Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Phosphotransferases (Nitrogenous Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a nitrogenous group acceptor. EC 2.7.3.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.ZymosanBlood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sarcoptes scabiei: A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Oxyphenbutazone: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mice, Inbred BALB CElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.PolysaccharidesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
A complement system protein at 2.0 A resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. 235 (2): 695-708. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1021. ... Factor D is involved in the alternative complement pathway of the complement system where it cleaves factor B. The protein ... Finally, the encoded protein has a high level of expression in fat, suggesting a role for adipose tissue in immune system ... The encoded protein is a component of the alternative complement pathway best known for its role in humoral suppression of ...
... blood proteins and phagocytic cells. In addition, complement serum proteins, which are a part of the innate immune system, work ... The adaptive response includes targeted recognition of specific molecular features on the surface of the pathogen. Birds, like ... An important element of immune systems in various animals is the protein tristetraprolin (TTP). This plays a key anti- ... The avian immune system is divided into two types of immunity, the innate and adaptive ones. The innate immune system includes ...
Some of the proteins of the complement system Procaspases Pacifastin Proelastase Prolipase Procarboxypolypeptidases Webster ... entry on zymogen Washington.edu Molecular mechanisms for the conversion of zymogens to active proteolytic enzymes "zymogen". ... Examples of zymogens: Angiotensinogen Trypsinogen Chymotrypsinogen Pepsinogen Most proteins in the coagulation system (for ... In this system, the inactive form (the apoenzyme) becomes the active form (the holoenzyme) when the coenzyme binds. ...
"Molecular characterization of a novel serine protease involved in activation of the complement system by mannose-binding ... This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of complement activation by ... protein associated with pattern recognition molecules of the complement system and regulating the lectin pathway of complement ... MASP-1 is involved in the lectin pathway of the complement system and is responsible for cleaving C4 and C2 to form C4b2b, a C3 ...
Proteome is the entire complement of proteins, including the modifications made to a particular set of proteins, produced by an ... The suffix -ome as used in molecular biology refers to a totality of some sort; it is an example of a "neo-suffix" formed by ... organism or system. *Proteomics: Large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Mass spectrometry ... protein-protein, or protein-ligand interactions. Researchers are rapidly taking up omes and omics, as shown by the explosion of ...
This activates the complement system, promoting phagocytosis by macrophages, which clears necrotic and apoptotic cells and ... It has 224 amino acids, has a monomer molecular mass of 25,106 Da, and has an annular pentameric discoid shape. CRP binds to ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response ... It is not related to C-peptide (insulin) or protein C (blood coagulation). C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition ...
... complement Two's complement Complement system (immunology), a cascade of proteins in the blood that form part of innate ... immunity Complementary DNA, DNA reverse transcribed from a mature mRNA template Complementarity (molecular biology), a property ... in Boolean algebra Knot complement Logical complement Bitwise complement Orthogonal complement Method of complements, a method ... Complement graph Self-complementary graph, a graph which is isomorphic to its complement Complement (group theory) Complement ...
... protein) in the complement cascade system of immune proteins (native immunity) Cervical vertebra 6, one of the cervical ... the molecular formula of benzotriyne Caldwell 6 (Cat's Eye Nebula, NGC 6543), a planetary nebula in the Draco CanJet (IATA code ... United States Army designation of the Sikorsky S-38 amphibious flying boat Complement component 6 ( ...
... and molecular biology; structure-function studies of proteins and enzymes of blood with emphasis on the human complement system ... James M. Sodetz is an American biologist, focusing in biochemistry; protein chemistry, protein engineering, ... currently the Carolina Distinguished Professor / Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at University of South Carolina and an ...
Class III molecules include several secreted proteins with immune functions: components of the complement system (such as C2, ... Each MHC molecule on the cell surface displays a molecular fraction of a protein, called an epitope. The presented antigen can ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to ... MHC molecules enable immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a host cell, and greater MHC ...
... to Protein G, or to cellular Fc receptors. Furthermore, IgY does not activate the complement system. The name Immunoglobulin Y ... Structurally, these two types of immunoglobulin differ primarily in the heavy chains, which in IgY have a molecular mass of ... As with the other immunoglobulins, IgY is a class of proteins which are formed by the immune system in reaction to certain ... This is due in large part to the fact that IgY cannot be bound with Protein A and Protein G. Thus, it cannot be separated from ...
