells and thereby probe stochastic motor activity. This technique combines measurements of the random motion of probe particles with independent micromechanical measurements of the cytoplasm to quantify the spectrum of force fluctuations. Using FSM, we show that force fluctuations substantially enhance ...
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Müller, M. J. I.; Klumpp, S.; Lipowsky, R.: Tug-of-war as a cooperative mechanism for bidirectional cargo transport by molecular motors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (12), S. 4609 - 4614 (2008 ...
The European Physical Journal E (EPJ E) publishes papers describing advances in the understanding of physical aspects of Soft, Liquid and Living Systems
Dynein Dynein is a motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the
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Overview: I would argue that AC vs. DC is more of a debate of days past. DC used to be the cheap, common solution and AC was the superior, cost prohibitive option, but with the flood of OEM AC drive-trains in the market now this is driving a huge number of amazing AC motors at a pretty good price point into the DIY space if youre willing to deal with CAN control.. ...
Kinesin and myosinVa are bound simultaneously to the surfaces of many organelles, Diehl said. The collective force-producing capacities and responses of cargo transport to variation in motor copy number will influence the trafficking of cargoes to different regions of cells. Cells needs to be able to regulate that competition, and so it may be useful to have one motor, kinesin, thats strong individually but not capable of cooperating, and another motor that might be weak individually but have a strong cooperative effect, he said. It means all the fine tuning can take place on one side.. ...
Even though its been a warm couple of months already, its officially summer. A delicious, science-filled way to beat the heat? Making homemade ice cream. (Weve since updated this article to include the science behind vegan ice cream. To learn more about ice cream science, check out The Science of Ice Cream, Redux ) Image Credit: St0rmz via Flickr Over at [email protected] theres an easy recipe for homemade ice cream. But what kind of milk should you use to make ice cream? And do you really need to chill the ice cream base before making it? Why do ice cream recipes always call for salt on ice ...
A molecular approach to the powering of multi-component nano-devices capable of autonomous translational and rotational motion through the conversion of chemical to kinetic energy is reported.
Are you having noticeable performance problems with these motors? The size and type of motor are critical as mentioned, a cast rotor with the right testing can pick up voids in the bar and resistance rings, not necessarily a problem as most mass produced cast bar rotors will have some sort of voids in the bars, and the motors are fine, the red flag comes up when using these black box tests, which picks up what appears to be a problem but is actually just a normal condition from the manufacturing process ...
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2020-02-26T14:00:00.000+01:00 2020-02-26T15:00:00.000+01:00 Busra Tas: Statistical Learning and Stochastic Modeling of Molecular Motor - Embarking on the Journey (Seminar, Computational Mathematics) Busra Tas: Statistical Learning and Stochastic Modeling of Molecular Motor - Embarking on the Journey (Seminar, Computational Mathematics) ...
Microtubules (roads made of proteins) extend throughout a cell for motor proteins (carriers) to deliver neuronal cargo packed with many kinds of materials required for life activity ...
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By Chelsea Whyte | March 18, 2013 Print A Metal Switch to Control Motor Proteins
Sandra E. Encalada is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using
... and proteins), enzymes, and molecular motors. When a microscopic machine (e.g. a MEM) performs useful work it generates heat ... For example, biomolecules within cells are coupled with an active bath due to the presence of molecular motors within the ... Seifert, Udo (2012). "Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems and molecular machines". Reports on Progress in Physics. ... protein folding might be facilitated by the presence of active fluctuations (Harder et al., 2014b) and active matter dynamics ...
Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). "Microtubule dynamics and motor proteins during mitosis". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ... Tubulin protein polymers are the major component of microtubules. During mitosis, microtubules form the organizing structure ...
Helicases are proteins that are a type of molecular motor. They use the chemical energy in nucleoside triphosphates, ... All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be non-specific, or the protein ... Martinez E (December 2002). "Multi-protein complexes in eukaryotic gene transcription". Plant Molecular Biology. 50 (6): 925-47 ... ISBN 978-0-521-58519-4. Sjölander K (January 2004). "Phylogenomic inference of protein molecular function: advances and ...
"Motor Proteins and Molecular Motors," (A.B. Kolomeisky), CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, 2015. "APS Fellow Archive". American ... In 2015 he wrote a book "Motor Proteins in Molecular Motors." He is currently and editor in Journal of Physics D and ... developed a first theoretical description of the force generation mechanisms by motor proteins and biological molecular motors ... Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E. (2007). "Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective". Annual Review of Physical ...
A number of theoretical models of the molecular motor protein kinesin have been proposed. Many challenges are encountered in ... Vale RD, Milligan RA (April 2000). "The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins". Science. 288 ( ... Motor proteins fulfill the role of transporting large cargo about the cell to their required destinations. Kinesins are motor ... A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) ...
"Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. It is one of the so-called ... Rock RS, Rice SE, Wells AL, Purcell TJ, Spudich JA, Sweeney HL (Nov 2001). "Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step ... Yoshimura M, Homma K, Saito J, Inoue A, Ikebe R, Ikebe M (Oct 2001). "Dual regulation of mammalian myosin VI motor function". ...
Energy Coupling and Molecular Motors. The Enzymes. Energy Coupling and Molecular Motors. 23. Academic Press. pp. 277-302. doi: ... This highly processive DNA polymerase was composed of an 84-kDa T7 gene 5 protein and 12-kDa E. coli thioredoxin at a one-to- ... 1986-1995 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-Merck Award in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1996 ... Richardson used the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system to control the expression of a phage T7 gene 5 protein (gp5), which is a ...
... endocytosis and molecular motors". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (Pt 12): 2073-82. doi:10.1242/jeb.00298. PMID ... "GPCR-G Protein-β-Arrestin Super-Complex Mediates Sustained G Protein Signaling". Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Molecular Cell Biology. 19 (5): 313-326. doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.132. PMID 29410531.. ... A mature pit will be cleaved from the plasma membrane through the use of membrane binding and fission proteins such as dynamin ...
Ron Vale's Seminar: "Molecular Motor Proteins". *Dynein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Molecular motors. References[edit]. *^ a b c Gerald Karp; Kurt Beginnen; Sebastian Vogel; Susanne Kuhlmann-Krieg (2005). ... "minus-end directed motors". In contrast, kinesin motor proteins move toward the microtubules' plus end. ... Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells. They convert the chemical energy ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the myosin superfamily. Myosins are molecular motors that, upon interaction with ... 1990). "Immunochemical evidence that myosin I heavy chain-like protein is identical to the 110-kilodalton brush-border protein ... Following the motor domain is a light-chain-binding 'neck' region containing 1-6 copies of a repeat element, the IQ motif, that ... The myosin-1a protein is expressed by enterocytes, the epithelial cells that line the luminal surface of the small intestine. ...
In networks-based biocomputation, self-propelled biological agents, such as molecular motor proteins or bacteria, explore a ... For instance, in the system described by Nicolau et al., mobile molecular motor filaments are detected at the "exits" of a ... "Parallel computation with molecular-motor-propelled agents in nanofabricated networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The chemical nature of a protein is dictated by its sequence of amino acids-the chemical building blocks of proteins. This ...
The Kinesin 8 Family are a subfamily of the molecular motor proteins known as kinesins. Most kinesins transport materials or ... Kinesin 8 is thought to play some role in this process, as knockdown of this protein via siRNA produces a phenotype of sister ... Gupta ML, Carvalho P, Roof DM, Pellman D (Sep 2006). "Plus end-specific depolymerase activity of Kip3, a kinesin-8 protein, ... Stumpff J, von Dassow G, Wagenbach M, Asbury C, Wordeman L (Feb 2008). "The kinesin-8 motor Kif18A suppresses kinetochore ...
Accessory proteins including motor proteins regulate and link the filaments to other cell compounds and each other and are ... Also, the dynein arms attached to the microtubules function as the molecular motors. The motion of the cilia and flagella is ... During contraction of a muscle, within each muscle cell, myosin molecular motors collectively exert forces on parallel actin ... Actin-like proteins are actin in eukaryotes and MreB, FtsA in prokaryotes. An example of a WACA-proteins, which are mostly ...
The molecular motor Myosin Va interacts with the cilia-centrosomal protein RPGRIP1L. Sci. Rep. 7, 43692; doi: 10.1038/srep43692 ... Myosin-Va (MYO5A) is a motor protein in charge of the intracellular transport of vesicles, organelles and protein complexes ... "A Role for Myosin V Motor Proteins in the Selective Delivery of Kv Channel Isoforms to the Membrane Surface of Cardiac Myocytes ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of neural activity-related RING finger protein (NARF): a new member of the RBCC family ...
DNA motor proteins often experience roadblocks, including binding proteins that can interfere with essential biological ... Her research considers biological molecular motors, including RNA polymerase molecules which move along the DNA template during ... Wang has pioneered several structural probes to better understand molecular motors, including angular optical trapping, DNA ... Her research considers biomolecular motors and single molecule optical trapping techniques. She was appointed Fellow of the ...
2017). "The molecular motor Myosin Va interacts with the cilia-centrosomal protein RPGRIP1L". Sci. Rep. 7: 43692. Bibcode: ... The protein encoded by this gene is localized to primary cilia and centrosomes in ciliated human epithelial kidney cells and ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (1): 63-70. ... "Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in ...
... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. ... presumably by myosin II molecular motors.[1] Additionally, they function as part of actomyosin-driven contractile molecular ... In vivo actin polymerization is catalyzed by a class of filament end-tracking molecular motors known as actoclampins. Recent ... Filament end-tracking protein (e.g., formins, VASP, N-WASP). *Filament-nucleator known as the Actin-Related Protein-2/3 (or ...
Most proteins of this family are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move ... Kinesin-like protein KIF2C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF2C gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... This protein acts to regulate microtubule dynamics in cells and is important for anaphase chromosome segregation and may be ...
This gene encodes a member of the unconventional myosin protein family, which are actin-based molecular motors. The protein is ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... The mouse ortholog of this protein also functions in intracellular vesicle transport to the plasma membrane. Multiple ... Myosin-Ic is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYO1C gene. ...
