Emergency Medical Tags: A bracelet or necklace worn by an individual that alerts emergency personnel of medical information for that individual which could affect their condition or treatment.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Nitrophenylgalactosides: Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/26926)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (2/26926)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Familial antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: criteria for disease and evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. (3/26926)

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic criteria for a familial form of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), identify families with >1 affected member, examine possible modes of inheritance, and determine linkage to potential candidate genes. METHODS: Family members of probands with primary APS were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Families with > or =2 affected members were analyzed by segregation analysis and typed for candidate genetic markers. RESULTS: Seven families were identified. Thirty of 101 family members met diagnostic criteria for APS. Segregation studies rejected both environmental and autosomal recessive models, and the data were best fit by either a dominant or codominant model. Linkage analysis showed independent segregation of APS and several candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory criteria are essential to identify the spectrum of disease associated with APS. We believe a set of criteria was developed that can precisely define affected family members with APS. Modeling studies utilizing these criteria strongly support a genetic basis for disease in families with APS and suggest that a susceptibility gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. However, in these families, APS was not linked with HLA, Fas, or other candidate genes, including beta2-glycoprotein 1, HLA, T cell receptor beta chain, Ig heavy chain, antithrombin III, Fas ligand, factor V, complement factor H, IgK, and Fas.  (+info)

Telomere length dynamics and chromosomal instability in cells derived from telomerase null mice. (4/26926)

To study the effect of continued telomere shortening on chromosome stability, we have analyzed the telomere length of two individual chromosomes (chromosomes 2 and 11) in fibroblasts derived from wild-type mice and from mice lacking the mouse telomerase RNA (mTER) gene using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Telomere length at both chromosomes decreased with increasing generations of mTER-/- mice. At the 6th mouse generation, this telomere shortening resulted in significantly shorter chromosome 2 telomeres than the average telomere length of all chromosomes. Interestingly, the most frequent fusions found in mTER-/- cells were homologous fusions involving chromosome 2. Immortal cultures derived from the primary mTER-/- cells showed a dramatic accumulation of fusions and translocations, revealing that continued growth in the absence of telomerase is a potent inducer of chromosomal instability. Chromosomes 2 and 11 were frequently involved in these abnormalities suggesting that, in the absence of telomerase, chromosomal instability is determined in part by chromosome-specific telomere length. At various points during the growth of the immortal mTER-/- cells, telomere length was stabilized in a chromosome-specific man-ner. This telomere-maintenance in the absence of telomerase could provide the basis for the ability of mTER-/- cells to grow indefinitely and form tumors.  (+info)

Plasmid replication initiator protein RepD increases the processivity of PcrA DNA helicase. (5/26926)

The replication initiator protein RepD encoded by the Staphylococcus chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pC221 stimulates the helicase activity of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA DNA helicase in vitro. This stimulatory effect seems to be specific for PcrA and differs from the stimulatory effect of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L3. Whereas L3 stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by promoting co-operative PcrA binding onto its DNA substrate, RepD stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by increasing the processivity of the enzyme and enables PcrA to displace DNA from a nicked substrate. The implication of these results is that PcrA is the helicase recruited into the replisome by RepD during rolling circle replication of plasmids of the pT181 family.  (+info)

Transplacement mutagenesis: a novel in situ mutagenesis system using phage-plasmid recombination. (6/26926)

Site-specific mutagenesis provides the ability to alter DNA with precision so that the function of any given gene can be more fully understood. Several methods of in vitro mutagenesis are time-consuming and imprecise, requiring the subcloning and sequencing of products. Here we describe a rapid, high fidelity method of in situ mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda using transplacement. Using this method, mutations are transferred from oligonucleotides to target phages using a plasmid interface. A small (50 bp) homology region bearing a centred point mutation is generated from oligonucleotides and subcloned into a transplacement plasmid bearing positive and negative phage selectable markers. Following a positive/negative selection cycle of integrative recombination and excision, the point mutation is transferred precisely from plasmid to phage in a subset ( approximately 25-50%) of recombinants. As the fidelity of both oligonucleotide synthesis and phage-plasmid recombination is great, this approach is extremely reliable. Using transplacement, point mutations can be accurately deposited within large phage clones and we demonstrate the utility of this technique in the construction of gene targeting vectors in bacteriophages.  (+info)