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QBP gene. ... "Molecular cloning of human fibroblast hyaluronic acid-binding protein confirms its identity with P-32, a protein co-purified ... complement subcomponent C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. ... "Entrez Gene: C1QBP complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein". Storz, P; Hausser A; Link G; Dedio J; Ghebrehiwet B ...
... activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein involved in the complement system. C1s is part of the C1 ... Müller-Eberhard HJ (1988). "Molecular organization and function of the complement system". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 57: ... Mackinnon CM, Carter PE, Smyth SJ, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE (December 1987). "Molecular cloning of cDNA for human complement ... Mackinnon CM, Carter PE, Smyth SJ, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE (December 1987). "Molecular cloning of cDNA for human complement ...
This protein is part of the oldest part of the immune system that is present in the human body, the complement system. Using ... Among his findings are the molecular mechanisms that underlie key steps in the human immune defense by the complement system, ... which plays a central role in the complement system and contributes to innate immunity. Piet Gros was born in Dokkum, ... In 2010, Piet Gros received the NWO Spinoza Prize for the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the C3 protein. ...
Human complement control and complement evasion by pathogenic microbes - Tipping the balance. Molecular Immunology, 56(3), 152- ... This is part of a complement system evasion strategy that leads to downstream blocking of immune response. B. burgdorferi (B31 ... One such membrane receptor is the surface protein OspC. The OspC surface protein is shown to be a strong indicator of the ... The surface protein is also on the forefront of current vaccine research for Lyme disease via Borrelia. Genetically diverse B. ...
The C1 complex (complement component 1, C1) is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component ... Abbas, Abul (2015). Cellular and molecular immunology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders. pp. 70-71. ISBN 0-323-28645-3. A., ... 2001). "The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland ... The antibodies IgM or certain subclasses of IgG complexed with antigens are able to initiate the complement system: a single ...
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QA gene. This gene encodes a major ... C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. Deficiency of C1q has ... Petry F (1999). "Molecular basis of hereditary C1q deficiency". Immunobiology. 199 (2): 286-94. doi:10.1016/s0171-2985(98)80033 ... 1994). "The envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 gp120 and human complement protein C1q bind to the same peptides derived from three ...
Reid K. B. M., The complement system, in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds.), Molecular Immunology, Oxford: IRL Press, 1988, ... two regulators of complement. The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 ... 2001). "The complement system and innate immunity". Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. New York: Garland ... Another complement protein, C6, binds to C5b. The C5bC6 complex is bound by C7. This junction alters the configuration of the ...
... vitamins and minerals in activity and functioning of the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 1 (12): 947-955. doi:10.1074/mcp.M200066-MCP200. PMID 12543931. Malmström, E; Kilsgård, O; ... Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins or serum proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different ... All blood proteins are synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins. Separating serum proteins by electrophoresis is a ...
... proteins are attached to a GPI complex molecular group via an amide linkage to the protein's C-terminal carboxyl group. This ... protease inhibitor and complement regulatory proteins. Furthermore, GPI proteins play an important in embryogenesis, ... development, neurogenesis, the immune system and fertilization. More specifically, the GPI protein IZUMO1R/JUNO (named after ... but the site where the lipid binds to the protein depends both on the lipid group and protein. prenylated proteins are proteins ...
Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune disorders as the complement system is activated and the C3 becomes bound to immune ... Due to its large size, AMG cannot pass through glomeruli, while other lower-molecular weight proteins are lost. Enhanced ... Decreased beta-1 protein occurs in acute or chronic inflammation. Beta-2 comprises C3 (Complement protein 3). It is raised in ... The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. Proteins are applied to a ...
The complement system is a part of the innate immune response. C3b, C4b, and C1q are important complement molecules that serve ... activate complement proteins, and target cells for destruction through the action of natural killer (NK) cells. All cell ... Opsonization (also, opsonisation) is the molecular mechanism whereby molecules, microbes, or apoptotic cells are chemically ... Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A. (2010-09-14). "The complement system". Cell and Tissue Research. 343 (1): 227-235. doi:10.1007/ ...
