A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
That branch of learning which brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and machines.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The educational process of instructing.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Transplacement mutagenesis: a novel in situ mutagenesis system using phage-plasmid recombination. (1/1999)

Site-specific mutagenesis provides the ability to alter DNA with precision so that the function of any given gene can be more fully understood. Several methods of in vitro mutagenesis are time-consuming and imprecise, requiring the subcloning and sequencing of products. Here we describe a rapid, high fidelity method of in situ mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda using transplacement. Using this method, mutations are transferred from oligonucleotides to target phages using a plasmid interface. A small (50 bp) homology region bearing a centred point mutation is generated from oligonucleotides and subcloned into a transplacement plasmid bearing positive and negative phage selectable markers. Following a positive/negative selection cycle of integrative recombination and excision, the point mutation is transferred precisely from plasmid to phage in a subset ( approximately 25-50%) of recombinants. As the fidelity of both oligonucleotide synthesis and phage-plasmid recombination is great, this approach is extremely reliable. Using transplacement, point mutations can be accurately deposited within large phage clones and we demonstrate the utility of this technique in the construction of gene targeting vectors in bacteriophages.  (+info)

Conversion of lacZ enhancer trap lines to GAL4 lines using targeted transposition in Drosophila melanogaster. (2/1999)

Since the development of the enhancer trap technique, many large libraries of nuclear localized lacZ P-element stocks have been generated. These lines can lend themselves to the molecular and biological characterization of new genes. However they are not as useful for the study of development of cellular morphologies. With the advent of the GAL4 expression system, enhancer traps have a far greater potential for utility in biological studies. Yet generation of GAL4 lines by standard random mobilization has been reported to have a low efficiency. To avoid this problem we have employed targeted transposition to generate glial-specific GAL4 lines for the study of glial cellular development. Targeted transposition is the precise exchange of one P element for another. We report the successful and complete replacement of two glial enhancer trap P[lacZ, ry+] elements with the P[GAL4, w+] element. The frequencies of transposition to the target loci were 1.3% and 0.4%. We have thus found it more efficient to generate GAL4 lines from preexisting P-element lines than to obtain tissue-specific expression of GAL4 by random P-element mobilization. It is likely that similar screens can be performed to convert many other P-element lines to the GAL4 system.  (+info)

Mutations in the S4 region isolate the final voltage-dependent cooperative step in potassium channel activation. (3/1999)

Charged residues in the S4 transmembrane segment play a key role in determining the sensitivity of voltage-gated ion channels to changes in voltage across the cell membrane. However, cooperative interactions between subunits also affect the voltage dependence of channel opening, and these interactions can be altered by making substitutions at uncharged residues in the S4 region. We have studied the activation of two mutant Shaker channels that have different S4 amino acid sequences, ILT (V369I, I372L, and S376T) and Shaw S4 (the S4 of Drosophila Shaw substituted into Shaker), and yet have very similar ionic current properties. Both mutations affect cooperativity, making a cooperative transition in the activation pathway rate limiting and shifting it to very positive voltages, but analysis of gating and ionic current recordings reveals that the ILT and Shaw S4 mutant channels have different activation pathways. Analysis of gating currents suggests that the dominant effect of the ILT mutation is to make the final cooperative transition to the open state of the channel rate limiting in an activation pathway that otherwise resembles that of Shaker. The charge movement associated with the final gating transition in ILT activation can be measured as an isolated component of charge movement in the voltage range of channel opening and accounts for 13% ( approximately 1.8 e0) of the total charge moved in the ILT activation pathway. The remainder of the ILT gating charge (87%) moves at negative voltages, where channels do not open, and confirms the presence of Shaker-like conformational changes between closed states in the activation pathway. In contrast to ILT, the activation pathway of Shaw S4 seems to involve a single cooperative charge-moving step between a closed and an open state. We cannot detect any voltage-dependent transitions between closed states for Shaw S4. Restoring basic residues that are missing in Shaw S4 (R1, R2, and K7) rescues charge movement between closed states in the activation pathway, but does not alter the voltage dependence of the rate-limiting transition in activation.  (+info)

Probing enzyme quaternary structure by combinatorial mutagenesis and selection. (4/1999)

Genetic selection provides an effective way to obtain active catalysts from a diverse population of protein variants. We have used this tool to investigate the role of loop sequences in determining the quaternary structure of a domain-swapped enzyme. By inserting random loops of four to seven residues into a dimeric chorismate mutase and selecting for functional variants by genetic complementation, we have obtained and characterized both monomeric and hexameric enzymes that retain considerable catalytic activity. The low percentage of active proteins recovered from these selection experiments indicates that relatively few loop sequences permit a change in quaternary structure without affecting active site structure. The results of our experiments suggest further that protein stability can be an important driving force in the evolution of oligomeric proteins.  (+info)

Overexpression of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thiocarboxylate: implications for protein semisynthesis and thiamin biosynthesis. (5/1999)

