The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
Migration of the teeth toward the midline or forward in the DENTAL ARCH. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth.
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A condition sometimes occurring after tooth extraction, particularly after traumatic extraction, resulting in a dry appearance of the exposed bone in the socket, due to disintegration or loss of the blood clot. It is basically a focal osteomyelitis without suppuration and is accompanied by severe pain (alveolalgia) and foul odor. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.
An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
Fractures of the lower jaw.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.
The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.
An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
Sheets of latex rubber punched and placed over the teeth during dental procedures to isolate the field of operation from the rest of the oral cavity (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982). Rubber dams are useful in preventing the swallowing of instruments or restorations during dental work.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Hospital department providing dental care.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Predeciduous teeth present at birth. They may be well formed and normal or may represent hornified epithelial structures without roots. They are found on the gingivae over the crest of the ridge and arise from accessory buds of the dental lamina ahead of the deciduous buds or from buds of the accessory dental lamina. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study. (1/1126)

In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction.  (+info)

Modified cuspal relationships of mandibular molar teeth in children with Down's syndrome. (2/1126)

A total of 50 permanent mandibular 1st molars of 26 children with Down's syndrome (DS) were examined from dental casts and 59 permanent mandibular 1st molars of normal children were examined from 33 individuals. The following measurements were performed on both right and left molars (teeth 46 and 36 respectively): (a) the intercusp distances (mb-db, mb-d, mb-dl, db-ml, db-d, db-dl, db-ml, d-dl, d-ml, dl-ml); (b) the db-mb-ml, mb-db-ml, mb-ml-db, d-mb-dl, mb-d-dl, mb-dl-d angles; (c) the area of the pentagon formed by connecting the cusp tips. All intercusp distances were significantly smaller in the DS group. Stepwise logistic regression, applied to all the intercusp distances, was used to design a multivariate probability model for DS and normals. A model based on 2 distances only, mb-dl and mb-db, proved sufficient to discriminate between the teeth of DS and the normal population. The model for tooth 36 for example was as follows: p(DS) = (e(30.6-5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb-db)))/(1 + e(30.6 5.6(mb-dl)+25(mb db))). A similar model for tooth 46 was also created, as well as a model which incorporated both teeth. With respect to the angles, significant differences between DS and normals were found in 3 out of the 6 angles which were measured: the d-mb-dl angle was smaller than in normals, the mb-d-dl angle was higher, and the mb-dl-d angle was smaller. The dl cusp was located closer to the centre of the tooth. The change in size occurs at an early stage, while the change in shape occurs in a later stage of tooth formation in the DS population.  (+info)

A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). (3/1126)

The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation.  (+info)

An autoradiographical study of [3H]thymidine incorporation into subcutaneously transplanted mouse molar teeth. Cell proliferation and migration in transplanted teeth. (4/1126)

Mice bearing either allografts or isografts of 10 day old molar teeth were injected with [3H]thymidine to identify proliferating and migrating cells within the graft and surrounding tissues. In isografts proliferating cells were found successively in the area underlying the cervix, in the cervical pulp and the coronal pulp. However, cells did not migrate from the cervical host tissue into the pulp, and it was concluded that donor cells are responsible for reparative processes in tooth isografts. Very few labelled cells were identified at any time in tooth allografts, which were not repaired. It is suggested that allografts are not repaired because allogeneic inhibition prevents the residual donor tissue from proliferating and differentiating. Inhibition of proliferation of residual cells may also account for the absence of a cell-mediated immune response to tooth allografts.  (+info)

Arrested eruption of the permanent lower second molar. (5/1126)

The incidence of retention/impaction of the permanent lower second molar (M2inf) lies between 0.6/1000 and 3/1000. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the craniofacial morphology, the frequency of dental anomalies and the inclination of the affected M2inf and the adjacent first molar in patients with arrested eruption of M2inf. The overall goal was to elucidate the aetiology of arrested tooth eruption and to present the characteristics of these patients in order to improve diagnosis and treatment planning. Radiographic material (profile radiographs and orthopantomograms) from 19 patients (nine females and 10 males; 13-19 years of age at the time of referral) were analysed. The ages of the patients when profile radiographs were taken for cephalometric analysis varied from 8 to 16 years. The study shows that this group of patients, compared with a reference group, had an increased sagittal jaw relationship (Class II). Specifically, the mandibular prognathism was less, the mandibular gonial angle smaller, the mandibular alveolar prognathism enlarged and the maxillary incisor inclination less than in the reference group. Furthermore, this group of patients had a more frequent occurrence of morphological tooth anomalies, such as root deflections, invaginations, and taurodontism. However, none of the patients with arrested eruption of M2inf had agenesis of the lower third molar. The study did not reveal an association between the degree of inclination of the M2inf and that of the first molar in the same region. The results of this investigation show that conditions such as the craniofacial morphology and deviations in the dentition are associated with arrested eruption of M2inf. Therefore, it is important to evaluate these conditions in future diagnosis and treatment planning of patients with arrested eruption of M2inf.  (+info)

Histological and histochemical quantification of root resorption incident to the application of intrusive force to rat molars. (6/1126)

This study was conducted to investigate the nature of root resorption resulting from intrusive forces applied to the rat lower molars, by means of histological and histochemical techniques with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Thirty-eight 13-week-old Wistar strain male rats were used. Intrusive force was created by a fixed appliance which was adjusted to exert an initial force of 50 g for the duration of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The degree of root resorption and distribution of TRAP positive cells were evaluated. On the root surface, the TRAP positive scores were low in the apical regions. Significant differences in the scores were found in the inter-radicular region of the roots between the experimental and control groups for the 2- and 3-week groups. More active resorption of bone occurred during the experimental period, as denoted by greater TRAP positive scores on the bone than on the root surface. Root resorption scores in the apical root region were larger in the 2- and 3-week groups than in the 1-week group. Significant differences in the root resorption scores were also found between the 1- and 3-week groups in the inter-radicular region, indicating that intrusive force application of a longer duration may lead to a higher frequency of root resorption. It is shown that, irrespective of the level of TRAP positive cells and root resorption scores, the degree of root resorption activity is higher in the apical root region than in the inter-radicular area. These results indicate that cellular cementum may be resorbed more easily because of its richer organic components and low mineralized structure.  (+info)

Histochemical studies of glycosaminoglycans in developing periodontal ligaments of ICR mice. (7/1126)

Although the periodontal ligament (PL) contains an abundance of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), there are only a few histochemical studies describing GAGs in the developing PL. In the present study, the relationship between the formation of principal fibers and the molecular species of GAGs in the developing PL was examined by light microscopic histochemistry. Jcl:ICR mice were killed on day 0 to day 28 after birth. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were routinely made and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Azan, or the sensitized high iron diamine (S-HID) procedure combined with enzyme digestions. Before tooth eruption, thin threads of collagen fibers in the PL assembled and constructed principal fibers, which projected from both the side of the alveolar bone and the root of the tooth. After tooth eruption, the principal fibers from both sides were tightly entangled. In the developing PL, the molecular species of GAGs was mainly dermatan sulfate. Moreover, the relative amount of dermatan sulfate increased together with the maturation of the principal fibers, while the principal fibers adjacent to the alveolar bone and cementum contained chondroitin sulfate. These results suggest that dermatan sulfate contributes to collagen fiber assembly in the PL and that chondroitin sulfate relates to PL adhesion to the alveolar bone and to the cementum of the root.  (+info)

Collagen-phagocytosing ability of periodontal osteoblasts at the bone surface. (8/1126)

The collagen-phagocytosing activity of osteoblasts at the alveolar bone-ligament interface of rat mandibular first molars was investigated both histologically and histochemically. Alveolar bones of male Wistar rats (6 months old) were used in this study. Collagen-containing phagosomes appeared in cuboidal osteoblasts aligned on the bone surface. The 5.7% of the osteoblasts exhibiting alkaline phosphatase activity revealed collagen-containing phagosomes, and the collagen fibrils within the phagosomes were at various stages of degradation. In addition, acid phosphatase activity and the immunocytochemical distribution of cathepsin B were found in these collagen-containing phagosomes at similar locations. The presence of both enzymes in the phagosomes suggests that an intracellular degradation of collagen occurs. Therefore, in addition to the osteoblastic functions of synthesizing and secreting bone matrices, osteoblasts are also capable of phagocytosis and the intracellular disintegration of collagen. Our findings suggest that osteoblasts at the alveolar bone-periodontal ligament interface have a collagen-phagocytosing ability and play an important role in the physiological remodeling and metabolic breakdown of collagen fibrils of periodontal ligament without osteoclastic bone remodeling.  (+info)