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. (7/26926)

We present a method to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) resident in their host strain. The method is based on homologous recombination by ET-cloning. We have successfully modified BACs at two distinct loci by recombination with a PCR product containing homology arms of 50 nt. The procedure we describe here is rapid, was found to work with high efficiency and should be applicable to any BAC modification desired.  (+info)

Amplification of cDNA ends based on template-switching effect and step-out PCR. (8/26926)

A new method for amplifying cDNA ends is described which requires only first-strand cDNA synthesis and a single PCR to generate a correct product with very low or no background. The method can be successfully applied to total RNA as well as poly A+ RNA. The same first-strand cDNA can be used to amplify flanking sequences of any cDNA species present in the sample.  (+info)

With novel developments in sequencing technologies, time-sampled data are becoming more available and accessible. Naturally, there have been efforts in parallel to infer population genetic parameters from these data sets. Here, we compare and analyse four recent approaches based on the Wright-Fisher model for inferring selection coefficients (s) given effective population size (N-e), with simulated temporal data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the advantage of a recently proposed approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-based method that is able to correctly infer genomewide average N-e from time-serial data, which is then set as a prior for inferring per-site selection coefficients accurately and precisely. We implement this ABC method in a new software and apply it to a classical time-serial data set of the medionigra genotype in the moth Panaxia dominula. We show that a recessive lethal model is the best explanation for the observed variation in allele frequency by implementing an estimator ...
Here I have studied a series of simple one-locus two-allele models for maternal (parental) selection. Srb et al. (1965, Chapter 11) give several examples for maternal effects that can be attributed to a single diallelic locus; see Wade (1996) for more discussion of the relevance of maternal effects controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. My results indicate similarity between dynamic behaviors under maternal selection and fertility selection. The latter is well-known to be much more complicated than the dynamics resulting from viability selection (e.g., Owen 1953; Bodmer 1965; Hadeler and Liberman 1975). I have shown that maternal selection can result in a simultaneous stability of equilibria of different types. Thus, in the presence of maternal (parental) selection, the outcome of population evolution can significantly depend on initial conditions. With maternal selection, genetic variability can be maintained in a population even if none of the offspring of heterozygous ...
A multivariate quantitative genetic model is analyzed that is based on the assumption that the genetic variation at a locus j primarily influences an underlying physiological variable yj, while influence on the genotypic values is determined by a kind of "developmental function" which is not changed by mutations at this locus. Assuming additivity among loci the developmental function becomes a linear transformation of the underlying variables y onto the genotypic values x, x = By. In this way the pleiotropic effects become constrained by the structure of the B-matrix. The equilibrium variance under mutation-stabilizing selection balance in infinite and finite populations is derived by using the house of cards approximation. The results are compared to the predictions given by M. Turelli in 1985 for pleiotropic two-character models. It is shown that the B-matrix model gives the same results as Turellis five-allele model, suggesting that the crucial factor determining the equilibrium variance in ...
The advent of the genomic era has necessitated the development of methods capable of analyzing large volumes of genomic data efficiently. Being able to reliably identify bottlenecks-extreme population size changes of short duration-not only is interesting in the context of speciation and extinction but also matters (as a null model) when inferring selection. Bottlenecks can be detected in polymorphism data via their distorting effect on the shape of the underlying genealogy. Here, we use the generating function of genealogies to derive the probability of mutational configurations in short sequence blocks under a simple bottleneck model. Given a large number of nonrecombining blocks, we can compute maximum-likelihood estimates of the time and strength of the bottleneck. Our method relies on a simple summary of the joint distribution of polymorphic sites. We extend the site frequency spectrum by counting mutations in frequency classes in short sequence blocks. Using linkage information over short ...
(Update 6/2013 - Ive edited and extended this old post from 10/2012. I had begun writing a new related post, and decided the material was better placed within this one as an extension.) Two recent observations set me down a dark and lonely road, and they are unsurprisingly related. They both have to do with…