Most of these markers are proteins, but some are carbohydrates attached to lipids or proteins. Complement decay-accelerating ... Some of the proteins in this group are responsible for the molecular basis of the blood group antigens, surface markers on the ... Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs to the Knops blood group system and is associated with Kn( ... Sushi domain is an evolutionarily conserved protein domain. Sushi domains, also known as Complement control protein (CCP) ...
One example for this production method is factor H: this molecule is part of the human complement system. Defects in the ... It is usually used in molecular farming for the production of recombinant protein using transgenic moss. In environmental ... Algae bioreactor Bioreactor Molecular farming Photobioreactor Physcomitrella patens Hohe, A.; Reski, R. (2005). "From axenic ... Ideally, the recombinant protein can be directly purified from the culture medium. ...
Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune disorders as the complement system is activated and the C3 becomes bound to immune ... Due to its large size, AMG cannot pass through glomeruli, while other lower-molecular weight proteins are lost. Enhanced ... Decreased beta-1 protein occurs in acute or chronic inflammation. Beta-2 comprises C3 (complement protein 3). It is raised in ... Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins. ...
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... Young babies eat pureed baby foods because they have few teeth and immature digestive systems. Between 8 and 12 months of age, ... and herbivores when they are just obtaining nutrients from materials originating from sources that do not seemingly complement ...
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP), a regulatory molecular of the complement system with cofactor activity for the factor I- ... C4-binding protein, and factor H), as well as several other complement and non-complement proteins. The remainder of the MCP ... The deduced full-length MCP protein consists of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 350-amino acid mature protein. The protein ... Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of human membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Evidence for inclusion in the ...
Complement Factor I Antibody (Internal), Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P (ALS17749), Abgent ... With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel ... Cre/lox System. Cat. Bacteria. Avian. Amphibian. All Species. S. Aureus. ZA. Yeast. Xenopus. Vaccinia Virus. SARS. Neisseria ... Complement component factor i, Factor I, FI, KAF, I factor, I factor (complement), C3b-INA, Complement factor I, Light chain of ...
A common polymorphism, encoding the sequence variation Y402H in complement factor H (CFH), has been strongly associated with ... Molecular Mechanisms of Complement System Proteins and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular ... Association Between Complement FactorC2/C3/CFB/CFHPolymorphisms and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis *Feiteng ... Two distinct conformations of factor H regulate discrete complement-binding functions in the fluid phase and at cell surfaces * ...
Change in urine protein biomarkers (urine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of ... Network Analysis of Urinary Molecular Signature Complements Clinical Data to Predict Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury Subtitle ... Network Analysis of Urinary Molecular Signature Complements Clinical Data to Predict Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury ( ... Change in urine protein biomarkers (urine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of ...
Complement C1 / analysis*. Complement System Proteins / analysis*, deficiency*. Erythema Multiforme / immunology*. Female. ... and Clq precipitins of the low molecular weight type. ... 9007-36-7/Complement System Proteins From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ...
Complement System Proteins. Methylprednisolone. Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal. Abortifacient Agents. Reproductive Control ... Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Antineoplastic Agents. Dermatologic Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. Folic Acid ... The Effect of Some Drugs Used in Treatment of Vasculitis on the Complement System in Children. The safety and scientific ... The Effect of Some Drugs Used in Treatment of Vasculitis on the Complement System in Children Attending Assiut University ...
A complement system protein at 2.0 A resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. 235 (2): 695-708. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1021. ... Factor D is involved in the alternative complement pathway of the complement system where it cleaves factor B. The protein ... Finally, the encoded protein has a high level of expression in fat, suggesting a role for adipose tissue in immune system ... The encoded protein is a component of the alternative complement pathway best known for its role in humoral suppression of ...
They sought out changes in protein concentration which would indicate activation of the complement system. The experiments were ... Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help ... it had only been known that changes in genes containing the hereditary information for proteins in the complement system ... might be faulty regulation of the so-called complement system. This system is an important element in our hereditary immune ...
