Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
A bracelet or necklace worn by an individual that alerts emergency personnel of medical information for that individual which could affect their condition or treatment.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).
A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Enlargement of the spleen.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/26926)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (2/26926)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Familial antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: criteria for disease and evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. (3/26926)

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic criteria for a familial form of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), identify families with >1 affected member, examine possible modes of inheritance, and determine linkage to potential candidate genes. METHODS: Family members of probands with primary APS were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Families with > or =2 affected members were analyzed by segregation analysis and typed for candidate genetic markers. RESULTS: Seven families were identified. Thirty of 101 family members met diagnostic criteria for APS. Segregation studies rejected both environmental and autosomal recessive models, and the data were best fit by either a dominant or codominant model. Linkage analysis showed independent segregation of APS and several candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory criteria are essential to identify the spectrum of disease associated with APS. We believe a set of criteria was developed that can precisely define affected family members with APS. Modeling studies utilizing these criteria strongly support a genetic basis for disease in families with APS and suggest that a susceptibility gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. However, in these families, APS was not linked with HLA, Fas, or other candidate genes, including beta2-glycoprotein 1, HLA, T cell receptor beta chain, Ig heavy chain, antithrombin III, Fas ligand, factor V, complement factor H, IgK, and Fas.  (+info)

Telomere length dynamics and chromosomal instability in cells derived from telomerase null mice. (4/26926)

To study the effect of continued telomere shortening on chromosome stability, we have analyzed the telomere length of two individual chromosomes (chromosomes 2 and 11) in fibroblasts derived from wild-type mice and from mice lacking the mouse telomerase RNA (mTER) gene using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Telomere length at both chromosomes decreased with increasing generations of mTER-/- mice. At the 6th mouse generation, this telomere shortening resulted in significantly shorter chromosome 2 telomeres than the average telomere length of all chromosomes. Interestingly, the most frequent fusions found in mTER-/- cells were homologous fusions involving chromosome 2. Immortal cultures derived from the primary mTER-/- cells showed a dramatic accumulation of fusions and translocations, revealing that continued growth in the absence of telomerase is a potent inducer of chromosomal instability. Chromosomes 2 and 11 were frequently involved in these abnormalities suggesting that, in the absence of telomerase, chromosomal instability is determined in part by chromosome-specific telomere length. At various points during the growth of the immortal mTER-/- cells, telomere length was stabilized in a chromosome-specific man-ner. This telomere-maintenance in the absence of telomerase could provide the basis for the ability of mTER-/- cells to grow indefinitely and form tumors.  (+info)

Plasmid replication initiator protein RepD increases the processivity of PcrA DNA helicase. (5/26926)

The replication initiator protein RepD encoded by the Staphylococcus chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pC221 stimulates the helicase activity of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA DNA helicase in vitro. This stimulatory effect seems to be specific for PcrA and differs from the stimulatory effect of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L3. Whereas L3 stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by promoting co-operative PcrA binding onto its DNA substrate, RepD stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by increasing the processivity of the enzyme and enables PcrA to displace DNA from a nicked substrate. The implication of these results is that PcrA is the helicase recruited into the replisome by RepD during rolling circle replication of plasmids of the pT181 family.  (+info)

Transplacement mutagenesis: a novel in situ mutagenesis system using phage-plasmid recombination. (6/26926)

Site-specific mutagenesis provides the ability to alter DNA with precision so that the function of any given gene can be more fully understood. Several methods of in vitro mutagenesis are time-consuming and imprecise, requiring the subcloning and sequencing of products. Here we describe a rapid, high fidelity method of in situ mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda using transplacement. Using this method, mutations are transferred from oligonucleotides to target phages using a plasmid interface. A small (50 bp) homology region bearing a centred point mutation is generated from oligonucleotides and subcloned into a transplacement plasmid bearing positive and negative phage selectable markers. Following a positive/negative selection cycle of integrative recombination and excision, the point mutation is transferred precisely from plasmid to phage in a subset ( approximately 25-50%) of recombinants. As the fidelity of both oligonucleotide synthesis and phage-plasmid recombination is great, this approach is extremely reliable. Using transplacement, point mutations can be accurately deposited within large phage clones and we demonstrate the utility of this technique in the construction of gene targeting vectors in bacteriophages.  (+info)

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. (7/26926)

We present a method to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) resident in their host strain. The method is based on homologous recombination by ET-cloning. We have successfully modified BACs at two distinct loci by recombination with a PCR product containing homology arms of 50 nt. The procedure we describe here is rapid, was found to work with high efficiency and should be applicable to any BAC modification desired.  (+info)

Amplification of cDNA ends based on template-switching effect and step-out PCR. (8/26926)

A new method for amplifying cDNA ends is described which requires only first-strand cDNA synthesis and a single PCR to generate a correct product with very low or no background. The method can be successfully applied to total RNA as well as poly A+ RNA. The same first-strand cDNA can be used to amplify flanking sequences of any cDNA species present in the sample.  (+info)

With novel developments in sequencing technologies, time-sampled data are becoming more available and accessible. Naturally, there have been efforts in parallel to infer population genetic parameters from these data sets. Here, we compare and analyse four recent approaches based on the Wright-Fisher model for inferring selection coefficients (s) given effective population size (N-e), with simulated temporal data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the advantage of a recently proposed approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-based method that is able to correctly infer genomewide average N-e from time-serial data, which is then set as a prior for inferring per-site selection coefficients accurately and precisely. We implement this ABC method in a new software and apply it to a classical time-serial data set of the medionigra genotype in the moth Panaxia dominula. We show that a recessive lethal model is the best explanation for the observed variation in allele frequency by implementing an estimator ...
Here I have studied a series of simple one-locus two-allele models for maternal (parental) selection. Srb et al. (1965, Chapter 11) give several examples for maternal effects that can be attributed to a single diallelic locus; see Wade (1996) for more discussion of the relevance of maternal effects controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. My results indicate similarity between dynamic behaviors under maternal selection and fertility selection. The latter is well-known to be much more complicated than the dynamics resulting from viability selection (e.g., Owen 1953; Bodmer 1965; Hadeler and Liberman 1975). I have shown that maternal selection can result in a simultaneous stability of equilibria of different types. Thus, in the presence of maternal (parental) selection, the outcome of population evolution can significantly depend on initial conditions. With maternal selection, genetic variability can be maintained in a population even if none of the offspring of heterozygous ...
A multivariate quantitative genetic model is analyzed that is based on the assumption that the genetic variation at a locus j primarily influences an underlying physiological variable yj, while influence on the genotypic values is determined by a kind of developmental function which is not changed by mutations at this locus. Assuming additivity among loci the developmental function becomes a linear transformation of the underlying variables y onto the genotypic values x, x = By. In this way the pleiotropic effects become constrained by the structure of the B-matrix. The equilibrium variance under mutation-stabilizing selection balance in infinite and finite populations is derived by using the house of cards approximation. The results are compared to the predictions given by M. Turelli in 1985 for pleiotropic two-character models. It is shown that the B-matrix model gives the same results as Turellis five-allele model, suggesting that the crucial factor determining the equilibrium variance in ...
Suppose you have 8 observations ($i=1,...,8$) from three different states (A, B, C) and you also know that observations for $i=1,2$ are from state A, for $i=3,4,5$ are from state B and for $i=6,7,8$ are from state C. You are trying to estimate parameters with a linear regression model where $\varepsilon_i$ is the error term. The assumptions on this error term are that: $E[\varepsilon_i]=0$, $V[\varepsilon]=\sigma^2$ and:. $$Cov[\varepsilon_i, \varepsilon_j]=\begin{cases} \sigma^2 \rho & \text{ if observation i comes from the same state of observation j} \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}$$. Now you have that:. $$\overline{\varepsilon_h}=\frac{1}{n_h} \sum_{i \in h} \varepsilon_i$$. where $h=A,B,C$. Im asked to compute the variance-covariance matrix of $\overline{\varepsilon}$ (notated $V[\overline{\varepsilon}]$) so Ive started to compute variances and covariances of $\overline{\varepsilon}$ for $h=A, \ B, \ C$.. ...
The advent of the genomic era has necessitated the development of methods capable of analyzing large volumes of genomic data efficiently. Being able to reliably identify bottlenecks-extreme population size changes of short duration-not only is interesting in the context of speciation and extinction but also matters (as a null model) when inferring selection. Bottlenecks can be detected in polymorphism data via their distorting effect on the shape of the underlying genealogy. Here, we use the generating function of genealogies to derive the probability of mutational configurations in short sequence blocks under a simple bottleneck model. Given a large number of nonrecombining blocks, we can compute maximum-likelihood estimates of the time and strength of the bottleneck. Our method relies on a simple summary of the joint distribution of polymorphic sites. We extend the site frequency spectrum by counting mutations in frequency classes in short sequence blocks. Using linkage information over short ...
Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling) software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.
(Update 6/2013 - Ive edited and extended this old post from 10/2012. I had begun writing a new related post, and decided the material was better placed within this one as an extension.) Two recent observations set me down a dark and lonely road, and they are unsurprisingly related. They both have to do with…
Everyone knows that parents provide more than DNA for their offspring. Development does, after all, start with an egg. But such non-genetic inheritance has been conspicuously absent from discussions of how evolution works. Similarly to plasticity, non-genetic inheritance evolves and can be an adaptation. For example, we could ask how parental and offspring plasticity co-evolve and if this enables non-genetic transmission of information between generations. We can also ask if incomplete epigenetic resetting between generations could ever be favoured by natural selection. We address some of these issues as part of an EU funded large collaborative project called IDEAL.. But non-genetic inheritance is more than an adaptation to transfer information between generations (or a cause of phenotypic variance that biases responses to selection as in many quantitative genetic models). We have suggested there are a number of important insights gained from viewing heredity as a developmental process; by ...
The HCCME= option in the MODEL statement selects the type of heteroscedasticity-consistent covariance matrix. In the presence of heteroscedasticity, the covariance matrix has a complicated structure that can result in inefficiencies in the OLS estimates and biased estimates of the variance-covariance matrix. The variances for cross-sectional and time dummy variables and the covariances with or between the dummy variables are not corrected for heteroscedasticity in the one-way and two-way models. Whether or not HCCME is specified, they are the same. For the two-way models, the variance and the covariances for the intercept are not corrected.[1] Consider the simple linear model: ...
Motivation: To test whether protein folding constraints and secondary structure sequence preferences significantly reduce the space of amino acid words in proteins, we compared the frequencies of four- and five-amino acid word clumps (independent words) in proteins to the frequencies predicted by four random sequence models.. Results: While the human proteome has many overrepresented word clumps, these words come from large protein families with biased compositions (e.g. Zn-fingers). In contrast, in a non-redundant sample of Pfam-AB, only 1% of four-amino acid word clumps (4.7% of 5mer words) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with our simplest random model [MC(0)], and 0.1% (4mers) to 0.5% (5mers) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with a window-shuffled random model. Using a false discovery rate q-value analysis, the number of exceptional four- or five-letter words in real proteins is similar to the number found when comparing words from one random model to another. Consensus overrepresented ...
When called in an array context, returns an array of $n deviates (each deviate being an array reference) generated from the multivariate normal distribution with mean vector @mean and variance-covariance matrix @covar. When called in a scalar context, generates and returns only one such deviate as an array reference, regardless of the value of $n. Argument restrictions: If the dimension of the deviate to be generated is p, @mean should be a length p array of real numbers. @covar should be a length p array of references to length p arrays of real numbers (i.e. a p by p matrix). Further, @covar should be a symmetric positive-definite matrix, although the Perl code does not check positive-definiteness, and the underlying C code assumes the matrix is symmetric. Given that the variance-covariance matrix is symmetric, it doesnt matter if the references refer to rows or columns. If a non-positive definite matrix is passed to the function, it will abort with the following message: ...
1. Basic Genetics of Platypapyrus foursuitii Platypapyrus foursuitii is a diploid organism. One feature that makes the species particularly amenable for genetic studies is that their chromosomal material takes the form of playing cards and can easily be handled like cards. Each card represents alleles in the gene pool, and two cards together represent the genotype of an individual. A person can hold any number of different individual genotypes, depending on the sample size you want. For a class of 25, you can have a population size of 50 by giving each student four cards. Sample sizes much less than 50 can result in significant fluctuations due to sampling error. For 50 individuals, you will need 100 cards or two decks. 2. A one-locus, two-allele model (50 individual organisms in the population) These instructions assume 50 individuals in the population, each individual containing two cards. If you have 25 students, you can give each one two pairs to work with. If you have some other number, ...
We establish the asymptotic sampling distribution of general functions of quantile-based estimators computed from samples that are not necessarily independent. The results provide the statistical framework within which to assess the progressivity of taxes and benefits, their horizontal inequity, and the change in the inequality of income which they cause. By the same token, these findings characterise the sampling distribution of a number of popular indices of progressivity, horizontal inequity, and redistribution. They can also be used to assess welfare and inequality changes using panel data, and to assess poverty when it depends on estimated population quantiles. We illustrate these results using micro data on the incidence of taxes and benefits in Canada.(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
Downloadable! We establish the asymptotic sampling distribution of general functions of quantile-based estimators computed from samples that are not necessarily independent. The results provide the statistical framework within which to assess the progressivity of taxes and benefits, their horizontal inequity, and the change in the inequality of income which they cause. By the same token, these findings characterise the sampling distribution of a number of popular indices of progressivity, horizontal inequity, and redistribution. They can also be used to assess welfare and inequality changes using panel data, and to assess poverty when it depends on estimated population quantiles. We illustrate these results using micro data on the incidence of taxes and benefits in Canada.
controls the maximum number of additional iterations PROC MIXED performs to update the fixed-effects and covariance parameter estimates following data point removal. If you specify n > 0, then statistics such as DFFITS, MDFFITS, and the likelihood distances measure the impact of observation(s) on all aspects of the analysis. Typically, the influence will grow compared to values at ITER=0. In models without RANDOM or REPEATED effects, the ITER= option has no effect. This documentation refers to analyses when n > 0 simply as iterative influence analysis, even if final covariance parameter estimates can be updated in a single step (for example, when METHOD=MIVQUE0 or METHOD=TYPE3). This nomenclature reflects the fact that only if n > 0 are all model parameters updated, which can require additional iterations. If n > 0 and METHOD=REML (default) or METHOD=ML, the procedure updates fixed effects and variance-covariance parameters after removing the selected observations with additional Newton-Raphson ...