Under general anesthesia, to avoid damaging the premolar tooth bud, after flap elevation for the surgical approach, we extracted the ankylosed primary mandibular second molar in sections. After gingivectomy, orthodontic traction of the mandibular first molar was prepared by attaching a lingual button with ligature wire to the exposed occlusal surface (Fig. 4). Using a modified Nance holding arch and power chain, traction of the horizontally impacted first molar was initiated and maintained for 6 months (Fig. 5), leading to approximately 45° improvement in angle and root dilaceration of the first molar was observed. Next, using a modified Halterman appliance, we positioned a new anchor and enforced distalization of the improved mandibular left first molar and planned distal movement of locked mandibular right first molar. Mandibular right first molar was relocated into proper position after 3 months, and tilting of the left mandibular first molar was almost upright after 6 months. Subsequently, ...
Teeth loss, especially first permanent molar teeth loss is the ultimate barometer of failure or success in dentistry and dental health programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients attending in outpatient department of selected dental hospitals in Dhaka city to find out the loss of first permanent molar teeth among them. Regarding age (34.8%) of the respondents were below 25 years followed by 25.5% between 25 35 years (mean age 33.16 ± 14.10 years). In case of educational status (31%) completed primary education followed by 16.2% were graduates and 33.3% were illiterates. Majority (59.5%) of the respondents had monthly family income below 5000 BDT (mean income 6802.39 ± 6630. 39 BDT). Among the respondents, 33.8% knew brushing technique and 79.5% of them brushed once in a day. Majority (68.5%) of them used tooth paste for brushing and tooth brush was used by 67.1% of the respondents. In case of first permanent molar tooth missing, 50% missed lower left, 19.6% lower right, ...
Aim: The current study evaluated the root and root canal anatomy of permanent mandibular first molar teeth of an Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 486 freshly extracted human permanent noncarious mandibular first molar teeth were acquired from a pool of extracted teeth of patients of indigenous Indian population. The root canal morphology (including the root numbers) and the anatomy of the root canal system (including the number and type of canals based on Vertuccis classification) were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. Results: Predominantly, the studied specimens exhibited two roots with a prevalence of 86.84%, followed by three roots with a prevalence of 13.16%. The third root was exclusively found on the lingual aspect of distal roots. The two- and three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars exhibited two, three, and four in 1.64%, 55.34%, and 43.02% of teeth, respectively. In the mesial roots, the most common pattern was Type IV (54.94%), followed by Type ...
H. Lesot, R. Peterkova, R. Schmitt, J. M Meyer, L. Viriot, J. L Vonesch, B. Senger, M. Peterka, and J. V Ruch (1999) Int J Dev Biol, 43(3):245-54.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accessory roots in maxillary molar teeth: A review and endodontic considerations. AU - Ahmed, HM. AU - Abbott, Paul. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2012.01678.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2012.01678.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 22624750. VL - 57. SP - 123. EP - 131. JO - Australian Dental Journal. JF - Australian Dental Journal. SN - 0045-0421. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence and relationship of an additional root in the mandibular first permanent molar and primary molars. AU - Song, Je Seon. AU - Kim, Seong Oh. AU - Choi, Byung Jai. AU - Choi, Hyung Jun. AU - Son, Heung Kyu. AU - Lee, Jae Ho. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Objectives: The mandibular first permanent and primary molars occasionally have an additional root located distolingually. This study aimed to determine the incidences of an additional root in these molars and their relationship. Study design: This study involved 4050 children for whom periapical radiographs of the mandibular molar area were available. The incidence of an additional root for each molar was calculated and the pattern of concurrent additional roots in different molars was also investigated. Results: Additional roots were present in 33.1%, 27.8%, and 9.7% of the first permanent, second primary, and first primary molars, respectively. When an additional root was present in a primary molar, the probability ...
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent root canal configuration and the incidence of a second mesio-buccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first molar root in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India by reviewing cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. Methods: Patients who had undergone CBCT scanning for various treatment modalities were retrospectively viewed for the presence of second MB2 canal in the permanent maxillary first molar. Scanning was performed at Peraden & Elite CBCT, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Each tooth was assessed in 1 mm axial and 0.5 mm sagittal sections, to evaluate the presence of a MB2 canal. The images had been evaluated by a maxillofacial radiologist. Results: In total of 117 teeth examined, MB-2 was present in 79 teeth. The prevalence of MB-2 in maxillary first molar was found to be 67.5% in an Indian subpopulation. As far as root canal morphology is concerned, Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusion: Knowing the ...
Thorough understanding of the anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Since permanent maxillary first molars have shown variation in internal anatomy, morphology, this tooth has been reviewed extensively. Presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. In this report, three cases are presented, which involve the root canal treatment of maxillary first molars with fusion of the two buccal roots ...
The abnormal development and formation of the mandibular tooth, a molar located three teeth away from the midline of the jaw, is an oral health issue seen primarily in small breed dogs.
PubMed journal article A Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study on Mandibular First Molars in a Chinese Subpopulatio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
A 46-year-old male with a negative medical history presented to the office with a missing mandibular left first molar (tooth #19). The clinical and radiographic evaluation indicated sufficient bone superior to the mandibular canal space but insufficient bone in the mesial-distal arch length for 2 conventional standard size implants (3.75 mm). The diagnostic model confirmed the intratooth space to be 12 mm. The treatment plan presented to the patient called for two 3.0-mm small diameter 1-piece implants (Zimmer Dental Inc, Carlsbad, Calif) for replacement of the mandibular first molar. This treatment plan allows 1.50 mm of bone to exist between the implant and its adjacent teeth,11 and 3 mm between endosseous implants.11,12 The patient was prepped, draped, and asked to rinse with a chlorhexidine mouth rinse for 30 seconds. The patient was anesthetized via an infiltration technique with a local anesthetic consisting of 2 carpules 2% lidocaine (36 mg) with 1∶100 000 epinephrine (36 µg) in the ...
This study examined the immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3, and its association with apoptosis, during tooth morphogenesis of the mouse lower first molar. The distribution of cells positive for caspase-3 closely corresponded with the localization of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl tr …
Protogenin (Prtg) has been identified as a gene which is highly expressed in the mouse mandible at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) by a cDNA subtraction method between mandibles at E10.5 and E12.0. Prtg is a new member of the deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) family, which is composed of DCC, Neogenin, Punc and Nope. Although these members play an important role in the development of the embryonic central nervous system, recent research has also shed on the non-neuronal organization. However, very little is known regarding the fetal requirement of the non-neuronal organization for Prtg and how this may be associated with the tooth germ development. This study examined the functional implications of Prtg in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. Ptrg is preferentially expressed in the early stage of organogenesis. Prtg mRNA and protein were widely expressed in the mesenchymal cells in the mandible at E10.5. The oral epithelial cells were also positive for Prtg. The expression intensity
A study has found that a persons first permanent molars carry a lifelong record of health information dating back to the prenatal phase.
realize that while upwards of 90% of maxillary first molars have a second canal in the MB root, only about 10% of mandibular first molars do
Harris S, Bowles WR, Fok A, McClanahan SB. Anatomic investigation of the roots of mandibular first molars using micro-computed tomography. J Endod 2012;38:e52. Abstr.. Harris SP, Bowles WR, Fok A, McClanahan SB. An anatomical investigation of the mandibular first molar using micro-computed tomography. J Endod 2013; 39:1374-1378.. Barsness S, Bowles WR, Fok A, McClanahan SB, Harris SP. An anatomical investigation of the mandibular second molar using micro-computed tomography. Surgical & Radiologic Anatomy 2014; online publication August.. Wiswall A, Bowles W, Lunos S, McClanahan S, Harris S. Palatal anesthesia: comparison of four techniques for decreasing injection discomfort. Northwest Dent 2014;93:25-9. ...
Eruption disturbance of a permanent tooth is challenging to clinicians. Eruption failure of a posterior tooth causes lateral open bite that severely interrupts function. This case report describes the treatment of nonerupting permanent molars by segmental repositioning followed by orthodontic fine adjustment. Two nonerupting permanent molars at different eruption stages were repositioned with a one- or two-step single-tooth segmental osteotomy technique. Final location of the repositioned tooth alveolar bone segment was adjusted via orthodontic means. (Quintessence Int 2010;41:449 458 ...
Lower second molars with 4 canals aren t that rare but this one had 3 canals in the mesial root. Kodak 9000 CBCT clearly shows them
Hi guys, I know its possible and probably happens fairly commonly, wondering who elses kids got their bottom set of permanent molars before age 6? My son is 4.5 and his bottom gums show signs of teeth coming. Sent from my GT-I9000 using
Im 13 and my molars are loose my baby teeth have all fallen out, Im a little worried. It wasnt loose a few days ago it just got loose yesterday....isv that strange? Please help
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Molars are the back three teeth on each side of each jaw. These are the main teeth that grind food.. The first permanent molars, called 6-year molars, come in between the ages of 5 and 7. The second permanent molars, 12-year molars, come in when a child is between 11 and 14 years old. Normally, an adult has 12 molars. ...
Mandibular molars can have an additional root located lingually (the radix entomolaris) or buccally (the radix paramolaris). The presence of a separate RE in the first mandibular molar is associated with certain ethnic groups. In African populations a maximum frequency of 3% is found, while in Eurasian and Indian populations the frequency is less than 5%. In populations with Mongoloid traits (such as the Chinese, Eskimo and American Indians) reports have noted that the RE occurs with a frequency that ranges from 5% to more than 30%. Because of its high frequency in these populations, the RE is considered to be a normal morphological variant (eumorphic root morphology). In Caucasians the RE is not very common and, with a maximum frequency of 3.4 to 4.2%, is considered to be an unusual or dysmorphic root morphology. The etiology behind the formation of the RE is still unclear. In dysmorphic, supernumerary roots, its formation could be related to external factors during odontogenesis, or to ...
