**Nanotechnology**: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

**Forecasting**: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

**Nanostructures**: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.

**Physics**: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Logic**: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)

**Microscopy, Atomic Force**: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.

**Paris**

**European Union**: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Pierre Robin Syndrome**: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.

**Ectopia Cordis**: A rare developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the THORAX. It is the result of defective fusion of the anterior chest wall. Depending on the location of the heart, ectopia cordis can be thoracic, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and cervical.

**Diet, Mediterranean**: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.

**France**: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

**Molecular Dynamics Simulation**: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Permeability**: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Solar Energy**: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

**Colorado**

**Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing**: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.

**Wyoming**

**National Institutes of Health (U.S.)**: An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.

**Research**: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

**Authorship**: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.

**Knowledge Bases**: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).

**Editorial Policies**: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.

**Scientific Misconduct**: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.

**Publishing**: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

**Game Theory**: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

**Dominica**: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)

**Dissertations, Academic as Topic**: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**International Classification of Diseases**: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.

**Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders**: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)

**Academic Dissertations**

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Support Vector Machines**: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.

**Uranium Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.

**Neural Conduction**: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.

**Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated**: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.

**Sodium Channels**: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.

**Action Potentials**: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

**Nerve Fibers**: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

**Ion Channels**: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.

## Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides. (1/14889)

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced. (+info)## Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (2/14889)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown. (+info)## Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting. (3/14889)

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters. (+info)## The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients. (4/14889)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected. (+info)## Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (5/14889)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release. (+info)## Resolution of fluorescence correlation measurements. (6/14889)

The resolution limit of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for two-component solutions is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The autocorrelation function for two different particles in solution were computed, statistical noise was added, and the resulting curve was fitted with a least squares fit. These simulations show that the ability to distinguish between two different molecular species in solution depends strongly on the number of photons detected from each particle, their difference in size, and the concentration of each component in solution. To distinguish two components, their diffusion times must differ by at least a factor of 1.6 for comparable quantum yields and a high fluorescence signal. Experiments were conducted with Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine-labeled bovine serum albumin. The experimental results support the simulations. In addition, they show that even with a high fluorescence signal but significantly different quantum yields, the diffusion times must differ by a factor much bigger than 1.6 to distinguish the two components. Depending on the quantum yields and the difference in size, there exists a concentration threshold for the less abundant component below which it is not possible to determine with statistical means alone that two particles are in solution. (+info)## Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium. (7/14889)

1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)## Stretching lattice models of protein folding. (8/14889)

A new class of experiments that probe folding of individual protein domains uses mechanical stretching to cause the transition. We show how stretching forces can be incorporated in lattice models of folding. For fast folding proteins, the analysis suggests a complex relation between the force dependence and the reaction coordinate for folding. (+info)###### Download An Introduction To Partial Differential Equations With Matlab, Second Edition 2013

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ComputationalMarket is modelledInitioRenowned theoretical physicistTrans-Theoretical ModelDevelop a theoreticalCombination of theoreticalBehaviorComputationsSimulationsPrediction2000Kuramoto and extended Haken-Kelso-BunzFluorescenceProbabilityMethodologicalBehavioralBiologyEmpiricallyCalculationsInvestigationsMembraneConceptualFeasibilityConsiderationsSearchMethodsTheoryMechanismsExplainsFoundationsCorrelationsComputationBiological coordinationMechanicalAspectsChenHodgkin-Huxley2002StructuresPaperChemical