Binding of Complement Factor H to Loop 5 of Porin Protein 1A: A Molecular Mechanism of Serum Resistance of ... Genetics and Deficiencies of the Soluble Regulatory Proteins of the Complement System ... The Staphylococcus aureus Protein Sbi Acts as a Complement Inhibitor and Forms a Tripartite Complex with Host Complement Factor ... The Scl1 protein of M6-type group AStreptococcusbinds the human complement regulatory protein, factor H, and inhibits the ...
Current Molecular Medicine. *Molecular Mechanisms of Complement System Proteins and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the ... Current Molecular Medicine. *The Molecular Pathology of Eye Tumors: A 2019 Update Main Interests for Routine Clinical Practice ... Current Molecular Medicine. Title:α-Mangostin, A Natural Xanthone, Induces Apoptosis and ROS Accumulation in Human Rheumatoid ... Current Molecular Medicine. *The Effects of Cholesterol Metabolism on Follicular Development and Ovarian Function. Current ...
It also features enhanced coverage of aspects of innate immunity such as the complement system, Toll-like receptors, defensins ... and C-reactive protein; the role of dendritic cells in initiating the primary adaptive immune response and the functions of ... and molecular principles underlying these responses to infection. ... The book offers over 500 full-color illustrations that complement and clarify the concepts. The end-of-chapter questions have ...
Protein and functional analyses of the complement system were normal in all members of the second family. However, the ... molecular investigation for the father showed the presence of an amino acid substitution in the FH gene. Unfortunately, his two ... The functional consequences of these abnormal proteins are still to be demonstrated.Keywords: atypical hemolytic uremic ... syndrome, complement, alternative pathway, factor H, deletion, nucleotide substitution ...
Thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx reductase system complement the GSH system for maintenance of protein thiol/disulfide redox (14). Trx ... 1989) Growth-associated modifications of low-molecular-weight thiols and protein sulfhydryls in human bronchial fibroblast. J ... Protein concentration in Caco-2 cells during culture.. Cellular protein was measured as a function of time in culture and used ... The protein pellet was resuspended in 1 M NaOH, and protein concentrations were measured using the Bradford method (5) with ...
Molecular Biology Complement System Proteins 1988 Ludwigs Angina: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature. Moreland, L. ... Regulation of complement activity by vaccinia virus complement-control protein. McKenzie, R., Kotwal, G. J., Moss, B., Hammer, ... Inhibition of the complement cascade by the major secretory protein of vaccinia virus. Kotwal, G. J., Isaacs, S. N., McKenzie, ...
"Molecular characterization of a novel serine protease involved in activation of the complement system by mannose-binding ... This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of complement activation by ... protein associated with pattern recognition molecules of the complement system and regulating the lectin pathway of complement ... MASP-1 is involved in the lectin pathway of the complement system and is responsible for cleaving C4 and C2 to form C4b2b, a C3 ...
The complement system plays an important part in defense against pyogenic organisms. ... The complement system is part of the innate immune system. ... C3d of complement as a molecular adjuvant: bridging innate and ... Deficiency of any of these regulatory proteins results in a state of overactivation of the complement system, with damaging ... The complement system is part of the innate immune system. The complement system plays an important part in defense against ...
... coagulation and complement-system proteins, as well as transport ones. Interestingly, the protein content in this inflammatory ... Proteins are among the main molecular targets being investigated. In general, these are macromolecules responsible for ... Figure 6. Protein-protein interactions network among all the proteins identified in the study by Cavassan et al. [68] using ... The protein-protein interaction is displayed in Figure 6 [68]. Such results may be the basis for further research on diagnostic ...
For example, there are about 30 proteins known collectively as complement that the immune system uses to tag and destroy ... complement proteins attach to the antibodies and set off an unchecked molecular cascade that leads to inflammation. NO EASY ... it lacks the proteins that cells typically use to protect themselves from the complement system. The researchers propose that ... Other researchers have considered inhibiting complement proteins as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. In fact, as least one ...
We have identified and validated a clinically feasible protein-based prognostic model that complements the updated TNM system ... 15Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. ... 5 protein-based signature for resectable lung squamous cell carcinoma improves the prognostic performance of the TNM staging ... 5 protein-based signature for resectable lung squamous cell carcinoma improves the prognostic performance of the TNM staging ...