Root Canal Madibular Molar Anatomy micro-CBCT Study My analysis of Wolf JOE 2016 for mesial root 55% are fairly straight forward like 2-2-1/1 or 1-2-2/2 7% are doable with a little luck like 2-1-1/2 or 1-1-1/2 38% are nearly impossible to completely access all canals like 2-1-1/3 or 2-2-2/4 Distal root is much better 73% […]. ...
Authors: Jorge NR Martins, Moataz-Bellah AM Alkhawas, Zaher Altaki, Gianmarco Bellardini, Luiza Berti, Carlos Boveda, Antonis Chaniotis, Daniel Flynn, Jose Antonio Gonzalez, Jojo Kottoor, Miguel Seruca Marques, Adam Monroe, Hani F Ounsi, Peter Parashos, Gianluca Plotino, Magnus E Ragnarsson, Ruben Rosas Aguilar, Fabio Santiago, Hussein C Seedat, Walter Vargas, Murilo von Zuben, Yuerong Zhang, Yongchun Gu, Antonio Ginjeira
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This in vitro study compared cuspal deflection of premolars restored with three bulk‐fill composite resins to that of incrementally‐restored ones with a low‐sh
Anatomy MB2 first molar - How often is there an MB2 Anatomy MB2 first molar study data ranges from 50%-95% MB3 is 1-3% (source) My opinion is there are 6 main reasons these stats vary. One is how we define an isthmus versus canal, two is the technique we use to study the teeth, three […]. ...
The first red flag is that Watney uses units of volume instead of mass, which is inappropriate when calculating quantities for a chemical reaction. Watney is a mechanical engineer and would have been thoroughly trained in the correct use of units, even if chemistry is not really his field. I also doubt he would use the chemical formulas for carbon dioxide, water etc. in daily conversation or in a diary destined for laypeople, but I understand why Watney (or rather Weir) did it: he wants the reader to be able to count Hs and Os and follow Watneys calculations. Unfortunately, his calculations are unsound, because you have to add up mass, not counts.. It is not initially clear whether Watney is talking about gases, liquids or solids. Since he will be working in the habitat, close to standard conditions of temperature and pressure, it is not unreasonable to assume that the CO2, O2 and H2 are in gas form and the H2O is liquid. But it seems Watney himself is confused: when he says that the fuel ...
A molar tooth is located in the posterior (back) section of the mouth. It is found in most mammals that use their posterior teeth to grind food. Twelve molars are usually present in an adult human, in groups of three.
It is not uncommon to place a restoration on an upper second molar and have the contact open over time. The new crown is checked diligently at the seat
Marc needed a second molar removed, so he came to our office in Leominster, MA, for his extraction. Hear about his positive experience with Dr. Colarusso.
The first time I picked up a Proximator, I was really impressed with the quality and balance. Now I have one on every surgical tray in my practi.... View full details ...
This past week has seen some real lows, feeling exhausted and down, and yet I can say I am thankful for having 3 gorgeous, healthy children and a gorgeous, funny, very supportive husband. It also helped working out that Mr One year olds grizzliness, night time wakings and extended crying, clinginess etc. had something to do with him cutting his third tooth and a molar at that ...
IMPAKSI MOLAR 3 PDF - PDF | Impacted third mandibular molar seems as a common and easy case but actually a difficult one when the odontectomy proceeds. Besides, another.
Maxillary first molar usually exhibits a radicular anatomy of three roots and three or four canals. However, different anatomic variations like extra number of roots and canals are possible. For a successful treatment, clinicians must have well equipment and a thorough knowledge of the external and internal anatomy of teeth and its variation. Using of CBCT may help to locate extra canals by giving a chance to clinicians to see the root canal anatomy in 3-D view. The aim of this study was to present a case report about a diagnosis and treatment in maxillary first molar with three roots and five canals. It is concluded that the diagnosing and the treatment of unusual cases are key factors for successful endodontic treatment of these teeth.
Several articles have used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to study the morphology of the maxillary molars and to ascertain its ability to visualize the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2); however, its geometric location has not been examined in depth. The aim of this study was to describe in vivo the prevalence and location of the MB2 in the mesiobuccal root of the first maxillary molar (1MM) and the second maxillary molar (2MM) through CBCT imaging. Five hundred fifty CBCT images of the 1MM and 550 of the 2MM were analyzed. To detect the MB2 canal, the observation and measurements were done 1 mm apically to the pulpal floor to standardize the methodology. The geometric location of the central point of the MB2 canal (PMB2) was measured in relation to the central point of the mesiobuccal canal (PMB1) and in relation to the line projected between the PMB1 and the central point of the palatal canals (PP). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, with a value of P | 0.05 being statistically
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate associations between factors and the incidence of erosive wear in lower first molars and upper incisors, and to investigate whether these associations differ between these locations. METHODS: The study sample of this 3-year longitudinal study consisted of 572 children (mean age 11.9 years, SD=0.9). The permanent dentition was examined for erosive wear according to a modified Lussi-index (1996). Information on biological and behavioural factors was gathered by clinical examinations (at baseline, after 1.5 and 3 years) and by questionnaires (every six months). RESULTS: The incidence of erosive wear in upper incisors over 3 years was 22.2%, for lower first molars the incidence was 14.8%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that carbonated soft drink (OR=1.04) and tooth grinding (OR=2.93) were positively associated with the incidence of erosive wear in upper incisors and milk (OR=0.95) and yoghurt products (OR=0.88) were negatively associated. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eruption process of the second molar. AU - Tsai, Hung Huey. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The second molar is located at the distal of the first molar, and we must beaware of its stage of development when we plan to move the first molar distally Few researchers have investigated the development of second molars. The purpose of this study was to observe the eruption process of the maxillary and mandibular second molars by using 238 panoramic radiographs. The developmental stages of the second molar were divided into four stages: the whole crown calcified = stage 1 ; beginning root formation = stage 2; initial formation of the radicular bifurcation = stage 3; and the root length is equal to the crown height = stage 4. The mesiodistal crown width of the first and second molars, axial inclination and eruption rate of the second molar, and the space available for emergence of the second molar at each stage were measured, and the statistical analysis was made to assess the developmental ...
Day-14 lower incisors and day-18 first lower molars of mouse embryos produced in vitro transforming activities for non- confluent NRK cells co-cultured in agar, and mitogenic activities for exponentially growing NRK and BHK cells. The patterns of distribution of TGF beta 1 and EGF receptor, both known to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and transformation in vitro and suspected to play important roles in developmental processes, were studied during mouse odontogenesis by means of indirect immunofluorescence on fixed or frozen fixed sections. TGF beta 1 epitopes were detected in the stellate reticulum of day-13 to day-16 incisors and of molars from day-17 onwards. Dental mesenchyme of day-14 incisors and postnatal molars, and peridental mesenchyme of bud and cap stage molars and incisors were also stained by TGF beta 1 antibodies. EGF receptor was localized in the enamel organs of incisors and molars; the inner dental epithelium and later the outer dental epithelium rapidly became ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell cycle of the enamel knot during tooth morphogenesis. AU - Jung, Seo Yoon. AU - Green, David William. AU - Jung, Han Sung. AU - Kim, Eun Jung. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements We are grateful to Chengri Li for helping experiments. This study was supported by the Yonsei University College of Dentistry (6-2016-0021).. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Enamel knot (EK) is known to be a central organ in tooth development, especially for cusp patterning. To trace the exact position and movement among the inner dental epithelium (IDE) and EK cells, and to monitor the relationship between the EK and cusp patterning, it is essential that we understand the cell cycle status of the EK in early stages of tooth development. In this study, thymidine analogous (IdU, BrdU) staining was used to evaluate the cell cycle phase of the primary EK at the early casp stage (E13.0) and the gerbil embryo (E19) in a developing mouse embryo. The centerpiece of this study was to describe the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of single-tooth implants in the second molar region. T2 - A 5-year life-table analysis of a retrospective study. AU - Koo, Ki Tae. AU - Wikesjö, Ulf M E. AU - Park, Jang Yeol. AU - Kim, Tae. AU - Seol, Yang Jo. AU - Ku, Young. AU - Rhyu, In Chul. AU - Chung, Chong Pyoung. AU - Lee, Yong Moo. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Background: To our knowledge no study has evaluated the success or survival rate of single-tooth implants that replaced missing maxillary and mandibular second molars. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the 1- to 5-year cumulative survival rate (CSR) for single-tooth implants placed inthe second molar region and the effects of associated factors. Methods: Four hundred eighty-nine patients (298 males and 191 females; age range: 23 to 91 years; mean age: 47 years) who were admitted to the Seoul National University Dental Hospital between March 2003 and July 2008 and treated with single-tooth implants in the second molar region (227 ...
The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journal is divided into 81 subject areas.
Introduction: The management and long-term retention of molars exhibiting furcation invasion have always been a challenge in dentistry. Latest innovations in dental sciences and higher patients expectations have led to more conservative treatment approaches in saving the teeth with hopeless periodontal prognosis. When periodontal disease affects the furcation area of tooth, the chance of its exfoliation increase considerably. Here, authors have sought to discuss a comprehensive review of literature with case report for the management of decayed mandibular first molars (with furcation invasion) using bicuspidization procedure. Case Report: The furcation defect (in mandibular first molars) was clinically detected in a middle aged male, which was converted into two bicuspids by intentional bisection procedures. The definitive treatment included restoration with double crowns. Bicuspidization procedure with double metal crowns truly yielded a satisfactory result. Discussion: The treatment of ...
Case Reports in Dentistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports in all areas of dentistry, including periodontal diseases, dental implants, oral pathology, as well as oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Soft tissue mass is demonstrated involving the left cheek extending as far back as the mid part of the zygomatic arch and involving the underlying maxillary bone.. It extends to the right across the nose, the upper lip, as far as the right first maxillary molar tooth (16).. The mass extends through the floor of orbit involving the inferior rectus and inferior oblique, distorting the globe. Tumor fills the left side of the nasal cavity. Inferiorly it replaces much of the hard palate with only a small pass posteriorly remaining.. Tumor involves the alveolar ridge of the maxilla on both sides. There is no evidence of involvement of the mandible or the tongue.. Biopsy proven SCC. ...
