A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
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The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.
Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Congenital abnormalities in which the HEART is in the normal position (levocardia) in the left side of the chest but some or all of the THORAX or ABDOMEN viscera are transposed laterally (SITUS INVERSUS). It is also known as situs inversus with levocardia, or isolated levocardia. This condition is often associated with severe heart defects and splenic abnormalities such as asplenia or polysplenia.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A syndrome characterized by DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, dysphonia, impairment of voluntary movements of tongue and facial muscles, and emotional lability. This condition is caused by diseases that affect the motor fibers that travel from the cerebral cortex to the lower BRAIN STEM (i.e., corticobulbar tracts); including MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Abnormal behavioral or physiologic events that are associated with REM sleep, including REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER.

Vision: modular analysis--or not? (1/10314)

It has commonly been assumed that the many separate areas of the visual system perform modular analyses, each restricted to a single attribute of the image. A recent paper advocates a radically different approach, where all areas in the hierarchy analyse all attributes of the image to extract perceptually relevant decisions.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/10314)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (3/10314)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (4/10314)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (5/10314)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (6/10314)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Transient potassium currents regulate the discharge patterns of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cells. (7/10314)

Pyramidal cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show three distinct temporal discharge patterns in response to sound: "pauser," "buildup," and "chopper." Similar discharge patterns are seen in vitro and depend on the voltage from which the cell is depolarized. It has been proposed that an inactivating A-type K+ current (IKI) might play a critical role in generating the three different patterns. In this study we examined the characteristics of transient currents in DCN pyramidal cells to evaluate this hypothesis. Morphologically identified pyramidal cells in rat brain slices (P11-P17) exhibited the three voltage-dependent discharge patterns. Two inactivating currents were present in outside-out patches from pyramidal cells: a rapidly inactivating (IKIF, tau approximately 11 msec) current insensitive to block by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and variably blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with half-inactivation near -85 mV, and a slowly inactivating TEA- and 4-AP-sensitive current (IKIS, tau approximately 145 msec) with half-inactivation near -35 mV. Recovery from inactivation at 34 degrees C was described by a single exponential with a time constant of 10-30 msec, similar to the rate at which first spike latency increases with the duration of a hyperpolarizing prepulse. Acutely isolated cells also possessed a rapidly activating (<1 msec at 22 degrees C) transient current that activated near -45 mV and showed half-inactivation near -80 mV. A model demonstrated that the deinactivation of IKIF was correlated with the discharge patterns. Overall, the properties of the fast inactivating K+ current were consistent with their proposed role in shaping the discharge pattern of DCN pyramidal cells.  (+info)

Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones. (8/10314)

1. The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 +/- 16 MOmega and the slowest membrane time constant (tau0) was 73 +/- 3 ms. 2. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rm was 61.9 +/- 34.2 Omega cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 +/- 0.3 microF cm-2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. 3. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. 4. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. 5. The 'iso-efficiency' of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs.  (+info)

Inverse problems in computational neuroscience comprise the determination of synaptic weight matrices or kernels for neural networks or neural fields respectively. Here, we reduce multi-dimensional inverse problems to inverse problems in lower dimensions which can be solved in an easier way or even explicitly through kernel construction. In particular, we discuss a range of embedding techniques and analyze their properties. We study the Amari equation as a particular example of a neural field theory. We obtain a solution of the full 2D or 3D problem by embedding 0D or 1D kernels into the domain of the Amari equation using a suitable path parametrization and basis transformations. Pulses are interconnected at branching points via path gluing. As instructive examples we construct logical gates, such as the persistent XOR and binary addition in neural fields. In addition, we compare results of inversion by dimensional reduction with a recently proposed global inversion scheme for neural fields based on
This archive contains source code for the paper Exact analytical results for integrate-and-fire neurons driven by excitatory shot noise by Droste and Lindner, 2017. Specifically, it contains a Python implementation of the analytical formulas derived in that paper (allowing to calculate firing rate, CV and stationary voltage distribution of general integrate-and-fire neurons driven by excitatory shot noise, as well as power spectrum and rate-response of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with such input) and C++ code implementing a Monte-Carlo simulation to estimate these quantities. A sample Jupyter notebook to play around with the analytics is included, as are scripts to reproduce the figures from the paper ...
This archive contains source code for the paper Exact analytical results for integrate-and-fire neurons driven by excitatory shot noise by Droste and Lindner, 2017. Specifically, it contains a Python implementation of the analytical formulas derived in that paper (allowing to calculate firing rate, CV and stationary voltage distribution of general integrate-and-fire neurons driven by excitatory shot noise, as well as power spectrum and rate-response of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with such input) and C++ code implementing a Monte-Carlo simulation to estimate these quantities. A sample Jupyter notebook to play around with the analytics is included, as are scripts to reproduce the figures from the paper ...
In vivo cortical recording reveals that indirectly driven neural assemblies can produce reliable and temporally precise spiking patterns in response to stereotyped stimulation. This suggests that despite being fundamentally noisy, the collective activity of neurons conveys information through temporal coding. Stochastic integrate-and-fire models delineate a natural theoretical framework to study the interplay of intrinsic neural noise and spike timing precision. However, there are inherent difficulties in simulating their networks dynamics in silico with standard numerical discretization schemes. Indeed, the well-posedness of the evolution of such networks requires temporally ordering every neuronal interaction, whereas the order of interactions is highly sensitive to the random variability of spiking times. Here, we answer these issues for perfect stochastic integrate-and-fire neurons by designing an exact event-driven algorithm for the simulation of recurrent networks, with delayed Dirac-like
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time an ultrafast fully functional photonic spiking neuron. Our experimental setup constitutes a complete all-optical implementation of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron, a computational primitive that provides a basis for general purpose analog optical computation. Unlike purely analog computational models, spiking operation eliminates noise accumulation and results in robust and efficient processing. Operating at gigahertz speed, which corresponds to at least 108 speed-up compared with biological neurons, the demonstrated neuron provides all functionality required by the spiking neuron model. The two demonstrated prototypes and a demonstrated feedback operation mode prove the feasibility and stability of our approach and show the obtained performance characteristics.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
where yi is the output of the i th neuron, xj is the jth input neuron signal, wij is the synaptic weight (or strength of connection) between the neurons i and j, and φ is the activation function. While this model has seen success in machine-learning applications, it is a poor model for real (biological) neurons, because it lacks the time-dependence that real neuron spikes exhibit. Biological models of the integrate-and-fire type take essentially this form; but they have largely been superseded by kinetic models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model.[citation needed] In the case of modelling a biological neuron, physical analogues are used in place of abstractions such as weight and transfer function. A neuron is filled and surrounded with water containing ions, which carry electric charge. The neuron is bound by an insulating cell membrane and can maintain a concentration of charged ions on either side that determines a capacitance Cm. The firing of a neuron involves the movement of ions into ...
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The Ebb and Flow of Deep Learning: a Theory of Local Learning In a physical neural system, where storage and processing are intertwined, the learning rules for adjusting synaptic weights can only depend on local variables, such as the activity of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. Thus learning models must specify two things: (1) which variables are to be considered local; and (2) which kind of function combines these local variables into a learning rule. We consider polynomial learning rules and analyze their behavior and capabilities in both linear and non-linear networks. As a byproduct, this framework enables the discovery of new learning rules and important relationships between learning rules and group symmetries. Stacking local learning rules in deep feedforward networks leads to deep local learning. While deep local learning can learn interesting representations, it cannot learn complex input-output functions, even when targets are available for the top layer. Learning complex ...
The Ebb and Flow of Deep Learning: a Theory of Local Learning In a physical neural system, where storage and processing are intertwined, the learning rules for adjusting synaptic weights can only depend on local variables, such as the activity of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. Thus learning models must specify two things: (1) which variables are to be considered local; and (2) which kind of function combines these local variables into a learning rule. We consider polynomial learning rules and analyze their behavior and capabilities in both linear and non-linear networks. As a byproduct, this framework enables the discovery of new learning rules and important relationships between learning rules and group symmetries. Stacking local learning rules in deep feedforward networks leads to deep local learning. While deep local learning can learn interesting representations, it cannot learn complex input-output functions, even when targets are available for the top layer. Learning complex ...
See moreNeural activity is responsible for information processing in the brain. Activity has been found to have natural spatial modes, each of which has a frequency, analogous to the pitch of the notes of a musical instrument. A core aim of this thesis is to analyze large scale brain activity in terms of the eigenmodes of a brain hemisphere and to explore eigenmode dynamics. Electroencephalography (EEG) and evoked response potentials (ERPs) are important measurement techniques used to observe large scale changes in brain activity. EEG is a recording technique, while ERPs are transient electrical responses to brief sensory stimuli. In this thesis analysis of EEG and ERPs is carried out in terms of eigenmodes using an established physiologically based neural field theory, which averages over attribute of neurons to yield a continuum model of brain activity whose parameters are based on the physiology. To explore the effects of boundary conditions and topology, a spherical approximation is used and ...
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Our estimate of the average cortical spread of the LFP is similar to an estimate in layer 2/3 of cat V1 reported recently (Katzner et al., 2009) with a different approach, but is much smaller than many others. Our result seems to contradict a number of studies (Mitzdorf, 1987; Kruse and Eckhorn, 1996; Kreiman et al., 2006; Liu and Newsome, 2006; Berens et al., 2008) that concluded that the spread of LFP signals ranges from ∼500 μm to a few millimeters. However, all such estimates rely on a model associating the LFP with functional properties of cortical neurons. For most studies (Mitzdorf, 1987; Kruse and Eckhorn, 1996; Kreiman et al., 2006; Liu and Newsome, 2006; Berens et al., 2008; Katzner et al., 2009), estimates of the cortical spread of the LFP were indirect and were associated with columnar structures of certain feature selectivities, such as orientation, direction, or speed selectivity. Because the feature selectivity of the LFP is usually broader than that of single unit activity or ...
We argue that current theories of multisensory representations are inconsistent with the existence of a large proportion of multimodal neurons with gain fields and partially shifting receptive fields. Moreover, these theories do not fully resolve the recoding and statistical issues involved in multisensory integration. An alternative theory, which we have recently developed and review here, has important implications for the idea of frame of reference in neural spatial representations. This theory is based on a neural architecture that combines basis functions and attractor dynamics. Basis function units are used to solve the recoding problem, whereas attractor dynamics are used for optimal statistical inferences. This architecture accounts for gain fields and partially shifting receptive fields, which emerge naturally as a result of the network connectivity and dynamics.
Figure 3: The effect of synaptic noise of various synaptic types. (a) Visualization of spike train groups analyzed under synaptic noise. The ordinate represents the AP rank of APs fired at times shown on abscissa. The braided lines in the main graph represent different spike trains of individual trials and demonstrate an interesting preference of the spiking mechanism preserving AP times well aligned despite different numbers of fired APs in trials. The inset focuses on the region of an AP cluster, demonstrating the cluster method used to analyze APs: the dotted blue rectangle in the inset represents the 10 ms time window moving along aligned spike trains and collecting only those AP clusters having within the 10 ms window number of spikes larger than 70% the value of ...
We have shown that intensity-selective and intensity-nonselective neurons differ in excitatory tuning profile and absolute excitatory strength. Intuitively, the differential intensity tuning profile of excitation may fully account for the functional difference between intensity-selective and intensity-nonselective neurons. In the intensity-selective neuron, excitation is close to saturation at the intensity threshold (it reaches ,80% of the peak level), whereas at this intensity level inhibition is nearly the lowest (Fig. 4A,B). This may lead to a strong output response at the intensity threshold. With intensity further increasing, inhibition catches up, and the level of spike response may gradually fall.. To demonstrate how much the observed excitatory and inhibitory tuning profiles can account for the intensity tuning profile of output responses in a quantitative manner, we used a conductance-based single-compartment integrate-and-fire neuron model (Liu et al., 2007; Zhou et al., 2012). ...
Paolo Puggioni. Bayesian inference of synaptic inputs given an in vivo voltage clamp trace. Voltage clamp recordings in awake animals directly measure the excitatory (or inhibitory) synaptic current flowing in a single neuron.. The current results from the summation of thousands of synaptic inputs of variable size per second. Recent methods based on Kalman filtering [Paninski2012, Lankarany2013] give a good estimation of the time-varying synaptic conductance, that is a function of input rate and size. However, inferring how the distribution of input size changes during behaviour can be important to understand computational mechanisms used by our brain. Here I propose a simple hierarchical model that is able to estimate both frequency and probability distribution of the synaptic weights. Firstly I test the validity of my model by using generated data, showing that it is robust to high frequency noise and slow fluctuations in the inputs rate typical of in vivo recordings. Thus, I apply it to ...
Many hormones are released in pulsatile patterns. This pattern can be modified, for instance by changing pulse frequency, to encode relevant physiological information. Often other properties of the pulse pattern will also change with frequency. How do signaling pathways of cells targeted by these hormones respond to different input patterns? In this study, we examine how a given dose of hormone can induce different outputs from the target system, depending on how this dose is distributed in time. We use simple mathematical models of feedforward signaling motifs to understand how the properties of the target system give rise to preferences in input pulse pattern. We frame these problems in terms of frequency responses to pulsatile inputs, where the amplitude or duration of the pulses is varied along with frequency to conserve input dose. We find that the form of the nonlinearity in the steady state input-output function of the system predicts the optimal input pattern. It does so by selecting an optimal
A general agreement in psycholinguistics claims that syntax and meaning are unified precisely and very quickly during online sentence processing. Although several theories have advanced arguments regarding the neurocomputational bases of this phenomenon, we argue that these theories could potentially benefit by including neurophysiological data concerning cortical dynamics constraints in brain tissue. In addition, some theories promote the integration of complex optimization methods in neural tissue. In this paper we attempt to fill these gaps introducing a computational model inspired in the dynamics of cortical tissue. In our modeling approach, proximal afferent dendrites produce stochastic cellular activations, while distal dendritic branches-on the other hand-contribute independently to somatic depolarization by means of dendritic spikes, and finally, prediction failures produce massive firing events preventing formation of sparse distributed representations. The model presented in this paper
Too bad that paper wasnt adequately reviewed. The authors present no rationale for using cm*dVs/dt to represent the effect of extracellular stimulation on their model cells. Nor do they explain how they relate their Vs to cellular morphology, orientiation, or location within the cranium, or to the actual extracellular field induced in the brain by the stimulating electrodes (whatever the location or geometry of those electrodes might be). But of course none of those considerations could be taken into account because their model cells are single compartment models, which wouldnt respond to a realistic extracellular stimulus anyway. Apparently Vs is just assigned whatever values the authors found necessary to alter the firing activity of their single compartment model neurons ...
sim_isp_orig ====== This simulation is the adapted from the network used to generate Figure 4 in [1]. It simulates a balanced network of 10,000 sparsely connected integrate-and-fire neurons[2] and features plastic inhibitory-exciatory synapses. {{:examples:isp_fig4.png?300,}} [1] Vogels, T.P., Abbott, L.F., 2005. Signal propagation and logic gating in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. J Neurosci 25, 10786. [[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291952,PubMed]] [2] Vogels, T.P., Sprekeler, H., Zenke, F., Clopath, C., Gerstner, W., 2011. Inhibitory Plasticity Balances Excitation and Inhibition in Sensory Pathways and Memory Networks. Science 334, 1569 -1573. [[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22075724,PubMed]] ===== Running the program ===== To run the program after [[manual:start#first steps,compilation]] it suffices to call it as follows ,code shell, ./sim_isp_orig ,/code, this will trigger a 1000s simulation which creates the following output files ,code shell, 4 -rw-r--r-- 1 zenke lcn1 ...