This came up in the same project as Distribution of maximum of random walk conditioned to stay positive, which is certainly more standard. For this one, I completely dont know whether this is standard or difficult. Ive looked up some standard stuff (eg. on sequential sampling) where you have a boundary condition given by absorbing boundaries at $0$ and $a$, but the weighted sum seems to make things harder. Again, Id be very happy to learn that this is a standard thing with a good reference, or for advice as well as complete solutions. Any thoughts?. ... Code: // file c.c // cc -Wall -g c.c -o c #include|stdio.h| #include|stdlib.h| #inclu
Both the confidence intervals and the hypothesis testing methods in the independent-sample design require Normality of both samples. If the sample sizes are large (say ,50), Normality is not as critical, as the CLT implies the sampling distributions of the means are approximately Normal. If these parametric assumptions are invalid we must use a non-parametric (distribution free test), even if the latter is less powerful. The plots below indicate that Normal assumptions are not unreasonable for these data, and hence we may be justified in using the two independent sample T-test in this case. ...
Even when natural selection is not operating, the gene frequencies may change a little from the previous generation just by chance. This can happen because the genes that form a new generation are a random sample from the parental generation.. Random sampling occurs whenever a smaller number of successful individuals (or gametes) are sampled from a larger pool of potential survivers and the fitnesses of the genotypes are the same. Random sampling works at every stage as a new generation grows up but it starts at conception. In every species, each individual produces many more gametes than will ever fertilize, or be fertilized, to form new organisms. The successful gametes which do form offspring are a sample from the many gametes that the parents produce. Provided the parent is a heterozygote, such as Aa, it will then produce a large number of gametes, of which approximately one half will be A and the other half a. If that parent produces 10 offspring, it is most likely that five will inherit an ...
New research into ageing processes, based on modern genetic techniques, confirms theoretical expectations about the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. Studies of birds reveal that those that have offspring later ...
The shuffle, also known as the Fishers Exact Test, is a permutation test that can be used to estimate the sampling distribution of a statistic without relying on parametric assumptions. This is especially important when sample sizes are small. The other neat thing about permutation tests is that you dont have to know what the distribution of your statistic is. So if you have a really odd function of your data that you want to use rather than one of the classical statistics you can ...
ive said this before, and ill say it again, a lot of it is purely reactive. race realists are not the only ones who say that race matters. when people make positive assertions about race based on social constructs which map onto to genetic correlations, that gets the ball rolling. finally, the quotation you are using has to be framed in the context of attempting to generate 100,000 year narratives. the fact that race is a fuzzy concept doesnt, to me, deny that it is more realistic than tracing human lineages 4,000 generations. an analogy would be if people attempted to trace races back 20,000 years, a problem that does crop up, and which falls under the same pitfalls as the issues i was bringing up. on the other hand, genetic correlations in the present generation are broken down (in general) by only small levels of deme-to-deme genetic exchange in most regions (e.g., given a modest number of genetic loci discrete clusters quickly emerge by populations which we a priori accept as ...
3D genetic models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR options.
Z is a measure of the magnitude of bias in the COR. If Z = 1, the case-only estimate of interaction is not biased by genotype-environment association in the underlying population (76). Commonly, this assumption is assessed in control data from a small number of outside studies, using significance testing. Significance testing alone is not sufficient for assessment of potential bias (87). Rarely is Z estimated and/or adjusted for, analogous to other forms of bias such as confounding.. Results from this project illustrate some of the pitfalls of this approach. For instance, for XRCC1 399 ever-never smoking, 18 of the 21 included studies have estimates that are not statistically significantly different than the null value of 1.0. Considering any of these in a statistical significance testing framework would lead to the conclusion that the independence assumption was valid; therefore a case-only study estimate of interaction would not be biased, at least from independence assumption violation. ...
Furthermore, #4 is an important thing to check, but I dont really think of it as an assumption per se. Lets think about how assumptions can be checked. Independence is often checked firstly by thinking about what the data stand for and how they were collected. In addition, it can be checked using things like a runs test, Durbin-Watson test, or examining the pattern of autocorrelations--you can also look at partial autocorrelations. (Note that, these can only be assessed relative to your continuous covariate.) With primarily categorical explanatory variables, homogeneity of variance can be checked by calculating the variance at each level of your factors. Having computed these, there are several tests used to check if they are about the same, primarily Levenes test, but also the Brown-Forsyth test. The $F_{max}$ test, also called Hartleys test is not recommended; if you would like a little more information about that I discuss it here. (Note that these tests can be applied to your ...
Due to limited precision, accuracy, and variability in ordinal outcomes, it behooves researchers to use either 5-point, 7-point, or higher level Likert scales. With more options, more unique variance can be accounted for the in the analysis and statistical power is increased. One-sampled tests possess more statistical power than other between-subjects statistics because there is only one group being analyzed, no other independent groups are included ...
When all the characteristics that have made Henry Shefflin the most successful and greatest hurler of this or probably any generation are distilled into one moment, perhaps the first ex
Abstract: The proof of Todas celebrated theorem that the polynomial hierarchy is contained in $¶^{# P}$ relies on the fact that, under mild technical conditions on the complexity class $C$, we have $\exists C \subset BP \cdot \oplus C$. More concretely, there is a randomized reduction which transforms nonempty sets and the empty set, respectively, into sets of odd or even size. The customary method is to invoke Valiants and Vaziranis randomized reduction from NP to UP, followed by amplification of the resulting success probability from $1/\poly(n)$ to a constant by combining the parities of $\poly(n)$ trials. Here we give a direct algebraic reduction which achieves constant success probability without the need for amplification. Our reduction is very simple, and its analysis relies on well-known properties of the Legendre symbol in finite fields ...
Approximate x*exp(-x) with Orthogonal Functions (Legendre Polynomials, Chebychev Polynomials, Bessel Functions) & Compare to Taylors Series ...
View Notes - 1-20chapter stats from MGMT 2123 at HCCS. is B. Fail to reject the null hypothesis 78. In an effort to improve productivity in its factory, a firm recently instituted a training program
A couple of new BioShock Infinite screenshots have appeared out of GamesCom. Theres not much more to say than that, but you can see them below, and continue
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Methods for simulating samples and sample statistics, under mutation-selection-drift equilibrium for a class of nonneutral population genetics models, and for evaluating the likelihood surface, in selection and mutation parameters, are developed and applied for observed data. The methods apply to large populations in settings in which selection is weak, in the sense that selection intensities, like mutation rates, are of the order of the inverse of the population size. General diploid selection is allowed, but the approach is currently restricted to models, such as the infinite alleles model and certain K-models, in which the type of a mutant allele does not depend on the type of its progenitor allele. The simulation methods have considerable advantages over available alternatives. No other methods currently seem practicable for approximating likelihood surfaces.
Microsatellite loci mutate at an extremely high rate and are generally thought to evolve through a stepwise mutation model. Several differentiation statistics taking into account the particular mutation scheme of the microsatellite have been proposed. The most commonly used is R(ST) which is independent of the mutation rate under a generalized stepwise mutation model. F(ST) and R(ST) are commonly reported in the literature, but often differ widely. Here we compare their statistical performances using individual-based simulations of a finite island model. The simulations were run under different levels of gene flow, mutation rates, population number and sizes. In addition to the per locus statistical properties, we compare two ways of combining R(ST) over loci. Our simulations show that even under a strict stepwise mutation model, no statistic is best overall. All estimators suffer to different extents from large bias and variance. While R(ST) better reflects population differentiation
Author Summary In genome-wide association studies, the multiple testing problem and confounding due to population stratification have been intractable issues. Family-based designs have considered only the transmission of genotypes from founder to nonfounder to prevent sensitivity to the population stratification, which leads to the loss of information. Here we propose a novel analysis approach that combines mutually independent FBAT and screening statistics in a robust way. The proposed method is more powerful than any other, while it preserves the complete robustness of family-based association tests, which only achieves much smaller power level. Furthermore, the proposed method is virtually as powerful as population-based approaches/designs, even in the absence of population stratification. By nature of the proposed method, it is always robust as long as FBAT is valid, and the proposed method achieves the optimal efficiency if our linear model for screening test reasonably explains the observed data
The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution, yet, rather little is known about the stationary distribution. On the other hand, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected times to hit optimum, assessment of the biases due to recombination and is of importance in population genetics to assess whats called a ``genetic load (see the introduction for more details). In this talk I will show how the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive rather explicit bounds on the ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the ...
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for weekly body weight of feed intake of individually fed beef bulls at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models (RRM). The model for cumulative feed intake included the fixed linear regression on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 day) for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials were included for the additive genetic effect of the animal and the additional random effect of weaning-herd-year (WHY) and on fourth order for the additional random permanent environmental effect of the animal. The model for body weights included the fixed linear regression on fourth order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth order orthogonal Legendre ...
View Notes - Slides7_v1 from ECON 404 at University of Michigan. Sampling Distributions Utku Suleymanoglu UMich Utku Suleymanoglu (UMich) Sampling Distributions 1 / 21 Introduction Population
In 1994, Muse & Gaut (MG) and Goldman & Yang (GY) proposed evolutionary models that recognize the coding structure of the nucleotide sequences under study, by defining a Markovian substitution process with a state space consisting of the 61 sense codons (assuming the universal genetic code). Several variations and extensions to their models have since been proposed, but no general and flexible framework for contrasting the relative performance of alternative approaches has yet been applied. Here, we compute Bayes factors to evaluate the relative merit of several MG- and GY-style of codon substitution models, including recent extensions acknowledging heterogeneous nonsynonymous rates across sites, as well as selective effects inducing uneven amino acid or codon preferences. Our results on three real data sets support a logical model construction following the MG formulation, allowing for a flexible account of global amino acid or codon preferences, while maintaining distinct parameters governing overall
A key question in molecular evolutionary biology concerns the relative roles of mutation and selection in shaping genomic data. Moreover, features of mutation and selection are heterogeneous along the genome and over time. Mechanistic codon substitution models based on the mutation-selection framework are promising approaches to separating these effects. In practice, however, several complications arise, since accounting for such heterogeneities often implies handling models of high dimensionality (e.g., amino acid preferences), or leads to across-site dependence (e.g., CpG hypermutability), making the likelihood function intractable. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) could address this latter issue. Here, we propose a new approach, named Conditional ABC (CABC), which combines the sampling efficiency of MCMC and the flexibility of ABC. To illustrate the potential of the CABC approach, we apply it to the study of mammalian CpG hypermutability based on a new mutation-level parameter implying
We have demonstrated that a simple one-locus two-allele model of genomic imprinting produces large differences in predictions for additive (Table 2) and dominance terms from a number of standard approaches for partitioning the genotypic value of an individual. These approaches are equivalent in the absence of imprinting under standard Mendelian expression (where heterozygotes have equivalent genotypic values and hence k1 = k2). Although all approaches give identical total genetic variance, there are differences in the partitioning of the genetic variance into additive, dominance and covariance terms (Table 3).. The major differences in the approaches arise due to differences in how breeding values and additive effects are defined. Approaches 1 and 2b incorporate both sex- and generation-dependent terms, and breeding values are equivalent for these approaches (Table 2). However, Approaches 2a and the regression methods (Approaches 3a and 3b) are unable to partition separate male and female terms. ...
A balanced pattern in the allele frequencies of polymorphic loci is a potential sign of selection, particularly of overdominance. Although this type of selection is of some interest in population genetics, there exist no likelihood based approaches specifically tailored to make inference on selection intensity. To fill this gap, we present likelihood methods to estimate selection intensity under k-allele models with overdominance.;The stationary distribution of allele frequencies under a variety of Wright-Fisher k-allele models with selection and parent independent mutation is well studied. However, the statistical properties of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters under these models are not well understood. We show that under each of these models, there is a point in data space which carries the strongest possible signal for selection, yet, at this point, the likelihood is unbounded. This result remains valid even if all of the mutation parameters are assumed to be known. Therefore, ...
For this problem, we know $p=0.43$ and $n=50$. First, we should check our conditions for the sampling distribution of the sample proportion.. \(np=50(0.43)=21.5\) and \(n(1-p)=50(1-0.43)=28.5\) - both are greater than 5.. Since the conditions are satisfied, $\hat{p}$ will have a sampling distribution that is approximately normal with mean \(\mu=0.43\) and standard deviation [standard error] \(\sqrt{\dfrac{0.43(1-0.43)}{50}}\approx 0.07\).. \begin{align} P(0.45,\hat{p},0.5) &=P\left(\frac{0.45-0.43}{0.07}, \frac{\hat{p}-p}{\sqrt{\frac{p(1-p)}{n}}},\frac{0.5-0.43}{0.07}\right)\\ &\approx P\left(0.286,Z,1\right)\\ &=P(Z,1)-P(Z,0.286)\\ &=0.8413-0.6126\\ &=0.2287\end{align}. Therefore, if the true proportion of American who own an iPhone is 43%, then there would be a 22.87% chance that we would see a sample proportion between 45% and 50% when the sample size is 50.. ...
Although complex diseases and traits are thought to have multifactorial genetic basis, the common methods in genome-wide association analyses test each variant for association independent of the others. This computational simplification may lead to reduced power to identify variants with small effect sizes and requires correcting for multiple hypothesis tests with complex relationships. However, advances in computational methods and increase in computational resources are enabling the computation of models that adhere more closely to the theory of multifactorial inheritance. Here, a Bayesian variable selection and model averaging approach is formulated for searching for additive and dominant genetic effects. The approach considers simultaneously all available variants for inclusion as predictors in a linear genotype-phenotype mapping and averages over the uncertainty in the variable selection. This leads to naturally interpretable summary quantities on the significances of the variants and their ...
Biological systems are resistant to perturbations caused by the environment and by the intrinsic noise of the system. Robustness to mutations is a particular aspect of robustness in which the phenotype is resistant to genotypic variation. Mutational robustness has been linked to the ability of the system to generate heritable genetic variation (a property known as evolvability). It is known that greater robustness leads to increased evolvability. Therefore, mechanisms that increase mutational robustness fuel evolvability. Two such mechanisms, molecular chaperones and gene duplication, have been credited with enormous importance in generating functional diversity through the increase of systems robustness to mutational insults. However, the way in which such mechanisms regulate robustness remains largely uncharacterized. In this review, I provide evidence in support of the role of molecular chaperones and gene duplication in innovation. Specifically, I present evidence that these mechanisms ...
We prove a result concerning the joint distribution of alleles at linked loci on a chromosome drawn from the population at stationarity. For a neutral locus, the allele is a draw from the stationary distribution of the mutation process. Furthermore, this allele is independent of the alleles at different loci on any chromosomes in the population.. ...
Use our video lessons and quizzes to learn about sampling distributions. Each lesson breaks down a concept into bite-sized pieces to help you...