S. S. Raghavendra, B. D. Napte, N. N. Desai, A. N. Hindlekar Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2015 March-April; 18(2):168-71. ABSTRACT:The va...
Question - Brownish black stains on molars, excessive staining tendency, no cavities. Treatment, preventive measures?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Gum disease, Ask a Dentist
Objective The objective was to examine the effects of repetitive local administration of adiponectin on experimental tooth movement in rats. Materials and methods The maxillary right first molar of male Wistar rats ...
on right side along with bilateral mental foramen.. Position of AMF in 8 mandibles out of 100 was found situated below apex of first molar tooth whereas it was observed to be located between first and second premolar in 5 mandibles out of the same 100. Average distance between MF and AMF was 0.67mm lateral to MF.. Shape of MF. On right side it is oval in 6% of mandibles and round in 94% of mandibles. On left side it is oval in 13% of mandibles while it is round in 87% of mandibles.. Size of MF. On right side: Average size was 2.79 mm. Minimum size is 1mm and Maximum size is 5 mm.. On left side: Average size is 2.57mm. Minimum size is 1mm and Maximum size is 6 mm.. Size of AMF. Average size is 1 mm. Minimum size is 0.6 mm and Maximum size is 1.5 mm.. Incidences of MF. MF is present in all one hundred observed mandibles and it is bilateral.. Incidences of AMF. AMF is observed in 13 mandibles out of 100 mandibles. AMF was situated in 5 out of 13 mandibles on right side and in 8 out of the same13 ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Characteristics of the Occlusal Surfaces of Lower Molars in a Sample of the Croatian Population. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Right: sees a red ring around light of lamp; eye very painful, feeling much larger and more protruded than left; eyeball very sore; heat and fullness in interior of ear; as of a pimple over antrum; as if molar teeth were loose; second molar tooth carious; drawing in anterior wall of chest; drawing-cramping in anterior of chest and axilla, extending down arm to fingers, jerking of little finger; intermitting, throbbing, pressing pain in costal cartilage of fifth rib, leaving a burning, raw sensation; sloughing ulcer on breast; sharp pain through shoulder to scapula; crampy sensation in muscles of upper arm; pulsating pain in neck of femur and thigh; drawing in knee, extending into anterior muscles of thigh; drawing-cramping in hollow of foot passing along outer border of gastrocnemius muscle to knee, then in tibia, where it becomes a numb aching, then in tarsus, where it becomes a drawing aching, as if foot would cramp; crampy lameness in leg above instep; indolent ulcer on lower third of leg ...
A lower first molar replaced by a single dental implant restores natural chewing function without grinding down the adjacent teeth for crowns.
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This patient had lost a lower molar and had a large space. To restore with a bridge would have involved grinding down the adjacent teeth and exposing them to the risk for trauma and root canals. The patient chose to have a metal-free Zirconia implant placed ...
A sixteen year old female with a six year history of discomfort and pain in the left body and angle of the mandible during which time the first and second molar teeth had been extracted. Prior dental records including ...
Imagine a time when it was considered revolutionary to hear a concert down a telephone line! This occurred in 1892 at the 13th British Dental Association (BDA) conference in Manchester, courtesy of the National Telephone Company.. I have this information on good authority from the BDA Museum which had a stand at the 2014 BDA conference, also in Manchester. Some 200 delegates went to the 1892 meeting. Apparently one of the highlights was a discussion about the extraction of first permanent molars. The majority of delegates concluded that extraction should be avoided if possible unless the teeth were unsaveable.. How interesting that 122 years later there is a Saving Teeth Awareness Campaign which highlights how important it is for teeth to be saved: www.savingteeth.co.uk. When it comes to technology, however, times have certainly changed. At the 2014 meeting the range of equipment and technology was staggering. Meanwhile, one of the highlights of the 1892 BDA meeting was the application of ...
Complex Apical Anatomy Revealed Following Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary Molar Using the GentleWave System: A Case Report Abstract.
When your baby first starts to teethe, the surrounding area can end up being red and swollen. The first front tooth is typically the most sensitive.
Manas Dave in his debut blog for the Dental Elf looks at a review on bonding of adhesive materials to molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) affected enamel. 10 studies were included only 4 of which were clinical so the findings need to be interpreted cautiously. [read the full story...] ...
Shop online for this 39 Children Upper Molars and universal tooth extracting forcep. $125. Free shipping for all dental instruments in Australia for orders over $500
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The hippopotamus, a semiaquatic mammal native to Africa, eats mostly grasses and other vegetation, but occasionally scavenges for meat. The hippo uses its molars, located in the back of the mouth, to grind these foods. The molars are crucial to consuming the diet; a hippo whose molars are too worn will starve.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolism of cadmium by developing rat molars. AU - Johnson, B. E.. AU - Shearer, T. R.. AU - Whanger, P. D.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019523122&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019523122&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019523122. VL - 40. SP - No. 3725. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3 II. ER - ...
Question - Had a permanent filling in molar tooth, painful. Suggested RCT. What is going on?. Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask a Dentist
Professional quality Molar Tooth images and pictures at very affordable prices. With over 20 million stunning photos to choose from we ve got what you need!
Professional quality Molar Tooth images and pictures at very affordable prices. With over 20 million stunning photos to choose from we ve got what you need! - Page 2
Takahashi KF, Kiyoshima T, Kobayashi I, Xie M, Yamaza H, Fujiwara H, Ookuma Y, Nagata K, Wada H, Sakai T, Terada Y, Sakai H; Protogenin, a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is implicated in the development of the mouse lower first molar.; BMC Dev Biol, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC ...
A Single wires should always be used for interfragmentary wiring. In this case a single wire was twisted double before it was used for the original fracture repair. Twisting a wire on itself does not improve the strength of the wire and the multfilament nature thereof increases the surface area with resultant increased bacterial adhesion. There is secondary infection with bone loss in the fracture line surrounding the distal (caudal) root of the mandibular molar (409) tooth. Furthermore, there appears to be a fragment of non-vital bone (sequestrum) ventral to the distal root of the 409 ...
Yesterday was another terrible day at the vet and today is one of our worst recovery days ever.. Gari had the first molar on his lower right removed. The tooth was dead and decaying inside the bone. In fact, there was a tunnel through the bone from the first molar to the incisor he had taken out last time. This kept the incisor hole from healing up correctly. Instead the whole thing is full of old food and debris. They couldnt close it this time because in order to clean it out completely, he would need to be intubated, which is a procedure we have not yet faced.. The second molar is also dead and will need to be extraced. That wasnt done this time because he was already under for a long time and had enough trauma to his mouth for a lifetime, let alone a single vet visit.. The worst thing is that he is unable to stand or walk or even sit up today. Yesterday when we left the vet, he was able to walk fairly well, but he deteriorated during the car drive home. We basically had to lift and drag ...
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Fig. 50. Types of Tooth== The corresponding cusps are shown in the crowns of an * A - The tritubercular Type of Tooth * B - Incisor * C - Canine * D - Bicuspid * E - Upper Molar * F - Lower Molar {{Keith1902_5_figures}} {{Human embryology morphology 1902 footer ...
My husband needs help for his thin teeth, the front teeth you can almost see thru them, and they have vertical cracks. What is the best repair? Also, his molars are worn away almost gum line towards t...
When Josh Brolins agent suggested that the actors rotten molar tooth was keeping him from landing roles, Brolin initially refused to get the tooth pulled. Then, one day, he saw it in a mirror and changed his mind. This story presents several questions. Why would casting directors notice a rotting molar tooth? Why would his agent be aware of it? Why had he never looked at the tooth before? Just how rotten was this tooth? And, finally, why share this story with Mens Journal magazine ...
When Josh Brolins agent suggested that the actors rotten molar tooth was keeping him from landing roles, Brolin initially refused to get the tooth pulled. Then, one day, he saw it in a mirror and changed his mind. This story presents several questions. Why would casting directors notice a rotting molar tooth? Why would his agent be aware of it? Why had he never looked at the tooth before? Just how rotten was this tooth? And, finally, why share this story with Mens Journal magazine ...
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This web site is devoted to empowering you, the reader, to care for your loved ones and yourself when theres no other choice. Thank you for visiting and may God bless you richly in 2016 and beyond. - Doc Cindy … Continue reading ...
my dog broke a 4th premolar and first molar on the same side. has anybody had these teeth extracted. would my dog miss the teeth. would he chew bones or eat food (raw) on the extract side. i have the option to do a root canal but they costs a lot of money. Im curious to see how the extraction ...
Molar refractivity[edit]. The molar refractivity A of a gas is related to its refractive index n by the Lorentz-Lorenz equation ... The molar van der Waals volume should not be confused with the molar volume of the substance. In general, at normal laboratory ... The density of solid helium at 1.1 K and 66 atm is 7002214000000000000♠0.214(6) g/cm3,[7] corresponding to a molar volume Vm = ... Hence the molar van der Waals volume, which only counts the volume occupied by the atoms or molecules, is usually about ...
Molar volume[edit]. Main article: Molar volume. Taking STP to be 101.325 kPa and 273.15 K, we can find the volume of one mole ... Thus, the number of molecules or atoms in a specific volume of ideal gas is independent of their size or the molar mass of the ... For 100.00 kPa and 273.15 K, the molar volume of an ideal gas is 22.712 dm3mol−1. ...
Molar substitution[edit]. Molar substitution is the average level of hydroxypropoxy substitution on the cellulose chain. Since ... which in turn depends on both the degree of substitution of the methoxy group and the molar substitution). That is, the higher ... molar substitution is also often expressed in percentages. ...
Molar units[edit]. The unit of substance in the FPS system is the pound-mole (lb-mol) = 7026273160000000000♠273.16×1024. Until ... The resulting system is not coherent, lacking electrical or molar units, and is sometimes also known as the British engineering ...