The complement system is a major target of immune evasion by Staphylococcus aureus. Although many evasion proteins have been ... C) Comparison of RG for the two predominant MES conformers of either C3b (black) or C3b/Efb-C (blue) as obtained by molecular ... Allosteric inhibition of complement function by a staphylococcal immune evasion protein.. Chen H1, Ricklin D, Hammel M, Garcia ... Allosteric inhibition of complement function by a staphylococcal immune evasion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 12; ...
The complement system consists of about 20 different proteins that are transported in the bloodstream. When activated by ... "These findings reveal another molecular mechanism by which viruses evade the immune system," says study leader Herbert W. ... This implies that, in normal mice, the mimic protein enabled the virus to escape detection by the complement system. The ... "By targeting this viral protein or by manipulating the complement system, perhaps someday we can develop better treatments for ...
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein that activates the complement system after binding to glycoconjugates found on ... Molecular characterization of the mouse mannose-binding proteins. The mannose-binding protein A but not C is an acute phase ... 7⇓). mMBL-C was found in two peaks corresponding to a molecular size of ∼600 kDa and ∼150 kDa (for globular protein markers, ... 1⇓). The electrophoretic mobilities of the two proteins in this system (mMBL-A , mMBL-C) were consistent with the pIs ...
The complement cascade is triggered by microbes, tissue debris, and specific antibodies. Serum complement proteins are derived ... Proteins of the complement system are important effectors and modulators of inflammation. ... Acute-Phase Proteins / genetics, physiology. Animals. Complement System Proteins / genetics, physiology. Cytokines / physiology ... An understanding in molecular terms of the balance between proinflammatory and counterregulatory forces on complement gene ...
At the cell surface is thought to act as an endothelial receptor for plasma proteins of the complement and kallikrein-kinin ... Required for protein synthesis in mitochondria (PubMed:22904065, PubMed:28942965). In mitochondrial translation may be involved ... Can also bind other plasma proteins, such as coagulation factor XII leading to its autoactivation. May function to bind ... It is postulated that the cell surface form requires docking with transmembrane proteins for downstream signaling which might ...
Our major research interests lie in solution structural determinations of proteins and their interactions in the immune system ... Rare missense variants mapped onto structures for complement Factor H (blue) in its complex with complement C3b (gold) and ... Structural and Molecular Biology. *SMB Labs. *Perkins. Structural Immunology Group at UCL. Welcome to the Structural Immunology ... primarily involving the complement proteins and antibodies. Our major technologies include X-ray and neutron solution ...
  • However, recent evidence suggests that FHR proteins may rather enhance complement activation both directly and also by competing with the inhibitor FH for binding to certain ligands and surfaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • The theme running through the chapters is that of protein structure-function relationships - including, amongst others, descriptions of quaternary structures of large oligomeric proteins, of Factor H and C1q binding to specific ligands, and of the che++. (worldcat.org)
  • Lysozyme, some milk proteins, such as alpha lactalbumin, and low molecular-weight ligands, such as citrates and phosphates, are known to have high affinity binding sites for calcium (4), and may therefore act as inhibitors of complement indirectly, by chelating the divalent ions required for complement activation. (mcmaster.ca)
  • TLR dimers bind their ligands (eg, fibrinogen, lipopolysaccharide [LPS], heat shock proteins [HSPs], DNA/RNA), resulting in the recruitment of MyD88 or TRIF (depending on the TLR subtype). (ahajournals.org)
  • This system is an important element in our hereditary immune resistance, and is involved where inflammatory reactions occur. (innovations-report.com)
  • On the basis of its central relevance in immunity targeting, the complement system by specific therapeutic agents is a promising approach to treat autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. (els.net)
  • Complement is a large protein network in plasma that is crucial for human immune defenses and a major cause of aberrant inflammatory reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ionizing radiation perturbs hematopoiesis in bone marrow, which, in turn, depresses the innate immune responses against infectious agents, including production of immunoglobulins, and disturbs the inflammatory responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP), the components of complement, and the normal balance among the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (hindawi.com)
  • As an integral part of innate immunity and critical mediator in homeostatic and inflammatory processes, the human complement system has been identified as contributor to a large number of disorders including ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases as well as in ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer and sepsis. (springer.com)
  • The complement system functions to promote the inflammatory response, to modify the membranes of infectious organisms, and also to identify pathogenic material for removal. (google.com)