###### Computational14

- In particular, we can devise novel theoretical models of computation that are intended to faithfully reflect the computational capabilities of physics at the nano-scale, in order to serve as a basis for the most powerful possible future nanocomputer architectures. (foresight.org)
- Modern Chemistry is unthinkable without the achievements of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry. (springer.com)
- To this end, in 2005, experts from several European universities joined forces under the coordination of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, to launch the European Masters Course on Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modeling (TCCM). (springer.com)
- The aim of this course is to develop scientists who are able to address a wide range of problems in modern chemical, physical, and biological sciences via a combination of theoretical and computational tools. (springer.com)
- The book series, Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modeling, has been designed by the editorial board to further facilitate the training and formation of new generations of computational and theoretical chemists. (springer.com)
- Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modelling (TCCM) is emerging as a powerful tool to help in the rational design of new products and materials for pharmaceutical, chemical, energy, computer, and new-materials industries. (europa.eu)
- The research programme of the TCCM-EJD aims at applying computational modelling to problems demanded by the industry and with high societal relevance, namely Materials with special properties, Biomolecules for new therapies and Energy storage. (europa.eu)
- Meanwhile, theoretical modeling and computational simulation have advanced as much as the experimental techniques in nanomaterials science. (hindawi.com)
- Through computational and logical inferences as well as semantic and symbolic recognition, the Flipped Inclusion establishes itself as an ethical socio-educational model based on three points: self-esteem, promptness and community/institutions. (igi-global.com)
- In this paper, we implemented a virtual laboratory of neurons and synapses via dynamical models on a web-based platform to aid neurophysiology and computational neuroscience education. (amrita.edu)
- Then the dynamic programming relationships in the model are constructed and a simple numerical example is given to illustrate the computational procedure. (umn.edu)
- Some general computational problems are discussed, following which the properties of both parts of the model are investigated in some detail. (umn.edu)
- However, as I understand it, this is more about the interaction mechanisms and how higher-type objects are represented than about the computational power of models. (stackexchange.com)
- This chapter gives an overview of approaches used to understand the generation of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals using computational models. (oxfordmedicine.com)

###### Market is modelled2

- A market is modelled by assuming that what flows into the market-- that is, supply-- has to equal what is drawn from the market-- that is, demand. (futurelearn.com)
- And this clean tech market is modelled very nicely. (futurelearn.com)

###### Initio2

- Using tight-binding model and state-of-the-art ab initio simulations, it has been discovered that a band gap might be opened at the Dirac point in graphene nanoribbons due to the spin-orbit coupling. (hindawi.com)
- In this paper, we present the results of theoretical simulations using ab initio methods on an IGF model in β-Si3N4 with prismatic crystalline planes. (ku.edu)

###### Renowned theoretical physicist1

- The renowned theoretical physicist Victor F. Weisskopf rightly pointed out that a real understanding of natural phenomena implies a clear distinction between the essential and the peripheral. (springer.com)

###### Trans-Theoretical Model1

- 2008) and CBRS is an under-researched and under-theorised area (Inhorn and Gurtin, 2011) of health research.This study provided themes on the decision making process of CBRS patients and contextualised them within a partial trans-theoretical model (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1983). (hud.ac.uk)

###### Develop a theoretical2

- These categories were used to develop a theoretical model that predicts and explains students' frequency and type of interaction with faculty. (ed.gov)
- The aims of this study were to develop a theoretical understanding of the conditions required to establish this vigorous oscillatory behavior and to determine whether observations of it could lead to a noninvasive estimate of the ICP. (arvojournals.org)

###### Combination of theoretical1

- The model was substantiated by using a combination of theoretical and experimental investigations. (mpg.de)

###### Behavior8

- Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). (nih.gov)
- Armed with theoretical modelings, the authors demonstrated that when the dielectric goes to the size of nanoscale, the conduction behavior is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel mechanism. (hindawi.com)
- The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first and broadly used theory of health behavior. (ipl.org)
- This article examines 4 empirically supported theoretical models of health behavior and applies them to the treatment adherence literature that is available for children and adolescents who take stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Two cognitive behavioral models, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRAPB), address the beliefs and behavior of the parents and the child at a given point. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- The conventional capital asset pricing model (CAPM) has come under severe attack for its failure to reflect investor behavior. (ssrn.com)
- This paper examines five categories of factors which have been found to influence religious behavior (group involvement, belief-orthodoxy, religious commitment, religious socialization, and socio-demographic characteristics), suggests alternative ways of measuring the various factors, and presents a theoretical model. (byu.edu)
- The model predicted an approximately linear relationship between the IOP and the ICP at the point of onset of oscillatory behavior. (arvojournals.org)

###### Computations4

- We argue that a silicon implementation of the reversible 3-D mesh could be valuable today for speeding up certain scientific and engineering computations, and propose that the model should become a focus of future study in the theory of parallel algorithms for a wide range of problems. (foresight.org)
- We found students could easily reproduce the common voltage and current clamp protocols on such models without significant instructor assistance and the platform was developed to allow further extensions like raster plots, network computations using extensions to code modules. (amrita.edu)
- Does mathematical model for conccurent computations exist? (stackexchange.com)
- Next, we explore how a group theoretical model of computations can satisfy these requirements. (vixra.org)