Molar behaviorists argue that standard molecular constructs, such as "associative strength", are better replaced by molar ... Molar theorists argue that molecular views of behavior must fail, for two reasons. First, present behavior depends not only on ... Molar behaviorists, such as Howard Rachlin, Richard Herrnstein, and William Baum, argue that behavior cannot be understood by ... Molar versus molecular behaviorism. Since at least the 1930s, some behaviorists have suggested that behavior cannot be ...
Chapter 2: The Mastodon's Molars[edit]. Kolbert explains how fossils of the American mastodon (Mammut americanum) shaped ...
Mandibular second molar • Mandibular second premolar • Mandibular third molar • Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal • ... Maxillary first molar • Maxillary first premolar • Maxillary lateral incisor • Maxillary second molar • Maxillary second ... Minimal intervention dentistry • Miswak • Molar • Morinosuke Chiwaki • Mouth • Mouth assessment • Mouth breathing • Mouth ... Mandibular first molar • Mandibular first premolar • Mandibular lateral incisor • ...
Schematically, closed systems are the sphere of being, identity, theory, molar, information, normal, and past. Open systems ...
"Holy Molar! Corey Haim Is Selling His Teeth". NCBuy.Com. November 5, 2001. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. ... Forced to foot the medical bills, he attempted to support himself by selling clumps of his hair and an extracted molar on eBay ...
As the ACCO appliance will move the crown of molar distally, headgear will act to move the molar roots distally. In order to ... Patient friendly Continuous forces to the teeth Possible asymmetric distalization of the molars Tipping of molar teeth (instead ... "Molar distalization with the acrylic cervical occipital appliance". Seminars in Orthodontics. Molar Distalization. 6 (2): 91-97 ... Therefore, addition of finger springs can be added to the 2nd molars to move them distally also. List of Orthodontic Functional ...
3 molar). Classically, discussions of solvated electrons focus on their solutions in ammonia, which are stable for days, but ...
Molality . Molar concentration . Molar absorptivity . Molar mass . Molarity . Molding . Molecule . Molecular physics . Moment ... M1 is the molar mass of gas 1 M2 is the molar mass of gas 2. Gravitational constant The gravitational constant (also known as ... and M is the molar mass of the gas in kilograms per mole. In physics, speed is defined as the scalar magnitude of velocity. For ...
9,432 feet (2,875 m) Molar Lake, 45°04′40″N 109°48′52″W / 45.07778°N 109.81444°W / 45.07778; -109.81444 (Molar Lake), el. ... "Little Molar Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Lone Elk Lake". Geographic Names ... "Molar Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Moose Lake". Geographic Names Information ... 7,877 feet (2,401 m) Little Molar Lake, 45°03′51″N 109°48′57″W / 45.06417°N 109.81583°W / 45.06417; -109.81583 (Little ...
The risk of a further molar pregnancy is low. More than 98% of women who become pregnant following a molar pregnancy will not ... The term «persistent trophoblastic disease» (PTD) is used when after treatment of a molar pregnancy, some molar tissue is left ... Although molar pregnancies affect women of all ages, women under 16 and over 45 years of age have an increased risk of ... In Western countries, women with molar pregnancies are followed carefully; for instance, in the UK, all women who have had a ...
Molar mass 286.371 g·mol−1 Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ...
Molar mass. 293.454 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
Molar mass. 613.803 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
Molar mass 174.131 g·mol−1 Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ...
Molar mass. 143859.7 g/mol. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. N. Y (what is this?). (verify). ...
Molar mass 71.079 g·mol−1 Density 1.075 [1] Boiling point 98 °C (208 °F; 371 K)[1] ...
Molar mass. 776.87 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. Melting point. 231 to 233 °C (448 to 451 °F) [3]. ...
Molar mass. 410.554 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
Molar mass 303.91 g/mol Appearance pale yellow crystals Odor odorless Density 1.458 g/cm3 ...
Molar mass. 485.937 g/mol g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image ...
Molar mass. 351.413 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
The initial doses of premazepam given to human test subjects demonstrated similar psychological test results to those produced by diazepam. It was also demonstrated that initial dosing with premazepam produces similar sedative effects as compared with diazepam, although psychomotor impairments are greater with premazepam than with diazepam after initial dosing. However, with repeated dosing for more than one day premazepam causes less sedation and less psychomotor impairment than diazepam. Premazepam possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties. Premazepam produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of premazepam is approximately equivalent to 5 mg of diazepam.[2] ...
Molar mass. 510.475 g/mol g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image ...
Molar mass 825.97 g/mol Solubility in water. Insoluble in cold, slightly soluble in hot (bright red blue) ...
Molar mass 100.9494 g/mol Appearance greenish yellow powder Density 2.712 g/cm3 ...
... is a benzamide,[12] derivative of morpholine,[103] which acts pharmacologically as a selective, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA),[9] a type of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and increases levels of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, and especially serotonin.[104][105] in neuronal cells as well as in synaptic vesicles; extracellular levels also increase which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and suppression of REM sleep, down regulation of 3-adrenoceptors. A single 300 mg dose of moclobemide inhibits 80% of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and 30% of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), blocking the decomposition of norepinephrine, serotonin and, to a lesser extent, dopamine. There is also some evidence pointing towards moclobemide possessing neuroprotective properties.[8] There is no cumulative effect of moclobemide centrally when taken long-term.[8] With long-term use of moclobemide, there is a significant down-regulation of B-adrenoceptors.[8] ...
Molar MassConverting Between Moles, Molecules, and GramsPercent Composition When speaking about doing chemical reactions, it ... The molar mass of a substance is the weight of 6.02 × 1023 atoms or molecules of that material in grams. The unit of molar mass ... As a result, were going to have to learn to find something called the molar mass-the weight of one mole of a chemical compound ... Finding the molar masses of compounds isnt difficult if you know their formulas. To do this, multiply the numbers of atoms of ...
Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a fertilized but non-viable egg implants in the uterus, resulting in ... Molar pregnancies can have either partial or complete hydatidiform moles. Complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) arise when an ... In doing so, they have determined that the genetics of molar specimens can be more complicated than traditionally thought." Drs ... CHMs, PHMs, and non-molar specimens (NMs) have different risks for persistent GTD, and thus differentiation is important for ...
molar volume, the volume occupied by a mole [1] of a substance at STP [2]. According to Avogadros law, at a given temperature ... This volume is what is usually meant by the molar volume, although one can also speak of molar volumes of substances that are ... the molar volume of water is about 18 cc. The molar volume of osmium, one of the densest metals, is only about 8.4 cc; that of ... molar volume, the volume occupied by a mole of a substance at STP. According to Avogadros law, at a given temperature and ...
Shop Molar Ornaments from CafePress. Find beautiful designs on high quality ornaments that are perfect for decorating. ✓Free ... Molar Ornaments make for brilliantly simple gifts in the present, and promise to be meaningful keepsakes for memories in the ...
Holy Molar. Watch Holy Molars new video for 14th anniversary of Cavity Search EP. The bands label Three One G is also ... Watch tons of unseen footage from Holy Molars (The Locust, etc) 2003 tour. "In this current ridiculous moment in human history ... I miss being able to experience moments that somehow resemble the absurdities of reality," says Holy Molars Bobby Bray. ...
Molar definition, a tooth having a broad biting surface adapted for grinding, being one of twelve in humans, with three on each ... molars. Origin of molar. 1. 1535-45; < Latin molāris grinder, short for (dēns) molāris grinding (tooth), equivalent to mol(a) ... molar. *. She finally had the molar pulled, though it was a second tooth and should have been saved. ... The first molar cuts the gum at two weeks old, is in full use at three months, and is shed in the course of the second year. ...
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In complete molar pregnancy, the fetal part of the pregnancy, or the baby, does not develop at all. In a partial molar ... A twin molar pregnancy is very rare, and includes the development of a normal fetus along with a molar pregnancy, because of ... These are much higher than normal in molar pregnancies and indicate the need for an ultrasound scan. The presence of the molar ... Molar change may be limited to a few scattered cysts. The ovaries may have only small cysts or appear normal. The hCG level may ...
Molar Pregnancy News and Research. RSS A molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which the uterus is filled with a ... Panorama SNP-based non-invasive prenatal test can detect complete molar pregnancy Natera, Inc., a leader in non-invasive ... Scientists identify three genes responsible for recurrent molar pregnancies A team of scientists at the Research Institute of ... can identify a complete molar pregnancy in the first trimester. ... Causes of Molar Pregnancy. *Molar Pregnancy Treatment and ...
Alat Gigi Forceps Molar permanent posterior adalah jenis tang yang digunakan untuk menc… ... Tang Untuk Gigi Permanen Molar Rahang Bawah Friday, August 30th 2013. , ... Alat Gigi Forceps Molar permanent posterior adalah jenis tang yang digunakan untuk mencabut gigi mahkota permanen molar bawah ... Tang untuk gigi permanen molar rahang bawah * 1. Tang Untuk Gigi Permanen Molar Rahang Bawah Friday, August 30th 2013. , ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Molar Cross Section in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Molar Cross Section. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Molar Cross Section in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Molar Cross Section. Cross section of a typical molar illustrating the various anatomical structures associated with the tooth ...
molar gas constant: (symbol R), fundamental physical constant arising in the formulation of the general gas law. For an ideal ... Molar gas constant, (symbol R), fundamental physical constant arising in the formulation of the general gas law. For an ideal ... Here p is the pressure, v is the volume per mole, or molar volume, R is the universal gas constant, and T is the absolute ...
The second molar is preceded by the first molar and followed by the third molar in the arrangement of the teeth from the ... The permanent second molar usually appears in the 12-13th year of life and is part of the secondary, or permanent, teeth. ...
Molar bands are thin metal rings that are placed on teeth to secure orthodontic attachments. Also known as orthodontic bands, ... Molar bands are thin metal rings that are placed on teeth to secure orthodontic attachments. Also known as orthodontic bands, ...
Twelve molars are usually present in an adult human, in groups of three. ... A molar tooth is located in the posterior (back) section of the mouth. It is found in most mammals that use their posterior ... If youre experiencing molar pain or mouth pain, heres what to know and steps you can take to get it treated. Plus, what you ... A molar tooth is located in the posterior (back) section of the mouth. It is found in most mammals that use their posterior ...