  • We hypothesized that a combination of TBI and HS would disturb coagulation, damage the endothelium, and activate inflammatory and complement systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) activates the coagulation and complement cascades and leads to the destruction of 25% of all transplanted islets within minutes, contributing to the need, in most patients, for islets from more than 1 donor. (nih.gov)
  • 2006. Complement component C3 mediates inflammatory injury following focal cerebral ischemia. (springer.com)
  • The structures may pave the way to more efficient therapeutics for such complement-mediated diseases as age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, or systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as give insight into the pathogenesis of other immune and inflammatory diseases. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Devices, systems, and methods reduce levels of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory stimulators or mediators in blood by selective adsorption. (google.com)
  • The devices, systems, and methods are useful in situations where abnormal levels of or unregulated or excessive interaction among pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. (google.com)
  • The devices, systems, and methods are useful in situations where abnormal levels of or unregulated or excessive interaction among pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory stimulators or mediators occur, or during events that do induce or have the potential for inducing abnormal production of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory stimulators or mediators. (google.com)
  • The devices, systems, and methods serve to prevent, control, reduce, or alleviate the severity of the inflammatory response and disease states that are associated with abnormal levels of or unregulated or excessive interaction among pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory stimulators or mediators. (google.com)
  • 13. A system for treating an individual experiencing trauma before onset of septic shock comprising a material that removes cytokines or other species of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory stimulators or mediators from blood by selective adsorption, and tubing for circulating the blood of the individual through the material, the tubing having a wall impregnated with the material. (google.com)
  • These accessory proteins activate pathways that ultimately result in the production of inflammatory cytokines, including, for example, interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and IL-1β, which in turn can promote coagulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such FPs can absorb visible day-light and predominantly one variant of the red fluorescent protein, the KillerRed protein (KRED) emits active electrons producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to photokilling processes in eukaryotes. (medsci.org)
  • Understanding the major factors determining the specificity of transmembrane transfer processes in proteins is currently a hot topic in molecular bio-science. (librarything.com)
  • These markers represent various physiological processes, such as protein degradation (ubiquitin), protease inhibition (cystatin C and alpha-1-antichymoptrypsin), and inflammation (C3a and C4a) that are known to be represented in neurodegenerative diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Full insight into signalling processes requires identification of modified proteins and determination of the exact sites of modification. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Our research group aims to understand the roles that proteins play in human physiological and pathological processes and to use this knowledge to identify novel therapeutic targets and drugs to treat disease. (scripps.edu)
  • In algae, sea urchins, and sponges SRCR proteins mediate different functions related to cell differentiation, reproduction, and regeneration, which have as common factor the recognition of "self structures" (2, 5, 6). (degruyter.com)
  • mistry of the mechanism of catalysis of covalent binding of activated C3 and C4 proteins to nucleophilic groups on microbial surfaces. (worldcat.org)
  • A 9 ± 2-fold increase in signal intensity both in cell culture and in living mice was seen compared with a system that expresses both reporter fragments and the interacting proteins separately. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, when the proteins of interest interact, the two inactive reporter protein fragments complement with each other such that activity is regained, providing a readout signal for indirectly following the protein-protein interaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We now show that this dysmorphic C6 is bactericidally active and lacks an epitope that was mapped to the most carboxy-terminal part of C6 using C6 cDNA fragments expressed as fusion proteins in the pUEX expression system. (jci.org)
  • A growing number of pathogenic microorganisms have acquired the ability to bind the complement inhibitor factor H (FH) from body fluids and thus hijack its host protecting function. (frontiersin.org)
  • on the other hand, it did not bind with the truncated protein of the internally deleted residues of the segment from 95 to 118 of FbaA. (asm.org)
  • Through development of a highly purified model system for C5 convertases, we here aim to provide insights into the surface-specific nature of these important protease complexes. (biomedcentral.com)