A facile and rapid method for the production of protein C-terminal thiocarboxylates on DNA-encoded polypeptides is described. This method, which relies on the mechanism of the cleavage reaction of intein-containing fusion proteins, can produce multi-milligram quantities of protein C-terminal thiocarboxylate quickly and inexpensively. The utility of this method for protein semisynthesis and implications for studies on the biosynthesis of thiamin are discussed.  (+info)

DnaSP version 3: an integrated program for molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analysis. (6/1999)

DnaSP is a Windows integrated software package for the analysis of the DNA polymorphism from nucleotide sequence data. DnaSP version 3 incorporates several methods for estimating the amount and pattern of DNA polymorphism and divergence, and for conducting neutrality tests. AVAILABILITY: For academic uses, DnaSP is available free of charge from: http://www.bio.ub.es/julio/DnaSP.html CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

The molecular genetics of European ancestry. (7/1999)

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.  (+info)

Molecular genetic evidence for the human settlement of the Pacific: analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HLA markers. (8/1999)

Present-day Pacific islanders are thought to be the descendants of Neolithic agriculturalists who expanded from island South-east Asia several thousand years ago. They speak languages belonging to the Austronesian language family, spoken today in an area spanning half of the circumference of the world, from Madagascar to Easter Island, and from Taiwan to New Zealand. To investigate the genetic affinities of the Austronesian-speaking peoples, we analysed mitochondrial DNA, HLA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in individuals from eight geographical locations in Asia and the Pacific (China, Taiwan, Java, New Guinea highlands, New Guinea coast, Trobriand Islands, New Britain and Western Samoa). Our results show that the demographic expansion of the Austronesians has left a genetic footprint. However, there is no simple correlation between languages and genes in the Pacific.  (+info)