Molar Tooth 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, ... anatomy bone care dental dentin dentist digital education enamel gum healthcare human medical molar medicine mouth nerve ... Detailed 3D model of a molar tooth, with materials. No texture required. Exported in .3ds and .obj and perfectly working with ...
Molar Mac. Besides being fascinating and somewhat scarce... ... Molar Mac. Discussion in PowerPC Macs started by bunnspecial ... Id be very interested to see if I can fit the Molar Mac and all the other stuff in the MG . Thats also assuming I actually ... Id be very interested to see if I can fit the Molar Mac and all the other stuff in the MG . Thats also assuming I actually ... Im extremely excited to report that Ive just made a deal on a G3 all-in-one, AKA the Molar Mac.. Besides being fascinating ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Right Mandibular First Molar in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes ... Right Mandibular First Molar. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Right Mandibular First Molar in minutes with ... Right Mandibular First Molar. Various views of the right mandibular first molar.. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989- ...
i think that it is not a good idea for a woman to get pregnant right away after having molar pregnancy because it will only ... agree on you janina, a patient of molar pregnancy before should not engaged on getting pregnant and put one self in the process ... exactly your point! the doctor may do you ultrasound scanning that will enable an early diagnosis if you have molar pregnancy. ... so what cold be the signs to know one is having a molar pregnancy? ...
the case where you will most likely to develop a molar pregnancy is when you have a previous experience of miscarriage or you ... it happens when the baby inside your womb had stopped growing and that caused by what they said "molar pregnancy" . ... molar pregnancy comes from hydatidiform moles that develops inside the womb where the baby develops. ... i would like to know guys what is meant by molar pregnancy. any input is gladly appreciated. ...
Molars are massive and flat for grinding food. If your wisdom teeth erupt you will have 12 molars in all. Be wise, grab your ... Molars are massive and flat for grinding food. If your wisdom teeth erupt you will have 12 molars in all. Be wise, grab your ... Humans have four types of teeth and this one is specifically a molar. The molar got its name from the Latin phrase dens ... All about Tooth (Molar). FACTS: Smile! Learning about teeth is not like pulling teeth. Kids have 20 and after the tooth fairy ...
The molar conductivity of the solution is increase when the concentration of solution decrease. Why? Not suppose to be dilution ... decreases the molar conductivity? Professional please answer my question, better provide reference to persuade me as I want to ... Molar conductivity is defined as the conductivity of an electrolyte solution divided by the molar concentration of the ... Why would molar conductivity increase in dilution?. For strong electrolytes solution like HCl, and NaCl. ...
The device is a flexible molar shaped insert having a cross-sectional area at the top that is larger than the cross-sectional ... A molar shaped urinary incontinence device is disclosed. ... wherein the molar-shaped insert has a thin wall to define an ... A molar shaped urinary incontinence device is disclosed. The device is a flexible molar shaped insert having a cross-sectional ... A molar shaped urinary incontinence device is disclosed. The device is a flexible molar shaped insert having a cross-sectional ...
... Are you interested in chemical engineering, or are taking a class in ... Find the moles of O2 fed into the system and the molar flow rate of air. Using stoichiometric ratios it can be found that 25 ... Use the fractional conversion of the reactant HCl to find nHCl. One can assume a molar flow rate of 100 for HCl and use the ... Find molar fractions of each species. This is the amount of each of the species divided by the total moles in the output stream ...
... and biogeography in shaping molar morphology. We characterized first and second molar crown shape variability in seven species ... whereas the shape of the second molar is more informative about biogeographic variability. However, molar shape similarities ... In addition, the presence of a phylogenetic signal in the first molar shape (2D) is likely to reflect similarity to the ... Bailey, S. E., Skinner, M. M., & Hublin, J.-J. (2011). What lies beneath? An evaluation of lower molar trigonid crest patterns ...
Molar pregnancy is a rare complication that requires early treatment. Learn more about diagnosis and treatment of this type of ... There are two types of molar pregnancy, complete molar pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy. In a complete molar pregnancy, ... Molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancy. During a molar pregnancy, the placenta develops into an abnormal mass of cysts. The embryo ... Previous molar pregnancy. If youve had one molar pregnancy, youre more likely to have another. A repeat molar pregnancy ...
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Molar pregnancy is a rare complication that requires early treatment. Learn more about diagnosis and treatment of this type of ... Dilation and curettage (D&C). To treat a molar pregnancy, your doctor will remove the molar tissue from your uterus with a ... An ultrasound of a complete molar pregnancy - which can be detected as early as eight or nine weeks of pregnancy - may show:. * ... A molar pregnancy cant continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the abnormal placental tissue must be ...
Also called molar tooth. a tooth having a broad biting surface adapted for grinding, being one of twelve in humans, with three ... molars in Culture Expand. molars [(moh-luhrz)]. The teeth with broad surfaces at the back of the mouth that serve to grind food ... The hind teeth, consisting of premolars and molars, are used for grinding. ... molar. n. "grinding tooth," mid-14c., from Latin molaris dens "grinding tooth," from mola "millstone," from PIE root *mel- "to ...
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  • She finally had the molar pulled, though it was a second tooth and should have been saved. (dictionary.com)
  • Cross section of a typical molar illustrating the various anatomical structures associated with the tooth and surrounding bone. (smartdraw.com)
  • A molar tooth is located in the posterior (back) section of the mouth. (healthline.com)
  • In the four groups of molars, the third one in each group is known as the wisdom tooth. (healthline.com)
  • A molar is considered the most complicated type of tooth in humans. (healthline.com)
  • Detailed 3D model of a molar tooth, with materials. (turbosquid.com)
  • when viewed in plan, the outline of the massif resembles a molar tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar got its name from the Latin phrase 'dens molaris' which means millstone tooth. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Human Molar Tooth by fvillena is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Non-Commercial - Share Alike license. (thingiverse.com)
  • Hey, Six months before, I consulted a dentist when I had tooth pain while biting with the top right molar. (medhelp.org)
  • In humans, a third molar is a tooth located in the very back of the mouth. (wisegeek.com)
  • Furthermore, although it is well established that first molar tooth emergence (movement into the mouth) is correlated with the scheduling of growth and reproduction across primates broadly, its precise relation to solid food consumption, nursing behavior, or maternal life history is unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Anatomical features such as molar tooth emergence, cranial capacity, and body mass are known to correlate with life history variables including gestation length, age at weaning, interbirth interval, and age at first reproduction across a taxonomically broad sample of primates ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inclined mesially, tooth buds of permanent second molar develop distal to permanent first molar. (hindawi.com)
  • Ectopic eruption occurs due to the deviation in normal path of eruption path leading to tooth locked apical to the distal surface of the molar. (hindawi.com)
  • Various factors influencing the treatment options are inclination of the tooth and depth of the second molar with reference from the first permanent molar. (hindawi.com)
  • right: three-rooted lower first molar tooth. (nyu.edu)
  • When your baby's first molars start to appear, you may notice some of the familiar signs of tooth eruption. (colgate.com)
  • Healthy subjects scheduled for removal of third molars were recruited at multiple sites for this study, which was conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Despite these findings, the prophylactic removal of third molars still faces criticism. (drbicuspid.com)
  • The organization only recommends the removal of third molars when they partially erupt, there is a chance that poorly aligned wisdom teeth will damage adjacent teeth, or a cyst forms. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Molar pregnancies can have either partial or complete hydatidiform moles. (redorbit.com)
  • In a partial molar pregnancy, there is some abnormal non-viable fetal development. (news-medical.net)
  • There are two types of molar pregnancy, complete molar pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In a partial molar pregnancy, there may be normal placental tissue along with abnormally forming placental tissue. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In a partial or incomplete molar pregnancy, the mother's chromosomes remain but the father provides two sets of chromosomes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This occurs in approximately 15 to 20 percent of complete molar pregnancies, and up to 5 percent of partial molar pregnancies. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A complete molar pregnancy is more likely to have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Partial molar pregnancy. (cigna.com)
  • Partial molar pregnancies are often found when a woman is treated for an incomplete miscarriage . (cigna.com)
  • Out of 1000 cases of partial molar pregnancy, about 50 develop trophoblastic disease. (cigna.com)
  • With my partial molar pregnancy I only got to three months but because it was a PMP and there was so much extra tissue my uterus had grown to nearly 5 months. (medhelp.org)
  • It might also help you to read the stories of others who have experienced molar and partial molar pregnancy. (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • Molar pregnancies might be partial or complete . (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • There are two types of molar pregnancies, complete and partial. (whattoexpect.com)
  • A partial molar pregnancy occurs when more than one sperm fertilizes a normal egg resulting in a pregnancy where both the fetus and placenta are abnormal. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Well it was a partial molar and an ectopic - apparently 1 and 60,000 chance. (whattoexpect.com)
  • @Janeausten2011 I had a pmp (partial molar pregnancy) end a year ago in Jan. It took a really long time for my hcg to drop (I was 13 wks when I had my D&C and my hcg was about 500,000 at that point). (whattoexpect.com)
  • Partial molar pregnancy - When two sperms fertilize an egg, this mole is formed. (targetwoman.com)
  • A partial molar pregnancy is much more common than a complete molar pregnancy. (sharedjourney.com)
  • The molar teeth bear considerable resemblance to those of the Rhinoceros. (dictionary.com)
  • The Paca (Clogenys) differs from the Capybara in the complex structure of his molar teeth. (dictionary.com)
  • The permanent second molar usually appears in the 12-13th year of life and is part of the secondary, or permanent, teeth. (innerbody.com)