Although research effort is being expended into determining the importance of epistasis and epistatic variance for complex traits, there is considerable controversy about their importance. Here we undertake an analysis for quantitative traits utilizing a range of multilocus quantitative genetic models and gene frequency distributions, focusing on the potential magnitude of the epistatic variance. All the epistatic terms involving a particular locus appear in its average effect, with the number of two-locus interaction terms increasing in proportion to the square of the number of loci and that of third order as the cube and so on. Hence multilocus epistasis makes substantial contributions to the additive variance and does not, per se, lead to large increases in the nonadditive part of the genotypic variance. Even though this proportion can be high where epistasis is antagonistic to direct effects, it reduces with multiple loci. As the magnitude of the epistatic variance depends critically on the ...
The dominant character of leaf size varies with different genetic models and leaf positions. In Model 1, the dominant characters of top and lower leaves are small size, but for the middle leaves it is large size. In Model 2, large size is dominant for three types of leaves. In Model 3, small size is dominant for the top and middle leaves, but recessive for lower leaves. In Model 4, small size is dominant in the top and lower leaves, but recessive in the middle leaves (Table 6). Therefore, we can not conclude and illustrate the inheritance of leaf size for tobacco leaves. Leaf size was determined by genetics and environment (Gurevitch, 1992); hence it may be suitable to illustrate the genetic mechanism for leaf size in a fixed position of single leaf, or increase the number of planted locations to increase the generational mean. This would allow us to estimate the effect of genetic-environmental interaction and understand the inheritance of leaf size.. Genetic Models and Inheritance of Leaf ...
In this work, we built a pipeline, extTADA, for the integrated Bayesian analysis of DN mutations and rare CC variants to infer rare-variant genetic architecture parameters and identify risk genes. We applied extTADA to data available for SCZ and four other NDDs (Additional file 1: Figure S1).. The extTADA pipeline extTADA is based on previous work in autism sequencing studies, TADA [16, 31]. It conducts a full Bayesian analysis of a simple rare-variant genetic architecture model and it borrows information across all annotation categories and DN and CC samples in genetic parameter inference, which is critical for sparse rare-variant sequence data. Using MCMC, extTADA samples from the joint posterior density of risk-gene proportion and mean relative risk parameters, and provides gene-level disease-association BFs, PPs, and FDRs. We hope that extTADA ( will be generally useful for rare-variant analyses across complex traits. extTADA can be used for rare CC variant ...
Background: Localization of complex traits by genetic linkage analysis may involve exploration of a vast multidimensional parameter space. The posterior probability of linkage (PPL), a class of statistics for complex trait genetic mapping in humans, is designed to model the trait model complexity represented by the multidimensional parameter space in a mathematically rigorous fashion. However, the method requires the evaluation of integrals with no functional form, making it difficult to compute, and thus further test, develop and apply. This paper describes MLIP, a multiprocessor two-point genetic linkage analysis system that supports statistical calculations, such as the PPL, based on the full parameter space implicit in the linkage likelihood. Results: The fundamental question we address here is whether the use of additional processors effectively reduces total computation time for a PPL calculation. We use a variety of data - both simulated and real - to explore the question how close can ...
For any statistical analysis, Model selection is necessary and required. In many cases of selection, Bayes factor is one of the important basic elements. For the unilateral hypothesis testing problem, we extend the harmony of frequency and Bayesian evidence to the generalized p-value of unilateral hypothesis testing problem, and study the harmony of generalized P-value and posterior probability of original hypothesis. For the problem of single point hypothesis testing, the posterior probability of the Bayes evidence under the traditional Bayes testing method, that is, the Bayes factor or the single point original hypothesis is established, is analyzed, a phenomenon known as the Lindley paradox, which is at odds with the classical frequency evidence of p-value. At this point, many statisticians have been worked for this from both frequentist and Bayesian perspective. In this paper, I am going to focus on Bayesian approach to model selection, starting from Bayes factors and going within Lindley Paradox,
In JMP Genomics, the Relationship Matrix analysis is used for computing and displaying relatedness among lines. The Relationship Matrix tool estimates the relationships among the lines using marker data, rather than pedigree information (Kinship Matrix tool), and computes the relationship measures directly while also accounting for selection and genetic drift. The Relationship Matrix computes one of three options: Identity-by-Descent, Identity-by-State, or Allele-Sharing-Similarity. Output from this procedure can serve as the K matrix, representing familial relatedness, in a Q-K mixed model. This post will focus on the Relationship Matrix using a data set containing 343 rice lines with 8,336 markers.
Neutron spin rotation is expected from quark-quark weak interactions in the Standard Model, which induce weak interactions among nucleons that violate parity.
Overview press publications with toplists of bulls. The file with breeding values of sire opens when clicking on download. The lists are sorted according to NVI with the exception of the beef merit index. Sire that are not included in the toplists can be found with the function Sire Search.. Information on the publication. For information about the publication, see News. The national toplists contains breeding values based on Dutch/Flemish daughter information. The Interbull toplists contains converted breeding values based on information from abroad. The genomic toplists contains breeding values based on pedigree information combined with genomic information. The combined toplists contains the top 500 bulls on NVI-base from the described list ...
3. The last point we discussed, which is maybe the most interesting, is the issue of the infinitesimal model. The infinitesimal model, originated by Fisher, assumes that contributions to the genetic variance are additive, relatively small and coming from many loci. The multiplication of QTL studies and other genomic approaches this last years has led to numerous discussions questioning this model, assuming that the reason for the lack of evidence for phenotypic traits controlled by few loci was more or less technological. We have ourselves discussed this issue in this very blog including when studies about human height and some QTLs found to explain just a few percents of variation. Well in light of this article it seems that it is again the case in drosophila, as control for height is seems to be largely polygenic, and the estimates presented here are even a low estimate as the methodology used is quite conservative (polymorphisms with population frequencies under 10% were not even analyzed ...
The complex correlation structure of a collection of orthologous DNA sequences is uniquely captured by the ancestral recombination graph (ARG), a complete record of coalescence and recombination events in the history of the sample. However, existing methods for ARG inference are computationally in …
Lahrouz, A. and Omari, L. (2013) Extinction and stationary distribution of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with non-linear incidence. Statistics & Probability Letters, 83, 960-968.
I started this guide with a problem that gives conventional statistics extreme difficulty but is strikingly simple for Bayesian analysis: Conventional statistics do not allow researchers to make claims about one of the models being tested (sometimes the only model). This inferential asymmetry is toxic to interpreting research results. Bayes factors solve the problem of inferential asymmetry by treating all models equally, and have many other benefits: 1) No penalty for optional stopping or multiple comparisons. Collect data until you feel like stopping or run out of money and make as many model comparisons as you like; 2) Bayes factors give directly interpretable outputs. A Bayes factor means the same thing whether n is 10 or 10,000, and whether we compared 2 or 20 models. A credible interval ranging from .38 to .94 means that we should believe with 95% certainty that the true value lies in that range. 3) Prior probability distributions allow researchers to intimately connect their theories to ...
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree ismodelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the samplemean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean isapproximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.. ...
The deviance is profiled with respect to the fixed-effects parameters but not with respect to sigma; that is, the function takes parameters for the variance-covariance parameters and for the residual standard deviation. The random-effects variance-covariance parameters are on the standard deviation/correlation scale, not the theta (Cholesky factor) scale.
Populations diverge from each other as a result of evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, natural selection, mutation, and migration. For certain types of genetic markers, and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular, it is reasonable to presume that genotypes at most loci are selectively neutral. Because demographic parameters (e.g. population size and migration rates) are common across all loci, locus-specific variation, which can be measured by Wrights FST, will depart from a common mean only for loci with unusually high/low rate of mutation or for loci closely associated with genomic regions having a substantial effect on fitness. We propose two alternative Bayesian hierarchical-beta models to estimate locus-specific effects on FST. To detect loci for which locus-specific effects are not well explained by the common FST, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence measure (KLD) to measure the divergence between the posterior distributions of locus-specific effects and the common FST
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On the Asymptotic Distribution of the Moran I Test Statistic with Applications
Genetic algorithms (GA) are a computational paradigm inspired by the mechanics of natural evolution, including survival of the fittest, reproduction, and mutation. Surprisingly, these mechanics can be used to solve (i.e. compute) a wide range of practical problems, including numeric problems. Concrete examples illustrate how to encode a problem for solution as a genetic algorithm, and help explain why genetic algorithms work. Genetic algorithms are a popular line of current research, and there are many references describing both the theory of genetic algorithms and their use in practical problem solving ...
Math has an impact on just about every aspect of our lives including some that we dont often think about. Math helped change the outcome of WWII, it also shows up in the way we drive our cars and the way we manage our finances. In celebration of Math Awareness Month, here are four TI-Nspire activities to use in your classes - whether you teach algebra, calculus or statistics. 1: German Tanks: Exploring Sampling Distributions. In this activity, your students will be challenged with the same problem the WWII Allies generals had: How do you determine how many German tanks there are? In WWII, the statisticians working for the Allies used sample statistics and sampling distributions to help determine the number of German tanks. Students explore different sample statistics and use simulation to develop a statistic that is effective in approximating the maximum number in a population. ...
Mode: for a discrete random variable, the value with highest probability (the location at which the probability mass function has its peak); for a continuous random variable, the location at which the probability density function has its peak ...
We present SumHer, software for estimating confounding bias, SNP heritability, enrichments of heritability and genetic correlations using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies. The key difference between SumHer and the existing software LD Score Regression (LDSC) is more ...
An organisms genome is continually being alteredby mutations, the vast majority of which are harmful to the organism or its descendants, because they reduce the bearers viability or fertility
Nucleotide substitution in both coding and noncoding regions is context-dependent, in the sense that substitution rates depend on the identity of neighboring bases. Context-dependent substitution has been modeled in the case of two sequences and an unrooted phylogenetic tree, but it has only been ac …
This paper derives (by a new method) an equation due to Macdonald for determining the zeros of the associated Legendre functions of order m and non-integral degree n when the argument is close to -1. A closed form solution is obtained for the values of Q subscript n superscript m (mu) and Q subscript n superscript -m (mu) for mu close to 1. Certain observations are made concerning errors in a recently published article.(*RADAR CROSS SECTIONS
My main disagreement with the authors is over their use of confirmatory/exploratory as the distinction between analyses that have been planned, and preferably preregistered, and those that are exploratory. Its a vital distinction, of course, but confirmatory, while a traditional and widely-used term, does not capture well the intended meaning. Confirmatory vs exploratory probably originates with the two approaches to using factor analysis. It could make sense to follow an exploratory FA that identified a promising factor structure with a test of that now-prespecified structure with a new set of data. That second test might reasonably be labelled confirmatory of that structure, although the data could of course cast doubt on rather than confirm the FA model under test.. By contrast, a typical preregistered investigation, in which the research questions and the corresponding data analysis are fully planned, asks questions about the sizes of effects. It estimates effect sizes rather than seeks ...
The third histogram is a sample from a Cauchy distribution. The mean is 3.70, the median is -0.016, and the mode is -0.362 (the mode is computed as the midpoint of the histogram interval with the highest peak). For better visual comparison with the other data sets, we restricted the histogram of the Cauchy distribution to values between -10 and 10. The full Cauchy data set in fact has a minimum of approximately -29,000 and a maximum of approximately 89,000. The Cauchy distribution is a symmetric distribution with heavy tails and a single peak at the center of the distribution. The Cauchy distribution has the interesting property that collecting more data does not provide a more accurate estimate of the mean. That is, the sampling distribution of the mean is equivalent to the sampling distribution of the original data. This means that for the Cauchy distribution the mean is useless as a measure of the typical value. For this histogram, the mean of 3.7 is well above the vast majority of the data. ...
Response to the genetic challenge from Book of Mormon defenders[edit]. Book of Mormon population models[edit]. Defenders of the ... 3 Response to the genetic challenge from Book of Mormon defenders *3.1 Book of Mormon population models ... 1 Overview of the genetic challenges to the Book of Mormon story *1.1 The genetic challenge ... The Limited Geography Model of the Book of Mormon supports this position. This geographical and population model was formally ...
3 Model organism in genetics *3.1 History of use in genetic analysis ... History of use in genetic analysis[edit]. Alfred Sturtevant's Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map: This was the first ... Genetic markers[edit]. Genetic markers are commonly used in Drosophila research, for example within balancer chromosomes or P- ... Drosophila is being used as a genetic model for several human diseases including the neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson's, ...
"Agent-Based Modeling" (PDF). Social Self-Organization. Berlin: Springer: 25-70.. *. Holland, John H. (1992). "Genetic ... Simulation models[edit]. *Collection of Agent-Based Models at *Multi-agent Meeting Scheduling System Model by ... Building DREAM models allows model comparison across scientific disciplines.. *Validated agent-based modeling using Virtual ... In essence, by the time the simulation model is complete, one can essentially consider it to be one model containing two models ...
In vivo models. Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant ... Genetic analysis[edit]. The phenolic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and enzymes can be studied by mean of transgenesis of ... Simple natural phenols can lead to the formation of B-type procyanidins in wines[15] or in model solutions.[16][17] This is ... an Experimental Model". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (5): 673-93. doi:10.1080/07352689991309441.. ...
Genetic algorithms deliver methods to model biological systems and systems biology that are linked to the theory of dynamical ... Fraser AS (1958). "Monte Carlo analyses of genetic models". Nature. 181 (4603): 208-9. Bibcode:1958Natur.181..208F. doi:10.1038 ... Koza, John R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0 ... Evolutionary programming was introduced by Lawrence J. Fogel in the US, while John Henry Holland called his method a genetic ...
Correlative model[edit]. Smoking may have a genetic predisposing factor; one 1990 study posited that 52% of the variance in ... model and the correlated liabilities model. The causation model argues that smoking is a primary influence on future drug use, ... while the correlated liabilities model argues that smoking and other drug use are predicated on genetic or environmental ... The concept received support from a large-scale genetic analysis of 2016 that showed a genetic basis for the connection of the ...
"Molecular genetic approach to identify inhibitors of signal transduction pathways". In Conn PM (ed.). Sourcebook of Models for ... Genomic and functional gene annotation of the two major yeast models can be accessed via their respective model organism ... "In Sunnerhagen P, Piskur J (eds.). Comparative Genomics: Using Fungi as Models. Berlin: Springer. pp. 29-46. ISBN 978-3-540- ... Yeasts include some of the most widely used model organisms for genetics and cell biology.[55] ...
"Down syndrome: searching for the genetic culprits". Disease Models & Mechanisms. 4 (5): 586-95. doi:10.1242/dmm.008078. PMC ... Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third ... The extra genetic material present in DS results in overexpression of a portion of the 310 genes located on chromosome 21.[63] ... 2011). Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-1 ...
"The Bargaining Model of Depression". Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-08326-3 ... Behavioral shutdown model[edit]. The behavioral shutdown model states that if an organism faces more risk or expenditure than ... Although the model views depression as an adaptive response, it does not suggest that it is beneficial by the standards of ... In animal models, the prolonged overreaction of the immune system, in response to the strain of chronic disease, results in an ...