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

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Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, commonly referred to as NASBA, is a method in molecular biology which is used to ... Malek, L.; Sooknanan, R.; Compton, J. (1994). Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). Methods in Molecular Biology. ... Malek, L.; Sooknanan, R.; Compton, J. (1994). Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). Methods in Molecular Biology. ... Molecular Biotechnology. 20 (2): 163-180. doi:10.1385/mb:20:2:163. ISSN 1073-6085. PMID 11876473. S2CID 28712952. Reed, Adam J ...
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Sense (molecular biology) Harvey Lodish; Arnold Berk; Paul Matsudaira; Chris A. Kaiser (2004). Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed ... A Molecular Biology Glossary (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, DNA, Molecular genetics, RNA ... Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic ... Molecular biologists can use nucleotides that lack a 3′-hydroxyl (dideoxyribonucleotides) to interrupt the replication of DNA. ...
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TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a method in molecular biology that allows directed identification of ... Methods in Cell Biology. 77: 91-112. doi:10.1016/s0091-679x(04)77005-3. ISBN 9780125641722. PMID 15602907. McCallum, CM; Comai ... BMC Plant Biology. 7: 34. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-7-34. PMC 1914064. PMID 17584936. Garvin, M. R.; Gharrett, A. J. (2007). "DEco- ... Molecular Ecology. 15 (5): 1367-1378. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02885.x. PMID 16626459. S2CID 16198260. Mejlhede, N.; ...
"Methods in Molecular Biology". link.springer.com. Retrieved January 12, 2020. Springer.com Methods in Molecular Biology: About ... Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press (an imprint of Springer Science+Business Media) that ... covers molecular biology research methods and protocols. The book series was introduced by series editor John M. Walker in 1983 ...
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"Molecular Biology and Evolution". Molecular Biology and Evolution (About). Retrieved 6 July 2022. Official website v t e (Use ... The Society for Molecular Biology &. "Molecular Biology and Evolution". www.smbe.org. Retrieved 20 October 2017. "About , ... It publishes work in the intersection of molecular biology and evolutionary biology. The founding editors-in-chief were Walter ... Molecular and cellular biology journals, Evolutionary biology journals, English-language journals, Monthly journals, Oxford ...
... is published by Springer Science+Business Media as the official journal of the World Molecular ... "Molecular Imaging and Biology". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2017. v t ... It publishes original research contributions on the utilization of molecular imaging in problems of relevance to biology and ... Imaging Society (WMIS) in collaboration with the European Society for Molecular Imaging (ESMI). ...
Aebersold, Ruedi (2005). "Molecular Systems Biology: A new journal for a new biology?". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: E1-E2. ... Molecular Systems Biology, EMBO Molecular Medicine, and Life Science Alliance, The European Molecular Biology Organization ( ... and European Molecular Biology Conference (EMBC) in European Molecular Biology (1970-1983)". Perspectives in Biology and ... Anon (2021). "The European Molecular Biology Conference (EMBC)". Retrieved 2021-04-28. Portals: Europe Biology (Articles with ...
"Cell Biology". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology: About the Journal (accessed 30 June 2021) 2020 Journal Citation Reports. ... Nature Structural & Molecular Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research articles, reviews, news ... Molecular Biology", 1st out of 72 journals in the category "Biophysics", and 16th out of 195 journals in the category " ... and commentaries in structural and molecular biology, with an emphasis on papers that further a "functional and mechanistic ...
Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 420. pp. 119-38. doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-583-1_7. PMID 18641944. Favor AH, Llanos CD, ... In molecular biology, mutagenesis is an important laboratory technique whereby DNA mutations are deliberately engineered to ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2 (9): 1096-103. doi:10.1128/mcb.2.9.1096. PMC 369902. PMID 6983647. McHugh GL, Miller CG ( ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 124 (2): 343-58. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(78)90303-0. PMID 712841. Vanessa E. Gray; Ronald J. Hause ...
History of biology History of biotechnology History of genetics Weaver, Warren (6 November 1970). "Molecular Biology: Origin of ... A History of Molecular Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1998. Fry, Michael. Landmark Experiments in Molecular ... numerous physicists and chemists also took an interest in what would become molecular biology. In its modern sense, molecular ... These findings represent the birth of molecular biology. The earliest work in RNA structural biology coincided, more or less, ...
The Journal of Molecular Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of molecular biology. It ... "Source details: Journal of Molecular Biology". Scopus preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2018-07-25. "Journal of Molecular Biology". ... Smith, T.; Waterman, M.S. (1981). "Identification of common molecular subsequences". Journal of Molecular Biology. 147 (1): 195 ... "Journal of Molecular Biology". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2018-07-25. " ...
Cell biology Molecular biology Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (disambiguation) ... Molecular Biology Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics Molecular Biology of the Cell Molecular Biology ... Molecular Biology Test International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular ... Cell and molecular biology are related fields of biology that are often combined. ...
The emphasis on classical molecular biology shifted towards cell biology and development, so that the Molecular Genetics ... Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) is a research institute in Cambridge, England, involved in the revolution in molecular ... it seemed that new problems in biology could be solved using the approaches which proved so successful in molecular biology. ... During the 1960s, molecular biology the world over flourished, the outline bones of the 1950s now having flesh put on them. The ...