  • The second molar is preceded by the first molar and followed by the third molar in the arrangement of the teeth from the midline of the mouth. (innerbody.com)
  • Molar bands are thin metal rings that are placed on teeth to secure orthodontic attachments. (reference.com)
  • These teeth are divided into mandibular and maxillary molars , which are located in the lower and upper jaws, respectively. (healthline.com)
  • If your wisdom teeth erupt you will have 12 molars in all. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Humans have four types of teeth and this one is specifically a molar. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • They are commonly called this because the molars appear much later than other teeth, typically after childhood. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • We have teeth that allow us to grind plants ( molars ) or tear flesh (incisors). (dictionary.com)
  • The hind teeth, consisting of pre molars and molars , are used for grinding. (dictionary.com)
  • The state of the alveoli and the teeth, shows that the molars had not yet pierced the gum. (dictionary.com)
  • The mouth is small, with strong, caninelike teeth and molars . (dictionary.com)
  • Including the wisdom teeth , adults have twelve molars - six on the top and six on the bottom. (dictionary.com)
  • Yet despite their considerable differences, these creatures share a striking dental similarity: they all have so-called tribosphenic teeth, specialized mortar-and-pestle-like molars that enable them to slice and grind their food efficiently. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The two-year molars (also known as the second molars ) are the last baby teeth to come in -- usually somewhere between 18 months and 3 years of age. (cafemom.com)
  • Molars are the back three teeth on each side of each jaw. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Also, Im not sure if its important and relevant to the upper teeth, but my third molar on my lower left side has a root canal and it seems to be infected and will be extracted. (medhelp.org)
  • The third molars erupt later in life, usually in the late teens, and are sometimes known as the wisdom teeth . (wisegeek.com)
  • In some regions of the world, many people develop third molars and experience no health problems, keeping the teeth for life. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some dentists also believe that erupting third molars can put pressure on other teeth and force them out of position. (wisegeek.com)
  • I've always had this in grown molar on my left upper jaw that is stuck between two other teeth. (medhelp.org)
  • LO (little one) has 7 teeth up front and one molar already in, another on it's way. (babycenter.com)
  • If I remember right, my first only had three teeth by the time he was a year and didn't get molars until he was 16 or 17 months and got them one at a time. (babycenter.com)
  • These teeth are easily accessible, and not set as deep into the gums as the molars. (healingwell.com)
  • If your child already has some of these teeth, you may be wondering when the first molars are going to appear. (colgate.com)
  • Has anyone had the 6 year molars cause a flare or ear pain, trying to decide if she might have an ear infection or if its just the teeth. (latitudes.org)
  • molar pregnancy comes from hydatidiform moles that develops inside the womb where the baby develops. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • In chemistry , the molar mass is defined as the mass of a sample of that compound divided by the amount of substance in that sample, measured in moles . (wikipedia.org)
  • For chemical elements without isolated molecules, such as carbon and metals, the molar mass is computed dividing by the number of moles of atoms instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 points) Formula: Mass Cl used x 1 mol Cl = moles of Cl used Molar mass of Cl.15g Cl X 1 mole/35.45g CL = .00423 moles of Cl 5. (visionforum.com)
  • Molar Mass: 232.2824 Molar mass of zinc chloride is 136.2860 g/mol Compound name is zinc chloride Convert between ZnCl2 weight and moles. (visionforum.com)
  • In other words, is a molar ratio of 20:1 equal to 20 moles of MeOH to 1 mole of FFA? (infopop.cc)
  • A molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which the uterus is filled with a mass of vesicles (small whitish cysts appearing like a huge cluster of pale grapes) rather than a fetus and placenta. (news-medical.net)
  • A molar pregnancy - also known as hydatidiform mole - is a rare complication of pregnancy characterized by the abnormal growth of trophoblasts, the cells that normally develop into the placenta. (mayoclinic.org)
  • During a molar pregnancy, the placenta develops into an abnormal mass of cysts. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The placenta becomes the molar growth. (cigna.com)
  • When only the placenta continues to grow, it's called a molar pregnancy. (everydayhealth.com)
  • When I hot pregnant again I had a scan at 6 weeks and 9 to rule out a molar also after each LO they send the placenta off for tests. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Plainly put, molar pregnancy is an irregularity of the placenta caused by a problem when the egg and sperm unite at fertilization. (targetwoman.com)
  • A complete molar pregnancy refers to a pregnancy that develops a placenta but no fetus. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a fertilized but non-viable egg implants in the uterus, resulting in a hydatidiform mole. (redorbit.com)
  • A pelvic ultrasound scan will show the presence of tissue inside the uterus, with the characteristic snowstorm appearance of a molar pregnancy. (news-medical.net)
  • A team of scientists at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and McGill University have identified three genes responsible for recurrent molar pregnancies, a rare complication that occurs when a non-viable pregnancy with no embryo implants in the uterus. (news-medical.net)
  • Dilation and curettage (D&C). To treat a molar pregnancy, your doctor will remove the molar tissue from your uterus with a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C). A D&C is usually done as an outpatient procedure in a hospital. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A molar pregnancy happens when tissue that normally becomes a fetus instead becomes an abnormal growth in your uterus . (cigna.com)
  • A molar pregnancy can cause heavy bleeding from the uterus. (cigna.com)
  • Some molar pregnancies lead to gestational trophoblastic disease , a growth of abnormal tissue inside the uterus. (cigna.com)
  • When you have a molar pregnancy, you need treatment right away to remove all of the growth from your uterus. (cigna.com)
  • If you are done having children, you may decide to have your uterus removed ( hysterectomy ) instead of having a vacuum aspiration to treat your molar pregnancy. (cigna.com)
  • Even though I had a molar pregnancy, my uterus still grew. (medhelp.org)
  • I was 3 months when it was diagnosed, and I was 'showing' as if an actually baby was growing inside, because in molar pregnancies your uterus grows more rapidly. (medhelp.org)
  • A molar pregnancy, also called a hydatidiform mole, is one where an abnormal fertilised egg implants in the uterus (womb). (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • In a very small number of cases, molar cells burrow more deeply into the uterus than they should. (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • 80% of molar pregnancies are benign in that they cause no further trouble after they are removed from the uterus. (whattoexpect.com)
  • However, in approximately 20% of cases the molar pregnancy either spreads locally within the muscular wall of the uterus (called invasive mole) or spreads more widely to other parts of the body, most commonly the lungs, (called metastases) which requires treatment. (whattoexpect.com)
  • It may have begun as a molar pregnancy or from tissue that remains in the uterus following a miscarriage or childbirth. (whattoexpect.com)
  • A genetic disorder during the fertilization process causes growth of abnormal tissue inside the uterus thus ending up as molar pregnancy. (targetwoman.com)
  • In a molar pregnancy, the embryo never develops and the increase in the uterus size is faster when compared to normal fetal growth. (targetwoman.com)
  • Complete molar pregnancies also cause the uterus to quickly grow, leading to bleeding in the uterine cavity or vaginal bleeding. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Generally, there are two different types of molar pregnancies a woman may experience: a complete and an incomplete molar pregnancy. (sharedjourney.com)
  • There are plenty of things you can do to keep your baby (and you) happier and more comfortable as the first molars erupt. (colgate.com)
  • These risks aside, patients usually experience pain after the third molar extraction surgery, and can be at risk of infection while their mouths heal. (wisegeek.com)
  • If a dentist recommends a third molar extraction, the patient should ask about the reason for the recommended extraction, and any possible alternatives. (wisegeek.com)
  • In more than 98% of cases, there is no apparent benefit to prophylactic third-molar extraction in adolescents," wrote Tom Daley, D.D.S., M.Sc. (drbicuspid.com)
  • i think that it is not a good idea for a woman to get pregnant right away after having molar pregnancy because it will only give it the chance to reoccur and may reactivate. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • what is the root of having molar pregnancy? (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Previous molar pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Doctors understand how it happens but there are no obvious underlying causes or risk factor, except a previous molar pregnancy. (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • However, it is recommended that women with a previous molar pregnancy speak with a genetic counselor prior to trying to conceive again. (sharedjourney.com)
  • In complete molar pregnancies, the egg's nucleus is either missing or inactivated resulting in a lack of genetic information causing the fertilizing sperm to duplicate itself. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Molar mass" is a chemistry related term, that refers to the mass of one mole of a chemical compound. (macupdate.com)
  • In Chemistry, the molar concentration or molarity of a solute is the measure of its concentration within a given volume of some kind of solution. (calculator.org)
  • This paper presents a case report with unilateral ectopic mandibular second molar treated with elastic separators. (hindawi.com)
  • Their premolars and molars need to grind and break the tough cell walls of the food they eat. (alison.com)
  • The molar mass of a substance is the weight of 6.02 × 10 23 atoms or molecules of that material in grams. (infoplease.com)
  • Most commonly, the molar mass is computed from the standard atomic weights and is thus a terrestrial average and a function of the relative abundance of the isotopes of the constituent atoms on earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the relative atomic mass of the element multiplied by the molar mass constant , M u ≈ 1.000 000 × 10 −3 kg/mol = 1.000000 g/mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine an element's molar mass, it is necessary to add together the weight of all of the atoms present in the sample. (reference.com)
  • The molar mass is the atomic weight multiplied by the number of atoms per mole. (reference.com)
  • Oxygen forms molecules of two atoms, so the molar mass of O2 is 32 grams per mole. (reference.com)
  • Molar mass is the mass of a substance that has 6.022 × 10 23 atoms ( Avogadro's number ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first molar ionization energy applies to the neutral atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molar pregnancy women feel pregnant and complain of vaginal bleeding. (targetwoman.com)