###### Simulations3

- Using computer simulations and mathematical models, scientists developed a new theoretical model on the evolution of cooperation, finding that direct reciprocity alone is not enough, and that population structure is necessary in order to reach a high level of cooperation. (scitechdaily.com)
- Using computer simulations and mathematical models, a group of scientists around Julian Garcia from the Max-Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Plön have developed a new model that is taking both concepts into account. (scitechdaily.com)
- Theoretical results from Monte Carlo simulations are compared with experimental NMR relaxation data for quadrupolar nuclei such as those of deuterium and oxygen-17. (springer.com)

###### Prediction2

- Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns. (newton.ac.uk)
- Near-infrared light propagation in various models of the adult head is analyzed by both time-of-flight measurements and mathematical prediction. (ucl.ac.uk)

###### 20001

- Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D. (2000) A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model Four Longitudinal Field Studies. (scirp.org)

###### Kuramoto and extended Haken-Kelso-Bunz1

- It also reconciles in a single formulation two well-studied models of large- and small-scale biological coordination (Kuramoto and extended Haken-Kelso-Bunz). (moneyscience.com)

###### Fluorescence2

- On the basis of this model, general properties of the calculated images, such as the registered fluorescence intensity dependence on the focusing depth and the influence of the scattering in the medium, have been studied. (spie.org)
- Moreover, the high sensitivity of fluorescence lifetimes of the TICT excited state in liposomes allows us to propose the use of this type of probes as a powerful tool for the study of gel and crystalline liquid phases in lipid membrane models. (rsc.org)

###### Probability6

- We are learning to…find the theoretical probability of an event. (slideserve.com)
- Explain the different between experimental probability and theoretical probability. (slideserve.com)
- What is the theoretical probability that he will have a sum greater than or equal to 5? (slideserve.com)
- What is the theoretical probability that she will flip heads and then spin a blue or a green on the spinner? (slideserve.com)
- This is the second in a 3 part series where I will present a theoretical model for the probability of winning a basketball game. (basketballgeek.com)
- In probability theory, a Markov reward model or Markov reward process is a stochastic process which extends either a Markov chain or continuous-time Markov chain by adding a reward rate to each state. (wikipedia.org)

###### Methodological2

- The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art related to the topic, identifying the main theoretical difficulties and methodological limitations associated with the different proposed paradigms. (isciii.es)
- The paper proposes a methodological approach, founded on theoretical models, for feasibility studies of new cabotage lines, useful to orient the sector operators in the identifying efficient and effective sabotage services. (units.it)

###### Behavioral3

- In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. (nih.gov)
- The present article reviews cognitive-behavioral treatments efficacy studies for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, as well as theoretical suppositions that underlie such treatment models. (nih.gov)
- Model predictions and assumptions are critically discussed in view of existing behavioral and neurophysiological data, forecasting that other oculomotor compensatory mechanisms, beyond short-latency saccades, are likely involved, and stimulating future experimental and theoretical investigations. (frontiersin.org)

###### Biology7

- Theoretical Biology an. (citationmachine.net)
- Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Plön, Harvard University, and the University of Amsterdam have now developed a new model combining two possible explanations - direct reciprocity and population structure - and found that both repetition and structured population are essential for the evolution of cooperation. (scitechdaily.com)
- The set point model is rooted in physiology, genetics and molecular biology, and suggests that there is an active feedback mechanism linking adipose tissue (stored energy) to intake and expenditure via a set point, presumably encoded in the brain. (biologists.org)
- Within above context, we discuss status of quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, the Standard Model and vacuum medium mechanics with respect to possibility of creation of foundations for theoretical biology. (ebscohost.com)
- In the conclusion, we state that the vacuum medium mechanics is constructed with particular intention to be fundamental theory for theoretical biology. (ebscohost.com)
- This paper analyses conceptual and experimental work in synthetic biology on different types of interactions considered as minimal examples or models of communication. (complex-systems.com)
- It shows that this account can be operationalised in synthetic biology, and that it can supply criteria and guidelines for the design and evaluation of synthetic models. (complex-systems.com)