Williams, Ruth (2008-06-30). "Paul Mischel: All about brains". The Journal of Cell Biology. 181 (7): 1044-1045. doi:10.1083/jcb ... Molecular Cell. 67 (1): 128-138.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.05.030. ISSN 1097-4164. PMC 5521991. PMID 28648777. Guo, Deliang ... Cancer Biology & Medicine. 11 (4): 255-263. doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014.04.004. ISSN 2095-3941. PMC 4296088. PMID ... 2007 Profiled by Journal of Cell Biology in the "People and Ideas" section, 2008 President, American Society for Clinical ...
He is currently a cancer researcher and chemical/bio-molecular engineering PhD student at Vanderbilt University. "Twitter ...
Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 280 (2): 934-939. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20099. PMID 15372490. "Dual ... Campbell, N., & Reece, J. (2002). Biology. 6th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings[page needed][ISBN missing] Gray, Huon H.; ...
Molecular Biology. 21 (9): 771-7. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2875. PMC 4156918. PMID 25132177. Gasiunas G, Barrangou R, Horvath P, ... Wright AV, Nuñez JK, Doudna JA (January 2016). "Biology and Applications of CRISPR Systems: Harnessing Nature's Toolbox for ... Molecular Microbiology. 87 (5): 1088-99. doi:10.1111/mmi.12152. PMID 23320564. Sinkunas T, Gasiunas G, Fremaux C, Barrangou R, ...
36(5): 1371-1377 Razin, Shmuel, Yogev, David and Naot, Yehudith (1998) Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas ...
Zhang, Y.; Morar, M.; Ealick, S.E. (2008). "Structural biology of the purine biosynthetic pathway". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Vol. 53. pp. 1-78. doi:10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60142-7. ISBN ... Suchi M, Mizuno H, Kawai Y, Tsuboi T, Sumi S, Okajima K, Hodgson ME, Ogawa H, Wada Y (Mar 1997). "Molecular cloning of the ... Suchi M, Harada N, Tsuboi T, Asai K, Okajima K, Wada Y, Takagi Y (1990). "Molecular cloning of human UMP synthase". Purine and ... Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 253A. pp. 511-8. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5673-8_83. ISBN 978-1-4684-5675-2. ...
Department of Biology FMIPA IPB". biologi.ipb.ac.id. Retrieved 2016-09-20. (BLP articles lacking sources from September 2016, ... Microbiological and Molecular Biological Analysis Based on 16S rRNA Gene". Microbiology Indonesia. 2 (1): 17-21. doi:10.5454/mi ... He is a faculty member in the Department of Biology, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Suwanto, A; Kaplan, S (1989). "Physical and ...
Neese, Frank (2009). "Prediction of molecular properties and molecular spectroscopy with density functional theory: From ... He received both his Diploma (Biology - 1993) and Ph.D (1997) working with Peter M. Kroneck at the University of Konstanz. ... "International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science". www.iaqms.org. Retrieved 16 December 2021. Website at the Max-Planck- ... Neese, Frank (2012). "The ORCA program system". WIREs Computational Molecular Science. 2: 73-78. doi:10.1002/wcms.81. S2CID ...
She also completed a summer program at Colorado State University, and spent time working in a molecular biology lab. Ehrenfeld ... Her husband, David Ehrenfeld, was a professor of biology at Rutgers University. In 2010, she was diagnosed with leukemia. She ... She returned to Barnard College for undergraduate studies, where she specialized in biology. ...
Initial work was done by laboratories at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Greg Winter and John McCafferty), the Scripps ... Phage display technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 254 (3): 392-403. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1995.0626. PMID 7490758. Barbas CF, Hu D, Dunlop N, Sawyer L, ... Molecular biology, Bacteriophages, Microbiology, Protein-protein interaction assays, Display techniques). ...
G1/S transition Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J (2000). Molecular cell biology (4th ed.). ... Zetterberg A, Larsson O, Wiman KG (December 1995). "What is the restriction point?". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 7 (6): ... Experimental Biology and Medicine. 234 (6): 639-50. doi:10.3181/0810-RM-300. PMID 19359655. S2CID 30323288. Ye Y, Wang H, Chu ...
O'Banion MK (1999). "Cyclooxygenase-2: molecular biology, pharmacology, and neurobiology". Crit Rev Neurobiol. 13 (1): 45-82. ... PTGS2 (COX-2) exists as a homodimer, each monomer with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa. The tertiary and quaternary structures ...
He was appointed a lecturer in the division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at University of Glasgow from 1994 to 1999. ... Additionally, Graham was elected as a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in 2016,[citation needed] ... Plant Molecular Biology. 13 (6): 673-684. doi:10.1007/BF00016022. PMID 2491683. S2CID 23684986. Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; ... Members of the European Molecular Biology Organization, Alumni of the University of Edinburgh, Alumni of Queen's University ...
A molecular perspective at a glance". Studies in Mycology. 61: 67-75. doi:10.3114/sim.2008.61.06. PMC 2610308. PMID 19287528. ... Fungal Biology. 115 (10): 1077-91. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2010.11.006. PMID 21944219. Onofri, S.; Barreca, D.; Selbmann, L.; ... Fungal Biology. 115 (10): 997-1007. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2011.04.007. PMID 21944212. Retrieved June 20, 2011. Website of the ... Fungal Biology. 115 (10): 1008-1018. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2011.03.004. PMID 21944213. Kogej, Tina; Wheeler, Michael H; Lanišnik ...
August 2010). "Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and ... PBS Frontline Oct 22, 2013 Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria Portal: Biology (CS1 French-language sources (fr), CS1 Croatian- ...
Funk studied biology and history at Murray State University in Kentucky and received a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in 1969 ... "Molecular phylogeny of Anaphalis (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) with biogeographic implications in the Northern Hemisphere". Journal ... In 1975, she received an M.S. in Biology at Murray State where her thesis was A Floristic and Geologic Survey of Selected Seeps ... "The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: major clades of the Asteraceae revealed". Molecular Phylogenetics ...
Within molecular and cell biology, HLA-DQ3 (DQ3) is a broad serotype category with split antigens HLA-DQ7, DQ8, and DQ9. ...
During the war Helen worked as senior assistant in the Department of Biology and Genetics at the Polish School of Medicine in ... Auerbach, C. (May 1978). "Helena Slizynska: 1908/1977". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. ...