In our approach, we choose to approximate P from the contribution coming from the most probable trajectory for the potential for each cell i, referred to as V i *(t). This approximation is exact when the amplitude σ of the noise is small. The determination of V i *(t) was done numerically by Paninski for one cell in [4]. We have found a fast algorithm to determine V i *(t) analytically in a time growing linearly with the number of spikes and quadratically with the number of neurons, which allows us to process recordings with tens of neurons easily. The algorithm is based on a detailed and analytical resolution of the coupled equations for the optimal potential V i *(t) and the associated optimal noise η i *(t) through (1), and is too complex to be explained in this abstract. ...
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Two limitations of Dynamic clamp are entirely technical: it has to be fast and temporally consistent. The time required for reading the membrane potential and calculating the current to inject has to be faster than the fastest time constant in the real neuron. This becomes problematic when the model is computationally intensive (as with stochastic Markov models). With ever increasing computer processor speeds, the speed limitation of dynamic clamp is constantly being pushed back. The update interval of the dynamic clamp has to be reliable and reproducible. Modern operating systems (OS) such as Linux, Mac OS, and Windows suffer from the inability of a program running on the OS to be guaranteed a requested operation will be performed precisely when it is requested. Operating systems that can guarantee a request is performed within a well defined time window are Linux with the RTLinux kernel extension, LabView with the real time module, and DOS. A version of dynamic clamp developed by R. Pinto ...
Gain modulation and the voltage dependence of channel activation.(A) The firing rate of the model neuron plotted against the average membrane potential, illustr
Designing Model-Based and Model-Free Reinforcement Learning Tasks without Human Guidance. Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, JEE HANG; Tong, Shuangyi; Kim, Sang Whan; Lee, Sang Wanresearcher, 33rd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2019), Neural Information Processing Systems Foundation, 2019- ...
Multistability refers to the capacity of a system to operate at several discrete, alternative stable steady-states, and is one of the most important features of...
The cerebral cortex is a highly complex network comprised of billions of excitable nerve cells. The coordinated dynamic interactions of these cells underlie our thoughts, memories, and sensory perceptions. A healthy brain carefully regulates its neural excitability to optimize information processing and avoid brain disorders. If excitability is too low, neural interactions are too weak and signals fail to propagate through the brain network. On the other hand, high excitability can result in excessively strong interactions and, in some ca
it is used in synaptic interactions, and in integrate-and-fire models it also leads to the execution of one or more reset statements.. Sometimes, it can be useful to define additional events, e.g. when an ion concentration in the cell crosses a certain threshold. This can be done with the custom events system in Brian, which is illustrated in this diagram.. ...
Author: Boussinot, Guillaume et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-06-30; Title: Achieving realistic interface kinetics in phase field models with a diffusional contrast
G. Agarwal, I. H. Stevenson, A. Berényi, K. Mizuseki, G. Buzsáki, F. T. Sommer: Spatially distributed local fields in the hippocampus encode rat position. Science 344 (2014): 626-630. pdf Supplement J. P. Crutchfield, R. G. James, S. Marzen and D. P. Varn, Understanding and Designing Complex Systems: Response to A framework for optimal high-level descriptions in science and engineering---preliminary report, (2014). arXiv link J. H. Engel, S. B. Eryilmaz, SangBum Kim, M. BrightSky, Chung Lam, H.-L. Lung, B. A. Olshausen, H.-S.P. Wong (2014) Capacity optimization of emerging mem- ory systems: A shannon-inspired approach to device characterization, Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2014 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.29.4.1,29.4.4, 15- 17 Dec. 2014 link A. K. Fletcher and S. Rangan, Scalable Inference for Neuronal Connectivity from Calcium Imaging, Proc. 28th Ann. Conf. Neural Information Processing Systems, NIPS (2014). Harper NS, Scott BH, Semple MN, McAlpine D (2014) The neural code ...
G. Agarwal, I. H. Stevenson, A. Berényi, K. Mizuseki, G. Buzsáki, F. T. Sommer: Spatially distributed local fields in the hippocampus encode rat position. Science 344 (2014): 626-630. pdf Supplement J. P. Crutchfield, R. G. James, S. Marzen and D. P. Varn, Understanding and Designing Complex Systems: Response to A framework for optimal high-level descriptions in science and engineering---preliminary report, (2014). arXiv link J. H. Engel, S. B. Eryilmaz, SangBum Kim, M. BrightSky, Chung Lam, H.-L. Lung, B. A. Olshausen, H.-S.P. Wong (2014) Capacity optimization of emerging mem- ory systems: A shannon-inspired approach to device characterization, Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2014 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.29.4.1,29.4.4, 15- 17 Dec. 2014 link A. K. Fletcher and S. Rangan, Scalable Inference for Neuronal Connectivity from Calcium Imaging, Proc. 28th Ann. Conf. Neural Information Processing Systems, NIPS (2014). Harper NS, Scott BH, Semple MN, McAlpine D (2014) The neural code ...
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On Thu, May 12, 2005 at 10:47:13AM +0200, Karim Belabas wrote: , Indeed. As for the ridiculous accuracy of %3 above, we have conflicting , specifications: , 1) PARI functions give as precise a result as is possible from the input, , 2) floating point computations are meant to foster speed by truncating , operands. , , Only 1) is specified in the documentation, 2) is only a general understanding. , And a rather misleading one as far as PARI is concerned; it is a common , source of misapprehension to assume that , , * realprecision is the relative accuracy used to truncate operands in 2). , Which it is not: it is used to convert exact objects to inexact ones. , , * operands with n digits of accuracy will yield a result with at most the , same accuracy. Which is wrong: indeed 1 + 1e-50000 may be computed to , more than 50000 digits of accuracy. The IEEE754 specification and the MPFR extension say the the correct result is the representable number the closest to the actual result, assuming the ...
Spike-timing dependent plasticity is a learning mechanism used extensively within neural modelling. The learning rule has been shown to allow a neuron to find the onset of a spatio-temporal pattern repeated among its afferents. In this thesis, the first question addressed is what does this neuron learn? With a spiking neuron model and linear prediction, evidence is adduced that the neuron learns two components: (1) the level of average background activity and (2) specific spike times of a pattern. Taking advantage of these findings, a network is developed that can train recognisers for longer spatio-temporal input signals using spike-timing dependent plasticity. Using a number of neurons that are mutually connected by plastic synapses and subject to a global winner-takes-all mechanism, chains of neurons can form where each neuron is selective to a different segment of a repeating input pattern, and the neurons are feedforwardly connected in such a way that both the correct stimulus and the ...
Computational neuroscience is the science of how the brain computes, that is, how the brain performs cognitive functions such as recognizing a face or walking. Here I will argue that most models of cognition developed in the field, especially as regards sensory systems, are actually not biological models but hybrid models consisting of a neural model together with an abstract model.. First of all, many neural models are not meant to be models of cognition. For example, there are models that are developed to explain the irregular spiking of cortical neurons, or oscillations. I will not consider them. According to the definition above, I categorize them in theoretical neuroscience rather than computational neuroscience. Here I consider for example models of perception, memory, motor control.. An example that I know well is the problem of localizing a sound source from timing cues. There are a number of models, including a spiking neuron model that we have developed (Goodman and Brette, 2010). ...
Information theory provides a natural set of statistics to quantify the amount of knowledge a neuron conveys about a stimulus. A related work (Kennel, Shlens, Abarbanel, & Chichilnisky, 2005) demonstrated how to reliably estimate, with a Bayesian confidence interval, the entropy rate from a discrete, observed time series. We extend this method to measure the rate of novel information that a neural spike train encodes about a stimulus-the average and specific mutual information rates. Our estimator makes few assumptions about the underlying neural dynamics, shows excellent performance in experimentally relevant regimes, and uniquely provides confidence intervals bounding the range of information rates compatible with the observed spike train. We validate this estimator with simulations of spike trains and highlight how stimulus parameters affect its convergence in bias and variance. Finally, we apply these ideas to a recording from a guinea pig retinal ganglion cell and compare results to a ...
Computational neuroscience is an approach to understanding the development and function of nervous systems at many different structural scales, including the biophysical, the circuit, and the systems levels. Methods include theoretical analysis and modeling of neurons, networks, and brain systems and are complementary to empirical techniques in neuroscience. Areas and topics of particular interest to this book series include computational mechanisms in neurons, analysis of signal processing in neural circuits, representation of sensory information, systems models of sensorimotor integration, computational approaches to biological motor control, and models of learning and memory. Further topics of interest include the intersection of computational neuroscience with engineering, from representation and dynamics, to observation and control.. ...
This paper describes the performance of a neuronal network model of the input layer 4Cα of macaque V1. This model differs from others in the literature in several ways. (i) It is designed largely from data for the anatomy and physiology of layer 4Cα of macaque (i.e., length scales and patterning of connectivity, and pinwheel centers). (ii) It uses cortical coordinates rather than idealized coordinates as in ring models (7, 8, 28) or near-ring models (9), whose coordinate labels are angles of orientation preference, rather than cortical locations within the layer. (iii) It has only short-range local inhibition, which is consistent with anatomical data, rather than an inhibition which is explicitly long-range in orientation preference, as is standard for many models (7-9, 31). (iv) It uses membrane potential, driven by synaptic conductances, as the fundamental variables, rather than activities or mean firing rates (7, 8, 32), or a probabilistic population-density representation (31, 33, ...
The aim of this work is to introduce and study simple neuron models with a dynamic threshold: The integrate and fire with dynamic threshold and a resonate and fire with dynamic threshold. The last model is a new model raised from an initial study of the integrate and fire with a dynamic threshold. The characteristics of the new model are studied from a mathematical point of view specially concerning the dynamical systems theory of the non-smooth systems. . In this project we will study analytically and computationally integrate-and-fire models with dynamic threshold, reproducing behaviors observed in the real nervoussystems, using techniques from non-smooth systems. Our goal is to describe the types of spiking patterns that can generate in response to steady and periodic current ...
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Background. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be the cellular correlate for the formation of memory traces in the brain. Recently, spike-timing dependent plasticity has gained increased interest as a plausible physiological mechanism for the activity-dependent modification of synaptic strength. It might be fundamental for circuit refinement, map plasticity and the explanation of higher brain functions. It is not clear if spike-timing dependent plasticity is a universal learning rule based on simple biophysical mechanisms. The molecular signalling pathways involved are quite diverse and apparently use-dependent. The fundamental question is what determines the molecular machinery at a synaptic contact that translates electrical activity into a change in synaptic strength.Specific Aims. (1) The influence of active dendritic properties, which can result in the generation of local dendritic spikes, on changes in synaptic strength will be studied. They will have an important impact on the local ...
WK7 - Hebbian Learning. CS 476: Networks of Neural Computation WK7 - Hebbian Learning Dr. Stathis Kasderidis Dept. of Computer Science University of Crete Spring Semester, 2009. Contents. Introduction to Hebbian Learning Definitions on Pattern Association Pattern Association Network Slideshow 6779351 by sylvana-silas
To contribute, see :pencil2: code of contribution. Computational neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that joins biology/neuroscience, medicine, biophysics, psychology, computer science, mathematics, and statistics to study the nervous system using computational approaches.. This list of schools and researchers in computational neuroscience, theoretical neuroscience, (and systems neuroscience) aims to give a global perspective of researchers in the field, make it easier to apply to the listed institutions, and also provide a reasonable way to find an advisor.. In addition to names of PIs, excerpts of their academic biographies, and links to their publications, many of the researchers are qualified with a small scale +/=/- computational. The metric is subjective to the editor of that material but it generally breaks down as: (+) refers to a researcher the university identifies as a computational neuroscientist, their bio consistently identifies a significant component of their research ...
Buy, download and read Computational Neuroscience ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Jianfeng Feng. ISBN: 9780203494462. Publisher: CRC Press. How does the brain work? After a century of research, we still lack a coherent view of how neurons process signals and control our activities. But as the field of computational neuroscience continues
Many sounds of ecological importance, such as communication calls, are characterised by time-varying spectra. However, most neuromorphic auditory models to date have focused on distinguishing mainly static patterns, under the assumption that dynamic patterns can be learned as sequences of static ones. In contrast, the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli has been recently modeled in a network of spiking neurons based on the thalamocortical architecture. The proposed network models the effect of lateral and recurrent connections between cortical layers, distance-dependent axonal transmission delays, and learning in the form of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP), which effects stimulus-driven changes in the pattern of network connectivity. In this paper we demonstrate how these principles can be efficiently implemented in neuromorphic hardware. In doing so we address two principle problems in the design of neuromorphic systems: real-time event-based ...