Through a mechanism not yet fully understood, cAMP influences other proteins such as protein kinase A to drive molecular motors ... forms complexes with molecular motors on organelles". Current Biology. 14 (20): 1877-81. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.10.003. PMID ... When this protein is defective, no melanin can be generated resulting in certain types of albinism. In some amphibian species ... If these proteins are defective, chromatophores may be regionally or entirely absent, resulting in a leucistic disorder. ...
"The survival motor neuron protein in spinal muscular atrophy". Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (8): 1205-14. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.8. ... Molecular function. • protein binding. • RNA binding. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • SMN-Sm ... Survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1), also known as component of gems 1 or GEMIN1, is a gene that encodes the SMN protein in ... SMN1, BCD541, GEMIN1, SMNT, T-BCD541, TDRD16A, survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric, survival motor neuron 1, telomeric, SMA1 ...
"The Ewing's sarcoma protein interacts with the Tudor domain of the survival motor neuron protein". Molecular Brain Research. ... Molecular and Cellular Changes in the Cancer Cell. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. 144. 2016. doi: ... Molecular analysis of the fusion of EWS to an orphan nuclear receptor gene in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. OCLC ... Rubin, Brian P.; Lazar, Alexander J.F.; Oliveira, Andre M. (2009). "Molecular Pathology of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors". Cell ...
Myosin VIIA is a member of the unconventional myosin superfamily of proteins. Myosins are actin binding molecular motors that ... Myosins are mechanochemical proteins characterized by the presence of a motor domain, an actin-binding domain, a neck domain ... a predicted membrane-associated motor protein expressed in developing sensory epithelia". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Myosin VIIA is protein that in humans is encoded by the MYO7A gene. ...
Kamal A, Goldstein LS (February 2002). "Principles of cargo attachment to cytoplasmic motor proteins". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. ... endocytosis and molecular motors". J. Exp. Biol. 206 (Pt 12): 2073-82. doi:10.1242/jeb.00298. PMID 12756289. Pesaresi P, ... Proteins can associate to form protein complexes, these often contain a set of proteins with similar functions, such as enzymes ... such as when multiple proteins come together to form protein complexes, or when DNA-binding proteins bind to their targets in ...
Alberts B, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter (2002). "Molecular Motors". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York ... Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium-binding protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa). In humans, it is encoded by the ... ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. Arif SH (April 2009). "A Ca(2+)-binding protein with numerous roles and uses: parvalbumin in molecular ... During muscle contraction, the action potential stimulate voltage-sensitive proteins in T-tubules membrane. These proteins ...
Sharp DJ, Kuriyama R, Essner R, Baas PW (October 1997). "Expression of a minus-end-directed motor protein induces Sf9 cells to ... This family includes microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes during ... KIF23 is a plus-end directed motor protein expressed in mitosis, involved in the formation of the cleavage furrow in late ... Yu W, Cook C, Sauter C, Kuriyama R, Kaplan PL, Baas PW (August 2000). "Depletion of a microtubule-associated motor protein ...
"Parallel molecular pathways mediate expression of distinct forms of intermediate-term facilitation at tail sensory-motor ... Its expression requires the persistent activation of protein kinase A[8] and protein kinase C[10] ... Sutton MA, Schuman EM (October 2006). "Dendritic protein synthesis, synaptic plasticity, and memory". Cell. 127 (1): 49-58. doi ... Sutton MA, Masters SE, Bagnall MW, Carew TJ (July 2001). "Molecular mechanisms underlying a unique intermediate phase of memory ...
This process is propelled by motor proteins such as dynein. Motor proteins connect the transport vesicles to microtubules and ... Eukaryotic cells transport packets of components to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors ... Transport by multiple-motor proteins Kinesin Adaptor protein Leelamine Dynactin MCOLN2 KIF6, KIF5A, involved in intracellular ... Each type of membrane vesicle is specifically bound to its own kinesin motor protein via binding within the tail domain. One of ...
Molecular cellular cognition. *Motor control. *Neurolinguistics. *Neuropsychology. *Sensory neuroscience. *Social cognitive ... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ... We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ...
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain stem disconnected from the neural circuits of the cerebral hemispheres ( ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ...
Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364-375. ISBN ... as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB. An associative process may contribute to addiction, for ... such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects ... as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is ...
The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... Zullo, L.; Sumbre, G.; Agnisola, C.; Flash, T.; Hochner, B. (2009). "Nonsomatotopic organization of the higher motor centers in ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... Strugnell, J.; Nishiguchi, M. K. (2007). "Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from ...
Molecular and Cellular Probes. 31: 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.mcp.2016.08.003. PMID 27523487. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... permanent impairment of motor or sensory function of the lower limbs may occur.[29] In European children, the most common ... "Molecular Medicine. 14 (3-4): 205-12. doi:10.2119/2007-00091.Rupprecht. PMC 2148032. PMID 18097481. Archived from the original ...
Alfa-2 (α2) adrenergički receptor (ili adrenoceptor) je G protein-spregnuti receptor koji vezuje Gi heterotrimerni G protein. ... Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (1): 14-28. PMID 12949138. doi:10.1093/molbev/msg224. Cite uses deprecated parameter ,month= ... "Involvement of α1 and α2 adrenoceptors in the postlaparotomy intestinal motor disturbances in the rat". Gut 28 (8): 955-9. PMC ...
It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ... Pons and Fleischman resumed research with Toyota Motor Corporation's IMRA lab in France.[70] Fleischmann left for England in ... molecular resonance excitation']", Huizenga 1993, pp. 6-7, 35-36, 75, 108-109, 112-114, 118-125, 130, 139, 173, 183, 217-218, ...
... genomes has also identified several molecular signatures in the form of conserved signature indels and signature proteins which ... Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are driven by rotatory motors at the base. These motors are ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS). 54 (4): 305-308. doi:10.1007/s000180050156.. ... Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ...
Two mature PDHA proteins come together with two PDHB proteins to form a heterotetrameric E1 subunit. Crystal Structures allowed ... Molecular function. • oxidoreductase activity. • pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) activity. • oxidoreductase ... Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ...
Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein ... motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva.[13][14] ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
... identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch ... Mutations in the first SOD enzyme (SOD1) can cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a form of motor neuron disease ... The bovine Cu-Zn enzyme is a homodimer of molecular weight 32,500. It was the first SOD whose atomic-detail crystal structure ... SOD1 is an extremely stable protein. In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo ...
OECs express glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, s100, and p75, and radial glial markers such as nestin and ... Traumatic spinal cord damage causes a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions in the central nervous system, termed ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 69 (10): 1689-703. doi:10.1007/s00018-011-0893-1. hdl:2445/36438. PMID 22205212.. ... May 2012). "Myelin-associated proteins block the migration of olfactory ensheathing cells: an in vitro study using single-cell ...
The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a nuclear protein that aggregates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in ... "Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 66 (Pt B): 75-80. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2015.03.001. PMC 4461453. PMID 25748121.. ... The defining feature of ALS is the death of both upper motor neurons (located in the motor cortex of the brain) and lower motor ... Typical or "classical" ALS involves neurons in the brain (upper motor neurons) and in the spinal cord (lower motor neurons).[27 ...
The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Ikeda K, Akiyama H, Arai T, Ueno H, Tsuchiya K, Kosaka K (July 2002). "Morphometrical reappraisal of motor neuron system of ... Dharmasiri S, Estelle M (2002). "The role of regulated protein degradation in auxin response". Plant Molecular Biology. 49 (3-4 ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ...
This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 61 (2): 136-69. doi:10.1128/.61.2.136-169.1997. PMC 232605. PMID 9184008.. ... The motor arc of the inflammatory reflex is termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
High concentrations are reached in neocortical, limbic, sensory and motor areas.. *^ Huestis MA (August 2007). "Human ... The plasma protein binding of dronabinol and its metabolites is approximately 97%.. ... Morales, Paula; Hurst, Dow P.; Reggio, Patricia H. (2017). "Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture". In ... Garrett ER, Hunt CA (July 1974). "Physicochemical properties, solubility, and protein binding of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". J. ...
Nash RA, Caldecott KW, Barnes DE, Lindahl T (April 1997). "XRCC1 protein interacts with one of two distinct forms of DNA ligase ... "Early-onset ataxia with ocular motor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia is caused by mutations in a new HIT superfamily gene". Nat. ... "Molecular cloning and expression of human cDNAs encoding a novel DNA ligase IV and DNA ligase III, an enzyme active in DNA ... interaction between DNA polymerase beta and the XRCC1 protein". EMBO J. 15 (23): 6662-70. PMC 452490. PMID 8978692.. ...
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Molecular biology[edit]. Autophagy is executed by autophagy-related (Atg) genes. The first autophagy genes were identified by ... The Dynamic Interaction of Ambra1 with the Dynein Motor Complex Regulates Mammalian Autophagy', J Cell Biol, 191 (2010), 155-68 ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
Molecular neuroscience Molecular neuroscience studies the nervous system with molecular biology, molecular genetics, protein ... from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Neuroscience has ... Molecular and cellular neuroscience[edit]. Main articles: Molecular neuroscience and Cellular neuroscience ... At the molecular level, the basic questions addressed in molecular neuroscience include the mechanisms by which neurons express ...
"The chaperone-mediated autophagy receptor organizes in dynamic protein complexes at the lysosomal membrane". Molecular and ... "The dynamic interaction of AMBRA1 with the dynein motor complex regulates mammalian autophagy". The Journal of Cell Biology ... WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
As SMN protein generally promotes the survival of motor neurons, mutations in SMN1 results in slow degeneration motor neurons ... Human Molecular Genetics. 15 (20): 3012-23. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl243. PMID 16959795.. ... Specifically, over time, decreased levels of SMN protein results in gradual death of the alpha motor neurons in the anterior ... Spinal muscular atrophy is linked to genetic mutations in the SMN1 (Survival of Motor Neuron 1) gene. The SMN protein is widely ...