Edgecombe, Gregory D. (2010). "Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the ... Current Biology. 32 (15): 3302-3316.e2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2022.06.027. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 35809569. Van Roy, Peter; Daley, ... Current Biology. 25 (12): 1625-1631. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.04.034. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 25959966. Briggs, Derek E. G.; Nedin, ... Journal of Theoretical Biology. 238 (1): 11-17. Bibcode:2006JThBi.238...11U. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.05.008. PMID 16002096. ...
Human PANO1 protein has a molecular weight of 22.8 kb and a theoretical, isoelectric point of 12.21. From an analysis of the ... "Phyre 2 Results for PANO1_phyre2". www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk. Retrieved 2021-08-01. "Genomatix Software Suite". Genomatix.{{cite web ...
Anupama, K.M.; Hari Sankar, H.S.; Rithin Raj, M.; Harikrishnan, M. (July 2019). "Reproductive Biology of Malabar Pufferfish ... The following cladogram is based on molecular evidence and illustrates the polyphyletic nature of the genus Carinotetraodon: ... International Journal of Aquatic Biology. 8 (5): 300-310. doi:10.22034/ijab.v8i5.922. Froese, R.; D. Pauly (eds.). "Food Items ...
Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.16.1, NADPH-dependent enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, Oxidoreductase ... "Human methionine synthase reductase is a molecular chaperone for human methionine synthase". Proceedings of the National ...
Molecular-biology-related lists, Restriction enzymes). ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (3): 1000-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.3.1000. PMC 360952. PMID 1689455. Zan L, Wu H, Jiang J, Zhao ... Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 20, Webarchive ... "Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". Virology. ...
Journal of Molecular Biology. 394 (5): 815-25. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.10.025. PMID 19850051. This article incorporates text ... Molecular Cell. 11 (6): 1425-34. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00181-3. PMID 12820957. Urban S, Lee JR, Freeman M (October 2001). " ...
Sun Y, Yin S, Feng Y, Li J, Zhou J, Liu C, Zhu G, Guo Z (May 2014). "Molecular basis of the general base catalysis of an α/β- ... Portal: Biology (EC 4.2.99, Enzymes of known structure). ...
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 147 (1): 20-28. doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.12.020. PMID 17307375. Folk, Edgar; Larson, Anna; ... Floyd T, Nelson RA (1990). "Bone Metabolism in Black Bears". Bears: Their Biology and Management. 8: 135-137. doi:10.2307/ ... Carey, H.V.; Andrews, M.T.; Martin, S.L. (2003). "Mammalian hibernation: cellular and molecular responses to depressed ... Geiser, Fritz (2013-03-04). "Hibernation". Current Biology. 23 (5): R188-R193. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.062. ISSN 0960-9822. ...
Journal of Molecular Biology. 268 (1): 78-94. CiteSeerX doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.0951. PMID 9149143. Burge, ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 190 (2): 159-65. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(86)90289-5. PMID 3641921. Durbin, Richard (23 April 1998 ... "Glimmer: Microbial Gene-Finding System". Johns Hopkins University - Center for Computational Biology. Delcher, Arthur; Bratke, ... Christopher; Karlin, Samuel (1998). "Finding the Genes in Genomic DNA". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 8 (3): 346-354. ...
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 704. Berlin: Springer. p. 700. ISBN 978-94-007-0264-6. Qian F, Noben-Trauth ... K (2005). "Cellular and molecular function of mucolipins (TRPML) and polycystin 2 (TRPP2)". Pflügers Arch. 451 (1): 277-85. doi ... Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 704. Berlin: Springer. p. 700. ISBN 978-94-007-0264-6. Flores EN, García- ... Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 704. Berlin: Springer. p. 700. ISBN 978-94-007-0264-6. Noben-Trauth K ( ...
Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branchplus icon *Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) ... The Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch (NSMBB) has the only laboratory in the world devoted to ensuring the ... The initiative is an ongoing collaboration between the CDC Foundation and the Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch. ... CDCs Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch (NSMBB) has been granted ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation by the American ...
Molecular mechanism behind a DNA repair pathway revealed A new study adds to an emerging, radically new picture of how ... However, which basic molecular building blocks they use to assemble target molecules is often unknown and difficult to measure. ... Researchers discover molecular pathway that mediates cancer-associated muscle atrophy Nearly half of all cancer patients suffer ... For pharmaceuticals, knowing the chemical composition is not enough-;molecular geometry and crystal structure also play an ...
... Prog Hemost Thromb. 1991;10:175-214. ...
Current Techniques in Molecular Genetics 2020. Monday July 20 through Friday July 31 Below is the program for the 2019 course. ... Current Techniques in Molecular Genetics 2019. Monday, July 15 through Friday, July 26. Massachusetts General Hospital, Main ... Each summer, the Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease offers a Current Techniques in Molecular Genetics course ...
Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Program in Molecular Biology, Cell Biology & Biochemistry ...
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol) ISSN 1471-0080 (online) ISSN 1471-0072 (print) ... Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology volume 8, pages 275-283 (2007)Cite this article ... In vivo activation of the p53 pathway by small-molecular antagonists of MDM2. Science 303, 844-848 (2004). One of a number of ... Restoration of the tumor suppressor function to mutant p53 by a low-molecular-weight compound. Nature Med. 8, 282-288 (2002). ...
ACS Chemical Biology 12:2139-2149.. *Tobe BTD, Crain AM, Winquist AM, Calabrese B, Makihara H, Zhao WN, Lalonde J, Nakamura H, ... Molecular Psychiatry 20:573-584.. *Lalonde J, Saia G, Gill G. (2014) Store-operated Ca2+ entry promotes the degradation of ... 2021) International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22:1831.. * Tilak M, Alural B, Wismer SE, Brasher MI, New LA, Sheridan SD, ... Study of the molecular basis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia with patient-derived iPSCs differentiated in neural ...