###### Empirically1

- Analyses and modelling of empirically observed patterns of biological coordination often focus either on ensemble-level statistics in large-scale systems with many components, or on detailed dynamics in small-scale systems with few components. (moneyscience.com)

###### Calculations1

- However, to interpret and plan the experiments, theoretical calculations are required. (phys.org)

###### Investigations1

- Finally, the investigations that test this theoretical hypothesis are analyzed. (nih.gov)

###### Membrane3

- in this model, movement of an electric charge penetrating through the membrane was described as a parallel alignment of conductance for each type of ion ( Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952 ). (frontiersin.org)
- On the basis of this equivalent circuit model, the conduction of the nerve is often described by using a theory in which the conduction is regarded as an electric current on imaginary electric longitudinal leads running inside and outside the axon membrane, known as a cable theory ( Koch, 1984 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Saranya, J. , Rajendran, L. and Maheswari, M. (2016) A Theoretical Model of pH-Based Potentiometric Biosensor Based on Immobilized Enzyme Membrane. (scirp.org)

###### Conceptual2

- This paper presents the conceptual model of this clinical decision rule and its application in the clinical setting. (chiro.org)
- The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model. (ed.gov)

###### Feasibility2

- To this end, we present the dodecagon of internationalisation as a tool and, at the same time, demonstrable proof of the feasibility of theoretical integration within this subject field. (repec.org)
- Domenico Gattuso, Antonella Polimeni, 'Theoretical models and operational procedures for feasibility studies of new cabotage lines', in: European Transport / Trasporti Europei, IX (2003) 24, pp. 15-24. (units.it)

###### Considerations1

- Current dissertation aims to provide theoretical and practical considerations for estimation of DCMs for educational applications by investigating several important underexplored issues. (hu-berlin.de)

###### Search1

- We previously proposed a theoretical model for the mechanism of optic nerve damage based on the difference between ICP and IOP, 2 and that motivated the search for a simple way to measure the ICP that could be used in clinical practice. (arvojournals.org)

###### Methods3

- The need to be tolerant to changes in the control systems or in the operational environment of systems subject to unknown disturbances has generated new control methods that are able to deal with the non-parametrized disturbances of systems, without adapting itself to the system uncertainty but rather providing stability in the presence of errors bound in a model. (intechopen.com)
- The main objectives of these projects are: to improve the modeling languages, the tools, the methods (stat estimation), and to extend the modeling domains (multi-mode systems, property modeling). (springer.com)
- Such a model could yield important insights into the biophysical basis of contrast-agent-extravasation-induced effects on measured DSC-MRI signals and provide a means to investigate pulse sequence optimization and appropriate data analysis methods for the extraction of physiologically relevant imaging metrics. (nih.gov)

###### Theory5

- Nerve conduction in unmyelinated fibers has long been described based on the equivalent circuit model and cable theory. (frontiersin.org)
- From this model, a more general theory was developed that can be generalized to other college environments. (ed.gov)
- Our model is verified with experimental SIMS data, which supports our theory that intermediate interstitial clusters are very important in the atomistic model in order to understand the whole diffusion process of boron in silicon. (nsti.org)
- But models do not only face theory. (wordpress.com)
- For each model, the experimentally measured mean optical path length as a function of source-detector spacing agrees well with predictions from either a Monte Carlo model or a finite-element method based on diffusion theory or a hybrid radiosity-diffusion theory. (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Mechanisms3

- Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. (biologists.org)
- Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease Models & Mechanisms web site. (biologists.org)
- To understand such human aspects of the information dissemination, we propose a game theoretical model of the information forwarding and feedback mechanisms in a social network that take into account the personalities of the sender and the receiver (including their perceived knowledgeability, reputation, and desire for popularity) and the global characteristics of the network. (arxiv.org)

###### Explains1

- Second, the model explains many key properties of common cytochrome P450s. (mpg.de)

###### Foundations1

- Theoretical Model and Foundations for Assessing Interactions of Health, Education, and Economic Outcomes. (igi-global.com)