Everyone knows that parents provide more than DNA for their offspring. Development does, after all, start with an egg. But such non-genetic inheritance has been conspicuously absent from discussions of how evolution works. Similarly to plasticity, non-genetic inheritance evolves and can be an adaptation. For example, we could ask how parental and offspring plasticity co-evolve and if this enables non-genetic transmission of information between generations. We can also ask if incomplete epigenetic resetting between generations could ever be favoured by natural selection. We address some of these issues as part of an EU funded large collaborative project called IDEAL.. But non-genetic inheritance is more than an adaptation to transfer information between generations (or a cause of phenotypic variance that biases responses to selection as in many quantitative genetic models). We have suggested there are a number of important insights gained from viewing heredity as a developmental process; by ...
Motivation: To test whether protein folding constraints and secondary structure sequence preferences significantly reduce the space of amino acid words in proteins, we compared the frequencies of four- and five-amino acid word clumps (independent words) in proteins to the frequencies predicted by four random sequence models.. Results: While the human proteome has many overrepresented word clumps, these words come from large protein families with biased compositions (e.g. Zn-fingers). In contrast, in a non-redundant sample of Pfam-AB, only 1% of four-amino acid word clumps (4.7% of 5mer words) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with our simplest random model [MC(0)], and 0.1% (4mers) to 0.5% (5mers) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with a window-shuffled random model. Using a false discovery rate q-value analysis, the number of exceptional four- or five-letter words in real proteins is similar to the number found when comparing words from one random model to another. Consensus overrepresented ...
When called in an array context, returns an array of $n deviates (each deviate being an array reference) generated from the multivariate normal distribution with mean vector @mean and variance-covariance matrix @covar. When called in a scalar context, generates and returns only one such deviate as an array reference, regardless of the value of $n. Argument restrictions: If the dimension of the deviate to be generated is p, @mean should be a length p array of real numbers. @covar should be a length p array of references to length p arrays of real numbers (i.e. a p by p matrix). Further, @covar should be a symmetric positive-definite matrix, although the Perl code does not check positive-definiteness, and the underlying C code assumes the matrix is symmetric. Given that the variance-covariance matrix is symmetric, it doesnt matter if the references refer to rows or columns. If a non-positive definite matrix is passed to the function, it will abort with the following message: ...
1. Basic Genetics of Platypapyrus foursuitii Platypapyrus foursuitii is a diploid organism. One feature that makes the species particularly amenable for genetic studies is that their chromosomal material takes the form of playing cards and can easily be handled like cards. Each card represents alleles in the gene pool, and two cards together represent the genotype of an individual. A person can hold any number of different individual genotypes, depending on the sample size you want. For a class of 25, you can have a population size of 50 by giving each student four cards. Sample sizes much less than 50 can result in significant fluctuations due to sampling error. For 50 individuals, you will need 100 cards or two decks. 2. A one-locus, two-allele model (50 individual organisms in the population) These instructions assume 50 individuals in the population, each individual containing two cards. If you have 25 students, you can give each one two pairs to work with. If you have some other number, ...
We establish the asymptotic sampling distribution of general functions of quantile-based estimators computed from samples that are not necessarily independent. The results provide the statistical framework within which to assess the progressivity of taxes and benefits, their horizontal inequity, and the change in the inequality of income which they cause. By the same token, these findings characterise the sampling distribution of a number of popular indices of progressivity, horizontal inequity, and redistribution. They can also be used to assess welfare and inequality changes using panel data, and to assess poverty when it depends on estimated population quantiles. We illustrate these results using micro data on the incidence of taxes and benefits in Canada.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Downloadable! We establish the asymptotic sampling distribution of general functions of quantile-based estimators computed from samples that are not necessarily independent. The results provide the statistical framework within which to assess the progressivity of taxes and benefits, their horizontal inequity, and the change in the inequality of income which they cause. By the same token, these findings characterise the sampling distribution of a number of popular indices of progressivity, horizontal inequity, and redistribution. They can also be used to assess welfare and inequality changes using panel data, and to assess poverty when it depends on estimated population quantiles. We illustrate these results using micro data on the incidence of taxes and benefits in Canada.