Costa Rica Molecular Marine Biology study abroad course, Fall 1BSL 2023. Experience the best study abroad programs in San José ... Unit 1. Marine Molecular Biology. - What is Marine Molecular Biology?. - Past and present in Molecular Biology. - Studying ... Unit 1. Marine Molecular Biology. - What is Marine Molecular Biology?. - Past and present in Molecular Biology. - Studying ... Basic concepts of molecular biologyMolecular markers in marine sciences ● Basic bioinformatics concepts in molecular biology ...
of Molecular & Cell Biology 142 Weill Hall #3200. Berkeley, CA 94720-3200 ...
PhD, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University. *Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute for Genome Sciences, ... HSCI 478 D100 Seminar in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. *HSCI 778 G100 Seminar in Molecular Epidemiology of ... MBB 478 D100 Seminar in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. *MBB 778 G100 Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious ...
During the first three semesters, the programme consists of modules primarily dedicated to the basics of biology such as botany ...
Molecular biology of the gene Watson, James D.; Baker, Tania A.; Gann, Alexander; Levine, Michael; Losik, Richard San Francisco ... Application to molecular biology research and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP).. Instruction. The teaching will be given in the ... The course can not at the same time be included with 1BG043 Trends in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology L. ... Syllabus for Trends in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Trender i molekylärbiologi och bioteknik ...
Molecular Biology has a very vast scope and covers all aspects in molecular sciences. Molecular biology journal publishes ...
"I consider myself extremely fortunate to live in a time when genome revolution in many areas of biology is enabling ... In my laboratory we use methods of molecular genetics and genomics to understand how trees grow, develop and interact with ... Current Biology 29 (2):R68-R70. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.11.061 ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. DOW Engineering Building. ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-PhD, Michigan Tech. ...
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology adalah jurnal tinjauan bulanan terdepan yang diterbitkan oleh Nature Publishing Group. ... Diperoleh dari "https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nature_Reviews_Molecular_Cell_Biology&oldid=21208953" ...
Molecular Cell. 69:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.12.027.. Farmer DT, Nathan S, Shengyang K, Emmerson E, Finely J, Byrnes L, ... genetic and imaging technologies to decipher the molecular and cellular basis of calvaria development. ...
... for molecular biology, ~5 M in H2O; CAS Number: 631-61-8; Linear Formula: CH3COONH4; find Sigma-Aldrich-09691 MSDS, related ... Ammonium acetate solution can be used to study molecular biology, biological buffers, reagents and DNA and RNA purification. ...
Honors and distinctions related to the students and alumni of the PhD/Master of Science in Molecular and Cell Biology and ... Molecular and Cell Biology and Genetics Program. Division of Biomedical Science Programs. Graduate School of Biomedical ... Molecular Biology.. Michelle Swift received the 2022 Jane Clifford Best PhD Dissertation Award given by the Department of ... Molecular Biology and the 2022 Amedio Bondi Endowed Graduate Award for Excellence in Research Performance, the highest ...
... meet the scientific hero who helped build MSKs molecular biology program. ... Meet Ora Rosen, Who Solved Insulins Secrets and Galvanized Molecular Biology Share * ... co-founded SKIs Molecular Biology Program.. Dr. Rosen had been chairperson of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology at ... Ora Rosen, an expert in insulin signaling, co-founded the Molecular Biology Program at the Sloan Kettering Institute. ...
These examine important topics in molecular biology, genetics, development, virology, neurobiology, immunology and cancer ... biology. Manuscripts for books and for journal publication are invited from scientists world wide. ... Molecular Case Studies Perspectives in Biology Perspectives in Medicine Protocols RNA Account. Checkout/View Cart. Register. ... Angiogenesis: Biology and Pathology, Second Edition. Edited By Diane R. Bielenberg, Harvard Medical School; Patricia A. DAmore ...
These examine important topics in molecular biology, genetics, development, virology, neurobiology, immunology and cancer ... biology. Manuscripts for books and for journal publication are invited from scientists world wide. ... Molecular Case Studies Perspectives in Biology Perspectives in Medicine Protocols RNA Account. Checkout/View Cart. Register. ... Angiogenesis: Biology and Pathology, Second Edition. Edited By Diane R. Bielenberg, Harvard Medical School; Patricia A. DAmore ...
Born in 2011, its impacts on molecular biology are both substantial and rapid, fully indicating the "5-steps rule" is no double ... Chou, K.C. (2020) Proposing 5-Steps Rule Is a Notable Milestone for Studying Molecular Biology. Natural Science, 12, 74-79. doi ... It is instructive to point out that in the systems of molecular biology there exist many multi-label ones where each of the ... It is without exaggeration to say that the "5-steps rule" has been used at a very deeper levels of many molecular biology ...
Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Volume 14, Number 4-April 2008. Article Views: 1572. Data is collected weekly ... Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):693-694. doi:10.3201/eid1404.080016.. ... Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):693-694. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.080016. ... Leibowitz, J. L. (2008). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 693-694. https:// ...
Biology is well equipped in exploiting a large number of out of equilibrium processes to support life. A complete understanding ... We use a range of techniques to understand the chemical and physical processes which drive molecular organization in lipids, ... Working between biophysics, materials science and synthetic biology we reimagine and translate the physical phenemona which ... what were the conditions required to drive molecular organization from disorder? and how did a biological world derive from ...
Genetics and Molecular Biology Publication of: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Area: Biological Sciences ISSN printed version ... Comparison of the amount, distribution and molecular nature of C-positive heterochromatin revealed molecular heterogeneity in ... The ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) system is one of the earliest known models of molecular evolution, and is still the most ... The study underlines the usefulness of RFLP of mtDNA D-loop region as molecular markers, and detected at least two ...