Here, based on our previous work on linear synaptic filtering [1-3], we build a general theory for the stationary firing response of integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons receiving stochastic inputs filtered by one, two or multiple synaptic channels each characterized by an arbitrary timescale. The formalism applies to arbitrary IF model neurons, and to arbitrary forms of input noise (i.e., not required to be Gaussian or to have small amplitude), as well as to any form of synaptic filtering (linear or non-linear). The theory determines with exact analytical expressions the firing rate of an IF neuron for long synaptic time constants using the adiabatic approach. The correlated spiking (cross-correlations function) of two neurons receiving common as well as independent sources of noise is also described (see figure 1). The theory is exemplified using leaky, quadratic and noise thresholded IF neurons (LIF, QIF, NTIF). Although the adiabatic approach is exact when at least one of the synaptic timescales ...
Computational neuroscience is the theoretical study of the brain to uncover the principles and mechanisms that guide the development, organization, information processing, and mental functions of the nervous system. Although not a new area, it is only recently that enough knowledge has been gathered to establish computational neuroscience as a scientific discipline in its own right.
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The responses of neurons to time-varying injected currents are reproducible on a trial-by-trial basis in vitro, but when a constant current is injected, small variances in interspike intervals across trials add up, eventually leading to a high variance in spike timing. It is unclear whether this difference is due to the nature of the input currents or the intrinsic properties of the neurons. Neuron responses can fail to be reproducible in two ways: dynamical noise can accumulate over time and lead to a desynchronization over trials, or several stable responses can exist, depending on the initial condition. Here we show, through simulations and theoretical considerations, that for a general class of spiking neuron models, which includes, in particular, the leaky integrate-and-fire model as well as nonlinear spiking models, aperiodic currents, contrary to periodic currents, induce reproducible responses, which are stable under noise, change in initial conditions and deterministic perturbations of ...
Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a ...
The brain orchestrates perceptions, thoughts, and actions through the ensemble spiking activity of its neurons. Biological processes underlying spike transformations across brain regions, including synaptic transmissions, dendritic integrations, and spike generations, are highly nonlinear dynamical processes and are often nonstationary. For example, it is well established that certain forms of plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), occur in response to specific input patterns, and plasticity is manifested as a change in input-output function that can be viewed as a system nonstationarity. Quantitative studies of how such functions of information transmission across brain regions evolve during behavior are required in order to understand the brain. In this project, we developed a nonstationary modeling framework for the multiple-spike activity propagations between brain regions. ❧ In this study, in order to analyze the nonlinear dynamics underlying ...
The brain orchestrates perceptions, thoughts, and actions through the ensemble spiking activity of its neurons. Biological processes underlying spike transformations across brain regions, including synaptic transmissions, dendritic integrations, and spike generations, are highly nonlinear dynamical processes and are often nonstationary. For example, it is well established that certain forms of plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), occur in response to specific input patterns, and plasticity is manifested as a change in input-output function that can be viewed as a system nonstationarity. Quantitative studies of how such functions of information transmission across brain regions evolve during behavior are required in order to understand the brain. In this project, we developed a nonstationary modeling framework for the multiple-spike activity propagations between brain regions. ❧ In this study, in order to analyze the nonlinear dynamics underlying ...
Experimental observations of the intracellular recorded electrical activity in individual neurons show that the temporal behavior is often chaotic. We discuss both our own observations on a cell from the stom-atogastric central pattern generator of lobster and earlier observations in other cells.. In this paper we work with models of chaotic neurons, building on models by Hindmarsh and Rose for bursting, spiking activity in neurons. The key feature of these simplified models of neurons is the presence of coupled slow and fast subsystems. We analyze the model neurons using the same tools employed in the analysis of our experimental data.. We couple two model neurons both electrotonically and electrochemically in inhibitory and excitatory fashions. In each of these cases, we demonstrate that the model neurons can synchronize in phase and out of phase depending on the strength of the coupling. For normal synaptic coupling, we have a time delay between the action of one neuron and the response of ...
Transmission of signals within the brain is essential for cognitive function, but it is not clear how neural circuits support reliable and accurate signal propagation over a sufficiently large dynamic range. Two modes of propagation have been studied: synfire chains, in which synchronous activity travels through feedforward layers of a neuronal network, and the propagation of fluctuations in firing rate across these layers. In both cases, a sufficient amount of noise, which was added to previous models from an external source, had to be included to support stable propagation. Sparse, randomly connected networks of spiking model neurons can generate chaotic patterns of activity. We investigate whether this activity, which is a more realistic noise source, is sufficient to allow for signal transmission. We find that, for rate-coded signals but not for synfire chains, such networks support robust and accurate signal reproduction through up to six layers if appropriate adjustments are made in ...
Multistability remains an intriguing phenomenon for neuroscience. The functional roles of multistability in neural systems are not well understood. On the other hand, its pathological roles are widely discussed in recent studies. Knowledge of the dynamic mechanisms supporting multistability opens new horizons for medical applications. It has been intensively targeted in a search for new treatments of the medical conditions which are caused by malfunction of the dynamics of the CNS. Sudden infant death syndrome, epilepsy and Parkinsons disease are examples of such conditions. Recent progress in the modern technology of computer-brain interface based on real time systems allows to utilize complex feedback stimulation algorithms suppressing pathological regime co-existing with the normal one. It still remains a challenge to identify the scenarios leading to the multistability in the neuronal dynamics and discuss what are potential roles of the multistability in the operation of the central nervous ...
The GL model was defined in 2013 by mathematicians Antonio Galves and Eva Löcherbach.[1] Its inspirations included Frank Spitzers interacting particle system and Jorma Rissanens notion of stochastic chain with memory of variable length. Another work that influenced this model was Bruno Cessacs study on the leaky integrate-and-fire model, who himself was influenced by Hédi Soula.[4] Galves and Löcherbach referred to the process that Cessac described as a version in a finite dimension of their own probabilistic model. Prior integrate-and-fire models with stochastic characteristics relied on including a noise to simulate stochasticity.[5] The Galves-Löcherbach model distinguishes itself because it is inherently stochastic, incorporating probabilistic measures directly in the calculation of spikes. It is also a model that may be applied relatively easily, from a computational standpoint, with a good ratio between cost and efficiency. It remains a non-Markovian model, since the probability ...
A system and method for detecting aberrant network behavior. One embodiment provides a system of detecting aberrant network behavior behind a network access gateway comprising a processor, a first network interface coupled to the processor, a second network interface coupled to the processor, a storage media accessible by the processor and a set of computer instructions executable by the processor. The computer instructions can be executable to observe network communications arriving at the first network interface from multiple clients and determine when the traffic of a particular client is indicative of malware infection or other hostile network activity. If the suspicious network communication is determined to be of a sufficient volume, type, or duration the computer instructions can be executable to log such activity to storage media, or to notify an administrative entity via either the first network interface or second network interface, or to make the computer instructions be executable to perform
Correlated neuronal activity and the flow of neural information. Jaeseung Jeong, Ph.D Department of Bio and Brain Engineering. Nonlinear information transmission of the cerebral cortex. Conventional measure: cross-correlation. Slideshow 6735842 by alana-fulton
We present a peripheral vision model inspired by the cortical architecture discovered by Hubel and Wiesel. As with existing cortical models, this model contains alternating layers of simple cells, which employ tuning functions to increase specificity, and complex cells, which pool over simple cells to increase invariance. To extend the traditional cortical model, we introduce the option of eccentricity-dependent pooling and tuning parameters within a given model layer. This peripheral vision system can be used to model physiological data where receptive field sizes change as a function of eccentricity. This gives the user flexibility to test different theories about filtering and pooling ranges in the periphery. In a specific instantiation of the model, pooling and tuning parameters can increase linearly with eccentricity to model physiological data found in different layers of the visual cortex. Additionally, it can be used to introduce pre-cortical model layers such as retina and LGN. We have ...
This 12-month course is designed to provide you with in-depth training into the core problems in systems neuroscience, and will develop your understanding of the disciplines and techniques used to address these problems such as computer simulation modelling, data visualisation and neuroanatomy.. In semester one youll build on your existing knowledge, giving you a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of neuroscience, computational neuroscience and mathematical modelling. Once youve developed a solid foundation in these areas at the core of systems neuroscience, semester two will be devoted to advanced modules where youll tailor your learning and choose to specialise in one of two distinct routes of study: pathway 1 or pathway 2.. Pathway 1 will train you in methods for visualising brain networks, including electrophysiology, optical imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as experimental protocols. Pathway 2 will build on your theoretical skills in this area of ...
The totality of mechanisms involved in the process of information transmission is immensely complex, comprised as it is of biochemical, biophysical, and ultrastructural elements. More-over, these are...
The study is designed to identify specific patterns of brain functional activity associated with chronic, moderate to severe tinnitus through the use of resting-state MEG scans. Robust patterns identified in this study will be used as a biomarker for subsequent clinical evaluation of experimental drug treatments for tinnitus. This study will conduct MEG scans on approximately 30 to 75 subjects with tinnitus and approximately 15 healthy control subjects. MEG scans will be obtained for each subject following screening, clinical and tinnitus evaluations. A subset of 6 subjects from the tinnitus cohort will be invited to undergo evoked auditory assessment during an extended MEG scan session to identify cortical regions that respond to the auditory stimulus. These six subjects also will be evaluated with a single structural MRI scan to support high-resolution mapping of the localized cortical regions. MEG data will be analyzed to identify patterns of brain activity that are specifically associated ...
For biological networks, the effect of synaptic weights is not as simple as for linear neurons or Hebbian learning. However, biophysical models such as BCM theory have seen some success in mathematically describing these networks. In the mammalian central nervous system, signal transmission is carried out by interconnected networks of nerve cells, or neurons. For the basic pyramidal neuron, the input signal is carried by the axon, which releases neurotransmitter chemicals into the synapse which is picked up by the dendrites of the next neuron, which can then generate an action potential which is analogous to the output signal in the computational case. The synaptic weight in this process is determined by several variable factors: ...
Biological neurons are good examples of a threshold deviceâ€this is why neural systems are in the focus when looking for realization of Stochastic Resonance (SR) and Spatiotemporal Stochastic Resonance (STSR) phenomena. There are two different ways to simulate neural systemsâ€one based on differential equations, the other based on a simple threshold model. In this talk the effect of noise on neural systems will be discussed using both ways of modelling. The results so far suggest that SR and STSR do occur in models of neural systems. However, how significant is the role played by these phenomena and what implications might they have on neurobiology is still a question. © 2000 American Institute of Physics ...
It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 11th International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP 2004) to be held in Calcutta. ICONIP 2004 is organized jointly by the Indian Stati
20) Spike-timing dependent plasticity: Getting the brain from correlation to causation (Levy - 1983, Sakmann - 1994, Bi & Poo - 1998, Dan - 2002). Hebbs original proposal was worded as such: When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that As efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased. [emphasis added]. The phrase takes part in firing implies causation of Bs activity via As activity, not simply a correlation of the two.. There are several ways to go beyond correlation to infer causation. One method is to observe that one event (e.g., cell As activity) comes just before the caused event (e.g., cell Bs activity).. In 1983 Levy showed with hippocampal slices that electrically stimulating cell A to fire before cell B will cause long-lasting strengthening of the synapse from cell A to cell B. However, when the opposite occurs, and ...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics have now developed a novel multimodal methodology called neural event-triggered functional magnetic resonance imaging (NET-fMRI) and presented the very first results obtained using it in experiments with both anesthetized and awake, behaving monkeys. The new methodology uses multiple-contact electrodes in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the entire brain to map widespread networks of neurons that are activated by local, structure-specific neural events. Many invasive studies in nonhuman primates and clinical investigations in human patients have demonstrated that the hippocampus, one of the oldest, most primitive brain structures, is largely responsible for the long term retention of information regarding places, specific events, and their contexts, that is, for the retention of so-called declarative memories. Without the hippocampus a person may be able to learn a manual task over a period of ...
RA1 will take a leading role in the development of the neural circuit model. This will be a spiking neural model that copies one-to-one the neurons in the olfactory learning pathway of Drosophila larvae. It will be interfaced to a behavioural simulation, and to a robot model, and will be used to test hypotheses about the key mechanisms and locations of synaptic modification, and how the acquisition of associations interacts with behavioural control. Predictions from the model will be tested by our project partners using neurogenetic methods to measure and alter neural function in freely behaving animals ...
Connect and collaborate with Trevor Bekolay, with research interests in Long-term memory and Spike-timing dependent plasticity, on Mendeley.
In particular, we would like to understand how neurons are optimized for their computational task. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between intrinsic neuronal properties and the signaling mechanisms shaped by them, as well as their relevance for network behavior. The aim is to link the molecular level of ion channels to characteristics of neuronal firing, focusing on topics like information transfer, synchronization, energy efficiency, and temperature robustness. To identify computational principles, conductance-based and phenomenological models are used in combination with data evaluation techniques and analytical approaches. We closely cooperate with experimental groups in order to test theoretical predictions ...
schmitt at cs.unc.edu (Charles Schmitt) wrote: ,Can anyone suggest what would be good review articles or book (chapters) ,describing how measured postsynaptic spike trains have been observed ,to be dependent on presynaptic spike trains. What Im searching for ,is to strengthen my knowledge of what statistical measures of spike trains, ,such as mean frequency, inter-spike interval, etc..., have been used ,to describe postsynaptic spike trains and how these statistics have any ,observed dependency on the same presynaptic statistics. Im particularly ,interested in such observed dependencies in visual cortex. ,Thanks, Charlie. The initial work here was done for the spinomotor system. A good paper is by Cope, Fetz, and Matsumura, Cross-correlation assessment of synaptic strength of single Ia fibre connections with triceps surae motorneurons in cats, J. Physiol., 390:161-188, 1982. This is not an easy read, at first, but is worth it. (There is an older literature for this system: search Kirkwood, ...
In my ongoing Ph.D. project, titled Exploring the effective communication of brain network dynamics under different states, we carried the first research to demonstrate significant brain-wide integration changes during three cognitive tasks using intracranial EEG [1]. In a second study, we provided the first demonstration of a whole-brain model integrating anatomical connectivity, functional activity and neuromodulator receptor density from multimodal imaging of healthy human participants [2], and in a third study, we investigated the relevant timescale for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics across the whole brain. We introduced a novel way to generate whole-brain neural dynamical activity at the millisecond scale from fMRI signals, and using the independent measures of entropy and hierarchy to characterize the richness of the dynamical repertoire, we showed that both methods find a similar optimum at a timescale of around 200 ms in resting state and in task data [3].. 1. Cruzat, J., Deco, ...