Later genetic association studies by Mekel-Bobrov et al. and Evans et al. also reported that the genotype for MCPH1 was under ... Model organisms have been used in the study of MCPH1 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Mcph1tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[ ... and common genetic variants within both the MCPH1 gene and another similarly studied microcephaly gene, CDK5RAP2.[12] ... "DNA damage response in microcephaly development of MCPH1 mouse model". DNA Repair (Amst). 12 (8): 645-55. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep. ...
Genomic and functional gene annotation of the two major yeast models can be accessed via their respective model organism ... Tong AHY, Boone C (2006). "Synthetic genetic array analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". In Xiao W. Yeast Protocols. Springer ... Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 439-444. ISBN 978-1-58829-933-8.. ... The evolutionary origin and maintenance of sexual recombination: A review of contemporary models. Evolutionary Biology Series ...
Model organism[edit]. The yeast-like growth of U. maydis makes it an appealing model organism for research, although its ... The fungus is exceptionally well-suited for genetic modification. This allows researchers to study the interaction between the ... The availability of the entire genome is another advantage of this fungus as model organism.[13] ... "Recombinational repair of gaps in DNA is asymmetric in Ustilago maydis and can be explained by a migrating D-loop model". PNAS ...
... the last key requirement for a likely model of the genetic molecule. As important as Crick's contributions to the discovery of ... Thus, the Watson and Crick model was not the first "bases in" model to be proposed. Furberg's results had also provided the ... The genetic code" (PDF reprint). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 167 (9): 331-47. Bibcode:1967RSPSB.167..331C. doi:10.1098/ ... Crick and Watson produced and showed off an erroneous first model of DNA. Their hurry to produce a model of DNA structure was ...
Fearon ER, Vogelstein B (June 1990). "A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis". Cell. 61 (5): 759-67. doi:10.1016/0092- ... Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation and epimutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance ...
Marchand, H. The Genetic Epistemologist Volume 29, Number 3 *^ Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (1984a). A general model of ... In 1993 a model was published explaining the connection between Piaget's theory of development and Abraham Maslow's concept of ... Commons, M. L., Gane-McCalla, R., Barker C. D., Li, E. Y. (in press). The Model of Hierarchical Complexity as a measurement ... Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (1984b). Applying the general stage model. In M. L. Commons, F. A. Richards, & C. Armon (Eds ...
Fearon ER, Vogelstein B (June 1990). "A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis". Cell. 61 (5): 759-67. doi:10.1016/0092- ... Genetic and epigenetic[edit]. There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes that may contribute to ... Dalerba P, Cho RW, Clarke MF (2007). "Cancer stem cells: models and concepts". Annual Review of Medicine. 58: 267-84. doi: ... This model of carcinogenesis is popular because it explains why cancers grow. It would be expected that cells that are damaged ...
Assumptions in population genetic modelsEdit. Effective population size is an essential concept in evolutionary biology and ... Genetic diversityEdit. Whether a species has overlapping generations or not can influence the genetic diversity in the new ... In population genetics models, such as the Hardy-Weinberg model, it is assumed that species have no overlapping generations. In ... For the economic model, see Overlapping generations model. For the doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses since 2010, see Eschatology_ ...
2.1.3 Genetic factors. *2.1.4 Animal models. *2.1.5 Treatment (pharmaceutical) ... While such models are useful, they are also limited; it is unclear whether the behavior is ego dystonic in animals. That is, it ... Animal modelsEdit. Animals exhibiting obsessive and compulsive behaviors that resemble OCD in humans have been used as a tool ... Genetic factorsEdit. Canine compulsions are more common in some breeds and behavioral dispositions are often shared within the ...
Bharathi S. Gadad, Laura Hewitson, Keith A. Young, and Dwight C. German, "Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic ... "Neuropathology and animal models of autism: Genetic and environmental factors". Autism Research and Treatment. 2013: 731935. ... Hewitson's more recent research has focused on the study of genetic versus epigenetic (environmental) causes of ... Examination of the Safety of Pediatric Vaccine Schedules in a Non-Human Primate Model: Assessments of Neurodevelopment, ...
Judson, Olivia P. (1994). Parasites, sex and genetic variation in a model metapopulation (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. ... Judson, O. P. (1994). "The rise of the individual-based model in ecology". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 9 (1): 9-14. doi: ... In 2007 she co-presented Animal Farm with Giles Coren; the series, which explored genetic modification and pharming, was ... Judson, O.; Haydon, D. (1999). "The genetic code: What is it good for? An analysis of the effects of selection pressures on ...
Committee on Animal Models for Research on Aging (1981). Mammalian models for research on aging. National Academies. ISBN 978-0 ... "Peromycus maniculatus Deer Mouse , Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center , University of South Carolina". ... Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.). Committee on Animal Models for Research on Aging; National Research Council (U ... "Peromyscus - A fascinating laboratory animal model" (PDF). Techtalk. 11 (1-2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November ...
Genetic Research in Psychiatry and Psychology Under the Microscope. Algora Publishing. p. 160. ISBN 0-8758-6344-2.. ... Models of Madness. Psychological, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia. Hove, East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN ...
... genetic insights from diverse animal models" (PDF). Nature Reviews. Genetics. 7 (11): 873-84. doi:10.1038/nrg1923. PMID ... as a model genetic organism. This progress has been facilitated by advances in genomics, bioinformatics, and somatic cell ... Alejandro Sanchez-Alvarado and Philip Newmark transformed planarians into a model genetic organism in the beginning of the 20th ... Coleman CM (September 2008). "Chicken embryo as a model for regenerative medicine". Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo ...
... insofar as he drew on mathematical models of social behavior centered on the maximisation of the genetic fitness by W. D. ... A genetic basis for instinctive behavioural traits among non-human species, such as in the above example, is commonly accepted ... Genetic mouse mutants illustrate the power that genes exert on behaviour. For example, the transcription factor FEV (aka Pet1 ... Individual genetic advantage fails to explain certain social behaviors as a result of gene-centred selection. E.O. Wilson ...
However, the genetic compatibility model is limited to specific traits due to complex genetic interactions (e.g. major ... Genetic compatibility[edit]. Genetic compatibility refers to how well the genes of two parents function together in their ... This model does not predict a genetic benefit; rather, the reward is more mates. ... These processes have been difficult to test until recently with advances in genetic modelling.[54] Speciation by sexual ...
In vivo models. Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant ... Genetic analysisEdit. The phenolic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and enzymes can be studied by mean of transgenesis of ... Simple natural phenols can lead to the formation of B-type procyanidins in wines[19] or in model solutions.[20][21] This is ... an Experimental Model". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (5): 673-93. doi:10.1080/07352689991309441.. ...
Mungrue IN, Husain M, Stewart DJ (October 2002). "The role of NOS in heart failure: lessons from murine genetic models". Heart ...
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 46 (6): 2412-2422. doi:10.1021/ci060149f. PMID 17125183.. ... "Melting point prediction employing k-nearest neighbor algorithms and genetic parameter optimization". ... this outlier model, along with another classic data mining method, local outlier factor, works quite well also in comparison to ...
Some models for migration inherently include nonrandom mating (Wahlund effect, for example). For those models, the Hardy- ... These influences include genetic drift, mate choice, assortative mating, natural selection, sexual selection, mutation, gene ... The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and ... In the absence of selection, mutation, genetic drift, or other forces, allele frequencies p and q are constant between ...
A liability threshold model for ALS proposes that cellular damage accumulates over time due to genetic factors present at birth ... the SOD1G93A model remains both the most widely used SOD1 mouse model[136] and the most widely used ALS mouse model overall.[23 ... As of 2018, there are about 20 TARDBP mouse models, a dozen FUS mouse models, and a number of C9orf72, PFN1, and UBQLN2 mouse ... iPSCs allow sporadic ALS to be modeled, which cannot be done with animal models.[79] ...
Genetic variation in the key bile acid synthesis enzyme, CYP7A1, influenced the effectiveness of UDCA in colorectal adenoma ... "Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer". World J Gastrointest Oncol. 6 (7): 225-43. doi ...
Genetic factorsEdit. In 6 to 11% of the children born with coronal synostosis, more often involving the bilateral cases than ... Advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, as well as the use of animal models have been of great importance in ... Lajeunie E, Le Merrer M, Bonaïti-Pellie C, Marchac D, Renier D (March 1996). "Genetic study of scaphocephaly". American Journal ... Multiple potential causes of premature suture closure have been identified, such as the several genetic mutations that are ...
Main article: Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor ... "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged ,20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ...
... and thus modern cycads are not a good model for a "living fossil".[17] ... "New genetic data shows humans and great apes diverged earlier than thought". ...
While schizophrenia is widely believed to be multifactorially genetic by biopsychiatrists, no characteristic genetic markers ... which is a central premise of his model of selection in nature.[5] Later in his career, Castle would refine his model for ... then there is a strong chance that the disease is genetic[citation needed] and that the patient will also be a genetic carrier ... are based on a comparison of single QTL models with a model assuming no QTL. For instance in the "interval mapping" method[23] ...
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... any of the boatmen would have made an excellent model for an Hercules; and one in particular, with uncombed hair and shaggy ... Many scholars have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians based on shared ...
Resulting information can be used to build biological models, design experiments, or get up to speed in an area of research. ... announces collaborations with both Laboratory Corporation and Quest Diagnostics to develop a solution for scoring genetic ... and is used to help researchers analyze omics data and model biological systems. The software has been cited in thousands of ... which contains biological and chemical interactions and functional annotations created from millions of individually modeled ...
2009). «Association of genetic variants with chronic kidney disease in individuals with different lipid profiles». Int. J. Mol ... 2009). «Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis». Circulation. 120 (24): 2448-54. PMC ... 2010). «Genetic risk factors for hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with advanced liver disease». Gastroenterology. 139 (1): ... Dyksterhuis LB, Weiss AS (2010). «Homology models for domains 21-23 of human tropoelastin shed light on lysine crosslinking». ...
a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007). "African Americans with asthma: genetic insights". Proc Am Thorac Soc ...
Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ...
Disease models. Animal models and in particular non-human primates are being used to study different aspects of Ebola virus ... no Ebola virus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents (belonging to the species Mus setulosus and ... Developments in organ-on-a-chip technology have led to a chip-based model for Ebola haemorrhagic syndrome.[262] ... recent estimates based on mathematical models predict that around 5% of cases may take greater than 21 days to develop.[24] ...
According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ... Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and ... the Provisional model suggests that bipedalism arose in pre-Paleolithic australopithecine societies as an adaptation to ...
Alternative model of replicationEdit. One of the main competing models for cpDNA asserts that most cpDNA is linear and ... "Mobile Genetic Elements. 3 (4): e25845. doi:10.4161/mge.25845. PMC 3812789. PMID 24195014.. ... Leading model of cpDNA replicationEdit. Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[17] ...
... developing models for the evolution of genetic systems, including sex and recombination, inbreeding and outbreeding, separate ... In recognition of his discovery of somatic recombination in fungi which led to the elucidation of an important type of genetic ... They have combined molecular and genetic approaches to answer some of Darwins key questions about the natural variation of ... For his work on extended oceanographical expeditions; and for his genetic studies in animals and plants. ...
Δ32 homozygous individual with two genetic copies of a rare variant of a cell surface receptor. This genetic trait confers ... Mortality for allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be estimated using the prediction model created by Sorror et al.,[41] ... In addition, a genetic mismatch as small as a single DNA base pair is significant so perfect matches require knowledge of the ... G-CSF has also been described to induce genetic changes in mononuclear cells of normal donors.[44] There is evidence that ...
"Philosophical and Ethical Problems of Technicism and Genetic Engineering". Society for Philosophy and Technology. 3.. ... though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.[19][20] ... Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic ... "South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an 'Early' Human Dispersal out of Africa" (PDF). American Journal of ...
In this model TipN specifies the site of the most recent division by identifying the new pole. The cell uses this positional ... The genetic network logic responds to signals received from the environment and from internal cell status sensors to adapt the ... Its name derives from its crescent shape caused by the protein crescentin.[2] Its use as a model originated with developmental ... The genetic basis of the phenotypic differences between the two strains results from coding, regulatory, and insertion/deletion ...
Galun, Esra, 1927- (2007). Plant patterning : structural and molecular genetic aspects. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 981- ... Na sliki vidimo model stebelnega rastnega vršička, ki je apikalni meristem. Oznaki L1 in L2 predstavljata epidermalni in ...
The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. Kashin-Beck is a result of combinatorial ... before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. Osteoprogenitor cells can ... a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease". PLOS Genet. 5 (8): e1000616. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000616. PMC 2721633. PMID ...
Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems. ... as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in ... transcription and translation of the genetic material. ...
Development is not a simple question of a brain being built according to a pre-specified genetic blueprint - rather, the ... of neuroimaging studies on younger children have provided data that appears to fit specific predictions made by Johnson's model ...
This passive model predicts that the majority of species are microscopic prokaryotes, which is supported by estimates of 106 to ... According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... Genome complexity has generally increased since the beginning of the life on Earth.[17][18] Some computer models have suggested ...
Cases have been reported as far east as the island of Newfoundland.[105][214][215][216] A model-based prediction by Leighton et ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... A 2005 study using climate suitability modelling of I. scapularis projected that climate change would cause an overall 213% ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ...
2002) proposed a model of mental toughness, conceptualising it more like a personality trait. Their model has four components: ... 2009) demonstrates that genetic and non-shared environmental factors contribute to the development of mental toughness (as ... One of the few published studies that takes mental toughness out of the sporting domain is based on the 4 'C's model. In this ... Many sports focussed studies have employed the Clough model of mental toughness. They have, using samples of athletes, shown a ...
... to in vivo models of cancer and in 2005 reported a long-term survival benefit in an experimental brain tumor animal model.[62][ ... and follow-up examination of prepared tissues after immunohistochemical staining or genetic analysis. ...
... genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with phosphofructokinase deficiency". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 56 (1): 131-141 ... Ovaj protein može da koristi morfeinski model alosterne regulacije.[4] ...
The genetic diagnostics of the giant ripples in the Kuray Basin had a general character and was essentially limited to the ... Herget J.& Agatz H. Modelling ice-dammed lake outburst floods in the Altay Mountains (Siberia) with HEC-RAS. - V.R. ... Thus, it is this scientist's name that we should associate with the discovery and correct genetic interpretation of the relief ... Giant current ripple marks are morphologic and genetic macroanalogues of small current ripples formed in sandy stream sediments ...
Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B ... "Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and ovarian cancer risk". American Journal of Epidemiology. 161 (5): 442- ... "Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: a two-step model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
The second O, orientation-as the repository of our genetic heritage, cultural tradition, and previous experiences-is the most ... utility sought at the decide phase can be altered by affecting the information the opponent receives and the cognitive model he ...