Molecular function. • chaperone binding. • ion channel binding. • microtubule binding. • ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ... "Impaired motor coordination in mice lacking prion protein". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 18 (6): 731-42. doi:10.1023/A:1020234321879. ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ...
Stock D, Leslie AG, Walker JE (1999). "Molecular architecture of the rotary motor in ATP synthase". Science. 286 (5445): 1700-5 ... When this protein is active in the inner membrane it short circuits the coupling between the electron transport chain and ATP ... An uncoupling protein known as thermogenin is expressed in some cell types and is a channel that can transport protons. ... Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, it is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in ...
Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 414: 253-260. doi:10.1007/978-1 ... GABA acts via binding to its receptors which include the ligand gated ion channels, GABAA and GABAC and the G-protein couple ... motor, speech, and language as the most common manifestations. Later cases reported in the early 1990s began to show that ... Taurine is a non-protein sulfur amino acid that is found in high concentrations in human milk. It has been shown to have ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. Cellular component. • ... This is important as neuron morphology is critical in behavioral processes like learning and motor skills development. Research ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
For discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable ... A 51-year career as one of the great microbe hunters of all time-he discovered the molecular nature of antibiotic resistance, ... For discoveries concerning the nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth.[ ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ...
CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... The retroviral gag protein shows similarity to the La protein and is proposed as a possible example for molecular mimicry in ... 54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ... Molecular and epidemiological studies suggest that anti-Sm antibodies may be induced by molecular mimicry because the protein ...
argue that molecular markers such as the myosin II protein used to determine this single origin of striated muscle actually ... Nerves that control skeletal muscles in mammals correspond with neuron groups along the primary motor cortex of the brain's ... They argue that molecular and morphological similarities between the muscles cells in cnidaria and ctenophora are similar ... Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes ...
Other proteins that serve structural functions are motor proteins such as myosin, kinesin, and dynein, which are capable of ... predicting the protein-protein interactions in cells". Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters. 14 (1): 1-22. doi:10.2478/s11658- ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ...
One of the nuclear targets for PKA is the transcriptional control protein CREB (cAMP response element binding protein).[5] In ... Molecular changes during learningEdit. Starting in 1966 James Schwartz collaborated with Kandel on a biochemical analysis of ... and motor neurons involved in the learned behaviors. This allowed analysis of the specific synaptic connections that are ... By 1980, collaboration with Paul Greengard resulted in demonstration that cAMP-dependent protein kinase, also known as protein ...
... have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. ... "In this paper, we show that bacteria possess molecular motors that are used for transporting proteins along the length of a ... Researchers find new molecular motors that bacteria use to transport proteins by Staff ... Intracellular transport had not been observed previously in bacteria and our results show that the class of molecular motors ...
... a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution and design principle of motor proteins. ... Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery. Oregon State University ... "However, dynein ends up being a major motor protein in that direction because kinesin-14 motors lack the ability of dynein to ... a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution and design principle of motor proteins ...
protein. -. protein. interactions within the EcoR124I molecular motor Aneta E. Sikora,a James R. Smith,*b Sheelagh A. Campbellb ... protein. -. protein. interactions within the EcoR124I molecular motor A. E. Sikora, J. R. Smith, S. A. Campbell and K. Firman, ... thus acting as molecular motors. Forces between a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-HsdR(PrrI) motor subunit attached to an AFM ... protein. -. protein. interactions between subunits within Type I R-M enzymes are accessible via AFM. . Such information is ...
Computer model showing the structure of a two-headed motor protein, Myosin V. Motor proteins convert chemical energy into ... Molecular motor protein. Computer model showing the structure of a two-headed motor protein, Myosin V. Motor proteins convert ... Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in eukaryotic tissues. Most myosin ...
RNA-protein interactions in the ϕ29 molecular motor J.P. A. Wood; J.P. A. Wood ... J.P. A. Wood, S. Capaldi, N. J. Stonehouse; RNA-protein interactions in the ϕ29 molecular motor. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February ... Endocytosis and retrograde axonal traffic in motor neurons. Biochem Soc Symp (January,2005) ... 1Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK ...
Davis has discovered a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution ... ... Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery. by Steve Lundeberg, Oregon State University ... Citation: Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery (2018, March 14) retrieved 20 April ... "However, dynein ends up being a major motor protein in that direction because kinesin-14 motors lack the ability of dynein to ...
Provides an interactive environment executing on a personal computer that allows models of molecular motors to be built, ...
In many ways the myosin protein moving along an actin filam...,Molecular,muscle,motor,found,to,move,backwards,biological, ... Long filaments of a protein known as actin run through every ... Now in a finding likely to surprise many cell biologists Un ... Molecular motor shuttles key protein in response to light. 8. Molecular traffic cop directs cellular signals. 9. Molecular ... Molecular staples shape a cancer killer. 5. Molecular motor myosin VI moves hand over hand, researchers say. 6. Molecular ...
They are protein motors with typical sizes of a few tens of nanometers. Protein motors include three major protein families, ... We found NEB-22 to be useful for retaining the abilities of protein motors to support the movement of protein filaments. We ... To harness these protein motors to power nanometer-scale devices, we have investigated effective and non-destructive methods ... for immobilizing protein motors on surfaces and to arrange the output of these motors, e.g. force and movement, to be in a ...
Molecular Motors, Gene editing proteins, Single molecule imaging. Abstract:. Single molecule fluorescence imaging is a powerful ... I have leveraged the power of single molecule imaging in studying two proteins systems: Molecular Motors and Gene Editing ... Probing single-molecule dynamics of molecular motors and gene editing proteins. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... Probing single-molecule dynamics of molecular motors and gene editing proteins. Shukla, Saurabh ...
The results of simulating Complex V will bring an understanding of the molecular details of coupling between the ATP-reaction ... Oak Ridger - X-rays size up protein structure at heart of COV... ... using an analogous Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics methodology. The group is also simulating entire biological membranes ... conformational transitions involved in mitochondrial protein complexes and (2) membrane-wide energy conversion in the ...
Lasker Award winner Ron Vale gives an overview of the molecular motor proteins that power much of the movement performed by ... 00:07:54.22 one molecular motor.. 00:07:55.23 In fact, these are families. 00:07:57.15 of related motor proteins.. 00:08:00.11 ... 00:30:22.12 in molecular motors. 00:30:24.11 or in proteins associated with these motors.. 00:30:26.22 So, for example, one ... 00:00:19.21 to molecular motor proteins,. 00:00:21.18 which are these fascinating protein machines. 00:00:23.12 that are ...
Microtubule-Associated Proteins; Microtubules; Models, Biological; Molecular Motor Proteins; Protein Transport; Viscosity; ... molecular dynamics; nonhuman; protein function; protein interaction; protein stiffness; protein transport; quantitative ... Showing 1 - 2 results of 2 for search Molecular Motor Proteins Skip to content Toggle navigation Argentina.gob.ar ... Keywords: dynactin; dynein adenosine triphosphatase; kinesin; molecular motor; microtubule associated protein; animal cell; ...
Active systems based on filamentary proteins and molecular motors. In vitro assays where biopolymers such as MTs or actin are ... In their simplest version, these track the motion of filamentary proteins that are translocated by molecular motors whose tails ... BOX 2 MT/motor protein mixtures. An experimental system that continues to be very important to developing the understanding of ... On the experimental side we will concentrate on microtubule (MT)-motor protein mixtures, but will also mention bacterial ...
For discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable ... established ways to study molecular motors in detail. These accomplishments enabled the discovery of the motor protein kinesin ... Molecular motor mechanisms. With the assays for cytoskeletal motor activity in hand, researchers all over the globe began ... A new motor protein. In the meantime, Vale had enrolled at Stanford as a neurobiology graduate student. The Sheetz and Spudich ...
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in cells. Can a disordered protein regulate a molecular motor? ... Orderly Disorder: A Molecular Motor Regulated by IDP. ...
Molecular Motor Proteins/metabolism. *Spindle Apparatus/metabolism*. Substance. *Molecular Motor Proteins. Grant support. * ... Many associated factors help organize the spindle, including molecular motors and regulators of microtubule dynamics. The past ... decade has provided a wealth of information on the molecular players that are critical for spindle assembly as well as a high- ...
Molecular Motor Proteins. Grant support. *DC 02290/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United States ...
Lissencephaly-1 Protein Regulates the Molecular Motor Dynein. There are 3 major classes of cytoskeletal molecular motors (as ... Such molecular motors also exist in nature for example in the form of myosins. Myosins are motor proteins that play an ... which distinguishes it from other similar molecular motors, says Gr ning. In this way, the molecular motor opens up a way for ... The Worlds Smallest Motor. This is pretty cool. I posted about some motor proteins earlier this week. Scientists have made a ...
Motor proteins synonyms, Motor proteins pronunciation, Motor proteins translation, English dictionary definition of Motor ... n. A protein, such as myosin, that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy, generating force that powers cell movement ... or molecular motors.. Motor Proteins and Molecular Motors ... motor protein. (redirected from Motor proteins). Also found in ... Motor proteins - definition of Motor proteins by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Motor+proteins ...
... use proteins that act as molecular motors and brakes to organize into their correct structure. If microtubules are not formed ... "The molecular motor is the trains engine, but the problem is that the cargo - the molecular brakes - gets longer, slowing down ... upon which molecular motors move protein packages for waste removal and nerve transmission. ... Green represents the molecular motors, the kinesin proteins klp2, of each microtubule. ...
Molecular imaging,*,Motor Neurone Disease,*,Multiple sclerosis,*,NMDARs,*,Networks,*,Neural Circuits/Networks,*,Neural ... Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Presynaptic Receptor Signalling Mechanisms and Protein Phosphorylation/ ... Recombinant protein expression,*,Single-channel recording,*,Synapse,*,Synaptic plasticity,*,Transgenic mice,*,calcium permeable ... signalling,*,Oligodendrocytes,*,Patch-clamp recording,*,Pharmacology,*,Protein transport/localisation,*,Rapid agonist ...
Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. The webcast ... The talk concludes by discussing the role of motor proteins in disease and how drugs that modulate motor protein activity can ... Related: Animations of Motor Proteins Moving Material Inside Cells - Science Explained: How Cells React to Invading Viruses - ... Ron Vale is a Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco and an ...
Related: Molecular Motor Proteins webcast by Ron Vale, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of ... The talk concludes by discussing the role of motor proteins in disease and how drugs that modulate motor protein activity can ... Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. The webcast ... Animations of Motor Proteins Moving Material Inside Cells. Posted on December 23, 2017 Comments (1) ...
Protein Folding, Prions, and Disease. *. Molecular Motor Proteins. Bioengineering. *. Realizing Synthetic Carbon Dioxide ...
By analyzing these changes, some proteins, such as molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins, were screened and RNAi ... Using bioinformatics methods to analyze the dynamic changes of a large number of proteins, we found that molecular motor and ... there are only a few reports on the role of molecular motor and TCA cycle-related proteins in the salivary glands of ticks. We ... The expression levels of a large number of proteins during the development and degeneration of salivary glands change, which ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Molecular Function. GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0043565 sequence-specific DNA binding ...
Cellular Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins: A Biochemical Society/Wellcome Trust Focused Meeting held at Wellcome Trust Genome Campus ... Coiled coils and SAH domains in cytoskeletal molecular motors Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Coiled coils and SAH domains in cytoskeletal molecular motors. Michelle Peckham. Biochemical Society Transactions Sep 21, 2011 ... The differences between SAH domains and coiled coils are described and the potential roles of SAH domains in molecular motors ...
Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic ... Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism * Microtubules / metabolism* * Molecular Motor Proteins / metabolism* * Protein ... To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the molecular composition of such ... Individual capsids simultaneously accommodated motors of opposing directionality as well as several copies of the same motor. ...
Molecular Motor Proteins ... Molecular Motor Proteins / metabolism * Pseudopodia / ...
  • Cells from human, animals and fungi all have three different types of motor proteins that scientists refer to as myosin, kinesin and dynein. (eurekalert.org)
  • Computer model showing the structure of a two-headed motor protein, Myosin V. Motor proteins convert chemical energy into mechanical movements in response to specific chemical stimuli. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Long filaments of a protein known as actin run through every cell in the body, serving as a kind of railroad along which another protein called myosin transports vital materials to locations throughout the cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In fact, mice in whom myosin VI is defective are deaf, suggesting the critical importance of the variant motor protein to the so-called hair cells of the inner ear upon which hearing depends. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In many ways, the myosin protein moving along an actin filament is like a sure-footed gymnast able to walk only one direction on a balance beam," says H. Lee Sweeney, PhD, chairman of the department of physiology and senior author on the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Protein motors include three major protein families, myosin, kinesin and dynein, which participate in a wide range of cellular processes, using energy from the hydrolysis of adenosinetriphosphate ATP. (scientific.net)
  • Our assay is high-throughput, versatile and is applicable to other molecular motors such as dynein and myosin. (illinois.edu)
  • In 1954, two British scientists, Hugh Huxley and Andrew Huxley (unrelated), independently proposed that muscles contract when filaments of two types - made of the proteins actin or myosin - slide past each other. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • There are 3 major classes of cytoskeletal molecular motors (as far as I know): myosin, kinesin and dynein. (democraticunderground.com)
  • A protein, such as myosin, that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy, generating force that powers cell movement and the transport of substances and organelles within cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sarcomeres consist of neatly aligned fibrous proteins, i.e., myosin motor proteins which hydrolyze ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and thin actin filaments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-muscle myosin IIA, an ubiquitously expressed contractile protein and enzyme, is implicated in the regulation of cell spreading and directional migration in response to various stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • The webcast provides an overview of the motors that move along cytoskeletal tracks (kinesin and dynein which move along microtubules and myosin which moves along actin). (curiouscatblog.net)
  • The talk then discusses how these nanoscale proteins convert energy from ATP hydrolysis into unidirectional motion and force production, and compares common principles of kinesin and myosin. (curiouscatblog.net)
  • For example, myosin and actin form alternatively arranged bundles with tens of other proteins to construct aligned sarcomeres, the basic units of the muscle, which produce efficient contractions under strict Ca 2+ regulation ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are millions of myosin molecules in a muscle fiber and each one individually generates a displacement," said Christopher M. Yengo, associate professor of cellular and molecular physiology. (eurekalert.org)
  • They attached fluorescent probes to parts of the myosin motor and observed distance changes between the glowing probe sites to time the protein's force-generating movements. (eurekalert.org)
  • These insights provide details about how myosin motor proteins work, and this knowledge could advance the understanding of diseases related to movement on a molecular level. (eurekalert.org)
  • citation needed] The best prominent example of a motor protein is the muscle protein myosin which "motors" the contraction of muscle fibers in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin is necessary in the process of hearing because of its role in the growth of stereocilia so defects in myosin protein structure can lead to Usher syndrome and non-syndromic deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin motors such as myosin move along microfilaments through interaction with actin, and microtubule motors such as dynein and kinesin move along microtubules through interaction with tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin II is an elongated protein that is formed from two heavy chains with motor heads and two light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic representation of myosin motors: Fungi (yeast): 5 Plants (Arabidopsis): 17 Insects (Drosophila): 13 Mammals (human): 40 Chromadorea ( nematode C. elegans): 15 Kinesins are a group of related motor proteins that use a microtubule track in anterograde movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynein complexes are much larger and more complex than kinesin and myosin motors. (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional LC with tandem mass spectrometry, 101 proteins were identified from purified ZG membranes including 28 known ZG proteins and 73 previously unknown proteins, including SNAP29, Rab27B, Rab11A, Rab6, Rap1, and myosin Vc. (mcponline.org)
  • This article shows that one of the myofibrillar proteins responsible for changes in muscle plasticity in association with temperature acclimation of carp is myosin, a major protein in the contractile apparatus. (biologists.org)
  • Myosin is the most abundant protein in the contractile apparatus, is essential for the contractile process and has been studied intensively. (biologists.org)
  • Zoologists have found that they are composed of protein filaments called myosin and actin. (icr.org)
  • Myosin-V is a two-headed molecular motor taking multiple ATP-dependent steps toward the plus end (forward) of actin filaments. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Myosin-V is a linear molecular motor that hydrolyzes ATP to move processively toward the plus end of actin filaments. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Transport by molecular motor proteins (Kinesin, Dynein and unconventional Myosin) is essential for cell functioning and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers had hoped to find that matters would be clarified by myosin proteins derived from the DNA sequences of different single-celled eukaryotes, such as flagellated protozoa (protozoa with a whip-like tail), amoeboid protozoa, and algae. (icr.org)
  • 1 Instead of finding a pattern of evolving myosin 'motor' genes (simple to complex) as life seemingly became more advanced, they found that the highest numbers of different types of myosin genes were found in single-celled eukaryotes. (icr.org)
  • MYO1A (Myosin IA) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The past decade has provided a wealth of information on the molecular players that are critical for spindle assembly as well as a high-resolution view of the intricate movements and dynamics of the spindle microtubules and the chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Colorado State University biochemistry researcher Steven Markus is particularly intrigued by these large, intracellular motor proteins that move methodically along a network of filamentous tracks called microtubules. (democraticunderground.com)
  • Beyond that, Markus says, 'molecular motors are fun, because we can purify these motors and watch them walk on microtubules in real time using fluorescence microscopy' which is exactly what the team did for their study. (democraticunderground.com)
  • Axonal transport is regulated by various posttranslational modifications (e.g., detyrosylation, acetylation, and glutamylation) of microtubules through the recruitment of molecular motor proteins [16]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have discovered that microtubules - components responsible for shape, movement, and replication within cells - use proteins that act as molecular motors and brakes to organize into their correct structure. (innovations-report.com)
  • Up until now motors and brakes were studied separately from microtubules," says senior author Phong Tran, PhD, Assistant Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Microtubules are structures that help give shape to many types of cells, form the spindle (view video below) - a structure important in cell division - and act as a railroad, of sorts, upon which molecular motors move protein packages for waste removal and nerve transmission. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the Cell study, the investigators, working with fission yeast cells, showed that stable end-to-end arrays of microtubules can be achieved by a balance between the sliding by a molecular motor called klp2p and the braking of a microtubule-associated protein (MAP) called ase1p. (innovations-report.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted high-density traffic of purified kinesin-8 motor protein, a highly processive motor with long end-residency time, along microtubules in a total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy assay. (pnas.org)
  • In this work, we have used two-color total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy ( 19 ) to simultaneously measure the speed of individual kinesin motors moving on microtubules while monitoring the local motor density. (pnas.org)
  • Motor proteins utilizing the cytoskeleton for movement fall into two categories based on their substrate: microfilaments or microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two globular head motor domains in heavy chains can convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work to move along microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, kinesins with N-terminal motor domains move their cargo towards the plus ends of microtubules located at the cell periphery, while kinesins with C-terminal motor domains move cargo towards the minus ends of microtubules located at the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster implicated at least one kinesin motor protein, NCD, in tapering the microtubules into a bipolar spindle. (genetics.org)
  • Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo around the cell along microtubules. (sciencephoto.com)
  • They are interested in the molecular properties of motor proteins and microtubule assembly regulators, especially how they operate as molecular machines to drive motion and regulate the growth and shrinkage of microtubules. (yale.edu)
  • Our research focuses on the biochemistry and biophysics of the cytoskeleton, with particular emphasis on the mechanics of microtubules and microtubule-based motor proteins. (yale.edu)
  • On the one hand, the lab is interested in how these proteins work: i.e. how do kinesins, dyneins and microtubules act as molecular machines to convert chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP into mechanical work used to power cell motility? (yale.edu)
  • And, on the other hand, we are interested in the roles that microtubules and their motors play in shaping and moving cells and tissues. (yale.edu)