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When choosing between two options, correlates of their value are represented in neural activity throughout the brain. Whether these representations reflect activity that is fundamental to the computational process of value comparison, as opposed to other computations covarying with value, is unknown. We investigated activity in a biophysically plausible network model that transforms inputs relating to value into categorical choices. A set of characteristic time-varying signals emerged that reflect value comparison. We tested these model predictions using magnetoencephalography data recorded from human subjects performing value-guided decisions. Parietal and prefrontal signals matched closely with model predictions. These results provide a mechanistic explanation of neural signals recorded during value-guided choice and a means of distinguishing computational roles of different cortical regions whose activity covaries with value.
Retinal waves are bursts of activity occurring spontaneously in the developing retina of vertebrate species, contributing to the shaping of the visual system organization and disappear short after birth. Waves during development are a transient process which evolves dynamically exhibiting different features. Based on our previous modelling work [1,2], we now propose a classification of stage II retinal waves patterns as a function of acetylcholine coupling strength and a possible mechanism for waves generation. Our model predicts that spatiotemporal patterns evolve upon maturation or pharmacological manipulation and that waves emerge from a complete homogeneous state without the need of the variability of a neural population. Context & Motivation SACs dynamically change their synaptic coupling upon maturation Coupled cholinergic SACs [3] Cholinergic current evolution upon maturation [4]-70 mV 60mV 0 0.8 88 nM 300 nM 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 Bursting sAHP Increase of Calcium load during bursting Calcium controls
The Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Groups main line of research is the development of pharmacological and non-pharmacological (cognitive/electrical stimulation) approaches for the treatment of diseases that cause intellectual disability or cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders (including Down syndrome, drug addiction, depression, schizophrenia, or dementia). Our emphasis is on understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and on developing treatments, biomarkers of exposure, efficacy and toxicity.. Moreover, the group is responsible for providing instruction in pharmacology, chemistry and toxicology to graduate and undergraduate students of both human biology and medicine tracks (Pompeu Fabra University, Autonomous University of Barcelona), and to train pre-doctoral and postdoctoral researchers.. The Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Group and the Proteomics Research Group from the Pompeu Fabra University constitute the BAPP (Bioanalysis, ...
Neurological model[edit]. The theoretical underpinnings of Moniz's psychosurgery were largely commensurate with the nineteenth ... In: Jacyna, Stephen J.; Casper, Stephen T. (eds). The Neurological Patient in History. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester ... This was reflected in the 1935 neurological congress in London, which hosted[79] as part of its deliberations,[79] "a ... Contributing editors Dagi, T. Forcht; Epstein, Mel H.. Park Ridge, IL: The American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 1997 ...
An ecological model of sensory modulation: Performance of children with fragile X syndrome, autistic disorder, attention- ... High neurological thresholds. *Low registration: high threshold with passive response. Individuals who do not pick up on ... Quadrant model[edit]. Dunn's nosology uses two criteria:[100] response type (passive vs active) and sensory threshold to the ... Other models[edit]. A wide variety of approaches have incorporated sensation in order to influence learning and behavior.[99] ...
Kuijsten, Marcel (2009). "New evidence for Jaynes's neurological model: A research update". The Jaynesian. 3: 1.. ... The 2016 sci-fi television series Westworld invoked bicameralism as the model for the development of consciousness in its "host ... Thus consciousness, like bicamerality, emerged as a neurological adaptation to social complexity in a changing world.[citation ... When bicamerality as a method of social control was no longer adaptive in complex civilizations, this mental model was replaced ...
Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93(6):451-459 Sachdev P. Animal models of drug-induced akathisia. In LeDoux MS (Ed). Animal models ... Neurological Disease and Therapy Series. Macel Dekker, New York, 2005:129-164. Brodaty H, Sachdev P, Rose N, Rylands K, Prenter ... 2: A neurological, neuropsychological and MRI investigation. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175:416-421. Sachdev P, Smith JS, Cathcart S ... Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is antidepressant but not anxiolytic in rat models of anxiety and ...
eds.). Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes ... No animal model has all the characteristics of epileptogenesis in humans, so research efforts aim to identify one. Such a model ... Abel MS, McCandless DW (1992). "The kindling model of epilepsy". In Adams RN, Baker GB, Baker JM, Bateson AN, Boisvert DP, ... People with PTE have follow-up visits, in which health care providers monitor neurological and neuropsychological function and ...
Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; Glasauer, Stefan (2012). "Model Approach to Neurological Variants of ... "Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgery Psychiatry. 86 (9): e3.4-e3. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2015-311750.12.. ... D'Esposito, edited by Mark (2003). Neurological foundations of cognitive neuroscience ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: ...
The third screening stage is focused on potential animal models of neurological disease. The protocol has been used to test ... June 2001). "SHIRPA, a protocol for behavioral assessment: validation for longitudinal study of neurological dysfunction in ... several mutant mice, including dystrophin-deficient mutants, transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's ...
The purpose of creating an in vitro neurological model is to study these diseases in a more simple and variable space. This 3D ... The varying physiology between human and other mammalian models limits the scope of study in neurological disorders. Cerebral ... Wang H (2018-06-08). "Modeling Neurological Diseases With Human Brain Organoids". Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience. 10: 15. ... Currently it is unlikely given the simplicity of synthesised models compared to the complexity of a human brain, however models ...
New Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases. Biovalley Monographs. pp. 66-80. doi:10.1159/000117724. ISBN 978-3-8055-8405- ... James W. Albers; Stanley Berent (15 August 2005). Neurobehavioral Toxicology: Neurological and Neuropsychological Perspectives ... Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 12: 175628641986636. doi:10.1177/1756286419866367. PMC 6691669. PMID 31447934 ...
Quadrant model Dunn's nosology uses two criteria:[75] response type (passive vs active) and sensory threshold to the stimuli ( ... Current research in sensory processing is focused on finding the genetic and neurological causes of SPD. EEG[28] and measuring ... In animal models, prenatal stress significantly increased tactile avoidance.[32]. *Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs ... Original model Ayres's theoretical framework for what she called Sensory Integration Dysfunction was developed after six factor ...
2000). "A reductionist approach to creating and using neuromusculoskeletal models". In JMC Winters, P.E. (ed.). Biomechanical ... and neurological control of posture and movements. New York: Springer. pp. 148-63. ISBN 978-0-471-50908-0. Nishikawa, K.; ...
Buckmaster, Paul S. (2006). "Inherited Epilepsy in Mongolian Gerbils". Models of Seizures and Epilepsy. pp. 273-294. doi: ... The Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 16 (1-2): 101-106. doi:10.1007/BF02229081. PMID 7642342. S2CID 4551801. "Scent ... A simple model to study hair cell loss and regeneration". Hearing Research. 325: 12-26. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2015.03.002. PMC ... from detection of low frequency foot drumming to higher frequency chirps and therefore may be a more suitable model of human ...
... , also referred to as "Simple Allochiria", is a neurological disorder in which a patient is unable to recognise or ... 183-201, doi:10.1016/s0166-4115(08)61713-6, ISBN 978-0-444-70193-0 Kinsbourne, Marcel (1970-07-20). "A model for the mechanism ... "A Model for the Mechanism of Unilateral Neglect of Space". In the study, Kinsbourne briefly mentioned the lack of awareness to ... of unilateral neglect of space". Transactions of the American Neurological Association. 95: 143-6. PMID 5514359. Bisiach, ...
"From reinforcement learning models to psychiatric and neurological disorders". Nat. Neurosci. 14 (2): 154-62. doi:10.1038/nn. ... However, the second model proposes that the actions do not originate in the basal ganglia, and instead originate in the cortex ... The first model suggests a "critic" which encodes value, and an actor which encodes responses to stimuli based on perceived ... These models of the basal ganglia are thought to be relevant to the study of ADHD, Tourette syndrome, Parkinson's disease, ...
Journal of the neurological sciences 362 (2016): 232-239. Rizzo, John-Ross, et al. "Sensor fusion for ecologically valid ... 2017 7th International Conference on Modeling, Simulation, and Applied Optimization (ICMSAO). IEEE, 2017. Rizzo, John-Ross, et ...
... receptor antagonists in animal models of Parkinson's disease". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 248 (1-2): 9-15. doi: ...
http://doi.org/10.1080/01690960903057006 Hillert, D.G. (2008). On Idioms: Cornerstones of a Neurological Model of Language ... His research focuses on the human language faculty as a cognitive and neurological system. He is known for work on the ... He advocates comparative evolutionary studies of cognition, argues against tablua rasa models, and favors computational ...
"Animal models of neurological deficits: how relevant is the rat?". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 3 (7): 574-9. doi:10.1038/ ... He is also responsible for developing a mouse model of skilled hand use that is useful for studying impairments, compensation, ... and models and tests for rat behavior. Whishaw's other books include in 2017, Brain and Behaviour: Revisiting the Classic ... with various models and tests to quantify rodent behavior. The individual chapters of the book highlight the extraordinary ...
Yoshitomi attempted to define a model of language attrition that was related to neurological and psychological aspects of ... Yoshitomi, A. (1992). "Towards a Model of Language Attrition: neurological and psychological contributions". In: Issues in ... Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Yoshitomi, A (1992). "Towards a Model of Language Attrition: neurological and psychological ... Larsen-Freeman, D.; Schmid, M. S.; Lowie, W. (2011). "Introduction: From structure to chaos". Modeling Bilingualism. Studies in ...
This makes the Atlas particularly useful for modeling neurological diseases. The gene expression patterns in normal individuals ... The atlas can show which genes and particular areas are effected in neurological disorders; the action of a gene in a disease ... Extending information learned from mouse diseases will help better the understanding of human neurological disorders. ...
Current models can be divided into two categories: inside-out and outside-in. In the former, it is hypothesized that a problem ... There are three clinical phenotypes: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by periods of neurological worsening ... Some molecular biochemical models for relapses have been proposed. Normally, gadolinium enhancement is used to show BBB ... The theory of the trans-synaptic degeneration, is compatible with other models based in the CSF biochemistry. Others propose an ...
This model allowed the researchers to decipher what was causing these neurological symptoms. It was found that the potassium ... "Ani". mal model mirrors human form of occupational neuropathy in pork plant workers. Neurology Today. Retrieved 19 March 2012. ... Not only did these patients share similar neurological symptoms, they also worked at the same pork processing plant. Dr. Daniel ... Researchers from the Mayo Clinic developed a mouse model that received twice daily liquefied pig neural tissue intranasally to ...
In her model, desire feeds arousal and orgasm, and is in turn fueled by the rest of the orgasmic cycle. Rather than orgasm ... Portner, Martin (May 15, 2008). "The Orgasmic Mind: The Neurological Roots of Sexual Pleasure". Scientific American. Archived ... Basson R (2000). "The female sexual response: a different model". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 26 (1): 51-65. doi:10.1080/ ... Portner, Martin (May 15, 2008). "The Orgasmic Mind: The Neurological Roots of Sexual Pleasure". Scientific American. Archived ...
Researchers have re-iterated that the results of Alexander's studies highlight issues with rat models kept in bare-bones lab ... Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. 12 (5): 587-592. doi:10.2174/1871527311312050007. ISSN 1871-5273. PMID 23574171. Lahvis, ... Alexander B.K. (1987). "The disease and adaptive models of addiction: A framework evaluation". Journal of Drug Issues. 17: 47- ... Burrows, Emma; Hannan, Anthony (2013-07-01). "Towards Environmental Construct Validity in Animal Models of CNS Disorders: ...
... reverses neuroinflammation while promoting neural repair in EAE model". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 312 (1-2): 146-57 ... In adult models, PIF has multiple neurogenic effects: it promotes the growth of neurons and reduces neuroinflammation. It is ... In adult models, PIF also reverses the pathological neuroinflammation caused by autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis ... correlates with early mammalian embryo development-bovine and murine models". Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 9 (1): 63 ...
"Reversal of Neurological Defects in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome". Science. 315 (5815): 1143-1147. Bibcode:2007Sci...315.1143 ... Other neurological abnormalities may present, including sleep disturbances, ictal apnea, motor deficits, hypotonia, language ... hopes to establish an animal model of PCDH19 gene-related epilepsy, which can then be used to screen potential therapeutics and ... neurological examination, electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, and long term observation. Diagnosis is confirmed using molecular ...
Guy, J; Gan, J; Selfridge, J; Cobb, S; Bird, A (2007). "Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome". ...
Compatibilist models adhere to models of mind in which mental activity (such as deliberation) can be reduced to physical ... The standard neurological explanation is that the felt will reported by the speaking left hemisphere does not correspond with ... Models of volition have been constructed in which it is seen as a particular kind of complex, high-level process with an ... suggest models that explain the relationship between conscious intention and action. Benjamin Libet's results are quoted[172] ...
It looks to model the brain in order to examine specific types aspects of the neurological system. Various types of models of ... Simplifying Brain Models: These models look to limit the scope of a model in order to assess a specific physical property of ... These models do not account for parts of the cellular structure that scientists do not know about. Realistic brain models are ... Realistic Brain Models: These models look to represent every aspect of the brain, including as much detail at the cellular ...
Ettinger animals models carried inferotemporal or latero-ventral prestriate ablation. In 1966 George Ettlinger, together with ... Such tasks were perfected on experimental animals having well defined brain lesions, and adapted for human neurological ... Currently, comparative neuropsychology is used with neurological patients to link specific deficits with localized areas of the ... It involves the direct evaluation of clinical neurological populations by employing experimental methods originally developed ...
... decision sciences and computational modeling to quantitatively define and investigate problems in neurological and psychiatric ... Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ... Lapicque introduced the integrate and fire model of the neuron in a seminal article published in 1907.[16] This model is still ...
"Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer". World J Gastrointest Oncol. 6 (7): 225-43. doi ... endocrine and neurological functions.[7][18] ...
Advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, as well as the use of animal models have been of great importance in ... Rolling Meadows IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons. pp. 91-111. ISBN 978-1-879284-67-8. .. ... expanding our knowledge of suture fusion.[3] Research in animal models has led to the idea that the dura mater plays an ...
"Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 248 (1-2): 53-55. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2006.05.039. PMID 16784759.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES. *. c1(ccccc1)C3(c2ccccc2)CCN(C(C)(C)C)CC3 ...
neurological, psychological and other mental health outcomes. *Pregnancy. *Non-COVID-19-related health issues ...
The neurological autonomy of the arms means the octopus has great difficulty learning about the detailed effects of its motions ... Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). "Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. ... "Biologists Search for New Model Organisms". Quanta Magazine.. *^ Baer, Drake (20 December 2016). "Octopuses Are 'the Closest ...
Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems. ... Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ...
"A review of functional neurological symptom disorder etiology and the integrated etiological summary model". Journal of ... Within DSM 5, patients presenting with PNES may meet the criteria for functional neurological disorder and in some cases, ... Clinical findings provide evidence of incompatibility between the symptom and recognized neurological or medical conditions. ... PNES fall under the category of disorders known as Functional Neurological Disorders (FND) also known as conversion disorders. ...
Over the past two decades, hundreds of studies have shed light on the neuroanatomical structural correlates of neurological and ... Actual statistical analysis by the general linear model, i.e., statistical parametric mapping. ...
Cases have been reported as far east as the island of Newfoundland.[105][214][215][216] A model-based prediction by Leighton et ... Neurological problems following tick bites were recognized starting in the 1920s. French physicians Garin and Bujadoux ... A 2005 study using climate suitability modelling of I. scapularis projected that climate change would cause an overall 213% ... In about 10-15% of untreated people, Lyme causes neurological problems known as neuroborreliosis.[31] Early neuroborreliosis ...
doctor/model-centered ←. → patient/situation-centered Professional integration: separate and distinct ←. → integrated into ... and orthopedic and neurological evaluation.[45] A chiropractor may also refer a patient to an appropriate specialist, or co- ... as a model of accreditation standards with the goal of having credentials portable internationally.[177] Today, there are 18 ... some neurological signs indicate referral to emergency medical services; these include sudden and severe headache or neck pain ...
American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.. ... to in vivo models of cancer and in 2005 reported a long-term survival benefit in an experimental brain tumor animal model.[62][ ... Hodgson TS, Nielsen SM, Lesniak MS, Lukas RV (2016). "Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease". Neurologist ( ... "abnormal neurological examination, headache worsened by Valsalva maneuver, headache causing awakening from sleep, new headache ...
Singing is a form of rehabilitation for neurological impairments. Neurological impairments following a brain injury can be in ... A number of treatments for bereavement have been used and evaluated, but music therapy models have been found to be the most ... LaGasse AB, Thaut MH (April 15, 2012). Music and Rehabilition:Neurological Approaches. Music, Health, and Wellbeing. pp. 153-63 ... Neurologist Oliver Sacks, author of Musicophilia: Tales of music and the Brain, studied neurological oddities in people, trying ...
The Michaelis-Menten Model can be an invaluable tool to understanding enzyme kinetics. According to this model, a plot of the ... which is mainly concentrated in neurological disorders and diseases.[14] Later, it was discovered that MPTP causes symptoms ... "The Michaelis-Menten Model Accounts for the Kinetic Properties of Many Enzymes". Biochemistry. 5th edition. W H Freeman. ...
SNPs in TATA boxes are associated with B-thalassemia, immunosuppression, and other neurological disorders.[42] SNPs destabilize ... For example, one study used the adenovirus TATA promoter sequence (5'-CGCTATAAAAGGGC-3') as a model binding sequence and found ... "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531 (7596): 604-9. doi:10.1038/ ...
Further development and similar models[edit]. Michael Gazzaniga, while working on the model of left-brain interpreter, came to ... Studies on the neurological basis of different defense mechanisms have revealed that the use of immature defense mechanisms, ... Similar models (which also claim that mind is formed from many little agents, i.e. the brain is made up of a constellation of ... Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind" model claims that mind is built up from the interactions of simple parts called agents, which ...
Models of auditory-motor interactions[edit]. Several models of auditory-motor interactions have been advanced. The model of ... Neurological bases[edit]. Pitch[edit]. Successive parts of the tonotopically organized basilar membrane in the cochlea resonate ... The mirror neuron system has an important role in neural models of sensory-motor integration. There is considerable evidence ... Minor neurological differences regarding hemispheric processing exist between brains of males and females. Koelsch, Maess, ...
Cuba : A model for alternative healthcare National Foundation for Alternative medicine *^ "Cuba". World Health Organization. ... Foreign patients travel to Cuba for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery, neurological disorders such as multiple ... a b Cuban Healthcare: An analysis of a Community-based model Essam Farag online ... "The resultant lack of food and medicines to Cuba contributed to the worst epidemic of neurological disease this century." ...
Multiple drafts model. Greedy reductionism. Cartesian theater. Belief in belief. Free-floating rationale[2]. Top-down vs bottom ... "Daniel C. Dennett, (1965). The mind and the brain: introspective description in the light of neurological findings: ... The model of decision making I am proposing has the following feature: when we are faced with an important decision, a ... Fifth-and I think this is perhaps the most important thing to be said in favor of this model-it provides some account of our ...
Jun Chen, Zao C. Xu, Xiao-Ming Xu, Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries, Humana Press; 1 edition, ISBN 978-1-60327-184- ... "The Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders. The Gale Group, Inc. 2005.. Retrieved on 2007-04-13 from Answers.com. ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2018-03-08). "Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page". U.S. National ... therapy for neonatal encephalopathy applied within 6 hours of cerebral hypoxia effectively improves survival and neurological ...
Crystal Structures allowed for a model in which the enzyme undergoes a 2-A shuttle-like motion of its heterodimers to perform ... Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and ... People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of ... deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems ...
In 1999, DBS was approved for Tourette syndrome - an inherited neurological disorder.[3] Deep brain stimulation is used to ... Benabid AL, Wallace B, Mitrofanis J, Xia R, Piallat B, Chabardes S, Berger F. (2005). "A putative generalized model of the ... Parkinson's disease is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[5] DBS ... Oluigbo, C. O. (1 January 2012). "Deep Brain Stimulation for Neurological Disorders". IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. ...
For athletes and sports enthusiasts, this eccentric model can help with explosive force[citation needed] training in order to ... those affected by neurological disorders, COPD, cardiopulmonary disorders, and cancer.[6] Muscle loss is a big problem faced by ...
"Embryonic stem cells help deliver 'good genes' in a model of inherited blood disorder". 》ScienceDaily》. 2011년 2월 13일.. ... 신뢰도 높고 척수손상환자의 신경학적 평가방법인 International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)의 평가에 의하면, ... "Treatment of sickle cell anemia mouse model with iPS cells generated from autologous skin". 》Science (New York, N.Y.)》 318 ...
Neurological. disorders. *Alcoholic hallucinosis. *Alcohol withdrawal. *Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). *Fetal alcohol ...
Warner R (July 2009). "Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model". Curr Opin Psychiatry 22 (4): 374-80. doi:10.1097/ ... This could help with schizophrenia and autism neurological research (research related to the brain.) [62] ...
Neurological Research. 31 (7): 707-13. doi:10.1179/174313209X380856. PMID 19055875. S2CID 43673092.. ... "Toward a unified biological hypothesis for the BDNF Val66Met-associated memory deficits in humans: a model of impaired ...
During the same period, numerous experimental drugs have been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of brain injury. ... to assess the extent of TBI severity and determine a patient prognosis even at times when correlation with other neurological ... Other biomarker candidates with biofluid evidence from animal models of TBI from severe to mTBI in human. These include ... in nature with demonstrated evidence that there are similar to biofluid profiles in at least two different animal models of TBI ...
Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 251 (1-2): 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2006.07.009. PMID 17070848.. ... "Effects of tempol and redox-cycling nitroxides in models of oxidative stress". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 126 (2): 119-45. ...
We demonstrate the models by eliciting new knowledge in a variety of neurological applications. The models offer innovation ... Paper: basic models of ageing Getting a reference point (normal ageing) for sporadic neurological diseases. ... C. Construct models for a range of neurological conditions, specifically dementia, multiple sclerosis, prion diseases, and ... The models are fundamentally new avenues for understanding the complexity of clinical phenotypes in multifactorial neurological ...
Wexner Medical Center have performed the first meta-analysis of all induced pluripotent stem cell models for neurological and ... In an effort to better understand neurological diseases like Alzheimers, Parkinsons and ALS -- and develop new ways to treat ... "Our phenogenetic map can be used to build new hypotheses in the field of neurological disease modeling, and to identify ... Phenogenetic map created for stem cells models of neurological diseases. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center ...
The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials. ... Stem Cells in Large Animal Models of Retinal and Neurological Disease. Guest Editors: Henry Klassen, Budd A. Tucker, Chee G. ... Stem Cells in Large Animal Models of Retinal and Neurological Disease, Henry Klassen, Budd A. Tucker, Chee G. Liew, Morten La ...
... Tanut Kunkanjanawan, Parinya Noisa, and Rangsun ... Systems for neural differentiation of hESCs and iPSCs have provided an experimental model that can be used to augment in vitro ... of iPSCs from patients who suffer from neurological diseases and evaluates the feasibility of iPSCs as a disease model. The ... Studies of human brain development are critical as research on neurological disorders have been progressively advanced. However ...
... model for a rare neurological disease called Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). The model could offer a proof of concept for ... In doing so, they are allowing researchers to build more and more complex models of disease. Those models, ultimately, will ... "These kinds of models can give us a lot of confidence because we are essentially dealing with the patients cells," he says. " ... And then on the other side, you have these disease-in-a-dish models where we can really track how diseases develop and then ...
... has created a human stem cell-based model of a rare, but devastating, inherited neurological autoimmune condition called ... Novel stem cell-derived model created of inflammatory neurological disorder Brain-in-a-dish approach also showed two existing ... Novel stem cell-derived model created of inflammatory neurological disorder. University of California - San Diego ... has created a human stem cell-based model of a rare, but devastating, inherited neurological autoimmune condition called ...
We would not presume to instruct investigators on what model to employ to answer the question they are most passionate about ... We frequently receive questions about whether NINDS prefers one animal model over another. NINDS mission is impartial to the ... and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. ... model system employed, but is advanced by the neuroscientific impact of each research project. ...
Tbe models presented use neuro- toxins to induce some or most of the pathophysi ... Tbis volume discusses and evaluates the use of neurotoxins to produce animal models of human neurodegenerative diseases. ... Intranigral Iron Infusion as a Model for Parkinsons Disease G. W. Arendash, G. J. Sengstock, C. W. Olanow, S. Barone Jr., A. J ... Tbe models presented use neuro- toxins to induce some or most of the pathophysiological changes (including behavioral) that ...
This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins ... we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological ... we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological ... Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In ...
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase mutations in neurological disease : mechanisms and models Author: Motley, William Washburn ISNI: 0000 ... While they have very different levels of severity, they are both reliable models of the human disease. Each disease model was ... Results suggest that CMT2D can be modeled in fly, that the toxicity of the mutant protein is tissue autonomous, and that ... Progress has also been made towards the development of a Drosophila model of CMT2D. Overexpression of mutant Aats-gly, the ...
... has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the ... has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the ... and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. ... In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological ... and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. ... In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological ...
DTI connectomics in mouse models of neurological disorders. Preclinical Imaging In this Webinar, Dr. Philipp Boehm-Sturm will ... After completing a PhD in the physics department of the University of Cologne and the Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological ... This particular approach will be demonstrated to characterize a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment. ... DTI can reveal structural information well below the nominal image resolution using biophysical modeling of the signal. In this ...
Home//HEALTHCARE/Carondelet Becomes Global Model for Neurological Care. Carondelet Becomes Global Model for Neurological Care. ... The neurological surgical suite was the first one of its kind in North America. Two adjacent ORs share a CT scanner that moves ... Carondelet Neurological Institute on Tucsons eastside opened its doors in 2008 on the top two floors of St. Josephs new ... Sipos was instrumental in the design of the facility, helping to make it the one-of-a-kind neurological care center it has ...
... Guo-Li Ming,1,2,3,* Oliver Brüstle,4 Alysson Muotri, ... Modeling neurological diseases using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Future Neurol. 2011;6:363-373. [PMC free ... By creating a model system based on a disease with a clear genetic association, they have developed an approach that can be ... A model for neural development and treatment of Rett syndrome using human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell. 2010;143:527- ...
MU / Office of Research / News / Computer Modeling Shows Neurological Changes in Cocaine Addicts ... This novel prediction by the computer model was confirmed based on experimental studies done on animal models by Kalivas ... "By using computational models, were targeting the connection in the brain that latches onto the pleasure center and the ... Using the computational model, MU researchers found that in an addicts brain excessive glutamate produced in the pleasure ...
Apoptosis and Neurological Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Oral Administration of Aluminum in a Mouse Model of Tauopathies. Brain ... Apoptosis and Neurological Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Oral Administration of Aluminum in a Mouse Model of Tauopathies. ...
... neonatal infection produces an immunocompetent mouse model of Zika virus with neurological symptoms. ... Producing Neurological Symptoms in Mouse Mode.... Producing Neurological Symptoms in Mouse Model of Zika Virus. Megan M. ... A suitable animal model is critical to understanding this disease and developing treatments. Since 2015, several animal models ... but our most frequently used biomedical research models proved resistant to infection. A New Mouse Model of Zika Virus ...
... research began to emerge confirming Julian Jayness neurological model for the bicameral mind: fMRI studies showing a right/ ... Neuroscience Confirms Julian Jayness Neurological Model June 10, 2020. June 25, 2020. Marcel Kuijsten 0 Comments ... While the technology was not then available to test his ideas, Jaynes suggested a possible neurological model for the bicameral ... While their research is highly supportive of Jayness neurological model, these scientists did not have the goal of providing ...
Here, we see evidence that the zebrafishs central nervous system is suitable for modeling human neurological disease and we ... Finally, we review recently developed zebrafish models of neurological disorders that have the potential to be applied in this ... the discovery of potential therapies for neurological disorders is challenging and involves developing optimized animal models ... In contemporary biomedicine, the growing need to develop experimental models to obtain a detailed understanding of malady ...