The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... "Genetic Evaluation Results". Archived from the original on August 27, 2001.. *^ S1008: Genetic Selection and Crossbreeding to ... "Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)" (PDF). Department of ... The inbreeding guarantees a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in ...
Our core develops genetic technologies and model systems aimed at investigating genes and pathways to yield insight into how ... Genetic Animal Models Core. Develops novel genetic technologies and model systems aimed at investigating genes and pathways to ... The Genetic Animal Models Core provides emerging genetic technology and model systems that enable transformative investigation ... Models of host defense. *Access to a bank of genotyped mouse- and human-derived intestinal organoids as well as tools, ...
Analyzing and Disseminating Information on Genetic Tests. Cystic Fibrosis1 Hemochromatosis2 Venous Thromboembolism3 Breast & ... ACCE Model System for Collecting, Analyzing and Disseminating Information on Genetic Tests. In September 2000, the Office of ... ACCE: A Model Process for Evaluating Data on Emerging Genetic Tests. In: Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for ... Draft Genetic Test Reviews. Final drafts of component sections of Genetic Test Reviews are posted online for viewing. ...
3D genetic models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR ... Free 3D Models 3ds Max Models Maya Models Cinema 4D Models Blender Models ... Top 3D Model Categories. Airplane Anatomy Animal Architecture Car Characters Food & Drink Furnishings Industrial Interior ...
The genetic cause and phenotype of the Loa and Cra mouse models were often used as an argument in favor of the hypothesis that ... Genetic Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. L. Van Den Bosch. Neurobiology, Vesalius Research Center, K.U. Leuven ... In addition, these genetic rodent models play a crucial role in testing and selecting potential therapeutics that can be used ... In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the most important genetic rodent models that show motor neuron degeneration ...
ACCE, which takes its name from the four main criteria for evaluating a genetic test - analytic validity, clinical validity, ... testing for disorders with a genetic component in a format that allows policy makers to have access to up-to-date and reliable ... clinical utility and associated ethical, legal and social implications - is a model process that includes collecting, ... ACCE Model Process for Evaluating Genetic Tests including an introduction to ACCE, ACCE resources and references. It includes ...
New Model May Help in Successfully Translating Data from Animal Studies to Humans. ... Plant Models Engineered Crops Could Produce Low Cost Medicines and Industrial Proteins. ...
Infrastructure for MArine Genetic model Organisms, we develop marine species into new experimentally amenable genetic models. ... Also, we are happy to share knowledge about how to culture the model species. Further development is ongoing with improved ... Marine Genetic Models In the project IMAGO, Infrastructure for MArine Genetic model Organisms, we develop marine species into ... It is used as a model to study the genetic basis of speciation with sibling species, e.g. F. radicans and F. guiryi, as a ...
Mouse genetic models for prepulse inhibition: an early review.. Geyer MA1, McIlwain KL, Paylor R. ... This review provides a synopsis of the use of mouse models to explore genetic and neurochemical influences on PPI. Studies ... various inbred mouse strains and genetically modified mouse lines have been examined to investigate the potential genetic basis ... describing the PPI responses of various inbred strains of mice, mice with genetic mutations, and mice treated with various ...
A New, Genetic Model for Schizophrenia. A new study points to rare gene duplications and deletions that are believed to play a ... Until now, most scientists believed that it was likely that a cluster of relatively common genetic mutations was to blame.. ... Their probes turned up a few possible genetic suspects, but the findings were contradicted by those from other studies. In ... Sebat acknowledges that the data presented is merely consistent with the rare mutation gene model and not direct proof of it. ...
Curricular Models/GenEvo. (back to the library) GenEvo 1 Genetic Switch. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is ... Models:. Library. Community. Modeling Commons. User Manuals:. Web. Printable Chinese. Czech. Japanese. Spanish *(intro) ... GenDrift Sample Models. HOW TO CITE. If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you ... For the model itself:. *Dabholkar, S., Bain, C. and Wilensky, U. (2016). NetLogo GenEvo 1 Genetic Switch model. http://ccl. ...
This a multi-agent model of a genetic circuit in a bacterial cell and is an extension of the GenEvo 1 model. This model shows ... Models:. Library. Community. Modeling Commons. User Manuals:. Web. Printable Chinese. Czech. Japanese. NetLogo Models Library: ... Curricular Models/GenEvo. (back to the library) Synthetic Biology - Genetic Switch. If you download the NetLogo application, ... The genetic circuit modelled here has the following components:. *promoter with a lac operator - Transcription starts at the ...
While efforts should be made to evaluate the predictive validity of these genetic rat models, we propose that they have the ... lesion-induced and genetic mouse models, the present review focuses on describing the most relevant genetically-based rat ... To be considered a valid analogue of the disorder, a given model should present good face validity (i.e. similarity of symptoms ... As several recent works have already reviewed the main behavioural and developmental models, as well as the most used drug- ...
Performance of common genetic variants in breast-cancer risk models.. Wacholder S1, Hartge P, Prentice R, Garcia-Closas M, ... The inclusion of newly discovered genetic factors modestly improved the performance of risk models for breast cancer. The level ... were in the same quintile of risk as in a model without genetic variants; 32.5% were in a higher quintile, and 20.4% were in a ... The AUC for a risk model with age, study and entry year, and four traditional risk factors was 58.0%; with the addition of 10 ...
With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the tooth fairy, researchers at the University of ... "This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling ... "Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPC6 is a novel predisposing gene for ASD that may act in a multiple-hit model," ... With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the "tooth fairy," researchers at the University of ...
Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, ... Here, we describe genetic mouse models, which are categorized with functions in the retina and relationship with human diseases ... Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, ... Maeda A., Maeda T. (2018) Modeling Retinal Diseases Using Genetic Approaches in Mice. In: Tanimoto N. (eds) Mouse Retinal ...
... Sicong Zhu,1 LiSian Tey,2 and Luis Ferreira3 ... D. Y. C. Leung and D. J. Williams, "Modelling of motor vehicle fuel consumption and emissions using a power-based model," ... S. Zhu and L. Ferreira, "Evaluation of vehicle emissions models for micro-simulation modelling: using CO2 as a case study," ... EPA, Users Guide to MOBILE6.1 and MOBILE6.2; Mobile Source Emission Factor Model, EPA420-R-03-010, US Environmental Protection ...
... a conservation of function across species that validates transgenic flies as ideal pre-clinical models to improve understanding ... Drosophila effectively models human genes responsible for genetic kidney diseases Assessing the function of human monogenic ... Drosophila effectively models human genes responsible for genetic kidney diseases. Childrens National Health System ... A logical next step will be to generate more personalized in vivo models of genetic renal diseases bearing patient-specific ...
Comparative, Evolutionary and Genetic Models. Editors: Hyndman, Kelly Anne, Pannabecker, Thomas L. (Eds.) ... Greater integration of comparative, evolutionary and genetic animal models in basic science and medical science will improve ... Non-traditional Models: The Molecular Physiology of Sodium and Water Transport in Mosquito Malpighian Tubules ... Non-traditional Models: The Giraffe Kidney from a Comparative and Evolutionary Biology Perspective ...
The ideal pig model would be of manageable size and manifest both metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis at an early age. Like ... In this Phase 1 STTR we propose to generate a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low ... Indeed, a consensus report concerning FDA approval of the stents recommends the use of the pig model to assess these devices. ... However, a marked deficiency in current pig models is that they do not present with metabolic syndrome and significant ...
Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Hudson, R. R., 2002 Generating samples under a Wright-Fisher neutral model of genetic variation. Bioinformatics 18: 337-338. ... Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations. Badri Padhukasahasram, Paul ... Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations. Badri Padhukasahasram, Paul ...
2018) Prediction of Indoor PM2.5 Index Using Genetic Neural Network Model. In: Huang DS., Bevilacqua V., Premaratne P., Gupta P ... This paper proposes a method based on genetic neural network to predict the indoor PM2.5. We use seven features including ... indoor ventilation rate, air temperature, relative humidity and others to train the model. The experiment results showed that ...
We propose a methodology based on genetic algorithms (GAs) for building MSETAR models. The GA is designed to estimate the ... One model that has gained much attention is the so-called self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model. It has been ... Furthermore, SETAR model is able to capture nonlinear characteristics as limit cycles, jump resonance, and time irreversibility ... In this work the attention is focused on a multivariate SETAR (MSETAR) model where each linear regime follows a vector ...
The genetic analyses refine the oceanographic model indicating that the connectivity patterns described could also result from ... From the larval dispersal perspective, genetic results and biophysical modeling identify patterns of gene flow enhancing ... The larval dispersal modeling suggests that Floridas lobster population could receive recruits from within and from other ... This study investigated for the first time the fine-scale temporal genetic variability of new settlers and their origins in a ...
Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to ... Because of this oddity, the mice could be valuable animal models for human disorders, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers ... As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow ... Im Focus: Famous "sandpile model" shown to move like a traveling sand dune. Researchers at IST Austria find new property of ...
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects ... "Genetic defects can be passed from parents to their children; as a result, colon cancer runs in families. Our model will help ... Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects ... The model, called MMRpro, is based on an individuals detailed family history of colorectal and endometrial cancer, as well as ...
... not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models ... We further discuss the future applications of such models, particularly their role in revealing new genetic diseases of the ... development of easier and more precise techniques to manipulate the zebrafish genome have motivated many researchers to model ... not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models ...
SHP2 inhibition reduces leukemogenesis in models of combined genetic and epigenetic mutations. Ruchi Pandey,1 Baskar Ramdas,1 ... Flt3ITD AML model, the effects seen in the Dnmt3a+/-Flt3ITD model of AML were due to specific targeting of leukemic cells by ... we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of SHP099 in 2 clinically relevant mouse models of AML carrying a combination of genetic ... Effect of SHP099 treatment on bone marrow stem cells in Dnmt3a+/-Flt3ITD-induced AML model. Analysis of bone marrow cells from ...
Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. M Nei and W H Li ... A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this ... Maintaining their genetic distance; limited gene flow between widely hybridising species of Geum with contrasting mating ...
Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. M Nei and W H Li ... A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this ... model are presented for estimating the number of nucleotide substitutions between two populations or species. To express the ...
  • We present an exact forward-in-time algorithm that can efficiently simulate the evolution of a finite population under the Wright-Fisher model. (
  • Our algorithm is implemented in the C++ programming language and we simulate data sets under the Wright-Fisher model assumptions. (
  • by a simple genetic algorithm. (
  • F. Fernandes, Computer Program MONKEY BUSINESS: A GENETIC ALGORITHM MODEL, Version 1.0 (2016), WWW Document, ( ). (
  • Monkey Business: A Genetic Algorithm Model (Version 1.0) [Computer software]. (
  • The Evolutionary Tree Miner (ETM) is a genetic process discovery algorithm that enables the user to guide the discovery process based on preferences with respect to four process model quality dimensions: replay fitness, precision, generalization and simplicity. (
  • Traditionally, the ETM algorithm uses random creation of process models for the initial population, as well as random mutation and crossover techniques for the evolution of generations. (
  • In this paper, the authors present an approach that improves the performance of the ETM algorithm by enabling it to make guided changes to process models, in order to obtain higher quality models in fewer generations. (
  • In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. (
  • A network simplex algorithm for simple manufacturing network model. (
  • A novel genetic algorithm is presented to identify the model coefficients. (
  • In this paper, to solve this problem, we propose WS model GA based on Massively Parallel Genetic Algorithm, which has diversity. (
  • The system is applied to Function optimizations, and a classroom optimization, and it's confirmed that WS model GA was better result than Standard GA and Massively Parallel Genetic Algorithm in complex experimental cases. (
  • Firstly, we improved the fitness function and the initial population generation method for a benchmark genetic algorithm in the literature. (
  • The improved genetic algorithm found solutions that obey the delay probability constraint more often. (
  • Differently from a genetic algorithm, the local search heuristic does not rely on random choices. (
  • 2010 ) pointed out that improved heuristics with lower computational efforts are desired, as the use of genetic algorithm is computationally expensive. (
  • Our aim has been to develop an approach that simultaneously yields a best fit solution and global error estimates, by modifying and extending standard genetic algorithm-based techniques. (
  • Using our genetic algorithm approach, we map out the degeneracy of model parameters that reproduce observations well. (
  • A test run of the genetic algorithm on synthetic data sets finds a very good convergence of the approach. (
  • In this research, a learning algorithm was implemented to determine the structure and the parameters of Bayesian networks that model GRNs from real data. (
  • In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA). (
  • In a genetic algorithm, a population of candidate solutions (called individuals, creatures, or phenotypes) to an optimization problem is evolved toward better solutions. (
  • A typical genetic algorithm requires: a genetic representation of the solution domain, a fitness function to evaluate the solution domain. (
  • These rodent models contain genes with spontaneous or induced mutations or (over) express different (mutant) genes. (
  • In addition, we discuss the value and limitations of the different models and conclude that it remains a challenge to find more and better rodent models based on mutations in new genes causing ALS. (
  • For years, a number of mouse models exist that contain spontaneous or induced mutations leading to motor neuron death (Table 1 ). (
  • Studies describing the PPI responses of various inbred strains of mice, mice with genetic mutations, and mice treated with various drugs prior to July 2001 are reviewed. (
  • Until now, most scientists believed that it was likely that a cluster of relatively common genetic mutations was to blame. (
  • They confirmed with mouse models that mutations in TRPC6 resulted in altered neuronal development, morphology and function. (
  • Research teams have identified mutations in more than 40 genes that cause genetic kidney disease, but knowledge gaps remain in understanding the precise roles that specific genes play in kidney cell biology and renal disease. (
  • A logical next step will be to generate more personalized in vivo models of genetic renal diseases bearing patient-specific mutations, Han says. (
  • We use a pseudo infinite-sites model for mutations ( i.e. , where the number of sites is finite but new mutations can appear only at nonpolymorphic locations) and a finite-sites model for recombination and remove locations that are no longer polymorphic, at regular intervals. (
  • The total number of new mutations added to a chromosome in any particular generation is modeled as a Poisson random variable with mean equal to the per-generation per-sequence mutation rate u . (
  • The model, called MMRpro, is based on an individual's detailed family history of colorectal and endometrial cancer, as well as knowledge of how genetic mutations manifest themselves in the form of tumors. (
  • In addition, certain MMR genetic mutations are hard to detect in laboratory tests. (
  • Scientists in the laboratory of Lauren Weiss , PhD, an associate professor of psychiatry and member of the Institute for Human Genetics at UCSF, looked at genetic mutations that cause either the deletion or duplication of a region of DNA on chromosome 16 that includes 29 genes implicated in important cellular functions in the brain. (
  • The spatial and temporal control of gene function permitted in these new mouse models can answer questions about tumor cell of origin, the number of mutations required to initiate a tumor, and what secondary changes are required by a cancer for its progression. (
  • The aim of this project was to develop a model system for assembling, analyzing, disseminating and updating existing data on the safety and effectiveness of DNA-based genetic tests and testing algorithms. (
  • We propose a methodology based on genetic algorithms (GAs) for building MSETAR models. (
  • Multivariate Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive Modeling by Genetic Algorithms ," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik) , De Gruyter, vol. 233(1), pages 3-21, February. (
  • Fitting piecewise linear threshold autoregressive models by means of genetic algorithms ," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 277-295, September. (