controls the maximum number of additional iterations PROC MIXED performs to update the fixed-effects and covariance parameter estimates following data point removal. If you specify n > 0, then statistics such as DFFITS, MDFFITS, and the likelihood distances measure the impact of observation(s) on all aspects of the analysis. Typically, the influence will grow compared to values at ITER=0. In models without RANDOM or REPEATED effects, the ITER= option has no effect. This documentation refers to analyses when n > 0 simply as iterative influence analysis, even if final covariance parameter estimates can be updated in a single step (for example, when METHOD=MIVQUE0 or METHOD=TYPE3). This nomenclature reflects the fact that only if n > 0 are all model parameters updated, which can require additional iterations. If n > 0 and METHOD=REML (default) or METHOD=ML, the procedure updates fixed effects and variance-covariance parameters after removing the selected observations with additional Newton-Raphson ...
This came up in the same project as Distribution of maximum of random walk conditioned to stay positive, which is certainly more standard. For this one, I completely dont know whether this is standard or difficult. Ive looked up some standard stuff (eg. on sequential sampling) where you have a boundary condition given by absorbing boundaries at $0$ and $a$, but the weighted sum seems to make things harder. Again, Id be very happy to learn that this is a standard thing with a good reference, or for advice as well as complete solutions. Any thoughts?. ...
For linear models for uncorrelated data, it is not necessary to refit the model after removing a data point in order to measure the impact of an observation on the model. The change in fixed effect estimates, residuals, residual sums of squares, and the variance-covariance matrix of the fixed effects can be computed based on the fit to the full data alone. By contrast, in mixed models several important complications arise. Data points can affect not only the fixed effects but also the covariance parameter estimates on which the fixed-effects estimates depend. Furthermore, closed-form expressions for computing the change in important model quantities might not be available. This section provides background material for the various influence diagnostics available with the MIXED procedure. See the section Mixed Models Theory for relevant expressions and definitions. The parameter vector ...
http://www.decisionsciencenews.com/2...-happens-next/ Code: // file c.c // cc -Wall -g c.c -o c #include|stdio.h| #include|stdlib.h| #inclu
Both the confidence intervals and the hypothesis testing methods in the independent-sample design require Normality of both samples. If the sample sizes are large (say ,50), Normality is not as critical, as the CLT implies the sampling distributions of the means are approximately Normal. If these parametric assumptions are invalid we must use a non-parametric (distribution free test), even if the latter is less powerful. The plots below indicate that Normal assumptions are not unreasonable for these data, and hence we may be justified in using the two independent sample T-test in this case. ...
Even when natural selection is not operating, the gene frequencies may change a little from the previous generation just by chance. This can happen because the genes that form a new generation are a random sample from the parental generation.. Random sampling occurs whenever a smaller number of successful individuals (or gametes) are sampled from a larger pool of potential survivers and the fitnesses of the genotypes are the same. Random sampling works at every stage as a new generation grows up but it starts at conception. In every species, each individual produces many more gametes than will ever fertilize, or be fertilized, to form new organisms. The successful gametes which do form offspring are a sample from the many gametes that the parents produce. Provided the parent is a heterozygote, such as Aa, it will then produce a large number of gametes, of which approximately one half will be A and the other half a. If that parent produces 10 offspring, it is most likely that five will inherit an ...
New research into ageing processes, based on modern genetic techniques, confirms theoretical expectations about the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. Studies of birds reveal that those that have offspring later ...
ive said this before, and ill say it again, a lot of it is purely reactive. race realists are not the only ones who say that "race matters." when people make positive assertions about race based on social constructs which map onto to genetic correlations, that gets the ball rolling. finally, the quotation you are using has to be framed in the context of attempting to generate 100,000 year narratives. the fact that "race" is a fuzzy concept doesnt, to me, deny that it is more realistic than tracing "human" lineages 4,000 generations. an analogy would be if people attempted to trace races back 20,000 years, a problem that does crop up, and which falls under the same pitfalls as the issues i was bringing up. on the other hand, genetic correlations in the present generation are broken down (in general) by only small levels of deme-to-deme genetic exchange in most regions (e.g., given a modest number of genetic loci discrete clusters quickly emerge by populations which we a priori accept as ...
Z is a measure of the magnitude of bias in the COR. If Z = 1, the case-only estimate of interaction is not biased by genotype-environment association in the underlying population (76). Commonly, this assumption is assessed in control data from a small number of outside studies, using significance testing. Significance testing alone is not sufficient for assessment of potential bias (87). Rarely is Z estimated and/or adjusted for, analogous to other forms of bias such as confounding.. Results from this project illustrate some of the pitfalls of this approach. For instance, for XRCC1 399 ever-never smoking, 18 of the 21 included studies have estimates that are not statistically significantly different than the null value of 1.0. Considering any of these in a statistical significance testing framework would lead to the conclusion that the independence assumption was valid; therefore a case-only study estimate of interaction would not be biased, at least from independence assumption violation. ...