  • Almost one-half of the proteins identified in this fraction were related to proteins that have previously been reported to interact with microtubules. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we have used a variety of in vivo and in vitro assays to determine that the MP functions as a genuine microtubule-associated protein that binds microtubules directly and modulates microtubule stability. (asm.org)
  • Kinesin‐related motors may contribute to the transport microtubules in one direction or both. (els.net)
  • Mimori‐Kiyosue Y and Tsukita S (2003) 'Search‐and‐capture' of microtubules through plus‐end‐binding proteins (+TIPs). (els.net)
  • Intracellular transport of cargoes, such as vesicles or organelles, is carried out by molecular motor proteins that track on polarized microtubules. (jove.com)
  • This transport is mediated by kinesins and dyneins - two large families of molecular motor proteins - that bind to cargoes and track along polarized microtubules in anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. (jove.com)
  • Kinesin-14s - a subset of kinesin motors - have the same directional preference as the dynein motor," he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, dynein ends up being a major motor protein in that direction because kinesin-14 motors lack the ability of dynein to generate persistent motility on the cytoskeleton track. (eurekalert.org)
  • And some land plants, if not all, have evolved novel kinesin-14 motors to potentially compensate for the loss of dynein. (eurekalert.org)
  • This article is about the regulation of dynein by a protein associated with Lissencephaly (a brain disorder). (democraticunderground.com)
  • The lissencephaly-1, or Lis1 protein, activates the dynein motor so it can transport cellular cargo. (democraticunderground.com)
  • As part of that pattern, an important class of proteins called dynein transport and deliver various cellular cargoes between different areas of the cell. (democraticunderground.com)
  • According to the Markus lab's new study, published April 27 in Nature Cell Biology, the exact opposite is true: Lis1 activates dynein, working to wedge itself in such a way that the motor protein is prevented from folding itself into an 'off' state inhibiting its ability to auto-inhibit, the researchers explain. (democraticunderground.com)
  • They used this to visualize the dynein motor in its 'off' (left) and 'on' (right) states. (democraticunderground.com)
  • We have generated HSV1 capsids with different surface features without impairing their overall architecture, and show that in a mammalian cell-free system the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin-1 and the dynein cofactor dynactin could interact directly with capsids independent of other host factors. (nih.gov)
  • We subsequently prepared pigment granules associated with dynein motors and attached them to the radial microtubule arrays, which made a melanophore-like system. (pnas.org)
  • The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. (genetics.org)
  • A ubiquitous cellular protein called dynein contributes to muscle contraction. (icr.org)
  • Evolutionists thought this dynein motor was inefficient and sluggish. (icr.org)
  • Remarkably, motor-teams made up of another motor (called kinesin) which is much stronger than dynein, could not generate comparable forces. (icr.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Bristol have defined the composition of the human version of a molecular motor, called 'cytoplasmic dynein-2', that is essential for normal human development. (nanowerk.com)
  • The new research, funded by the Medical Research Council and published today in the Journal of Cell Science ( 'Subunit composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex' ), has explained exactly how the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 motor works for the first time. (nanowerk.com)
  • He said: "The discovery of new components of the motor gives us a great opportunity to work towards understanding how defects in dynein-2 lead to disease. (nanowerk.com)
  • Both genes encode proteins required to form a functional dynein-2 motor, explaining why a mutation in either one leads to a ciliopathy. (nanowerk.com)
  • While retrograde movement is mainly mediated by dynein, movement in the anterograde direction is facilitated by a large, functionally diverse family of kinesin motors. (jove.com)
  • I'm interested in the molecular basis for these diseases,' said Markus, assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (democraticunderground.com)
  • Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS 9JT, U.K. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Organized and Edited by Folma Buss (Cambridge, U.K.) and John Kendrick-Jones (MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, U.K. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • By comparing protein engineering and DNA nanotechnology, we highlight molecular architectures that are relevant in biotechnology, biomedicine and synthetic biology research, and identify emerging areas for research such as hybrid materials composed of protein and DNA/RNA. (nature.com)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell 12: 3257-3267. (els.net)
  • She studied biochemistry and molecular biology at the Moscow State University and obtained her PhD at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. (elifesciences.org)
  • Anna Akhmanova is an elected member of the European Molecular Biology Organization and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. (elifesciences.org)
  • Professor James currently holds the Leonard P Ullmann Chair in Molecular Systems Biology and he is the Domain Leader for Biology at the Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using an analogy to a metropolitan city, the interior of eukaryotic cells contain a railway-like structure called the cytoskeleton and tiny vehicles called motor proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Motor proteins act on the cytoskeleton tracks to generate forces and directional movement for many essential processes, such as transportation of cellular "cargoes" and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • What we've found is the first kinesin-14 motor from land plants that has the ability to move continuously on the cytoskeleton track on its own," said Qiu. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cell motility is driven primarily by the dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton, a system of filamentous proteins and molecular motors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanics of Motor Proteins and the Cytoskeleton The Howard lab is fascinated by the question of how small molecules like proteins, lipids and nucleotides self-assemble into cells and tissues that are thousands to millions of times larger than molecular dimensions. (yale.edu)
  • however, we argue that active, mechanical processes mediated by motor proteins and the cytoskeleton, may play an even more important role in morphogenesis than purely chemical mechanisms (Howard et al. (yale.edu)
  • In this study, researchers focused on a particular motor protein, called KlpA, and used a high-sensitivity light microscopy method to directly follow the movement of individual KlpA molecules on the cytoskeleton track. (news-medical.net)
  • The motor protein KlpA moves in one direction on a single cytoskeleton track and switches to the opposite direction between a pair of cytoskeleton tracks. (nanowerk.com)
  • A role for the microtubule (MT) 1 component of the cytoskeleton in many of these processes has been demonstrated, and a number of MT-binding proteins that are responsible for regulating these events have been identified. (mcponline.org)
  • The large surface area provided by the MT network, and the cytoskeleton as a whole, likely serves as a matrix for the binding of hundreds of proteins to an extent that is dependent on cell type and environmental conditions ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Analysis of molecular dynamics at the level of cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton. (unibo.it)
  • This volume discusses the mechanisms of cellular functioning associated with enzymatic molecules called motor proteins , or molecular motors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the molecular composition of such motile viral structures. (nih.gov)
  • This modulation of mitochondrial motility in concert with axonal growth occurs via two mechanisms: (1) the up- and downregulation of anterograde motor activity and (2) the recruitment of mitochondria between persistently motile and stationary states ( Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • Alternatively, motors may have mechanisms to sense molecular crowding and to alter their behavior in order to prevent traffic jams. (pnas.org)
  • So far, however, little is understood about how motor proteins behave in crowded environments, and what physical mechanisms may cause motor proteins to form traffic jams in the first place. (pnas.org)
  • What feedback-control mechanisms operate to control the size, shape and localization of molecular assemblies? (yale.edu)
  • But in spite of intensive research efforts over many years, mechanisms underlying the actions of many motor proteins are still unclear. (news-medical.net)
  • Several examples of intercellular and long-distance RNA movement have been described for higher plants, and of these, RNA viruses have become the subject of extensive investigation with regard to the molecular mechanisms that govern intercellular macromolecular trafficking ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Since microinjected MP spreads rapidly between cells ( 77 , 103 ) and plants themselves encode proteins thought to be functionally analogous to viral MPs ( 65 , 108 ), the function of MP may directly reflect mechanisms of macromolecular Pd transport in normal plants which are exploited by viruses for the movement of their genomes. (asm.org)
  • Describe the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, including epigenetics. (unibo.it)
  • Describe the molecular mechanisms of cell fate determination and differentiation. (unibo.it)
  • He joined Fred Hutch in 1985 to continue the work he started at the Salk, investigating the mechanisms by which protein kinases regulate cell proliferation and transformation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. (jove.com)
  • Joshua Shaevitz , an assistant professor from the Department of Physics and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics at Princeton University, along with Mingzhai Sun, a postdoctoral associate at Princeton, and scientists from the Université Aix-Marseille in France, have discovered a new type of molecular machine used by bacteria for intracellular protein transport and gliding motility. (princeton.edu)
  • Intracellular transport had not been observed previously in bacteria and our results show that the class of molecular motors used for transport in higher organisms is conserved among bacteria. (princeton.edu)
  • Similar collective behaviour persists down to micro-scales, where bacterial suspensions, tissues and intracellular filaments use their intrinsic activity to create motions on lengths larger than individual cells or proteins. (nature.com)
  • they had proposed that these proteins power intracellular movements, yet little was understood about the processes. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • and Ronald Vale, 53, University of California, San Francisco--"for opening up the study of cytoskeletal motor proteins , whose activities are essential for numerous processes, such as muscle contraction, intracellular movement, and cell locomotion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. (nih.gov)
  • This work was continued in the laboratory of Prof Chris Miller and Prof Chris Shaw in the MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research at King's College London, and resulted in publications showing that VAPB interacts with mitochondrial protein PTPIP51 and that ALS VAPBP56S the disrupts axonal transport of mitochondria by increasing intracellular calcium levels. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • For example, the robustness of intracellular transport may be due to the high forces generated by motor proteins, which may clear obstructions ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. (jove.com)
  • Intracellular transport is critical in all cell types for the delivery of proteins, membranes, organelles, and signaling molecules to various cellular domains 1 . (jove.com)
  • Single molecule fluorescence imaging is a powerful tool for studying protein dynamics. (illinois.edu)
  • Following a successful transition path sampling simulation of conformational transitions in a V-type ATPase under a previous allocation, Singharoy's team now embarks on simulating a complete F-type ATPase (also called Complex V), using an analogous Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics methodology. (ornl.gov)
  • Many associated factors help organize the spindle, including molecular motors and regulators of microtubule dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • The organization and dynamics of MTs in these arrays depend on the activity of various MT-associated proteins (MAPs). (mcponline.org)
  • Her work has resulted in identification and characterization of a broad variety of factors which control microtubule organization and dynamics and motor attachment to membrane organelles. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our findings are an important step forward in this pursuit, demonstrating that through the use of computer simulations to orchestrate precise properties of atomic structure and molecular dynamics, proteins can now be designed to carry out complex functions that rival those of natural molecular machines," Grigoryan says. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Long filaments of a protein k. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We found NEB-22 to be useful for retaining the abilities of protein motors to support the movement of protein filaments. (scientific.net)