  • Using genetic algorithms to parameters (d,r) estimation for threshold autoregressive models ," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 315-330, January. (
  • Using genetic algorithms to select architecture of a feedforward artificial neural network ," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications , Elsevier, vol. 289(3), pages 574-594. (
  • Estimating threshold subset autoregressive moving-average models by genetic algorithms ," Metron - International Journal of Statistics , Dipartimento di Statistica, Probabilità e Statistiche Applicate - University of Rome, vol. 0(1), pages 39-61. (
  • Other traditional methods of data mining such as Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms (GA) have a black-box characteristic which makes it difficult for users to apply extracted rules to other cases [ 3 ]. (
  • Genetic algorithms are widely used method as solutions for optimization problems. (
  • Genetic algorithms are efficient and flexible means of attacking optimization problems that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. (
  • Genetic algorithms, on the other hand, converge rapidly onto regions of minimum \chi^2 while continuously generate ``mutant solutions'', allowing an efficient and comprehensive exploration of parameter space. (
  • The flexibility of genetic algorithms facilitates incorporating the additional observational constraint of photospheric magnetic flux, reducing the degeneracy of solutions to a range represented by reasonable error bars on the model predictions. (
  • By using genetic algorithms we are able to identify and constrain the degeneracy inherent to the models, a task, which, particularly for the more complex second model, would be impractical using a traditional technique. (
  • This is done by adjusting the location of a suite of composite subevents, using genetic algorithms (Holland, 1975), to best match the observed waveforms. (
  • Genetic algorithms are commonly used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems by relying on biologically inspired operators such as mutation, crossover and selection. (
  • in these cases, a simulation may be used to determine the fitness function value of a phenotype (e.g. computational fluid dynamics is used to determine the air resistance of a vehicle whose shape is encoded as the phenotype), or even interactive genetic algorithms are used. (
  • This evaluation was consistent with preliminary recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing. (
  • The ACCE approach builds on a methodology originally described by Wald and Cuckle (1) and on terminology introduced by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing (2). (
  • Department of Health and Human Services, Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing. (
  • Sebat acknowledges that the data presented is merely consistent with the rare mutation gene model and not direct proof of it. (
  • Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to mad cow disease. (
  • The researchers found that MMRpro more accurately predicted mutation carriers than two other assessment tools the Bethesda guidelines and the Amsterdam criteria that are currently available to families faced with the possibility that they have inherited the genetic defects related to colon cancer. (
  • MMRpro was able to provide a useful risk assessment when conventional laboratory tests did not find a genetic mutation. (
  • The researchers again created neurons from cells donated by patients who carry a genetic mutation, this time in a critical signaling pathway that is necessary in every cell in the body. (
  • Even before the Precision Medicine Initiative, however, demand for cancer genetic counseling grew as germline genetic testing became increasingly incorporated into breast and ovarian cancer treatment decisions ( 2 , 3 ), public coverage of celebrity BRCA mutation status ( 4 ) reached a wide segment of the U.S. population ( 5 ), and multi-gene panels for hereditary cancer susceptibility were introduced ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • To identify candidate genes underlying complex traits we perform mutation analysis and genome editing in combination with natural genetic variation in natural populations. (
  • Using this new model, we compared cells from living donors with the ACTA2-R258C mutation to cells without the mutation," said study senior author Dr. Kristine Kamm , a Professor of Physiology at UT Southwestern. (
  • But an estimated 20 to 25 percent of cases stem from familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (familial TAAD), a genetic condition linked to a single, dominant mutation in ACTA2 or other genes. (
  • Using the skin cell model, researchers found that the R258C mutation works in a dominant manner to suppress the contraction of myofibroblasts - fibroblasts involved in wound healing that are similar to smooth muscle, said lead author Dr. Zhenan Liu, a research scientist in the laboratory that Dr. Kamm runs with Dr. James Stull , also a Professor of Physiology. (
  • The mutation causes an extremely rare genetic disease called cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by abnormal development of the heart, facial features, skin and hair. (
  • In parallel work, I showed that KrasA146T is capable of cooperating with secondary tissue-specific genetic hits (Apc in colon and Tp53 in pancreas) to promote carcinogenesis, even in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) where the mutation is exceedingly rare in humans. (
  • Once the genetic representation and the fitness function are defined, a GA proceeds to initialize a population of solutions and then to improve it through repetitive application of the mutation, crossover, inversion and selection operators. (
  • The next step is to generate a second generation population of solutions from those selected through a combination of genetic operators: crossover (also called recombination), and mutation. (
  • WASHINGTON - The majority of genes associated with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in humans also play pivotal roles in Drosophila renal function, a conservation of function across species that validates transgenic flies as ideal pre-clinical models to improve understanding of human disease, a Children's National Health System research team reports in a recent issue of Human Molecular Genetics . (
  • Increased demand and existing variability in the availability of trained cancer genetics clinicians place a priority on developing and evaluating alternate service delivery models for genetic counseling. (
  • Cancer genetic counseling has traditionally been practiced in person, with patients traveling to a health-care facility to meet with a genetics clinician ( 9 ). (
  • A predictive model for the BGA is presented that is derived from quantitative genetics. (
  • The genetic diversity expressed with the parameters of this model is to be used shortly for association genetics studies based on various molecular markers, within the CGIAR GRISP consortium (Global Rice Science Partnership), within which projects are being conducted under the rice Generation Challenge Programme. (
  • This work should confirm the merits of modelling for analysing phenotype diversity and genetics studies. (
  • Genetic drift results in isolated populations as selective breeding occurs, skewing the genetics in a particular direction different from other isolated populations. (
  • Our zebrafish retinal tumor model provides a novel genetic system for investigating the genetics of retinoblastoma onset and progression. (
  • The study of the genetics and archaeogenetics of the Gujarati people of India aims at uncovering these people's genetic history. (
  • While efforts should be made to evaluate the predictive validity of these genetic rat models, we propose that they have the advantage (over mouse knockouts, for example) of better representing "normal" genetic, neurobiological and phenotype variation, thus allowing the study of associations among them by means of genetic mapping or gene expression studies. (
  • For example, last November, when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a 23andMe DTC test that informs consumers whether their genetic variation could impact their ability to metabolize certain drugs, the FDA earmarked the approval with stipulations outlining that patients and providers should augment 23andMe's results with clinical testing before making treatment decisions. (
  • The study, published May 9, 2019 by Stem Cell Reports , revealed the importance of a specific genetic variation that affects expression of the VEGFA gene. (
  • Using this new model of AMD, the researchers determined that a specific genetic variation in a region of the genome that regulates expression of the VEGFA gene reduces the amount of VEGFA produced and directly contributes to AMD. (
  • But we were surprised to find that, with samples from just six people, this genetic variation clearly emerged as a causal factor. (
  • The genetic variant most closely associated with AMD was rs943080, a specific genetic variation that affects expression of the VEGFA gene by altering activity of a distant region of the genome. (
  • Improved understanding of the assembly and maintenance of myelin is afforded by the study of animals in which interference with these processes occurs as a result of genetic variation, toxic exposure, immunological attack, viral infection, nutritional or endocrine deficiency, and physical or circulatory insult. (
  • Finally, the simulation and experiment results of the temperature distribution and variation are presented, the results show that the model predictions compare well with experimental results. (
  • This study will evaluate how genetic makeup contributes to the variation in people regarding their sensitivity to and experience of pain. (
  • A major goal of my research program is to evaluate the extent to which the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by environmental factors associated with the landscape where these populations occur. (
  • This project also has access to GIS data, including fragment size, locations, and shapes and Englemann oak densities, that will allow me to evaluate the role of geographical and environmental variables in patterns of genetic variation. (
  • Population density as a predictor of genetic variation for woody plant species. (
  • We find that the recombination graph is generally a very good approximation for models with complete outcrossing, whereas, for models with self-fertilization, the approximation becomes slightly inexact for some combinations of selfing and recombination parameters. (
  • We use our simulation program to evaluate coalescent models with recombination by comparing them to the exact Wright-Fisher model. (
  • Sexual reproduction allows for genetic recombination and recovery of haploid yeasts expressing recessive phenotypes. (
  • Mouse models with genomic variations in two commonly altered pathways, the homologous recombination (HR) pathway and the cyclin E1 pathway, were extensively characterized for DNA damage repair efficiency, in vivo growth, and ovarian cancer-specific markers. (
  • S. Zhu and L. Ferreira, "Evaluation of vehicle emissions models for micro-simulation modelling: using CO 2 as a case study," Road and Transport Research , vol. 21, pp. 3-18, 2012. (
  • As a consequence, formal methods and computer tools for the modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory networks will be indispensable. (
  • Plant modelling serves to formalize, in the form of mathematical equations and by computer simulation, the processes that control plant growth, its regulation by its environment, in this case initial vigour, notably leaf emission, and its regulation by water stress. (
  • In our research groups, two types of models have been used: mechanistic, dynamic simulation models as part of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator APSIMand interactive multiple goal linear programming models based on MGOPT. (
  • Conceptually, these models belong to different domains, APSIM being a process based simulation model and MGOPT an optimisation model. (
  • Aim of this project is to present a method that combines the strengths of a process based simulation model with optimisation to enhance the design of sustainable cropping systems. (
  • A computer simulation system that embodies these concepts is described and the model is used to generate distributions of chromosome number/cell under various simulated conditions and in a variety of simulated biological settings. (
  • Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks for Modeling and Simulation. (
  • In M. Zhang (Ed.), Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks for Modeling and Simulation (pp. 58-76). (
  • It thus provides the means of conducting an integrative analysis of the parameters that account for the diversity of phenotypes within the genetic diversity being studied for this complex system. (
  • The researchers used the Ecomeristem model, which simulates rice growth under contrasting water supply conditions, to explore these parameters within a collection of 200 japonica rices. (
  • For each genotype in the collection, they estimated the parameters of the equations in the growth calculation model (leaf emission and size, branching, sugar storage and structural growth), depending on the abiotic conditions (temperature, radiation and water). (
  • Consider a model that represents an observable quantity in terms of a few parameters, with an associated \chi^2 measuring goodness of fit with respect to data. (
  • If the modeled observable is non-linear in the parameters, there can exist a degeneracy of minimum \chi^2 in parameter space. (
  • Data from 73 676 animals for birth weight (BW - 41 572), weaning weight (WW - 23 104), yearling weight (YW - 9 114), eighteen month weight (FW - 6 450) and mature weight (MW - 9 258) were available to estimate (co)variance components and subsequent genetic parameters in the breed. (
  • Direct effects of different parameters and their correlations during the process is being modeled using a polynomial neural network. (
  • New statistical models for genetic parameters estimation based on longitudinal data have been proposed. (
  • The Mean trend of milk yield or 305-day total yield can be modeled with different orders of orthogonal Legendre polynomial because Legendre polynomial produces the lower correlation between parameters than other functions [3]. (
  • So the objectives of this study were estimation and assessment of genetic parameters and variance components of 305-day milk yield using repeatability and different RRM. (
  • Evidence is presented for the effects of genetic background on PPI (and other symptoms/phenotypes), as well as for environmental influences on genetic predisposition to enhanced apomorphine (mixed dopamine receptor agonist) effects. (
  • The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has many genetic characteristics which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic architecture of complex human disease and ageing phenotypes. (
  • Researchers then compared Secisbp2 mice with similar mouse models lacking tRNA[Ser]Sec. They found that the phenotypes, as well as the consequences on selenoprotein level of our Secisbp2 mice are milder than in tRNA[Ser]Sec knockout mice. (
  • A large number of rodent models are available that show motor neuron death and a progressive motor phenotype that is more or less reminiscent of what occurs in patients. (
  • In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the most important genetic rodent models that show motor neuron degeneration and/or develop a motor phenotype. (
  • The complexity of symptoms (positive, negative and cognitive) of schizophrenia makes it a very difficult task for a model to mimic all the main features of the disorder, but some rodent (mouse and rat) models have behavioural and even neurobiological phenotype characteristics resembling positive-like symptoms, cognitive symptoms and some neurochemical features of schizophrenia. (
  • All these mutants share advantages for experimental study in that the pathology is limited to the myelin, their genetic nature presages likely abnormality of protein structure, serial developmental analysis is possible, and dilfereuees in both phenotype and genotype of myelin disorders have been shown. (
  • Through project-focused consultations, educational programs including extensive training opportunities, open lab meetings and workshops, and direct experimental support (e.g., providing protocols and novel model systems), the Core serves a key role in facilitating access to state-of-the-art genome editing approaches and experimental systems for research programs that focus on digestive diseases. (
  • Conditional genetic approaches allow the engineering of mouse models of human cancer that have unparalleled similarity to the human disease. (
  • We use quantitative genetic approaches to map complex traits, including the transcriptome, and study genotype-environment interactions. (
  • This formalism allows us to unify the modelling of both approaches, to take advantage of all results and tools in the field of high level Petri nets like the model checking tool Maria and to prevent the explosion of the number of places. (
  • Using this novel methodology, Knockout Rats and Mice can be generated in as little as four months, about one-third the time required to make a Knockout model using conventional Embryonic Stem Cell (ES cell) based approaches. (
  • Using data from two separate research projects, I propose to evaluate and integrate recent statistical approaches and models to construct a new synthetic approach that will allow the identification of environmental influences on the genetic structure of woody plant populations. (
  • As most genetic regulatory networks of interest involve many components connected through interlocking positive and negative feedback loops, an intuitive understanding of their dynamics is hard to obtain. (
  • A. Leier, P. D. Kuo, W. Banzhaf and K. Burrage, Evolving noisy oscillatory dynamics in genetic regulatory networks, In EuroGP'06 Proceedings of the 9th European conference on Genetic Programming, LNCS , 3905 (2006), 290-299. (
  • Relationships between Models of Genetic Regulatory Networks with Emphasis on Discrete State Stochastic Models. (
  • Emerging Research in the Analysis and Modeling of Gene Regulatory Networks, edited by Ivan V. Ivanov, et al. (
  • Emerging Research in the Analysis and Modeling of Gene Regulatory Networks (pp. 52-79). (
  • Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) represent the interconnections between genomic entities that govern the regulation of gene expression. (
  • Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) represent the signal transduction, or the activation and deactivation of genes, as their corresponding proteins directly or indirectly interact with one another. (
  • Develops novel genetic technologies and model systems aimed at investigating genes and pathways to yield insight into how human genomic variants affect the pathogenesis of IBD. (
  • We didn't start with the VEGFA gene when we went looking for genetic causes of AMD," said senior author Kelly A. Frazer, PhD, professor of pediatrics and director of the Institute for Genomic Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center. (
  • To address this question, the researchers created a model of genetic code evolution in which multiple "translating" RNAs and "genomic" RNAs competed for survival. (
  • Demand for cancer genetic counseling has grown rapidly in recent years as germline genomic information has become increasingly incorporated into cancer care, and the field has entered the public consciousness through high-profile celebrity publications. (