  • Molar pregnancy (hydatidiform mole) can be a very distressing experience. (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • We have written this leaflet for women and their partners who have been affected by a molar pregnancy (also called a hydatidiform mole). (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • Hydatidiform MoleA hydatidiform mole (also called a "molar pregnancy") is a form of GTD that arises when fertilization of an egg cell results in an abnormal pregnancy. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Hydatidiform mole' is the medical term for molar pregnancy. (targetwoman.com)
  • The first permanent molars, called "6-year molars," come in between the ages of 5 and 7. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The second permanent molars, "12-year molars," come in when a child is between 11 and 14 years old. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Ectopic eruption is more in maxillary first permanent molars and canines, followed by the mandibular canine, mandibular second premolar, and the maxillary lateral incisors [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An evaluation of lower molar trigonid crest patterns based on both dentine and enamel expression. (springer.com)
  • The study, which appears in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , centers on a three-rooted lower molar-a rare trait primarily found in modern Asians-that was previously thought to have evolved after H. sapiens dispersed from Africa. (nyu.edu)
  • The three-rooted lower molar anomaly in a recent Asian individual. (nyu.edu)
  • However, the three-rooted lower molar trait is unique to Asian groups. (nyu.edu)
  • Ideal period to treat ectopic mandibular second molars is from 11 to 14 years of age with incomplete root formation. (hindawi.com)
  • The unit of molar mass is given as grams/mole, usually abbreviated as g/mol. (infoplease.com)
  • Since at STP water occupies very nearly 1 cc per gram, and since 1 mole of water molecules weighs very nearly 18 grams, the molar volume of water is about 18 cc. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Multiplying by the molar mass constant ensures that the calculation is dimensionally correct: standard relative atomic masses are dimensionless quantities (i.e., pure numbers) whereas molar masses have units (in this case, grams/mole). (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar mass of Chlorine is 35.45 grams per mole. (visionforum.com)
  • Therefore the molar mass of Zinc Chloride is 65.38 + 35.45 = 100.83 grams per mole. (visionforum.com)
  • TIP: For example, the molar mass of sodium chloride is the molar mass of one atom of sodium (23 grams/mole sodium) plus the molar mass of one atom of chlorine (35.5 grams/mole chlorine), or 58.5 grams/mole sodium chloride. (visionforum.com)
  • If your mass of Zinc Chloride was 29.6 grams, then we could use the molar mass (136.3 g/mol) to convert it to mols if you wanted to find out how many mols there were of say each ion in solution or in a solid before you add it to solution. (visionforum.com)
  • now that you have a balanced formula you have to consider the mole ratio between the substances involved, the molar mass and of course the 15 grams of zinc chloride. (visionforum.com)
  • Out of 1000 cases of complete molar pregnancy, 150 to 200 develop trophoblastic disease that keeps growing after the tissue is removed. (cigna.com)
  • Another type of conception problem is called a molar pregnancy, or a gestational trophoblastic disease. (everydayhealth.com)
  • That's why molar pregnancy is sometimes called trophoblastic disease. (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • Molar pregnancy is a kind of gestational trophoblastic disease. (targetwoman.com)
  • Molar pregnancies generally come to an end by themselves. (targetwoman.com)
  • My understanding of molar pregnancy is that the abnormal tissue that is created and appears to be a pregnancy is not and instead is a type of problematic growth. (ewtn.com)
  • In a complete molar pregnancy, the placental tissue is abnormal and swollen and appears to form fluid-filled cysts. (mayoclinic.org)
  • After a molar pregnancy has been removed, molar tissue may remain and continue to grow. (mayoclinic.org)
  • After the molar tissue is removed, your doctor will repeat measurements of your HCG level until it returns to normal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Once treatment for the molar pregnancy is complete, your doctor may continue to monitor your HCG levels for six months to one year to make sure there's no remaining molar tissue. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Sometimes this tissue keeps growing after the molar pregnancy is removed. (cigna.com)
  • In the past, many women only knew that they had a molar pregnancy when their bodies discharged the tissue, which was said to resemble a cluster of grapes , explains Stumpf. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Adult humans have 12 molars. (dictionary.com)
  • Molars are designed for grinding, and most humans have 12, located at the very back of the upper and lower jaws on both sides of the mouth. (wisegeek.com)
  • How to measure and predict the molar absorption coefficient of a protein. (nih.gov)
  • The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, of a protein is usually based on concentrations measured by dry weight, nitrogen, or amino acid analysis. (nih.gov)
  • A molar pregnancy is often completely asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is made only when the first pregnancy scan routinely scheduled at 10 to 14 weeks reveals the problem. (news-medical.net)
  • the doctor may do you ultrasound scanning that will enable an early diagnosis if you have molar pregnancy. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • You can read about symptoms and diagnosis of molar pregnancy here . (miscarriageassociation.org.uk)
  • molar volume, the volume occupied by a mole of a substance at STP . (encyclopedia.com)
  • [1] The molar mass is a bulk, not molecular, property of a substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar mass is appropriate for converting between the mass of a substance and the amount of a substance for bulk quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar mass is an intensive property of the substance, that does not depend on the size of the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these three equations is a way of arriving at the molar concentration of a given substance with whichever variables one is likely to have at hand to work with. (calculator.org)
  • In thermodynamics the molar concentration of a substance is not as useful because the volume of solutions is somewhat dependent on temperature. (calculator.org)
  • The Molar Heat of Combustion of a substance is the heat liberated when 1 mole of the substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen at standard atmospheric pressure, with the final products being carbon dioxide gas and liquid water. (educationindex.com)
  • This volume is what is usually meant by the molar volume, although one can also speak of molar volumes of substances that are not gaseous at STP. (encyclopedia.com)
  • hello everyone, i have a question involving molar volumes. (physicsforums.com)
  • if i have to find the difference in molar volumes, which have initial units of cm^3 mol^-1. (physicsforums.com)
  • Experimental and predicted excess molar volumes of the ternary system. (springer.com)
  • Experimental excess molar volumes for the ternary system x 1 MTBE+ x 2 1-propanol+(1- x 1 - x 2 ) heptane and the three involved binary mixtures have been determined at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. (springer.com)
  • Excess molar volumes were determined from the densities of the pure liquids and mixtures, using a DMA 4500 Anton Paar densimeter. (springer.com)
  • A dentist may recommend extraction of one or more of the third molars to a patient if the patient appears to be developing dental problems. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are some risks to extraction which need to be considered, including risks of nerve damage and a rare complication in which extraction of the maxillary third molars creates a hole in the maxillary sinus . (wisegeek.com)
  • I think that you are wise to approach the extraction of your molars, as the infections clearly are taking an upper hand. (healingwell.com)
  • Sometimes a pregnancy that seems to be twins is found to be one fetus and one molar pregnancy. (cigna.com)
  • If you have a molar pregnancy, he will be able to see that there is no fetus growing inside the egg sack. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A complete molar pregnancy develops when the fertilized egg cell lacks maternal genes. (whattoexpect.com)
  • The molar conductivity of the solution is increase when the concentration of solution decrease. (yahoo.com)
  • What is Molar Concentration? (calculator.org)
  • Therefore, the molar mass of a compound now is simply the mass of this number of molecules of the compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molar mass of a chemical compound is the amount that has 6.022 × 10 23 molecules . (wikipedia.org)
  • Natera, Inc., a leader in non-invasive genetic testing, today announced a study published in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology demonstrating that the Panorama single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) can identify a complete molar pregnancy in the first trimester. (news-medical.net)
  • Your doctor can also find a molar pregnancy during a routine ultrasound in early pregnancy. (cigna.com)
  • Usually molar pregnancy is detected by ultrasound during routine care," says Stumpf, explaining that molar pregnancies are found much earlier now that in the past because of early ultrasounds and blood tests. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus. (springer.com)
  • I had 3 crown put in on my left side, two upper molars and one lower. (medhelp.org)
  • On the lower jaw, the third molars are known as mandibular third molars, while the third molars on the upper jaw are called maxillary third molars. (wisegeek.com)
  • So sodium hydroxide 's (NaOH) molar mass can be found by adding the molar mass of sodium, oxygen, and hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impacted Third Molars is an ideal reference for the general dentist, specialist, or resident. (wiley-vch.de)
  • If you're worried that your baby's molars aren't erupting on time, visit a dentist to find out if it's cause for concern. (colgate.com)
  • Your dentist can look at the molar and determine how minor or serious the crack is. (colgate.com)
  • Yup, 3 of the 4 molars are through the gums and the last is close to breaking through. (babycenter.com)
  • I'm not sure if that bump is just normal in the gums back there or if it's actually the molars coming in. (babycenter.com)
  • The gums around molars are already the most common area for abscesses to occur, and I have the added fun of a very limited jaw opening due to the metal TMJs and jaw conformation surgeries.I'm also due to begin a new protocol of monthly infusions, slightly similar to one in the past, which chucked me inpatient quite a few times with systemic infections. (healingwell.com)
  • As the molars pass through the gums, your baby may become very cranky, even if he or she is normally easygoing. (colgate.com)
  • A morphometric analysis of maxillary molar crowns of Middle-Late Pleistocene hominins. (springer.com)
  • Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. (hindawi.com)
  • Prevalence of ectopic eruption of the lower permanent second molar is reported between 0.06 and 0.3% [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to Raghoebar, the primary cause of ectopic eruption of permanent second molar is arch length deficiency [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Failure to treat ectopic second molar at the right time may lead to resorption of first permanent molar, caries, and subsequently elicit pain. (hindawi.com)
  • If I am making a 20:1 molar ratio of methanol to FFA. (infopop.cc)
  • yes that's right, BUT, Where did you see mention of a 20:1 molar ratio of methanol to FFA? (infopop.cc)
  • As far as transesterification goes, the academic literature suggests a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to triglyceride. (infopop.cc)
  • and the 20:1 molar ratio is Methanol to FFA for the acid catalysed esterification reaction. (infopop.cc)