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Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)s overarching mission is to better understand biological processes. ... Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB)s overarching mission is to better understand biological processes at the molecular level ... Cell Biology: to discover the molecular mechanisms of fundamental cellular processes with potential medical significance ... www.ukri.org/about-us/mrc/institutes-units-and-centres/laboratory-of-molecular-biology ...
Our group uses systems biology approaches with strong emphasis in bioinformatics to study the molecular mechanisms of ... Systems biology approaches to study exosomes and colorectal cancer. Constant dynamic interactions between a cell and its ... La Trobe University > LIMS > Research > Cancer > Members > Mathivanan - Exosomes, secretome and systems biology ... Mathivanan - Exosomes, secretome and systems biology. Group leader: Professor Suresh Mathivanan. Professor ...
Copyright 2023 © The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Harvard University Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.. ...
  • Each summer, the Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease offers a Current Techniques in Molecular Genetics course for CSIBD members as well as their staff and trainees. (massgeneral.org)
  • This course focuses on the use of molecular markers based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to highlight the importance of conservation genetics and the implications on a global scale to manage marine species in danger of extinction. (studiesabroad.com)
  • During the first three semesters, the programme consists of modules primarily dedicated to the basics of biology such as botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics, and ecology as well as science including chemistry, mathematics, physics, or computer science, and a foreign language course. (tu-dresden.de)
  • In my laboratory we use methods of molecular genetics and genomics to understand how trees grow, develop and interact with their environment. (mtu.edu)
  • A Genetics and Molecular Biology é a nova revista publicada quadrimestralmente pela Sociedade Brasileira de Genética (Brazilian Genetics Society), em substituição ao Brazilian Journal of Genetics. (bvsalud.org)
  • Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (cdc.gov)
  • The course can not at the same time be included with 1BG043 Trends in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology L. (uu.se)
  • Human fertility, health, and food : impact of molecular biology and biotechnology / edited by David Puett. (who.int)
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology adalah jurnal tinjauan bulanan terdepan yang diterbitkan oleh Nature Publishing Group . (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA molecule within each human cell is constantly exposed to an array of damaging agents from environmental sources and recent molecular studies have identified sophisticated mechanisms by which cells efficiently repair DNA breaks. (who.int)
  • The present investigations were focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by raw SWCNT (SWCNT) in human bronchial-epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). (cdc.gov)
  • Positions are available for passionate students who wish to pursue intensive training and research in molecular and cellular neuroscience. (uoguelph.ca)
  • At the end of my graduate studies, I received a CIHR Postdoctoral Fellowship to continue my training in molecular and cellular neuroscience in the laboratory of Dr. Grace Gill at Tufts University School of Medicine. (uoguelph.ca)
  • During the summer of 2017, I became a faculty member of the College of Biological Science at the University of Guelph where I lead the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology will focus on the incredible diversity of fungal form and lifestyle. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • In the Farmer lab, we integrate multiple animal models (i.e. mice and zebrafish) with cutting edge genomic, genetic and imaging technologies to decipher the molecular and cellular basis of calvaria development. (ucla.edu)
  • We use a range of techniques to understand the chemical and physical processes which drive molecular organization in lipids, polymers and proteins to rationally control self-assembly for the construction of novel proto-cellular platforms. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • Report of an Informal Consultation on the Role of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering in the Development of Biocontrol of Disease Vectors, Geneva. (who.int)
  • The CDC-authored Genomics and Precision Health Publications Database (GPHPD) has more than 3,600 publications, most of which are in pathogen genomics and advanced molecular detection. (cdc.gov)
  • Chou, K.C. (2020) Proposing 5-Steps Rule Is a Notable Milestone for Studying Molecular Biology. (scirp.org)
  • The Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch (NSMBB) has the only laboratory in the world devoted to ensuring the accuracy of newborn screening tests in every state and more than 80 countries. (cdc.gov)
  • NSQAP works with other programs in the NSMBB: the Biochemical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, the Newborn Screening Translation Research Laboratory, and the Molecular Quality Improvement Program. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes program-tailored guidance for laboratory-specific needs and help in evaluating ongoing and future molecular testing procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch (NSMBB) has been granted ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) External external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • Application to molecular biology research and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). (uu.se)
  • Jasmine has been conducting her doctoral dissertation research in the laboratory of Dr. Eishi Noguchi (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology). (drexel.edu)
  • At the molecular level, MWCNT exposure significantly increased the expression of the cell proliferation markers Ki-67 and PCNA and a panel of cell cycle-controlling genes in the lungs in a TIMP1- dependent manner. (cdc.gov)
  • Course description The use of biological-molecular tools has revolutionized research in marine sciences in recent decades. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Ammonium acetate solution can be used to study molecular biology, biological buffers, reagents and DNA and RNA purification. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Considering the role of airway epithelium as a critical barrier for normal pulmonary function and focal point for tumor development, this study demonstrates that raw SWCNT activate molecular events which may be linked to adverse biological responses implicated in pulmonary diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • There, I gained unique research experience in neuropharmacology, translational neuroscience, stem cell biology, mass spectrometry, and the development of assays adapted for image-based, high-throughput phenotypic screening with primary neuronal cells. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Through his leadership, his team developed molecular assays to detect, differentiate and identify picornaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. (scirp.org)