... dures using cell or tissue culture are inadequate in any models requiring assessments of behavioral change or of complex in ... search using animals is necessary and why animal models of psychiatric disorders, in particular, are so important. We recognize ... to the Animal Models Volumes This and several other volumes in the Neuromethods series will describe a number of animal models ... Animal Models of Neurological Disease, II: Metabolic Encephalopathies and Epilepsies (Hardback). Alan A. Boulton. Glen B. Baker ...
Mature neuronal and glial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells have emerged as a physiologically relevant model for ... the study of neurological development and disease. In this webinar, Dr. Xianmin Zeng (Buck Institute for Aging, California) ... Modeling Human Neurological Disease with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Publish Date: April 25, 2014 Views: 150 ... STEMdiff™ Neural System for hPSC-Based Neurological Modeling. Publish Date: August 06, 2015 Views: 2582 ...
Despite their widespread nature and roles in neurological disease, the molecular mechanisms and networks of regulated target ... and mutations in RBPs have been linked with multiple neurological disorders including autism, dementia, amyotrophic lateral ... to highlight recent studies in Drosophila that have advanced our knowledge of how RBP dysfunction contributes to neurological ... Drosophila as a Model for Assessing the Function of RNA-Binding Proteins during Neurogenesis and Neurological Disease. Eugenia ...
Modeling the Neurological Basis and Characterizing the Neurological Phenotype of Obesity Using Human Neural Stem Cells. The ... Modeling the Neurological Basis and Characterizing the Neurological Phenotype of Obesity Using Human Neural Stem Cells. ... This study aims to characterize the neurological basis of obesity and response to surgical and medical treatment by inducing ... Generate human cell based models of obesity [ Time Frame: 4 months ]. Fibroblasts will be expanded in culture and then ...
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating neurological conditions, with only 30 percent of sufferers ever experiencing full ... Researchers develop new model to study schizophrenia and other neurological conditions. August 30, 2013, Salk Institute ... "We hope this will help begin a new era in neurological therapeutics." Explore further: High levels of glutamate in brain may ... "Weve created a model that tests the ability to do sensory integration, which should be extremely useful for pharmaceutical ...
... News Oct 20, 2017 , Original story from The Ohio State ... "Our phenogenetic map can be used to build new hypotheses in the field of neurological disease modeling, and to identify ... an atlas of phenotype to genotype relationships of human iPSC models of neurological diseases. EMBO Molecular Medicine. doi: ... and examined research practices and reporting bias in neurological disease models - they found that there is no established ...
A cerebellopontine angle mouse model for the investigation of tumor biology, hearing, and neurological function in NF2-related ... A major limitation in NF2 basic and translational research is the lack of animal models that allow the full spectrum of ... In addition, ataxia, angiogenesis, and tumor-stroma interaction assays can be applied, and the model can be used to test the ... By studying the disease from every angle, this model offers the potential to unravel the basic biological underpinnings of NF2 ...
Emotional processing in functional neurological disorder: a review, biopsychosocial model and research agenda ... Emotional processing in functional neurological disorder: a review, biopsychosocial model and research agenda ... Emotional processing in functional neurological disorder: a review, biopsychosocial model and research agenda ...
... based diagnosis of neurological disorders is presented. Sample research and wavelet-chaos-neural... ... Adeli H. (2010) Wavelet-Chaos-Neural Network Models for EEG-Based Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders. In: Kim T., Lee Y., Kang ... Wavelet-Chaos-Neural Network Models for EEG-Based Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders. ... based diagnosis of neurological disorders is presented. Sample research and wavelet-chaos-neural network models developed by ...
Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Humans. Mesocricetus. Random ... of treatment with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody for West Nile virus neurological infection in a hamster model. ... Overall, these data suggest that in hamsters hE16 can ameliorate neurological disease after significant viral replication has ...
RESULTS:RhANGPTL4 reduced brain edema and hematoma volume and improved neurological functional recovery over the subsequent 4 ... preventive effects of ANGPTL4 on the formation of brain edema and to determine whether it promotes the recovery of neurological ... Angiopoietin-Like 4 Attenuates Brain Edema and Neurological Deficits in a Mouse Model of Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage ... RESULTS: RhANGPTL4 reduced brain edema and hematoma volume and improved neurological functional recovery over the subsequent 4 ...
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are derived from skin or blood cells that have been reprogrammed into an embryonic-like pluripotent state that can be prodded into becoming other cells, such as neurons to treat neurological disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies of human brain development are critical as research on neurological disorders have been progressively advanced. (hindawi.com)
  • With this method using truly human biochemistry, we are moving towards valuable models that can help us distinguish between different forms of a disease, better understand the risk factors, and also identify potential molecules that could potentially treat these disorders. (dana.org)
  • Our approach can now be used to investigate other neurological conditions, like autism and schizophrenia and overlapping autoimmune disorders that dysfunction in similar ways," said Alysson Muotri, PhD, professor in the UC San Diego School of Medicine departments of Pediatrics and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, director of the UC San Diego Stem Cell Program and a member of the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tbe models presented use neuro- toxins to induce some or most of the pathophysiological changes (including behavioral) that characterize the most studied motor neuron disorders and cogni- tive disorders (dementia) in humans. (springer.com)
  • But with increasing frequen- cy, individuals concemed with animal rights question the validity of such models and argue that they actually produce no useful information for understanding or developing treatments for human disorders. (springer.com)
  • Chapter 2 extends this theme with further consideration of issues and strategies involved in developing neurotoxin-induced models of neuro- degenerative disorders and assessing risk factors associated with neurotoxin ex- posure. (springer.com)
  • There are three types of neurological disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we summarize several recent studies presented at a symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, which highlight innovative approaches to cellular reprogramming and how this revolutionary technique is being refined to model neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, familial dysautonomia and Alzheimer's disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A Brazilian outbreak in 2015, however, has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological disorders in infected humans, along with fetal abnormalities such as stillbirth and microcephaly. (taconic.com)
  • Moreover, the discovery of potential therapies for neurological disorders is challenging and involves developing optimized animal models for drug screening. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, we review recently developed zebrafish models of neurological disorders that have the potential to be applied in this field of research. (mdpi.com)
  • to the Animal Models Volumes This and several other volumes in the Neuromethods series will describe a number of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Because of increasing public concern over the ethical treatment of animals in research, we felt it incumbent upon us to include this general preface to these volumes in order to indicate why we think further - search using animals is necessary and why animal models of psychiatric disorders, in particular, are so important. (foyles.co.uk)
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an integral role in splicing and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and mutations in RBPs have been linked with multiple neurological disorders including autism, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), and X-linked intellectual disability disorder. (mdpi.com)
  • Now, in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Thomas Albright and Ricardo Gil-da-Costa of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies describe a model system that completes the bridge between cellular and human studies of schizophrenia, an advance that should help speed the development of therapeutics for schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this Keynote Lecture an overview of the author's research for automated electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of neurological disorders is presented. (springer.com)
  • Adeli, H., Ghosh-Dastidar, S.: Automated EEG-based Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders - Inventing the Future of Neurology. (springer.com)
  • With the advent of several Atp1a3-gene or chemically modified animal models that closely phenocopy many aspects of the human disorders, we will be able to reach a much better understanding of the etiology of RDP, AHC, and CAPOS syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular genetics has had a major influence on our understanding of the causes of neurological disorders in human beings, and much of this has come from work in mice. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Neurological research of disorders of nervous system flat icon of MRI machine with human brain, dendrite and neuron structure models, spine, eye, pills and medical hammer. (iclipart.com)
  • Participants: Transition-age youths with congenital and acquired neurological disorders. (elsevier.com)
  • Intervention: Transition to the adaptive roles and expectations of adulthood can be challenging for adolescents with neurological disorders and other chronic medical conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Rehabilitation psychologists have the potential to improve the quality of life of adolescents with neurological disorders as they transition into adulthood by considering the "executive burden" posed to the individuals by various combinations of executive dysfunction and atypical adaptive demands. (elsevier.com)
  • Tarazi, RA , Mahone, EM & Zabel, TA 2007, ' Self-care independence in children with neurological disorders: An interactional model of adaptive demands and executive dysfunction ', Rehabilitation Psychology , vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 196-205. (elsevier.com)
  • Preclinical models of neurological and psychiatric disorders. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries II: Injury and Mechanistic Assessments aims to collect chapters on assessing these disorders from cells and molecules to behavior and imaging. (vetebooklib.com)
  • Therefore, due to the complex genetic contribution to the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, and the sensitivity of the effects of these genes to epistatic and epigenetic mechanisms, at present time the genetic construct validity for an animal model of a particular disorder is difficult to establish fully. (juridikinstitutet.se)
  • We understand the challenges and complexities in the search of potential therapies for neurological disorders. (criver.com)
  • This "proof-of-principle" experiment "opens up a whole new, non-invasive way to study and follow transgenic or genetically engineered strains of mice that serve as animal models for human neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease or psychiatric diseases such as substance abuse, depression, and anxiety disorders," said Panayotis (Peter) Thanos, lead author of the study. (scienceblog.com)
  • According to their modalities of inheritances and with substantial differences among each other, these neuropsychiatric disorders can be modeled in the homozygous (reln-/-) or heterozygous (reln+/-) mouse. (preprints.org)
  • Sir, - Neurological disorders and diseases affect almost 800,000 of our population, with huge numbers of new head injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and motor neurone disease diagnosed each year. (irishtimes.com)
  • Neurological disorders and diseases result in significant daily burdens for the person and the family alike. (irishtimes.com)
  • While the services that do exist give world-class treatment, rehabilitation and care, in Ireland we have limited specialist staff, and complex, challenging systems for people with neurological disorders to navigate. (irishtimes.com)
  • My current research on stuttering is focusing on motor learning in people who stutter, development of a model for screening unselected school children for stuttering and other communication disorders and the impact of language usage factors on stuttering. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Based on the authors' groundbreaking research, Automated EEG-Based Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders: Inventing the Future of Neurology presents a research ideology, a novel multi-paradigm methodology, and advanced computational models for the automated EEG-based diagnosis of neurological disorders. (routledge.com)
  • Whether microglia and macrophages are beneficial or harmful in many neurological disorders, including demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and the leukodystrophies, is currently under debate. (jneurosci.org)
  • The models are fundamentally new avenues for understanding the complexity of clinical phenotypes in multifactorial neurological diseases. (europa.eu)
  • In an effort to better understand neurological diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS - and develop new ways to treat them - researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center have performed the first meta-analysis of all induced pluripotent stem cell models for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, and created an atlas of how cell characteristics are linked to their genotype. (eurekalert.org)
  • Synthesizing this information to understand the phenotypic role of disease-promoting genes and identifying the limitations of our current practices will be crucial steps toward achieving the great translational potential of induced pluripotent stem cell models of neurological diseases," said Dr. Jaime Imitola, director of the Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Multidisciplinary Clinic and Translational Research Program at Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center. (eurekalert.org)
  • For this study, researchers included 93 out of more than 110 studies initially screened, from which they collected data on phenotypes and genotypes, encompassing 31 neurological diseases that span the pediatric to adult population with a total of 71 gene mutations. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a valuable resource for the research community, researchers developed the iPhemap - an online database of phenotypic information of iPSC neurological diseases that can be referenced, updated and continually refined by researchers worldwide - to share knowledge and develop new, more effective therapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ultimate goal of this research is to be able to determine the phenotypes and genotypes relationship in neurological diseases where there is no mutation, or there are small genetic changes in neurons and oligodendrocytes from patients with progressive multiple sclerosis or sporadic Alzheimer's disease to find new medications to stop neurodegeneration," Imitola said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This paper summarizes the recent reports of the development of iPSCs from patients who suffer from neurological diseases and evaluates the feasibility of iPSCs as a disease model. (hindawi.com)
  • The model could offer a proof of concept for how to better understand the origin of other rare brain diseases, as well as a way to test targeted pharmacological treatments in the future. (dana.org)
  • The findings point to the promise of future clinical trials and to the utility of creating novel stem cell-based models of human diseases when no other models are available. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tbis volume discusses and evaluates the use of neurotoxins to produce animal models of human neurodegenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, we can now investigate the etiology of neurological diseases at the cellular level using neuronal populations derived from patients, which harbor the same genetic mutations thought to be relevant to the risk for pathology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These processes are required for normal brain activity, and in fact autosomal dominant de novo mutations in ATP1A3 encoding the α3 isoform has been found to cause the three neurological diseases Rapid Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). (nih.gov)
  • All three diseases cause acute onset of neurological symptoms, but the predominant neurological manifestations differ with particularly early onset of hemiplegic/dystonic episodes and mental decline in AHC, ataxic encephalopathy and impairment of vision and hearing in CAPOS syndrome and late onset of dystonia/parkinsonism in RDP. (nih.gov)
  • Treatments to stop or reverse the debilitating progression of early- and late-onset neurological diseases remain undiscovered. (washington.edu)
  • Collective evidence suggests that inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is effective at reducing markers of pathology in experimental models of age-related and developmental neurological diseases. (washington.edu)
  • Because HDACi do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), they cannot enter the brain and therefore are of limited value for treating neurological diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors show that long-term treatment with the formulation improves brain function and prolongs mouse survival, suggesting that this new HDACi formulation will be of benefit for treating Niemann-Pick type C disease and perhaps other types of neurological diseases as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • SH-SY5Y and MN9D cell lines are commonly used cell models in researching neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. (wichita.edu)
  • This research contributes to a better understanding of commonly used research models of neurodegenerative diseases and may serve to alter the standard methods utilized in such types of research. (wichita.edu)
  • Our team of neuroscientists continues to establish the most relevant in vitro and in vivo models of acute and chronic neurological diseases to help our partners identify and test new compounds in this challenging field. (criver.com)
  • Animal models for neurological diseases are critical to understand the progression of neurological disease. (criver.com)
  • Despite the potential role of inflammation in glial reactions associated with neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, we find very limited involvement for it following neuronal injury with this model. (cdc.gov)
  • A pressing question for the usefulness of this approach is whether neurological diseases that take decades to become manifest in humans can be successfully modelled over a reasonable timescale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As in many diseases, animal models continue to be critical to understanding the pathogenesis of AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tiny replicas of the human brain have been created by John Hopkins researchers to study the neurological diseases and conduct experimental drug testing, replacing the many animals currently being used for neurological scientific research. (medindia.net)