  • T. S. Gardner, C. R. Cantor and J. J. Collins, Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia coli, Nature, 403 (2000), 339-342. (
  • With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the "tooth fairy," researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have implicated a new gene in idiopathic or non-syndromic autism. (
  • Researchers have created a model that may explain the complexities of the origins of life. (
  • Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects known as Lynch syndrome , which predisposes families to develop colorectal cancer. (
  • The structural and functional similarity of the larval zebrafish pronephros to the human nephron, together with the recent development of easier and more precise techniques to manipulate the zebrafish genome have motivated many researchers to model human renal diseases in the zebrafish. (
  • Researchers at UC San Francisco have developed a new genetic model of autism, using neurons created in the lab from patients' own skin cells. (
  • The new model, developed by Farrer and his team could offer the precise tool that researchers have long hoped would deliver the impact of LRRK2 inhibitors and other disease-modifying drugs. (
  • This "genetic toolbox" has enabled researchers to not only create mouse models mimicking human diseases, but also use techniques such as gene silencing to explore what a rat model is capable of. (
  • The researchers sought to account for the composition of the genetic code, which allows proteins to be built from amino acids with high specificity based on information stored in a RNA or DNA genome. (
  • To do so, the researchers analysed the genetic diversity of a collection of 200 japonica rices, using the Ecomeristem model, which simulates rice growth under contrasting water supply conditions. (
  • To do this, the researchers based their study on the genetic diversity that exists within the japonica group of rices. (
  • The ease of genetic analysis allowed researchers to study processes to a degree not seen for other model organisms. (
  • DALLAS - June 26, 2017 - Using a new skin cell model, researchers have overcome a barrier that previously prevented the study of living tissue from people at risk for early heart disease and stroke. (
  • A team of researchers led by Sandra Seeher at the Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Berlin, Germany, set out to create mouse models to test whether Secisbp2 is essential for selenoprotein biosynthesis and to study the consequences of Secisbp2 deletion in tissues and the whole organism. (
  • In: Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease. (
  • Cornell geneticist Teresa Gunn displays a mahoganoid mutant mouse, a possible animal model for brain disease in humans. (
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (
  • Over the last few years, great advances have been made, not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models, crossing the bridge towards more informative explanations of disease pathophysiology and better designed therapeutic interventions in a cost-effective in vivo system. (
  • We believe we've found an approach that is most relevant to humans, in that our models of gene dysfunction mimic the etiology of Parkinson's disease rather than its pathology-- meaning its beginning rather than its end," says Matthew Farrer, the study's lead investigator and a researcher at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health at UBC. (
  • Until now, the best available experimental models of the disease were based on flooding the brain with alpha-synuclein--a protein in the brain that, when it accumulates abnormally into clumps, is linked to Parkinson's--or using neurotoxins to destroy dopamine-producing cells. (
  • These conventional models exhibit the classic motor and behavioural symptoms of the disease, which is why they have been widely adopted by the Parkinson's field, but the sledgehammer approach to inducing the disease means the cells die--the guitar is smashed--before any of the subtle changes in the tune can be measured. (
  • The model--known as a VPS35 D620N knock-in (VKI)--induces the biology of a disease-causing gene rather than the symptoms of the disease. (
  • We're hoping to use PET imaging to provide a clinically relevant biomarker, which would be relevant beyond genetic forms of the disease. (
  • Emerging data suggest that much of the genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease plays out in microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. (
  • The authors made microglia-like cells from a large cohort of healthy volunteers, then examined the cells for genetic variants that affected the expression of risk genes for AD and other disease. (
  • Microglia have been grabbing headlines in AD research ever since the discovery of variants in the microglial receptor TREM2 as some of the strongest genetic risk factors for the disease. (
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  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease Models & Mechanisms web site. (
  • New mouse models can help scientists study a rare disease, called SECISBP2 syndrome, that causes abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism, delayed bone maturation, as well as other abnormal characteristics that vary by individual, according to new data presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) in Québec City, Québec, Canada. (
  • In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. (
  • Such models are commonly used to study disease states in humans and play a key role in the drug discovery process. (
  • The potential applications using these rodent models of human disease could ultimately eliminate years of research time and save millions of lives," said Dr. Dave Smoller, President, Sigma Research Biotechnology. (
  • Tumor models that recapitulate genotype-driven effects of disease progression and chemotherapeutic response in the clinic are needed to enhance our understanding of tumor-immune interactions and uncover additional targets to design ICB-based combination therapies. (
  • In a combined analysis of over 2500 diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease, each extra point in the genetic risk score was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of having coronary artery disease. (
  • Even after adjustment for family history, the genetic risk score distinguished between those with and without coronary artery disease, which is in contrast to many previous studies in which similar risk scores lost predictive ability when family history was taken into account. (
  • Genetic susceptibility to coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. (
  • A new genetic risk score promises personalized risk prediction for cardiovascular disease in diabetics. (
  • However, less than 2% of asthma patients exposed to spores contract ABPA suggesting a genetic risk factor is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. (
  • Mouse models used in these studies are classified as severe, as they entail the development of severe lung disease and mild-to-moderate respiratory distress. (
  • Except for rare subtypes with monogenic inheritance, the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes is unknown because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the disease. (
  • A candidate disease gene (Tcf2) on Chr 11, encoding hepatic nuclear factor-1beta, was shown to have a rare sequence variant in the DNA binding domain in the model. (
  • In the project IMAGO, Infrastructure for MArine Genetic model Organisms, we develop marine species into new experimentally amenable genetic models. (
  • Budding yeast is nonpathogenic, easy to grow and amenable to genetic analysis. (
  • Developing model communities amenable to genetic dissection will underpin successful strategies for shaping microbiomes by advancing an understanding of community interactions. (
  • This model simulates a complex phenomenon in molecular biology: the "switching" (on and off) of genes depending on environmental conditions. (
  • This model includes only these two genes of the operon. (
  • To address those research gaps, Zhe Han, Ph.D., principal investigator and associate professor in the Center for Cancer & Immunology Research at Children's National, and colleagues systematically studied NS-associated genes in the Drosophila model, including seven genes whose renal function had never been analyzed in a pre-clinical model. (
  • These in vivo models can be used for drug screens to identify treatments for kidney diseases that currently lack therapeutic options, such as most of the 40 genes studies in this paper as well as the APOL1 gene that is associated with the higher risk of kidney diseases among millions of African Americans. (
  • These three genes help repair mismatches that can occur during the duplication of the genetic code when new cells are made, and are known as mismatch repair (MMR) genes. (
  • They plan to develop this retinal model for more people, and use it to investigate other genes involved in AMD. (
  • The resulting cells behaved like microglia and expressed key microglial genes, the authors report, suggesting they might serve as a model for these ephemeral brain cells. (
  • This model system could help identify functional genetic variants for AD risk genes. (
  • Anatoly Samoylenko, Seppo Vainio and colleagues describe a novel model to assay the roles of co-regulated genes in kidney development and renal carcinogenesis. (
  • This paper describes the effects of perturbations, which simulate the knock-out of single genes, one at a time, in random Boolean models of genetic networks (RBN). (
  • Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. (
  • Our modeling studies suggest that the overrepresentation of individual oncogene-bearing chromosomes in aneuploid cell lines may require the activation of gene dose-dependent growth-promoting genes and is not likely to occur in cell lines in which at least two copies of each normal chromosome are required for cell survival. (
  • Each slider controls a certain aspect of this genetic regulation circuit. (
  • The regulation of gene expression is achieved through genetic regulatory systems structured by networks of interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules. (
  • Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear, recent studies have implicated tau in the regulation of excitability and synchronization of neuronal networks in AD mouse models. (
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model for understanding genetic regulation in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Applications of optimization heuristics to estimation and modelling problems ," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 211-223, September. (
  • The experiments show that, using genetic optimization, associative methods perform better or at similar levels as state-of-the-art ensemble methods for ranking. (
  • The mean average precision (MAP) of ranking by semantic was improved by 14% over similar associative methods that use other optimization techniques while maintaining smaller size for each semantic model. (
  • Through this Training Fellowship Dr Gago aims to replace transgenic mice used to investigate the genetic basis of ABPA pathogenesis with a human in vitro cellular model. (
  • The Core provides services for investigations of in vivo function of IBD-associated genetic variants with the goals of identifying relevant pathways, defining microbiome-host interactions, gaining insight into systems that control intestinal inflammation, and understanding mechanisms of recovery from epithelial injury. (
  • Genetic information between species of echinoderms is highly conserved, but the nature of the common molecular regulatory pathways that facilitate regeneration is still unclear. (
  • Many genetic pathways which are associated with cancer and ageing are conserved across worms and humans. (
  • A. filiformis is also a key model on the study of molecular bases of bioluminescence. (
  • A new study indicates that the genetic culprits behind schizophrenia may be much less common than previously believed. (
  • We used information on traditional risk factors and 10 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer in 5590 case subjects and 5998 control subjects, 50 to 79 years of age, from four U.S. cohort studies and one case-control study from Poland to fit models of the absolute risk of breast cancer. (
  • This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling genetically complex sporadic diseases using such cells. (
  • This is a landmark paper for using the fly to study genetic kidney diseases," Han adds. (
  • This study investigated for the first time the fine-scale temporal genetic variability of new settlers and their origins in a benthic marine organism with one of the longest pelagic larval phases, the Caribbean spiny lobster ( Panulirus argus ). (
  • The results will give them useful information about their colon cancer risk before they decide whether to undergo invasive screenings or expensive genetic testing," said Sining Chen, PhD, lead author of the study and an assistant professor in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Environmental Health Sciences. (
  • We also expect that it will be a tool for investigators interested in understanding inherited colorectal cancer, allowing them to select families to more efficiently study these genetic defects. (
  • Although the model shows no behavioral signs of Parkinson's, their new study found the changes in biology are clear and elegantly precise. (
  • In our lab we study the genetic architecture of ageing, lifespan and the Wnt-pathway. (
  • In addition, we generated and analysed new animal models to study visual abnormalities, including anomalies that affect retina development associated with albinism , as well as other retinopathies such as achromatopsia. (
  • Within our participation in the CIBERER-ISCIII , we developed various additional animal models (transgenic and knockout) for the study of rare human diseases, performed. (
  • The purpose of this study is to establish the genetic, pathological and histological similarities between the zebrafish retinal tumor model and human inherited retinoblastoma. (
  • Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. (
  • developed and characterized a panel of genetically defined HGSOC mouse models to study the impact of tumor genotype on the tumor immune microenvironment and on immunotherapy responses. (
  • This article addresses an inverse study of the problem to find a specific composite source model for the Northridge earthquake. (
  • We report a case study on models for retinal pigmentary abnormalities in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES). (
  • The case study also shows that models that contain only two of these data sources, that is, pedigree-environmental covariates or pedigree-genetic markers, or environmental covariates-genetic markers, have comparable predictive ability, while less than the model with all three. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate variance components for growth traits (birth- to mature weight) for South African Brangus cattle using random regression models. (
  • Learning Objective: Understand the features of the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) that make it an ideal model genetic system to study how many highly conserved eukaryotic cellular processes are carried out. (
  • The study of genetic diversity is a key element to the fields of population, conservation, and evolutionary biology. (
  • By incorporating a multidimensional approach to the study of genetic diversity, it is possible to develop more insight about the impact of selection, gene flow, and genetic drift on evolutionary dynamics of species. (
  • These techniques include generating spheroids or monolayers, CRISPR-mediated genetic engineering, culturing at the air-liquid interface, co-culturing with myeloid or T cells, and transplanting organoids into recipient mice. (
  • The main reasons why mouse models are important for retinal research include that rodents share a key retinal homology with humans and that genetic manipulation is relatively easily applicable for mice. (
  • Because of this oddity, the mice could be valuable animal models for human disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, according to geneticists at Cornell and Stanford universities. (
  • E ) Genetic reduction of eEF2K corrects eEF2 hyperphosphorylation in hippocampal lysates from Tg19959 AD model mice. (
  • Dr Gago estimates that the Manchester Fungal Infection Group can replace over 50% of their animal use with the proposed in vitro models, with over 200 mice replaced in Dr Gago's studies alone. (
  • Our model verifies known facts about the epidemiology of this eye lesion - found in eyes with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - and shows significantly increased predictive ability in models that include all three of the genetic, environmental and familial data sources. (
  • This important book proposes revising the current informed consent protocol for predictive genetic testing to reflect the trend toward patient-centered medicine. (
  • Â A milestone in the bioethics literature, Informed Consent in Predictive Genetic Testing will be of considerable interest to genetic counselors, medical and bioethicists, and public health professionals. (
  • Direct- and maternal heritabilities were estimated for weight traits in Brangus cattle using random regression models. (
  • Linear polynomials with intercepts were fitted using random regression models. (
  • Application of random regression models for genetic analysis of 305-d milk yield over different lactations of Iranian Holsteins. (
  • A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. (
  • This paper reviews formalisms that have been employed in mathematical biology and bioinformatics to describe genetic regulatory systems, in particular directed graphs, Bayesian networks, Boolean networks and their generalizations, ordinary and partial differential equations, qualitative differential equations, stochastic equations, and rule-based formalisms. (
  • Mathematical analysis of a kinetic model for cell movement in network tissues. (
  • GRNs have been represented by various types of mathematical models that capture different aspects of the biological system. (
  • The Scandinavian island's unique combination of genetic homogeneity, genealogical tradition, and high participation in research make it a prime location for discovery and validation of drug targets. (
  • Mutant animals are particularly suitable for the biochemical approach, since they make it possible to obtain genetic homogeneity, sufficient quantities for experimental use, and strict control of their nutrition and environment. (
  • Repeatability model assuming homogeneity of variance and the equal genetic correlation between lactations. (
  • Successful creation of OssabawLDLR -/- minipigs with evidence of enhanced dyslipidemia would justify submission of a Phase II STTR proposal focused on herd expansion, in-depth physiological characterization, and potentially commercialization of the model for sales to the biomedical research community. (
  • The resulting "eye-in-a-dish" model took on physiological and molecular characteristics similar to native retinal cells, including a polygonal shape and pigmentation. (