  • Working between biophysics, materials science and synthetic biology we reimagine and translate the physical phenemona which drive out of equilibrium processes in cells into novel, robust and dynamic systems for synthetic biology applications. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • The present study aims to update the dentist clinician, approaching new concepts and techniques in molecular biology, in dentistry and in the prevention of dental caries. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of this study show that the molecular mechanism for raw SWCNT-mediated toxicity in BEAS-2B cells is through the activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP-1. (cdc.gov)
  • The initiative is an ongoing collaboration between the CDC Foundation and the Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch. (cdc.gov)
  • Right away, I was captivated by the intricacies of the brain and the multidisciplinary nature of this branch of biology. (uoguelph.ca)
  • While at MGH, I was also an affiliated member of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard where I collaborated on projects investigating the molecular underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, with the help of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (uoguelph.ca)
  • Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that perturbation of the molecular interactions responsible for the growth of neurons, or the capacity of these cells to adequately respond to activity-dependent signals, contributes to the pathophysiology of different brain disorders such as schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorders. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Capacity to analyze the role of the use of molecular markers in marine sciences. (studiesabroad.com)
  • After completing my B.A., I joined the Department of Psychology at McGill University where I did an M.A. in the area of visual psychophysics followed by a Ph.D. focusing on the molecular basis of activity-dependent visual cortex plasticity. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Emily Esquea received the 2022 Award for Excellence in Research (MS degree) given by the Division of Biomedical Science Graduate Programs and the 2022 Jane Clifford Best MS Thesis Award given by the Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. (drexel.edu)
  • Michelle Swift received the 2022 Jane Clifford Best PhD Dissertation Award given by the Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and the 2022 Amedio Bondi Endowed Graduate Award for Excellence in Research Performance, the highest recognition given to students at Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Professional Studies. (drexel.edu)
  • Dr. Rosen had been chairperson of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. (mskcc.org)
  • The Molecular Quality Improvement Program oversees the cystic fibrosis DNA PT program and helps newborn screening laboratories with molecular testing. (cdc.gov)
  • It also offers the molecular assessment program, which conducts site visits to U.S. newborn screening laboratories that carry out molecular testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Ora Rosen, an expert in insulin signaling, co-founded the Molecular Biology Program at the Sloan Kettering Institute. (mskcc.org)
  • One of those scientists was molecular biologist Ora Mendelsohn Rosen, who, along with Jerard Hurwitz , co-founded SKI's Molecular Biology Program. (mskcc.org)
  • She played a role in the recruitment of Joan Massagué , currently SKI's Director, to chair the institute's newly formed Cell Biology Program in 1989. (mskcc.org)
  • Biology is well equipped in exploiting a large number of out of equilibrium processes to support life. (mpi-cbg.de)
  • How to apply molecular biology techniques in addressing problems regarding the conservation biology of endangered marine species in Costa Rica? (studiesabroad.com)
  • We will explore environmental sensing, signaling, morphology and molecular motors, as well as the synthetic design and commercial exploitation of fungal systems. (grc.org)
  • Dr. Rosen's area of expertise was the biology of insulin, the hormone that stimulates cells to take up glucose. (mskcc.org)
  • However, which basic molecular building blocks they use to assemble target molecules is often unknown and difficult to measure. (news-medical.net)
  • Manali Potnis received a Meritorious Award to Support Diversity in Biology of Aging Research, American Aging Association Meeting, 2021. (drexel.edu)
  • I have a background in molecular biology, specifically cancer research and signal transduction . (medscape.com)
  • Fungal diversity presents rich opportunities to discover and characterize divergent mechanistic solutions to evolutionary pressures and environmental challenges, advancing our understanding of biology as a whole. (grc.org)
  • For pharmaceuticals, knowing the chemical composition is not enough-;molecular geometry and crystal structure also play an important role in a drug's activity. (news-medical.net)
  • The "5-steps rule" has played substantial roles in stimulating in-depth studies of molecular biology, both theoretical and experimental. (scirp.org)
  • I consider myself extremely fortunate to live in a time when genome revolution in many areas of biology is enabling unprecedented depth into our understanding of life. (mtu.edu)
  • Its original source was usually referred by citing a review paper for celebrating the 50th anniversary year of Journal of Theoretical Biology [1]. (scirp.org)
  • Journal of Theoretical Biology, 273, 236-247. (scirp.org)
  • He has over 21 years of experience in molecular biology and biochemistry of enteroviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The advances in the knowledge of molecular biology and the human genome provide evidence that the majority of the human diseases are influenced by alterations in genetic structures. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is instructive to point out that in the systems of molecular biology there exist many multi-label ones where each of the individual constituents or samples considered may need two or more labels for distinction. (scirp.org)
  • The molecular biology and therapeutic potential of Nrf2 in leukemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • These visits assess all components of molecular testing. (cdc.gov)