  • Here we present a mesoscopic mean-field description of filaments, motors, and cell boundaries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The bacterial flagellar motor drives the rotation of helical flagellar filaments to propel bacteria through viscous media. (bireme.br)
  • The motor powers the rotation of helical flagellar filaments at speeds of up to several hundred hertz. (els.net)
  • Biophysicists have developed the ability to observe and manipulate kinesin motors and the associated microtubule filaments outside the cell in so-called in vitro gliding assays. (nap.edu)
  • These proteins are important in cross-bridging MTs, linking MTs with actin filaments, and stabilizing MTs. (mcponline.org)
  • This INCITE project investigates two biomolecular systems, each of which promises a significant impact on US energy and health issues: (1) conformational transitions involved in mitochondrial protein complexes and (2) membrane-wide energy conversion in the chromatophore of purple bacteria. (ornl.gov)
  • This motor is driven by the flow of ions across a membrane, possibly using a similar mechanism to that found in the F o motor in ATP synthase. (bionity.com)
  • In their active GTP-bound form, Arf proteins are tightly associated with the membrane bilayer. (frontiersin.org)
  • To distinguish intrinsic membrane proteins from soluble and peripheral membrane proteins, a quantitative proteomic strategy was used to measure the enrichment of intrinsic membrane proteins through the purification process. (mcponline.org)
  • The iTRAQ™ ratios correlated well with known or Transmembrane Hidden Markov Model-predicted soluble or membrane proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • By combining subcellular fractionation with high resolution separation and comprehensive identification of proteins, we have begun to elucidate zymogen granule functions through proteomic and subsequent functional analysis of its membrane components. (mcponline.org)
  • Early studies using SDS-PAGE indicated a relatively simple protein structure for the ZG membrane. (mcponline.org)
  • In another study, 14 spots were identified as small GTPases by [ 35 S]GTPαS overlay on a 2D gel of ZG membrane proteins, but the identities of the spots remained unknown ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Despite its importance, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the membrane protein components of ZGs has not been achieved. (mcponline.org)
  • The intrinsic membrane proteins characterized based on iTRAQ™ ( 6 ) ratios correlated well with known or TMHMM-predicted membrane proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Whereas most biological motors use adenosine triphosphate as their energy source, the rotation of the flagellar motor is driven by a flow of charged ions across the bacterial plasma membrane. (els.net)
  • Many bacteria swim using a small biological rotary motor which is powered by the movement of ions (H + or Na + ) across the plasma membrane. (els.net)
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis ( RME ), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis , is a process by which cells absorb metabolites , hormones , proteins - and in some cases viruses - by the inward budding of the plasma membrane ( invagination ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cargo ligand and receptor will then recruit adaptor proteins and clathrin triskelions to the outside membrane of the cell around where budding will form. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mature pit will be cleaved from the plasma membrane through the use of membrane binding and fission proteins such as dynamin (as well as other BAR domain proteins), [2] forming a clathrin-coated vesicle that then uncoats and typically fuses to a sorting endosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cells are protected by a largely impenetrable molecular membrane, but researchers have built the first artificial transporter protein that carries individual atoms across membranes, opening the possibility of engineering a new class of smart molecules with applications in fields as wide ranging as nanotechnology and medicine. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The study, which appears Friday, Dec. 19, in the journal Science, is a milestone in designing and understanding membrane proteins. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Each human cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane, a molecular barrier that serves to contain the cellular machinery and protect it from the surrounding elements. (nanotech-now.com)
  • These molecular machines are embedded in the cellular membrane and serve as gatekeepers, allowing specific chemicals to shuttle in and out when needed. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Further, our work represents a milestone in designing and understanding membrane proteins, a particularly challenging class of proteins. (nanotech-now.com)
  • This work is an important discovery in the field of biological motors in recent years," said Qiu, whose work looked at Oryza sativa, most often referred to simply as rice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Creation of the neural structure, unachievable by normal manufacturing techniques, begins by altering the behavior of kinesin motor proteins -- biological machines found in every human cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The expression levels of a large number of proteins during the development and degeneration of salivary glands change, which regulate the biological functions of the salivary glands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding how tiny molecular motors called myosins use energy to fuel biological tasks like contracting muscles could lead to therapies for muscle diseases and cancers, says a team of researchers led by Penn State College of Medicine scientists. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nanostructures built from biomolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA are attracting attention in many areas of biological and materials sciences. (nature.com)
  • Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. (bionity.com)
  • The bacterial flagellar motor is a complex biological rotary molecular motor, which is situated in the cell envelopes of bacteria. (els.net)
  • The motors are regulated by one of the best‐characterised biological signalling pathways, the chemotaxis pathway. (els.net)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • A.D. Mehta, J.T. Finer, and J.A. Spudich , Use of Optical Traps in Single Molecule Study on Nonprocessive Biological Motors. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies of multiple motors are inspired by the fact that multiple motors are involved in many biological processes such as intra-cellular transport and mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lecture is an introduction to the physics of biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Rocker (blue ribbons and yellow sticks) is an artificially designed protein that transports zinc ions (green) across biological membranes (gray sticks) by binding zinc ions it at one end of the molecule and rearranging ('rocking') to pass them onto the other end. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The millions of proteins and molecules within each of our cells bend, travel and conform in a complex but orchestrated pattern, regulated by the genes that encode what goes where and when. (democraticunderground.com)
  • Certain nanomaterials, such as protein molecules, produce various advanced functions when incorporated into an ordered system and, therefore, have large potential for use in engineering devices. (pnas.org)
  • We induced ordered assembly of protein molecules through self-organization of the proteins in a specific artificial microstructure and thereby succeeded in producing a melanophore-like optical device. (pnas.org)
  • We believe that self-organization of molecules in microstructures can be a powerful method for assembling functional molecular systems in future nanotechnology. (pnas.org)
  • Protein molecules produce diverse functions according to their combination and arrangement as is evident in a living cell. (pnas.org)
  • However, it is currently very difficult to construct systems in which a large number of different protein molecules work cooperatively. (pnas.org)
  • As an approach to this challenge, we arranged protein molecules in artificial microstructures and assembled an optical device inspired by a molecular system of a fish melanophore. (pnas.org)
  • This study demonstrates that a properly designed microstructure facilitates arrangement and self-organization of molecules and enables assembly of functional molecular systems. (pnas.org)
  • These diverse and elaborate functions are realized through highly ordered molecular systems that consist of not only the motor proteins but also various types of protein molecules. (pnas.org)
  • However, simply mixing protein components rarely forms an ordered system, and, therefore, organizing motor protein molecules with other associated proteins into highly ordered structures is a key bioengineering challenge. (pnas.org)
  • This crowding diminishes the diffusion of small molecules and proteins ( 1 ), increases the oligomerization and aggregation of proteins ( 2 ), and strongly restricts the mobility of larger particles and organelles ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • These are difficult questions because they address "systems-level" processes whose length-scales and time-scales differ strikingly from those of the constituent molecules-the proteins, lipids and nucleic acids-that form the molecular building blocks of cells. (yale.edu)
  • Kinesin motors are proteins that use ATP molecules as fuel to generate mechanical work (Howard, 2001). (nap.edu)
  • DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells , such as proteins and RNA molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Most of these RNA molecules are used to synthesize proteins, but others are used directly in structures such as ribosomes and spliceosomes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Most microRNA probably need the help of these other proteins and other molecules to target mRNA," says Han. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Myosins are actin-based motor molecules with ATPase activity. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers set out to "build" an artificial transporter protein from scratch, to learn how transporters work, and to open the possibility of engineering a new class of smart molecules. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Proteins are nature's workhorse molecules, performing a great variety of tasks in the cell from catalysis and sensing to generation of mechanical work. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Learning to design (from first principles) novel protein molecules to perform specific tasks would mean that the immense richness of function that proteins have to offer can be brought to bear in a variety of applications, from better therapeutics to smart materials and clean energy solutions. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Furthermore, we show that these motors can be used to facilitate cellular gliding over solid surfaces, thereby solving a long-standing mystery about how certain cells move in groups. (princeton.edu)
  • Kinesin is one of the many types of molecular motors present in living cells. (illinois.edu)
  • The 2012 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors three scientists for their discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable cell movements. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in cells. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Since it would be difficult to reconstitute flagellar motors from isolated motor proteins , most work in this area employs intact cells with preassembled motors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many of these motors are involved in trafficking cargo in cells. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The method involves flash-freezing the motors inside living cells. (phys.org)
  • Like big-city garbage trucks, molecular transporters in cells have to keep moving or trash piles up, according to a new study. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the action of motor proteins itself is rather simple, they are involved in numerous functions in living cells such as cell division, muscle contractions, ciliary beating, and melanophore color changes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite the crowdedness of the interior of cells, microtubule-based motor proteins are able to deliver cargoes rapidly and reliably throughout the cytoplasm. (pnas.org)
  • Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of motor proteins in cells becomes evident when they fail to fulfill their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ron Vale has spent a career studying how molecular motors transport cargo within cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Within cells, kinesin is primarily responsible for transporting molecular cargo from the center of the cell to the periphery. (nap.edu)
  • In the malignant tumor cells, reactivated p53 eliminates cells with too much activity in a signaling pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is often overactive in cancer cells, leading to uncontrolled growth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Molecular motors are important features of eukaryotic cells that are formed by a variety of protein types. (icr.org)