  • However, to combine initial vigour and water stress tolerance, it is necessary to analyse the genetic diversity of characters that are not necessarily independent from a genetic and physiological point of view. (
  • Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, involving anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology. (
  • Maeda A, Palczewski K (2013) Retinal degeneration in animal models with a defective visual cycle. (
  • Next, the team collected molecular data, including RNA transcripts and epigenetic information, from the retinal models. (
  • One of the experimental models in the lab is the tyrosinase gene, which encodes an enzyme that activates synthesis of the pigment melanin, which is regulated throughout development and is tissue-specific (expressed only in melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium cells). (
  • Identification of the potential tumor suppressor gene at the insertion site will reveal important information about the genetic basis of the zebrafish retinal tumors. (
  • This paper proposes a method based on genetic neural network to predict the indoor PM2.5. (
  • Needle Insertion Force Modeling using Genetic Programming Polynomial Higher Order Neural Network. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Because the cardiovascular anatomy of swine is similar to humans with regard to size, morphology, relative collateral arterial supply, and the presence of a well-developed vasa vasorum, the porcine coronary arterial model is the standard for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular devices. (
  • VSG induces loss of body weight and fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in humans and in rodent models ( 3 - 8 ). (
  • The mouse model we used will serve as a useful model for future studies on the etiology of late-onset polygenic type 2 diabetes in humans. (
  • While most of the associations between polymorphisms and gene expression were the same in the two cell types, the authors found differences as well, with some associations only showing up in the microglial model. (
  • Launched in 2018, Stoke Therapeutics is a biotechnology company working to increase gene expression to treat a wide array of severe genetic diseases, including genetic conditions affecting the central nervous system, eye, liver and kidney. (
  • Here, we describe genetic mouse models, which are categorized with functions in the retina and relationship with human diseases. (
  • We further discuss the future applications of such models, particularly their role in revealing new genetic diseases of the kidney and their potential use in personalized medicine. (
  • Levtchenko, E.N. Genetic Renal Diseases: The Emerging Role of Zebrafish Models. (
  • In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. (
  • In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases. (
  • Greater integration of comparative, evolutionary and genetic animal models in basic science and medical science will improve our overall grasp of the mechanisms of sodium and water balance. (
  • Today's cutting-edge technologies, such as CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi, have meant that new genetically engineered animal models can be created quickly and accurately. (
  • This webinar examines the challenges and complexities of generating such models and discuss things to consider after your genetically engineered model has been created. (
  • ST. LOUIS, Aug. 21 Sigma-Aldrich(R) (Nasdaq: SIAL) announced today that scientists at its new Sigma Advanced Genetic Engineering (SAGE(TM)) Labs in St. Louis will leverage its exclusive CompoZr(TM) Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) gene editing technology ( to define, develop and offer a new generation of genetically-engineered rodent research models. (
  • A panel of genetically engineered mouse models recapitulates genotype-driven responses to immunotherapy and uncovers a driver of immunotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer. (
  • Modeling cell movement in anisotropic and heterogeneous network tissues. (
  • Random regression has been used in most studies to model the additive and permanent environmental effects with homogenous or heterogeneous residual effect [1]. (
  • iii) additive genetic, permanent environmental, residual and the animal as random effects. (
  • Echinoderms offer viable and tractable models for molecular and cellular research on stem cells and regeneration. (
  • The model simulates interactions between the components of the genetic circuit that results in an emergent cellular behavior. (
  • The cellular behavior of interest in this model is LacZ (beta-galactosidase) activity which can be observed in a graph and is also represented in the change in the color of the cell to yellow. (
  • This book provides specific examples, across a wide range of molecular and cellular systems, of how modeling techniques can be used to explore functionally relevant molecular and cellular relationships. (
  • ACCE: A Model Process for Evaluating Data on Emerging Genetic Tests. (
  • From 2000 - 2004, CDC's Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) established and supported the ACCE Model Project, which developed the first publicly-available analytical process for evaluating scientific data on emerging genetic tests. (
  • ACCE, which takes its name from the four main criteria for evaluating a genetic test - analytic validity, clinical validity, clinical utility and associated ethical, legal and social implications - is a model process that includes collecting, evaluating, interpreting, and reporting data about DNA (and related) testing for disorders with a genetic component in a format that allows policy makers to have access to up-to-date and reliable information for decision making. (
  • However, despite their inefficiency, forward simulations are necessary if we wish to simulate data sets under complex and realistic biological scenarios ( e.g. , natural selection at multiple linked loci) that are difficult to model accurately using the coalescent. (
  • GSA-based maximum likelihood estimation for threshold vector error correction model ," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 109-120, September. (
  • It's tough to quantify what proportion of genetic tests is fulfilled via hybrid models versus traditional and DTC models, but data suggests hybrid labs are eating up a big chunk of genetic testing: A large traditional laboratory recently reported that it's conducted 4 million genetic tests since launching in 1991, while a hybrid laboratory reported it's conducted 1.4 million tests since its founding in 2004. (
  • It is shown that, while both models approximate the main features of the distribution of experimental data, SFRBNs tend to overestimate the number of large avalanches. (
  • A posterior probability approach for gene regulatory network inference in genetic perturbation data. (
  • BEDFORD, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Stoke Therapeutics and research collaborators from the University of Michigan today present data demonstrating the efficacy of Stoke's proprietary antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology in treating Dravet Syndrome in mouse models. (
  • Newer data from animal models and from exposed human populations are consistent with a small or even zero dose threshold. (
  • By expressing pedigree data as a positive semidefinite kernel matrix, the SS-ANOVA model is able to estimate a log-odds ratio as a multicomponent function of several variables: one or more functional components representing information from environmental covariates and/or genetic marker data and another representing pedigree relationships. (
  • This result is consistent with the notions that genetic marker data encodes - at least partly - pedigree data, and that familial correlations encode shared environment data as well. (
  • The Missouri project has generated data on current genetic diversity, mating system and progeny genetic diversity of several woody plant species distributed through the 5000 ha landscape. (
  • The California project will generate preliminary data during the 1996/1997 year on gene flow, hybridization and genetic structure of Englemann oak distributed in fragments located throughout southern California. (
  • More than 10,000 publications about aspergillosis, asthma and allergy using mouse models have been published since 2000. (
  • GRNs can be modeled using statistical and logical techniques, more precisely using Bayesian networks. (
  • We evaluate our method's performance in simulations and in an Escherichia coli chemical genetic screen, comparing it with an existing univariate approach based on modified t -tests. (
  • We improve the shift-scheduling process by using nonstationary queueing models to evaluate schedules and two heuristics to generate schedules. (
  • We present a model for plant dispersal in agricultural landscapes to evaluate the gene dispersal from genetically modified (GM) plants. (
  • The model can help to evaluate co-existence management measures such as spatial isolation between GM and non-GM cultivars on the adventitious presence of GM in non-GM harvest. (
  • Future studies are needed to evaluate mechanisms of response and resistance to PARP and Chk1 inhibitor-based combination immunotherapy across a wider panel of genetically diverse models. (
  • These cells will then be challenged with Aspergillus spores to evaluate the immune response to Aspergillus exposure in the genetic context of ABPA. (
  • The genetic analyses refine the oceanographic model indicating that the connectivity patterns described could also result from unknown parental populations sourcing adults and postlarvae in different spawning seasons to the Florida Keys. (
  • From the larval dispersal perspective, genetic results and biophysical modeling identify patterns of gene flow enhancing persistence of local populations. (
  • Formulas based on this model are presented for estimating the number of nucleotide substitutions between two populations or species. (
  • Mormon apologists have cited possible genetic effects to explain the lack of Jewish genetic markers in Native American populations. (
  • Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. (
  • Yet, the analysis of genetic diversity of plants is often evaluated without reference to the geographical, spatial-temporal, or metapopulation dynamics of the sampled populations. (
  • Association between environmental and genetic heterogeneity in forest tree populations. (
  • Among Indian populations, the largest genetic distance is between Gujaratis and the tribal Irulas. (
  • The Genetic Animal Models Core provides emerging genetic technology and model systems that enable transformative investigation into the impact of human genetic variants associated with IBD, including infantile and early-onset IBD. (
  • Powell, C.M. and Miyakawa, T. (2006) Schizophrenia-Relevant Behavioral Testing in Rodent Models: A Uniquely Human Disorder? (
  • They have a robust system for evaluating genetic risk factors in human-derived microglia. (
  • These and other studies are intended to improve our genetic model with regard to its translational value to human addiction. (
  • Tumors that closely recapitulate the spectrum of molecular markers and histology seen in human ARMS are exclusively produced in this model. (
  • Associative methods for content-based image ranking by semantics are attractive due to the similarity of generated models to human models of understanding. (
  • Therefore, recent studies on content-based image retrieval focus on reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level human semantics by constructing semantic models that can be used for prediction. (
  • Overall, the results obtained using the model are consistent with a wide variety of flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies in human solid tumors. (
  • These models faithfully reproduced common drug responses of the corresponding human genotypes to platinum-based chemotherapy and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk-1) inhibitor treatments. (
  • Genetic analysis of late-onset type 2 diabetes in a mouse model of human complex trait. (
  • In addition, these genetic rodent models play a crucial role in testing and selecting potential therapeutics that can be used to treat ALS and/or other motor neuron disorders. (
  • In addition and in an attempt to unravel the pathogenic mechanism(s) leading to ALS, a number of rodent models have been created starting from information on the genetic causes of ALS (Tables 2 and 3 ). (
  • Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. (
  • The model uses successive strings (phrases) from a random population without crossover but mutating, with a fixed probability to match the given phrase. (
  • Systemic risk in a network fragility model analyzed with probability density evolution of persistent random walks. (
  • Understanding genetic risks and probability. (
  • This model shows how biologists can use laboratory techniques to tweak certain aspects of a genetic circuit in order to affect the cell's behavior. (
  • The model is used to predict the behavior of the BGA for simple test functions. (
  • Because of the complexity of the interweaving retroactions, the overall behavior is difficult to grasp and the development of formal methods is needed in order to confront the supposed properties of the biological system to the model. (
  • The use of time-dependent queueing models makes employee scheduling a larger but more realistic challenge by revealing its nonlinear and dynamic behavior. (
  • Some of these models have been of great value to delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms that cause and/or modulate selective motor neuron degeneration. (
  • Our model shows that today's genetic code probably resulted from a combination of selective forces and random chance," explained Justin Jee, a doctoral student at NYU School of Medicine and the paper's lead author. (
  • In conclusion, the TDMY trait use into the selective process will promote genetic changes similar to the ones obtained through the MY305. (
  • Treatment responses to triple combination of Chk-1 inhibitors with anti-PD-L1 and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) blockade in three independent tumor clones of the cyclin E1-overexpressing model demonstrated durable response only for a tumor clone that expressed low levels of follistatin. (
  • The development of this diverse panel of transplantable immunocompent mouse models provides an excellent resource to elucidate mechanisms of immunosuppression in ovarian cancer and serves as a discovery platform of combination immunotherapies that are matched to patient tumor genotypes. (
  • A user can select the promoter and RBS strengths, add ONPG (by making 'CONST-ONPG' ON) and run the model. (
  • Run the model with a set PROMOTER-STRENGTH and RBS-STRENGTH and observe changes in the scaled transcription and translation rates. (
  • The discovered links between promoter elements and gene function allows us to infer genetic networks from promoter elements. (
  • Here we report a probabilistic model that captures two important properties of promoters, not used by previous methods, viz. (
  • Genomewide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with breast cancer. (
  • The authors developed a genetic risk score on the basis of these five SNPs, with each SNP allele contributing 1 point, thereby giving a minimum score of 0 and maximum score of 10. (
  • Panel B shows results limited to women in the lowest 20% of estimated risk, according to the inclusive model. (
  • The inset shows where this lowest 20% would be located in Panel A. Panel C shows results limited to women in the highest 20% of estimated risk according to the inclusive model. (
  • Historically, consumers have played a passive role in genetic testing: Physicians have ordered the tests, received and interpreted the results, and prescribed treatment. (
  • DTC genetic testing offers consumers the flexibility of sidestepping physicians - but results often aren't adequate to inform treatment decisions. (
  • The counseling process has typically involved at least two in-person visits - an initial visit to perform risk assessment and, if applicable, informed consent for genetic testing ("pretest counseling") and for those who underwent genetic testing, a posttest visit to disclose test results and discuss results' implications for cancer risk management in patient and family ( 10 ). (
  • Although they tend to return results that are better understood by image analysts, the induction of these models is difficult to build due to factors that affect training complexity, such as coexistence of visual patterns in same images, over-fitting or under-fitting and semantic representation differences among image analysts. (
  • These results in the Dravet mouse model using Stoke's ASO technology have been quite remarkable," said Lori Isom, Ph.D., Maurice H. Seevers professor and chair of pharmacology at the University of Michigan Medical School. (
  • The results show that the composite source model provides a very realistic broadband source description for the Northridge earthquake. (
  • There are no plans to give patients the results of genetic tests or questionnaires. (
  • The results obtained for each of the three models showed that the higher heritability estimations were always obtained in the third test month. (
  • The results from these in vitro studies will then be validated using primary cultures of nasal brush and blood samples from patients with relevant ABPA genetic variants. (
  • We develop a flexible and computationally efficient approach for analyzing high-throughput chemical genetic screens. (
  • Therefore, it is an attractive alternative to current methods, and provides a computationally scalable framework for larger and complex chemical genetic screens. (
  • Can be maintained in stable haploid and diploid states that facilitate genetic analyses. (
  • Different analyses for milk yield were proposed in literature such as repeatability model, multiple trait model and recently random regression model (RRM). (
  • The inclusion of newly discovered genetic factors modestly improved the performance of risk models for breast cancer. (
  • As a result of their different geographical origins, these rices have characters and underlying genetic markers of use in improving the initial vigour of the plant, its water stress tolerance and its ability to colonize an environment rapidly and make use of its resources, notably water. (
  • This review provides a synopsis of the use of mouse models to explore genetic and neurochemical influences on PPI. (
  • More recently, yeast became one of the first and most intensively studied genetic model systems at least in part due to its small size, rapid generation time and ease of biological manipulation. (
  • This chapter discusses the relationships among the most commonly used GRN models that can enable effective integration of diverse types of sub-models. (
  • Longitudinal traits can be analyzed by a multiple trait model which can allow different genetic correlation (commonly unstructured covariance) between records on the same individual. (
  • This a multi-agent model of a genetic circuit in a bacterial cell and is an extension of the GenEvo 1 model. (
  • Burke W, Zimmern R. Moving Beyond ACCE: An Expanded Framework for Genetic Test Evaluation pdf icon [344 KB] external icon . (
  • Computational intensity of the method is addressed by parallel model evaluation with central control. (
  • Many studies show that in Iran, the genetic evaluation of 305-day total milk yield is carried out using the animal model. (