  • The miniature brains can be used for experimental drug testing and develop new treatments for neurological diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer s and dementia. (medindia.net)
  • The research team also said that the cells from people with certain genetic traits could also be grown to provide a model for diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or multiple sclerosis. (medindia.net)
  • Models of the human brain, patterned on engineering control theory, may some day help researchers control such neurological diseases as epilepsy, Parkinson's and migraines says Penn State researcher. (medindia.net)
  • Today, I'm going to discuss some of the model system and methods that we can use to understand neurodegenerative diseases. (hstalks.com)
  • Neurological and neuromuscular diseases are usually difficult to diagnose at early stages . (umbc.edu)
  • The aim of this Ph.D . dissertation is to detect neurological and neuromuscular diseases early by using a gait analysis system in laboratory rats . (umbc.edu)
  • Several preliminary experiments have been developed on rodents that have been used as animal models for human diseases . (umbc.edu)
  • In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sample research and wavelet-chaos-neural network models developed by the author and his research associates in recent years for diagnosis of epilepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are reviewed briefly. (springer.com)
  • Human models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have the potential to complement existing animal models for carrying out functional studies of AD pathogenesis and the development of novel therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MPTP-Treated Mice: A Useful Model for Parkinson's Disease? (springer.com)
  • The studies presented here investigate the potential therapeutic effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in two different mouse models for neurological disease: the NDUFS4 knockout (NDUFS4 KO) mouse for Leigh Syndrome and the MPTP mouse model for Parkinson's disease. (washington.edu)
  • Trehalose, a chemical chaperone and mTOR-independent autophagy enhancer, has shown promise in models of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and tauopathies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We have been doing work on Parkinson's as an example, which we're publishing because we can really replicate some of the hallmarks of Parkinson's in human brain model. (medindia.net)
  • Yet this abundance of phenotypic information has become difficult to follow and interpret, and research practices for iPSC neurological disease modeling varies among different laboratories, Imitola said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, researchers at Case Western Reserve University developed an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model for a rare neurological disease called Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). (dana.org)
  • abstract = "Objective: To describe a neuropsychological assessment model that proposes executive functioning as a key moderator in the development of self-care independence. (elsevier.com)
  • Andrew Wilson The suitability of the use of animal models and SiRNA Technologies in autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease Dr P Martin Biomedical Science Abstract: The treatment of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease has been not feasible until recent discovers of gene therapy. (bartleby.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody to the ICAM-1 adhesion site reduces neurological damage in a rabbit cerebral embolism stroke model. (curehunter.com)
  • Performance of the handheld PA system was tested in an animal ischemia model, which revealed that cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes at the cortical surface could be monitored immediately after ischemia induction. (elsevier.com)
  • The successful previous volume on this topic provided a detailed benchwork manual for the most commonly used animal models of acute neurological injuries including cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, vasospasm, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. (vetebooklib.com)
  • This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the role of immunological mechanisms and therapies for treating acute neurological injuries such as cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and brain and spinal cord trauma. (bokus.com)
  • Background Survival with good neurological function post out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 1-2, ranges from 1.6% to 3% in Asia. (bmj.com)
  • Morbidity following SAH are commonly defined in terms of neurological repercussions, including aneurysm rebleeding, intracranial hypertension, cerebral vasospasm, brain edema, cerebral infarction, and hydrocephalus [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of neurological improvement after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats by a novel therapeutic strategy with FGF-2 gene-transferred MSCs by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, we demonstrated that drugs known to activate HIF-1 in cultured cells as well as in vivo had neuroprotective properties in this model of cerebral ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite strong antioxidant properties and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, systemic treatment with melatonin did not prevent or significantly attenuate the severity of arterial narrowing in this rat model of chronic cerebral vasospasm. (barrowneuro.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether melatonin would prevent delayed cerebral vasospasm in a rat model of SAH. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating neurological conditions, with only 30 percent of sufferers ever experiencing full recovery. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here we used a dual-reporter embryonic stem cell line to generate enriched populations of parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons, which were transplanted into the ventral hippocampus of the methylazoxymethanol rodent model of schizophrenia. (nature.com)
  • Now, University of Missouri researchers Ashwin Mohan and Sandeep Pendyam, doctoral students in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering , are utilizing computational models to study how the brain's chemicals and synaptic mechanisms, or connections between neurons, react to cocaine addiction and what this could mean for future therapies. (missouri.edu)
  • One challenge for modelling AD, and therapies based on those models, is our incomplete understanding of the cell and molecular biology underlying the initiation and progression of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It then narrows to evaluate the use of a model systems approach to explore neurotoxin-induced leaming and memory deficits in animals as related to humans with dementia. (springer.com)
  • Neurological sequelae are those complications involving damage to the central nervous system that results in cognitive, sensory, or motor deficits that may also manifest as emotional instability and even seizures, in the most severe cases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ameliorating stroke induced neurological deficits is one of the most important goals of stroke therapy. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, assessing functional deficits in animal models of stroke is critical to improve the prediction of preclinical findings. (nih.gov)
  • Further, interneuron transplants alleviate behaviors that model negative and cognitive symptoms, including deficits in social interaction and cognitive inflexibility. (nature.com)
  • Background and Purpose- Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) administration and bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) transplantation could improve neurological deficits after occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 Whereas bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improved neurological deficits after occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • We developed models to predict these episodes 30 minutes in advance, and to predict long-term neurological outcome by using dynamic characteristics of continuous ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) monitoring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, by the time the symptoms are evident, the neurological damage is already severe, with a massive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra ( Double, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A study describing the characterization and validation of two neural progenitor cell models and their ability to differentiate into multiple types of neurons. (atcc.org)
  • Studies in two Canadian psychiatric hospitals observed that 32 patients had antibodies against WEEV or a related encephalitic virus ( Fulton and Burton, 1953 ), leading the authors to suggest that viral infection may have contributed to the patients neurological disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • The landmark publication Neurological, Psychiatric and Developmental Disorder: Meeting the Needs in the Developing World 1 was an early driver of the growth of global mental health as a discipline. (nap.edu)
  • 1986. Animal models in psychiatric research. (juridikinstitutet.se)
  • Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports ( n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs. (springer.com)
  • 2016) Characterization of a Novel Murine Model to Study Zika Virus. (taconic.com)
  • 2016) The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models. (taconic.com)
  • Accessible and essential, Animal Models of Acute Neurological Injuries II: Injury and Mechanistic Assessments will be useful for trainees or beginners in their assessments of acute neurological injuries, for experienced scientists from other research fields who are interested in either switching fields or exploring new opportunities, and for established scientists within the field who wish to employ new assessments. (vetebooklib.com)
  • The constant activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways at low levels of exposure in human brain capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neural progenitor cells may amplify devastation to neurological tissues and lead to neurological system cell damage from indirect events triggered by the presence of trichothecenes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The inherent complexity of neurological disease, the overlap of symptoms and pathologies, and the high comorbidity rate suggests a systems medicine approach, which matches the specific challenge of this call. (europa.eu)
  • Producing Neurological Symptoms in Mouse Mode. (taconic.com)
  • TCF simultaneously treats neurodegenerative and systemic symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model. (sciencemag.org)
  • The syndrome class was also associated with symptoms that are considered prodromal including anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and abnormal dreams, and neurological symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and paresthesias. (springer.com)
  • Administration of metformin to these mice delayed the onset of the neurological symptoms but not of neuronal loss. (jci.org)
  • Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each disease model was crossed to mice ubiquitously overexpressing wild-type GARS in order to determine whether the disease phenotype is caused by a loss of function in GARS. (bl.uk)
  • Rapamycin treatment also resulted in prolonged healthspan in KO mice, as indicated by the offset of neurological damage, maintenance of weight and body fat, and the improvement of deleterious behavioral phenotypes. (washington.edu)
  • Further studies on the mutant mice already prove the model to be very powerful. (news-medical.net)
  • This way, we can study a more internal effect that EVs have in a model system because these mice are bred with a reporter system in their genes," said Victoria Neckles, a graduate student and first author on the study. (clemson.edu)
  • The usefulness of these mice as translational models is discussed, with focus on their construct and face validity. (preprints.org)
  • In mouse models of myotonic dystrophy, the researchers found that treating newborn mice with a virus carrying the dCas9 enzyme reduced the prevalence of myotonia, prolonged muscle contractions commonly experienced by myotonic dystrophy patients. (ufl.edu)
  • Gerbils have a wide hearing range, from detection of low frequency foot drumming to higher frequency chirps and therefore may be a more suitable model of human hearing loss than mice and rats, which are high-frequency specialists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our laboratory uses rodent models to determine how these risk factors modulate neurobiology and behavior. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While rodent models have been useful, we are not 150-pound rats. (medindia.net)
  • Measuring Early Pre-symptomatic Changes in Locomotion of Rodent Models of Neurological and. (umbc.edu)
  • Beginning in 1999, research began to emerge confirming Julian Jaynes's neurological model for the bicameral mind: fMRI studies showing a right/left temporal lobe interaction during auditory verbal hallucinations. (julianjaynes.org)
  • Discussion of Julian Jaynes's fourth hypothesis - his neurological model for the bicameral mind. (julianjaynes.org)
  • Gait analysis as a method for assessing neurological outcome in a mouse model of stroke. (nih.gov)
  • In order to improve stroke outcome, novel treatment approaches as well as animal stroke models predictive for the clinical setting are of urgent need. (nih.gov)
  • One of the main obstacles in experimental stroke research is measuring long-term outcome, in particular in mouse models of stroke. (nih.gov)
  • After completing a PhD in the physics department of the University of Cologne and the Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research in Cologne, he transferred to the Experimental Neurology Department and the Center for Stroke Research at the Charité in Berlin to offer his expertise in small animal MRI and quickly became the scientific lead of the imaging core facility. (bruker.com)
  • We evaluated the effect of antibodies directed against a leukocyte adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in an embolic model of stroke followed by thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). (curehunter.com)
  • METHODS: We used the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP), the closest spontaneous experimental model of human SVD, and age-matched control rats kept under identical, non-salt-loaded conditions, to perform a blinded analysis of mRNA microarray, qRT-PCR and pathway analysis in two brain regions (frontal and mid-coronal) commonly affected by SVD in the SHRSP at age five, 16 and 21 weeks. (sinapse.ac.uk)
  • In an animal model for stroke, delta opioid peptide reduced by as much as 75 percent the damage to the brain's striatum, the deeper region of the brain and a major target for strokes, according to researchers. (scienceblog.com)
  • Recent animal experiments demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) can improve neurological function after stroke by the neuroprotective effect or vasodilating effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • A major limitation in NF2 basic and translational research is the lack of animal models that allow the full spectrum of research into the biology and molecular mechanisms of NF2 tumor progression, as well as the effects on neurological function. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, ataxia, angiogenesis, and tumor-stroma interaction assays can be applied, and the model can be used to test the efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches. (nih.gov)
  • Among the mouse models of FRDA, the liver conditional mouse model pointed to a tumor suppressor activity of frataxin leading to the hypothesis that individuals with FRDA might be predisposed to cancer. (curefa.org)
  • These findings suggest an active inflammation in neurofibromas and partly explain why mast cell removal alone is not sufficient to relieve tumor burden in this experimental neurofibroma model. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutic implications include the ability to establish new humanized disease models for understanding mechanisms, conduct high throughput screening for novel biogenic compounds to reverse or prevent the disease phenotype, identify and engineer genetic rescue of causal mutations, and develop patient-specific cellular replacement strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 Environmental construct validity Environmental construct validity considers the effects of environmental factors known to confer increased risk for mental illness, and whether these factors are associated with the altered behavioral phenotype in the animal model. (juridikinstitutet.se)
  • Neurological abnormalities in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As they analyzed the correlation of 663 neuronal phenotypes with genotypic data from 243 patients and 214 controls - and examined research practices and reporting bias in neurological disease models - they found that there is no established standard for the reporting of methods nor a defined minimal number of cell lines. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we report a systematic analysis of research practices and reporting bias in neurological disease models from 93 published articles. (embopress.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. (biologists.org)
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  • Deeper probing into the pathogenesis of AGS has been difficult because animal models do not accurately mimic the human version of the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • We frequently receive questions about whether NINDS prefers one animal model over another. (nih.gov)
  • Chapter 1 begins with a brief review of the ethics of animal use in neuro- biological research, inc1uding a discussion of the criteria that may be used to evaluate animal models of human disease and extrapolate from the model to appropriate questions regarding humans. (springer.com)
  • The choice of slightly different animal models and the differences in methods of stem cell preparation make it difficult to compare the results of transplantation experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation) and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this Webinar, Dr. Philipp Boehm-Sturm will review the basics of diffusion imaging, as well as introduce the use of DTI connectomics for characterization of animal models of disease. (bruker.com)
  • This novel prediction by the computer model was confirmed based on experimental studies done on animal models by Kalivas' laboratory. (missouri.edu)
  • A suitable animal model is critical to understanding this disease and developing treatments. (taconic.com)
  • This heavy reliance on NHP and genetically engineered animal models not only increases the cost of research, but raises possible issues with the translatability. (taconic.com)
  • The Use Of Animal Models And Sirna Technologies On. (bartleby.com)
  • Scientists at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna have developed the first true animal model for psoriasis and have been able to address the initial steps and possible causes of the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • 1969. Animal model of depression: review of evidence and implications for research. (juridikinstitutet.se)
  • Clearly, no one animal model completely models sporadic AD and there is an ongoing need for tractable systems to study AD pathology both in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ninety-five percent of drugs that look promising when tested in animal models fail once they are tested in humans at the great expense of time and money," says study leader Dr Thomas Hartung, MD, PhD, of the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. (medindia.net)