  • Phosphorylation of a surface protein on endosomes is key to the organelles' uneven distribution in daughter cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the latest issue of the journal Cell, the Scripps Research team, led by Immunology Professor Jiahuai Han, describes how genetic control can be exerted in living cells through microRNA's action in conjunction with several different proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For example, the expression of inflammatory cytokine proteins by immune system cells must be finely tuned so that these proteins do not cause more damage to the body than the bacterial infection they were produced to defeat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. (jove.com)
  • In one test of how the amount of kinesin affects APP transport, the scientists cultured hippocampal neurons from kinesin wild-type and kinesin-reduced mice and then transfected the cells with APP linked to yellow fluorescent protein. (alzforum.org)
  • Molecular motors are proteins that all cells have. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This work demonstrates that kinetic data concerning protein - protein interactions between subunits within Type I R-M enzymes are accessible via AFM . (rsc.org)
  • A split horseradish peroxidase for the detection of intercellular protein-protein interactions and sensitive visualization of synapses. (nature.com)
  • Self-organized cell motility from motor-filament interactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Excited-State Aromatic Interactions in the Aggregation-Induced Emission of Molecular Rotors. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA, which helps control its interactions with other proteins and thereby control which genes are transcribed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A link between average thermodynamic properties and microstates and molecular interactions is made via a discussion of intermolecular forces and the partition function. (jhu.edu)
  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in eukaryotic tissues. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Cytoskeletal motors include myosins, kinesins and dyneins. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Myosins are proteins that use high-energy adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, to accomplish mechanical work such as muscle contractions, cell motility and cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • Myosins are a superfamily of actin motor proteins that convert chemical energy in the form of ATP to mechanical energy, thus generating force and movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • One group of molecular motors is called the myosins, which have recently been studied in everything from one-celled eukaryotes to humans. (icr.org)
  • Genomic representation of kinesin motors: Fungi (yeast): 6 Plants (Arabidopsis thaliana): 61 Insects (Drosophila melanogaster): 25 Mammals (human): 45 Dyneins are microtubule motors capable of a retrograde sliding movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists believe that the study of genes that encode the proteins for molecular motors will help solve the mysteries of evolution. (icr.org)
  • The regulation of gene expression is one of the most fundamental tasks of every cell in the body because many of our genes encode proteins that may only be needed occasionally. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These accomplishments enabled the discovery of the motor protein kinesin and unveiled the steps by which these engines convert chemical energy into mechanical work. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Within a cell, motor proteins work as mechanical components that efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical energy. (pnas.org)
  • The proteins produce motion in a mechanical step known as the power stroke. (eurekalert.org)
  • The kinesin motor can advance against a force of about 5 piconewtons (pN), in the process converting more than 50 percent of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. (nap.edu)
  • Motor proteins are tiny molecular machines that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. (news-medical.net)
  • that present an elegant structural model of how ATP synthase works: it behaves like a tiny molecular rotary motor, coupling the mechanical force of an electrochemical proton gradient to the formation of the chemical bond between ADP and P. (sciencemag.org)
  • At high mechanical loads, the motor processively steps toward the minus end (backward) even in the absence of ATP, whereas analogous forward steps cannot be induced. (uni-ulm.de)
  • We can explain this pronounced mechanical asymmetry by a model in which the strength of actin binding of a motor head is modulated by the lever arm conformation. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Thus, these associated motors either engage in a tug-of-war or their activities are coordinately regulated to achieve net transport either to the nucleus during cell entry or to cytoplasmic membranes for envelopment during assembly. (nih.gov)
  • In an initial effort to comprehensively understand the functions of this organelle, we conducted a proteomic study to identify proteins from highly purified ZG membranes. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, a number of low abundance proteins, including Rab3D and several SNARE proteins, have been identified on ZG membranes by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • By combining 2D GE and 2D LC with tandem mass spectrometry, we report the identification of 101 proteins on ZG membranes, many of which had not been localized previously on ZGs including multiple small GTP-binding proteins, SNARE proteins, and molecular motor proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The localization of MP with ER membranes is consistent with results of several studies indicating that ER membranes act as sites for virus replication and virus protein synthesis ( 6 , 42 , 76 ). (asm.org)
  • There are several ways in which the molecular properties of motor proteins could be adapted to prevent traffic jams. (pnas.org)
  • In this paper, we show that bacteria possess molecular motors that are used for transporting proteins along the length of a cell. (princeton.edu)
  • Moreover, we found that the motion of individual motors was tightly controlled by the cell, indicating that these new motors are likely to be highly sophisticated machines in both their regulation and degree of cooperativeness. (princeton.edu)
  • 00:04:05.11 specific proteins in the cell. (ibiology.org)
  • On the experimental side we will concentrate on microtubule (MT)-motor protein mixtures, but will also mention bacterial suspensions and cell layers. (nature.com)
  • Our work shows that the cell can make microtubule structures of defined lengths stable by coordinating the sliding of the motors and the slowing of the brakes. (innovations-report.com)
  • If microtubule-based structures are not formed properly because of failures in brakes or motors, such basic functions as cell division and cell transport can go awry, with such diseases as cancer and dementia possibly resulting. (innovations-report.com)
  • Viral particles of neurotropic alphaherpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) show bidirectional transport towards the cell center as well as the periphery, indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. (nih.gov)
  • The capsid composition and surface was analyzed with respect to 23 structural proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol during virus assembly or cell entry. (nih.gov)
  • Once frozen, they can be imaged from all angles to build up a 3-D picture of what the motor looks like inside the cell. (phys.org)
  • To explore how to assemble a functional device from protein components, we have tried to create a molecular device inspired by a fish pigment cell, "melanophore. (pnas.org)
  • regulatory proteins that control cell cycle. (brainscape.com)
  • There are two basic types of microtubule motors: plus-end motors and minus-end motors, depending on the direction in which they "walk" along the microtubule cables within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, these spindles are organized by the chromosomes and microtubule-associated proteins. (genetics.org)
  • The bacterial flagellar motor consists of a rotor which rotates against stator units that are anchored to the peptidoglycan cell wall. (els.net)
  • The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor that sits in the cell envelope of bacteria. (els.net)
  • Just as a radio or a computer must be understood in terms of its constituent analog or digital circuits, cell and tissue morphology must be understood in terms of underlying molecular circuits. (yale.edu)
  • The research revealed a totally unexpected behavior about a 'motor' protein that functions as chromosomes are segregated during cell division. (news-medical.net)
  • It's becoming clear that KlpA-like motors in humans are crucial to cancer cell proliferation and survival. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, the protein stops a cell from dividing when its DNA is damaged. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These proteins, often called MT-interacting proteins (MIPs) ( 2 , 4 ), likely bind to MTs as a mechanism to regulate their own activity, to direct their subcellular localization, or as a concentrating mechanism at specific locations within the cell. (mcponline.org)
  • The cell-to-cell spread of Tobacco mosaic virus infection depends on virus-encoded movement protein (MP), which is believed to form a ribonucleoprotein complex with viral RNA (vRNA) and to participate in the intercellular spread of infectious particles through plasmodesmata. (asm.org)
  • The coat protein (CP) of TMV is dispensable for cell-to-cell movement ( 26 , 96 ), which is consistent with the transport of viral RNA (vRNA) in a nonencapsidated form ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Although there are numerous definitions of function with respect to proteins, here we define it as precisely that what it is that a particular gene product, or protein, does in the cell. (powershow.com)
  • With Tony, he found that oncogenic retroviruses (Rous sarcoma virus and others) and growth factors (EGF and PDGF) stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of overlapping subsets of cell proteins, which were candidates to regulate cell proliferation and metabolism. (elifesciences.org)
  • Every living cell contains many ultrasophisticated molecular machines. (actionbioscience.org)
  • We now know that, far from being formed from a kind of simple, uniform protoplasm (as many nineteenth-century scientists believed), every living cell contains many ultrasophisticated molecular machines. (actionbioscience.org)
  • The catalyst technology and reaction engineering group concentrates on the design and development of solid catalysts and chemical processes for the efficient production of clean fuel cell grade hydrogen from a variety of hydrocarbons, synthesis gas production for gas-to-liquid processes, and design of micro-structured reactors for process intensification, by conducting both experimental and computational projects ranging from molecular modeling to chemical process simulation. (boun.edu.tr)
  • The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on human diploid lung fibroblasts: DNA adducts, expression of P53 and P21 WAF1 proteins and cell cycle. (cas.cz)
  • In this Review, we evaluate the different structural properties of proteins and nucleic acids, as well as possible designs and synthetic routes for functional nanostructures. (nature.com)
  • Like human-made motors, the structure of these nanoscale machines determines their power and the bacteria's swimming ability. (phys.org)
  • In the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the applications of motor proteins in microscale and nanoscale engineering, which has enabled the control of motor protein movements and the transport of artificial objects by motor protein ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Such nanoscale engineering was pioneered with proteins, yet the use of DNA is rapidly gaining traction. (nature.com)
  • As new technologies and methods are developed, it is expected that knowledge of naturally occurring molecular motors will be helpful in constructing synthetic nanoscale motors. (bionity.com)
  • Systems like the nanocars, while not technically motors, are illustrative of recent efforts towards synthetic nanoscale motors. (bionity.com)
  • The challenges in designing biomimetic systems using nanoscale building blocks include (1) controlling their operation in the presence of Brownian motion and other sources of noise, (2) integrating molecular information properly, (3) addressing lifetime and reliability issues, and (4) anticipating and using emergent phenomena. (nap.edu)
  • However, a steady state is achieved after 4 or 5 weeks, but not in starved individuals, suggesting that protein synthesis or the turnover of myofibrillar component(s) is involved in the response. (biologists.org)
  • Directed transport of the mRNA binding protein, zipcode binding protein1 (ZBP1), into developing axons is believed to play an important role in mRNA localization and local protein synthesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Campbell DS and Holt CE (2001) Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. (els.net)
  • Protein Synthesis 31. (johnsmith.co.uk)
  • Generally, multiple kinesin motors are present on a single cargo during transport. (illinois.edu)