###### Correlations1

- Utilizing the graph model, we have developed a pipeline that integrates genomic information and pathway analysis to characterize both critical informative components of inter-bacterial correlations and associations between bacterial taxa and various metabolic pathways. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Computation6

- We show that any physical architecture based on irreversible logic devices would be asymptotically slower than realizations of our model, and we argue that no physical realization of computation aside from quantum computation could be asymptotically faster. (foresight.org)
- Instead they suggest we should seek to model interactive computation, where communication with the outside world happens during the computation. (stackexchange.com)
- The usual equivalences between models of computation do not hold over higher-types. (stackexchange.com)
- Suppose I spent a decade publishing books and papers arguing that, contrary to theoretical computer science's dogma, the Church-Turing Thesis fails to capture all of computation, because Turing machines can't toast bread . (stackexchange.com)
- Another shared feature is more rarely commented on: they all are most readily understood as models of sequential computation. (stackexchange.com)
- Constructive Computation in Stochastic Models with Applications. (wikipedia.org)

###### Biological coordination1

- The present work bridges this gap with a theoretical model of biological coordination that captures key experimental observations of mid-scale social coordination at multiple levels of description. (moneyscience.com)

###### Mechanical1

- Based on this model, the mechanical and elastic properties, the electronic structure, the interatomic bonding, the localization of defective states, the distribution of electrostatic potential, and the optical dielectric function are evaluated and compared with crystalline β-Si3N4. (ku.edu)

###### Aspects3

- This model is consistent with many of the biological aspects of energy balance, but struggles to explain the many significant environmental and social influences on obesity, food intake and physical activity. (biologists.org)
- An alternative model, called the settling point model, is based on the idea that there is passive feedback between the size of the body stores and aspects of expenditure. (biologists.org)
- This model accommodates many of the social and environmental characteristics of energy balance, but struggles to explain some of the biological and genetic aspects. (biologists.org)

###### Chen1

- When using this model for R22, Chen et al. (illinois.edu)

###### Hodgkin-Huxley1

- This BVP model serves as a simple representative of a class of excitable-oscillatory systems including the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of the squid giant axon. (psu.edu)

###### 20021

- In 2002, he joined EDF Research & Development division (R&D). He contributed to the development of power plants modeling activities, within the EDF and its subsidiaries, thanks to the use of ThermoSysPro library (developed by the authors). (springer.com)

###### Structures2

- The fourth paper proposes two designs of silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) structures by theoretical modeling. (hindawi.com)
- All the theoretical possible structures of Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with L-ascorbic acid were optimized and square pyramidal and square planer geometry have been evaluated for Cu(II) and Ni(II) respectively by Gaussian09 software. (scielo.org.za)

###### Paper9

- In this paper we present arguments that a reversible 3-D mesh of processors is an optimal physically-realistic model for scalable computers. (foresight.org)
- The aim of this paper is to add to this debate and this requires us to critique the current models. (diva-portal.org)
- In the paper we develop the analytical models for the NBTs with channel length less that the tube length (for sub-percolating networks) and use it to explain some of the recent findings in the experiments by Infineon Technology. (nsti.org)
- The paper presents an algorithm proposed by the authors in order to obtain a theoretical model of the bronchial and used to test the virtual bronchoscopy procedure implemented in an innovative system for bronchoscopy with electromagnetically tracked and steerable biopsy forceps. (sintef.no)
- This paper describes financial decision-making under uncertainty in formal mathematical terms as a generalized higher-moment capital asset pricing model. (ssrn.com)
- This paper then explores the theoretical implications and legal applications of higher-moment asset pricing. (ssrn.com)
- In this paper, the theoretical model of a proposed diagnosis-based clinical decision rule is presented. (chiro.org)
- The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical model of a diagnosis-based clinical decision rule (DBCDR) for the diagnosis and non-surgical management of patients with spinal pain. (chiro.org)
- This paper proposes to use a group theoretical model for the optimization of algorithms. (vixra.org)

###### Chemical2

- The present series ofbooks dwells on the most important models of chemical bonding and on the variety of its manifestations. (springer.com)
- In more than forty examples, they demonstrate the component elements involved in a broad range of energy production systems, with detailed test cases for each chemical, thermodynamic and thermo-hydraulic model. (springer.com)