  • To answer important questions about human brain development, animal scientists Rod Johnson and Ryan Dilger have developed a model of the pig brain. (medindia.net)
  • The experimental protocol was evaluated and approved by the Animal Research and Ethics Committees of the Barrow Neurological Institute and St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center. (barrowneuro.org)
  • These measurements are used as input to a logistic regression model that assesses the probability that the animal model has a specific disease that affects its locomotion . (umbc.edu)
  • However, in both human epilepsy and in some animal models, evidence suggests that a process like that found in kindling does occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kindling (sedative-hypnotic withdrawal) Epileptogenesis Racine stages (a method by which seizure severity is quantified in animal models of epilepsy) Bertram E (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the technology was not then available to test his ideas, Jaynes suggested a possible neurological model for the bicameral mind. (julianjaynes.org)
  • In my chapter in Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness , "Consciousness, Hallucinations, and the Bicameral Mind: Three Decades of New Research," I discuss a number of neuroimaging studies that emerged over the past decade that provide support for Jaynes's neurological model. (julianjaynes.org)
  • Since the publication of Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness , a number of new studies have been published that also show bilateral temporal lobe ('bicameral') activation during auditory hallucinations, providing further support for Jaynes's neurological model specifically and his bicameral mind theory in general. (julianjaynes.org)
  • Systems for neural differentiation of hESCs and iPSCs have provided an experimental model that can be used to augment in vitro studies of in vivo brain development. (hindawi.com)
  • In contemporary biomedicine, the growing need to develop experimental models to obtain a detailed understanding of malady conditions and to portray pioneering treatments has resulted in the application of zebrafish to close the gap between in vitro and in vivo assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Dong Ys, Wang Jl, Feng Dy, Qin Hz, Wen H, Yin Zm, Gao Gd, Li C. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress and Brain Edema in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (medsci.org)
  • Kindling: An experimental model of epilepsy" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the computational model, MU researchers found that in an addict's brain excessive glutamate produced in the pleasure center makes the brain's mechanisms unable to regulate themselves and creates permanent damage, making cocaine addiction a disease that is more than just a behavioral change. (missouri.edu)
  • Despite their widespread nature and roles in neurological disease, the molecular mechanisms and networks of regulated target RNAs have been defined for only a small number of specific RBPs. (mdpi.com)
  • Systematic testing of potential mechanisms mediating these effects led us to favor a model in which rapamycin induces a metabolic shift in NDUFS4 KO brains toward amino acid catabolism and away from glycolysis, thus alleviating the buildup of glycolytic intermediates. (washington.edu)
  • In several sections, the contributing authors provide a review of immunological mechanisms involved in neurological injury and of various translational and clinical research aimed at harnessing those mechanisms for better patient outcomes. (bokus.com)
  • Human disease modeling with iPSCs has enabled researchers to study the disease phenotypes of patient-derived cells directly in the lab. (eurekalert.org)
  • An international team of scientists, led by University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers, has created a human stem cell-based model of a rare, but devastating, inherited neurological autoimmune condition called Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS). (eurekalert.org)
  • While they have very different levels of severity, they are both reliable models of the human disease. (bl.uk)
  • Here, we see evidence that the zebrafish's central nervous system is suitable for modeling human neurological disease and we review and evaluate natural product research using zebrafish as a vertebrate model platform to systematically identify bioactive natural products. (mdpi.com)
  • Mature neuronal and glial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells have emerged as a physiologically relevant model for the study of neurological development and disease. (stemcell.com)
  • Building-associated neurological damage modeled in human cells: a mechanism of neurotoxic effects by exposure to mycotoxins in the indoor environment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Damage to human neurological system cells resulting from exposure to mycotoxins confirms a previously controversial public health threat for occupants of water-damaged buildings. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that this new fucosidosis mouse model resembles the human disease and thus will help to unravel underlying pathological processes. (biologists.org)
  • Due to the close resemblance of the clinical and histological picture of human psoriasis, the new disease-model is ideally suited to study in detail all aspects of pathogenesis. (news-medical.net)
  • The Reeler Mouse: A Translational Model of Human Neurological Conditions or Simply a Good Tool for Better Understanding Neurodevelopment? (preprints.org)
  • An effective human cellular model of AD would use the appropriate cell types and ideally neural circuits affected by the disease, would develop relevant pathology and would do so in a reproducible manner over a timescale short enough for practical use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We review here current progress in applying this approach to generating human models of AD and the potential for such models in the AD field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PMFE is an anatomy-based inverse dynamic-static optimisation model aiming to fulfil the requirements for controlling a human-inspired rehabilitation robot via muscle forces. (springer.com)
  • We believe that the future of brain research will include less reliance on animals, more reliance on human, cell-based models. (medindia.net)
  • Now, a group of University of Florida Health researchers has found a way to block the transcription of those dysfunctional genetic sequences into RNA, in human cells and mouse models. (ufl.edu)
  • Although kindling is a widely used model, its applicability to human epilepsy is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research by Goddard on the characteristics of the kindling phenomenon led to his conclusion that kindling can be used to model human epileptogenesis, learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • EuroPOND will develop a data-driven statistical and computational modeling framework for neurological disease progression. (europa.eu)
  • EuroPOND will develop uniquely powerful data-driven statistical-and-computational models of neurological disease progression. (europa.eu)
  • Today, Carondelet Neurological Institute at St. Joseph's Hospital provides 24/7 access to specialists, cutting-edge technology and support for patients and families that goes beyond just meeting their medical needs. (biztucson.com)
  • Adding information of the first 24 hours of ICP and MAP to known risk factors allows accurate prediction of neurological outcome at 6 months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mission of NINDS is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system, and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, the NIH BRAIN Initiative supports the use of invertebrate model systems in research to understand neural functions and recognizes that this is an important part of the neuroscience ecosystem. (nih.gov)
  • By using computational models, we're targeting the connection in the brain that latches onto the pleasure center and the parameters that maintain that process. (missouri.edu)
  • The long-term objective of our research is to find out how some rehabilitative drugs work by devising a model of the fundamental workings of an addict's brain," said Mohan, who will attend Washington University in St. Louis for his postdoctoral fellowship. (missouri.edu)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of ANGPTL4 on the formation of brain edema and to determine whether it promotes the recovery of neurological function following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (medscimonit.com)
  • RhANGPTL4 reduced brain edema and hematoma volume and improved neurological functional recovery over the subsequent 4 weeks when compared with the control group. (medscimonit.com)
  • The findings suggest that the early administration of optimal dose of quercetin may ameliorate brain damage and provide neuroprotection in the SAH model, potentially by enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. (medsci.org)
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 has recently been reported to be up-regulated in many models of neuronal damage including infection, axotomy, alheimer's (mouse model), excitotoxicity, and traumatic brain injury. (cdc.gov)
  • People with neurological problems and acquired brain injury frequently do not receive the necessary treatment and care at the correct time in their recovery, are losing employment, failing in education and becoming socially isolated. (irishtimes.com)
  • Neuroscience applicants using invertebrate model systems have successfully competed for NINDS grant funding in peer review in recent years. (nih.gov)
  • A more affordable and translatable mouse model of Zika pathology would accelerate the development of treatment options, but our most frequently used biomedical research models proved resistant to infection. (taconic.com)
  • FDA researchers recently discovered a means of bypassing this resistance, establishing an immunocompetent b6 mouse model of Zika pathology for further investigation. (taconic.com)
  • In these models, mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity is reduced but results in distinct patterns of neuronal pathology. (washington.edu)
  • Thus far, comparison of these studies suggests that rapamycin treatment has both overlapping and distinct effects that contribute to attenuation of neural pathology of NDUFS4 and MPTP mouse models. (washington.edu)
  • An interview with Dr. Peggy Taylor, discussing the biggest neurological research questions of today and how BioLegend is helping to develop new biomarkers for neurological disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Our phenogenetic map can be used to build new hypotheses in the field of neurological disease modeling, and to identify potential new opportunities to design novel drug strategies," said first author Ethan W. Hollingsworth, a neural stem cell research assistant at Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center and a hematology/oncology clinical research intern at Nationwide Children's Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • NINDS' mission is impartial to the model system employed, but is advanced by the neuroscientific impact of each research project. (nih.gov)
  • Within the biomedical research community, there is little doubt about the utility of such models. (springer.com)
  • We've created a model that tests the ability to do sensory integration, which should be extremely useful for pharmaceutical research . (medicalxpress.com)
  • This booklet contains a comprehensive suite of solutions to support your research using neurological mouse models. (jax.org)
  • We evaluated a triple combination formulation (TCF) comprising the pan-HDACi vorinostat, the caging agent 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for treating a mouse model (the Npc1 nmf164 mouse) of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a difficult-to-treat cerebellar disorder. (sciencemag.org)
  • We performed a pilot study using heterogeneous ataxias as a model neurogenetic disorder to assess the introduction of next-generation sequencing into clinical practice. (cdc.gov)
  • Our model showed that the glutamate transporters, a protein present around these connections that remove glutamate, are almost 40 percent less functional after chronic cocaine usage," Mohan said. (missouri.edu)
  • Neurological' and 'inflammatory' pathways were more affected than 'vascular' functional pathways. (sinapse.ac.uk)
  • a model that predicts which children will persist and which children will recover from stuttering, a major longitudinal project on children who stutter which identified several previously unknown risk factors for stuttering, the world's first online archive of stuttered speech, estimates of heritability of stuttering, scanning work to identify functional and structural factors in stuttering and child and parent expectations about treatment for stuttering. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Now, a decade after the discovery of iPSCs, hundreds of patient cell lines and neurological disease phenotypes have been generated. (eurekalert.org)
  • So Muotri, with colleagues, used embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from AGS patients to create six cellular models of the condition. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our models enable fine stratification into phenotypes enabling more focussed analysis to identify subgroups that respond to putative treatments. (europa.eu)
  • Computational method for muscle-path representation in musculoskeletal models. (springer.com)
  • The researchers found that with TREX1 not functioning normally, all of the cell models displayed excess extra-chromosomal DNA and that a major source of the excess DNA came from LINE1 (L1) retroelements. (eurekalert.org)
  • The first thing to understand is the scale of the problem that researchers face when trying to dissect the processes that lead to neurodegeneration and neurological disease. (hstalks.com)
  • This study aims to characterize the neurological basis of obesity and response to surgical and medical treatment by inducing adult pluripotent stem cells into neuronal cells from subjects that have demonstrated extreme response to bariatric surgery or pharmacological treatment for obesity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Several mouse models have been generated to study the in vivo consequences of Atp1a3 modulation. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrates that neurological system cell damage can occur from satratoxin H exposure to neurological cells at exposure levels that can be found in water-damaged buildings contaminated with fungal growth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We aim to study the influence of comorbidities and peri-OHCA event factors on neurological recovery and develop a model that can help clinicians predict neurological function among patients with post-OHCA admitted to the hospital. (bmj.com)
  • An interactive graphics-based model of the lower extremity to study orthopaedic surgical procedures. (springer.com)
  • We will use the information obtained from this study information to develop a biopsychosocial prospective surveillance model, a method for early detection, intervention, and moderation of shoulder pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • have been shown to promote remyelination in mouse models of demyelination by promoting proliferation or differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) directly or indirectly. (jneurosci.org)
  • Insights from studies conducted on immunocompromised, genetically engineered mouse models of Zika virus may not apply to immunocompetent humans of the disease. (taconic.com)
  • During the past ten years, the development of mouse models of FRDA has allowed better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. (curefa.org)
  • In addition to existing mouse models, several major programmes have been set up to generate new mouse models of disease. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The models offer innovation potential by underpinning support systems for clinical and drug-development applications. (europa.eu)
  • Efficacy studies performed by JAX® In Vivo Services for ALS typically feature clinical observations, body weights, progressive neurological scoring, electrophysiological assessment of motor neuropathy, survival, tissue/blood collection and histological assessment of neuromuscular junctions and femoral nerves. (jax.org)
  • We strongly believe that this model will be highly suitable for future pre-clinical studies ultimately aimed at understanding and curing this widespread disease. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the authors, "This model does not address transplacental transmission of virus from mother to fetus or adult transmission, however it offers an immunocompetent symptomatic mouse model for ZIKV infections that may prove useful to understand the long term effects of ZIKV infection. (taconic.com)
  • Defining limits of treatment with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody for West Nile virus neurological infection in a hamster model. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This webinar provides an overview of the features and applications of induced pluripotent stem cells with respect to neurological disease modeling. (stemcell.com)
  • Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells? (stemcell.com)
  • Disease modeling with induced pluripotent stem cells (i PSC s) is creating an abundance of phenotypic information that has become difficult to follow and interpret. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, undifferentiated high-passage SH-SY5Y cells could be a good noradrenergic model for in vivo studies. (wichita.edu)
  • These cells take up DA and NE more efficiently than undifferentiated cells suggesting they could be used either as partial noradrenergic or dopaminergic models. (wichita.edu)
  • Another common model, MN9D cells, store high levels of DA under normal growth conditions, but do not convert it to NE. (wichita.edu)
  • They show poor catecholamine uptake characteristics compared to SH-SY5Y cells, however n-butyric acid differentiated MN9D cells show more efficient DA uptake similar to undifferentiated SH-SY5Y, suggesting that they could be used as a reasonable dopaminergic model. (wichita.edu)
  • Chronic exposure to CORT primes the CNS proinflammatory response in MPTP and METH models of neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, Muotri's lab has developed similar "disease-in-a-dish" neuronal models of autism, anorexia nervosa and Williams Syndrome, among other rare genetic neurological conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Overall, these data suggest that in hamsters hE16 can ameliorate neurological disease after significant viral replication has occurred, although there is a time window that limits therapeutic efficacy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By studying the disease from every angle, this model offers the potential to unravel the basic biological underpinnings of NF2 and to develop novel therapeutics to control this devastating disease. (nih.gov)
  • One month after surgery, rat models were evaluated by electrical stimulation. (cnki.com.cn)
  • There are two murine models of CMT2D with different mutations in the Cars gene. (bl.uk)
  • Here we report the generation of a fucosidosis mouse model, in which the gene for lysosomal α-L-fucosidase ( Fuca1 ) was disrupted by gene targeting. (biologists.org)
  • In this interview, Cedric Uytingco discusses the key benefits of being able to visualize gene expression patterns in neurological samples. (news-medical.net)
  • We investigated this protein and its gene expression using a well characterized model of hippocampal neuronal damage (trimethyl tin- TMT) in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • Many neurological conditions are caused by immensely heterogeneous gene mutations. (cdc.gov)