  • Therefore, it is important to fundamentally understand how multiple motors work with each other during transport of the cargo to its destination. (illinois.edu)
  • We combined fluorescence and denatured ssDNA-based design to develop Real-Time Force Sensing of Individual Motors (RT-FSIM) assay that can measure forces exerted by individual kinesin motors in real-time during collective cargo transport. (illinois.edu)
  • The molecular motor is the train's engine, but the problem is that the cargo - the molecular brakes - gets longer, slowing down the daughter train. (innovations-report.com)
  • In mean-field description, fluctuation in the forces that individual motors feel while pulling the cargo is ignored. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protocol describes the correlation of the directionality of transport of individual cargo particles moving inside neurons, to the relative amount and type of associated motor proteins. (jove.com)
  • The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. (jove.com)
  • Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. (jove.com)
  • Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. (jove.com)
  • Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. (jove.com)
  • By developing systems that allow reconstitution of motility from its constituent parts, Michael Sheetz (Columbia University), James Spudich (Stanford University School of Medicine), and Ronald Vale (University of California, San Francisco) established ways to study molecular motors in detail. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • But what are the specific molecular signals that control mitochondrial motility in the axon? (biologists.org)
  • Langford GM (1995) Actin‐ and microtubule‐dependent organelle motors: interrelationships between the two motility systems. (els.net)
  • The cytoplasmic loop of stator subunit MotA contains important charged residues that interact with charged residues of the rotor protein FliG. (els.net)
  • Molecular motors at cytoplasmic and nuclear level. (unibo.it)
  • Can a disordered protein regulate a molecular motor? (evolutionnews.org)
  • Other pathways can regulate the flagellar motor and the motor itself can respond to changing conditions by adapting parts of its structure. (els.net)
  • In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. (genetics.org)
  • RNA binding proteins not only transport but also regulate translation of mRNAs ( Kiebler and Bassell, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The ZG localization of nine of these proteins was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry. (mcponline.org)
  • its contribution to the trafficking of mRNA binding proteins important for mRNA localization is not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Endocytosis and retrograde axonal traffic in motor neurons. (portlandpress.com)
  • Transport of mRNA to distal compartments in neurons, such as growth cones and dendritic spines, ensures local translation of proteins in response to receptor signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using detailed 3-D images, researchers have shown how bacteria have evolved molecular motors of different powers to optimize their swimming. (phys.org)
  • Bacteria use molecular motors just tens of nanometres wide to spin a tail (or 'flagellum') that pushes them through their habitat. (phys.org)
  • Previously, the team from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial looked at these motors and discovered a key factor that determined how strongly bacteria could swim. (phys.org)
  • To carry out the study, the team visualised a number of motors from different species of bacteria using a variant of a method called cryo-election microscopy, whose pioneers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry this year. (phys.org)
  • They found that bacteria with 17 or more stators, and their relatives, had extra structures attached to their motors. (phys.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum responsible for the swimming and tumbling of E. coli and other bacteria acts as a rigid propeller that is powered by a rotary motor. (bionity.com)
  • A complex signalling pathway regulates the motor output in response to environmental signals ensuring that bacteria swim towards nutrient rich environments. (els.net)
  • Bacteria modulate the probability direction of rotation of their flagellar motors in response to changes in the concentration of chemicals in the environment. (els.net)
  • For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes, and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, we hypothesize that the only truly identifiable phenomena, witnessing the convergent evolution of the most pathogenic bacteria for humans are the loss of metabolic activities, i.e., the outcome of the loss of regulatory and transcription factors and the presence of protein toxins, alone, or coupled as TA modules. (frontiersin.org)
  • The main problem with this idea is that, not only does no such creature exist, but eukaryotes also contain molecular similarities to both bacteria and archaea-prokaryotes that are found in completely separate domains of cellular life. (icr.org)
  • Kuo-Fu Tseng et al, The preprophase band-associated kinesin-14 OsKCH2 is a processive minus-end-directed microtubule motor, Nature Communications (2018). (phys.org)
  • Recently, scientists discovered another layer of complexity with molecular motors. (icr.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Another mystery of the human body has been solved by scientists who have identified how a molecular motor essential for human development works. (nanowerk.com)
  • This new knowledge could help with diagnosis and, in the long-term, scientists hope that they might be able to alter the function of the defective motor for therapeutic benefit. (nanowerk.com)
  • WASHINGTON - Cloning humans, or any other primates, may be impossible with today's techniques because of a fundamental molecular obstacle, say scientists trying to understand why attempts to clone monkeys have failed. (wired.com)
  • Molecular motor proteins use the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis for the transport of organelles along the cytoskeletal polymers and for the transport of the polymers themselves. (els.net)
  • Viral DNA packaging motors inject viral genomic DNA into capsids as part of their replication cycle, packing it very tightly. (bionity.com)
  • In primates, those proteins are so tightly bound to the egg's DNA that cloning's first step of DNA removal pulls them out, too, dooming hope of later pregnancy, Schatten said. (wired.com)
  • Many proteins are also tightly controlled through various post-translational modifications that activate or deactivate them. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Molecular motor proteins are fascinating enzymes that power much of the movement performed by living organisms. (curiouscatblog.net)
  • A total of 122 proteins were identified with high confidence using LC-MS/MS. These proteins were grouped into six categories based on their predicted functions: microtubule-associated proteins, translation factors, RNA-binding proteins, signaling proteins, metabolic enzymes, and proteins with other functions. (mcponline.org)
  • There his research was focused on motor neuron diseases and the characterisation of mitochondrial axonal transport defects in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (De Vos et al. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • A microtubule assembled from thousands of tubulin proteins serves as a track for the kinesin motor. (nap.edu)
  • It is now clear that kinesin-like-proteins (KLP), generally thought to be responsible for the transport of cellular cargoes, are involved in many different cellular processes now being widely investigated. (springer.com)
  • In vitro and in vivo measurement of defined cargoes and motors indicated that opposing motors are simultaneously engaged on cargoes that undergo bidirectional transport and suggest a potential for regulation during activation by controlling motor type and number. (jneurosci.org)
  • This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, it has been shown that motors of opposing directionality associate simultaneously to cargoes, raising the question as to how regulated movement of cargoes is coordinated by opposite-polarity motors 5-7 . (jove.com)
  • Together, transport of axonal cargoes is a concerted process that is regulated by the composition of motors and their specific biochemical activities, which in turn are dependent on various adaptors and regulatory binding partners 14 . (jove.com)
  • I have leveraged the power of single molecule imaging in studying two proteins systems: Molecular Motors and Gene Editing Proteins. (illinois.edu)
  • Chapter 3) Discovery of gene editing proteins has revolutionized the biotechnology field. (illinois.edu)
  • We study two such gene editing systems: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN). (illinois.edu)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • MIT biologists find that restoring the gene for cancer protein p53 slows spread of advan. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Elucidating the regulation and mechanism of MP-mediated RNA trafficking at the cellular and molecular level thus should reveal new paradigms to study systemic gene regulation. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, having some of these proteins around when they are not needed can create any number of problems for an organism, and failing to properly control gene expression can be fatal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Many different controls determine when a DNA gene is transcribed into mRNA, and when and how the mRNA is translated into a protein. (bio-medicine.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include actin binding and motor activity . (genecards.org)
  • In Kinesin Protocols, Isabelle Vernos and a panel of hands-on experts present their most productive and reproducible techniques for the identification, purification, and characterization of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule-dependent motors. (springer.com)
  • Solution structure analysis of the periplasmic region of bacterial flagellar motor stators by small angle X-ray scattering. (bireme.br)
  • The high-resolution crystal structures of flagellar motor PGB domains from Salmonella enterica (MotB ) and Vibrio alginolyticus (PomB ) have previously been elucidated. (bireme.br)
  • These provide new insight into the conformational diversity of flagellar motor PGB domains and experimental verification of their overall topology. (bireme.br)
  • Despite the fact that the driving ions always flow in one direction through the stator units, many flagellar motors can switch between clockwise and counterclockwise rotation. (els.net)
  • The structure of the flagellar motor is highly dynamic, some of its components undergo rapid turnover while the motor is functioning in response to changing conditions. (els.net)
  • The image on the right is a three‐dimensional reconstruction of S. enterica flagellar motor obtained by cryo‐electron microscopy. (els.net)
  • sinθ where θ is the angle between r and F . (b) In the bacterial flagellar motor, the force is applied by the stator units to the perimeter of the rotor, and the torque is equal to this force multiplied by the radius of the rotor. (els.net)
  • This is the N-terminal domain of the flagellar rotor protein FliG [ PMID: 20676082 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the torque ring of the flagellar motor and the molecular basis for rotational switching. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Toxins are mainly classified as bacterial protein toxins/exotoxins or toxic lipopolysaccharide complexes (LPSs)/endotoxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we reinvestigated the microtubule binding patterns of dimeric kinesins by cryo-EM and digital 3D reconstruction under different nucleotide conditions and different motor:tubulin ratios, and determined the molecular mass of motor-tubulin complexes by STEM. (pdbj.org)
  • Hence they bring their effectors, proteins that bind specifically to the GTP-bound form, into close contact with the lipid bilayer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many other proteins are known also to bind to MTs but do not function as MAPs. (mcponline.org)
  • AU-rich elem ent degradation involves a number of different proteins, including proteins that bind to the AU regions of the mRNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Actin's subunit proteins possess directionality and form fibers that 'point' in a certain direction. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Individual capsids simultaneously accommodated motors of opposing directionality as well as several copies of the same motor. (nih.gov)
  • The team found that the more stator structures the bacterial motor possessed, the larger its turning force, and the stronger the bacterium swam. (phys.org)
  • Their study reveals that the increase in motor power capacity is likely the result of existing structures fusing. (phys.org)
  • 00:03:49.18 of fluorescent proteins. (ibiology.org)
  • A. Full-length Smn fused to the N- ( top ) or C-terminus ( bottom ) of EGFP or mCherry fluorescent proteins (FP) was tested in order to exclude artefacts caused by the fusion partner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The growing and glowing toolbox of fluorescent and photoactive proteins. (nature.com)
  • To search for such additional MP functions, previous studies made use of TMV derivatives expressing a functional MP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). (asm.org)
  • 2013. Molecular paleontology and complexity in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. (icr.org)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)