Due to limited precision, accuracy, and variability in ordinal outcomes, it behooves researchers to use either 5-point, 7-point, or higher level Likert scales. With more options, more unique variance can be accounted for the in the analysis and statistical power is increased. One-sampled tests possess more statistical power than other between-subjects statistics because there is only one group being analyzed, no other independent groups are included ...
When all the characteristics that have made Henry Shefflin the most successful and greatest hurler of this or probably any generation are distilled into one moment, perhaps the first ex
Approximate x*exp(-x) with Orthogonal Functions (Legendre Polynomials, Chebychev Polynomials, Bessel Functions) & Compare to Taylors Series ...
View Notes - 1-20chapter stats from MGMT 2123 at HCCS. is B. Fail to reject the null hypothesis 78. In an effort to improve productivity in its factory, a firm recently instituted a training program
A couple of new BioShock Infinite screenshots have appeared out of GamesCom. Theres not much more to say than that, but you can see them below, and continue
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Methods for simulating samples and sample statistics, under mutation-selection-drift equilibrium for a class of nonneutral population genetics models, and for evaluating the likelihood surface, in selection and mutation parameters, are developed and applied for observed data. The methods apply to large populations in settings in which selection is weak, in the sense that selection intensities, like mutation rates, are of the order of the inverse of the population size. General diploid selection is allowed, but the approach is currently restricted to models, such as the infinite alleles model and certain K-models, in which the type of a mutant allele does not depend on the type of its progenitor allele. The simulation methods have considerable advantages over available alternatives. No other methods currently seem practicable for approximating likelihood surfaces.
Author Summary In genome-wide association studies, the multiple testing problem and confounding due to population stratification have been intractable issues. Family-based designs have considered only the transmission of genotypes from founder to nonfounder to prevent sensitivity to the population stratification, which leads to the loss of information. Here we propose a novel analysis approach that combines mutually independent FBAT and screening statistics in a robust way. The proposed method is more powerful than any other, while it preserves the complete robustness of family-based association tests, which only achieves much smaller power level. Furthermore, the proposed method is virtually as powerful as population-based approaches/designs, even in the absence of population stratification. By nature of the proposed method, it is always robust as long as FBAT is valid, and the proposed method achieves the optimal efficiency if our linear model for screening test reasonably explains the observed data
The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution, yet, rather little is known about the stationary distribution. On the other hand, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected times to hit optimum, assessment of the biases due to recombination and is of importance in population genetics to assess whats called a ``genetic load (see the introduction for more details). In this talk I will show how the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive rather explicit bounds on the ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the ...
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for weekly body weight of feed intake of individually fed beef bulls at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models (RRM). The model for cumulative feed intake included the fixed linear regression on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 day) for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on third order orthogonal Legendre polynomials were included for the additive genetic effect of the animal and the additional random effect of weaning-herd-year (WHY) and on fourth order for the additional random permanent environmental effect of the animal. The model for body weights included the fixed linear regression on fourth order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test for starting age group and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth order orthogonal Legendre ...
View Notes - Slides7_v1 from ECON 404 at University of Michigan. Sampling Distributions Utku Suleymanoglu UMich Utku Suleymanoglu (UMich) Sampling Distributions 1 / 21 Introduction Population
A balanced pattern in the allele frequencies of polymorphic loci is a potential sign of selection, particularly of overdominance. Although this type of selection is of some interest in population genetics, there exist no likelihood based approaches specifically tailored to make inference on selection intensity. To fill this gap, we present likelihood methods to estimate selection intensity under k-allele models with overdominance.;The stationary distribution of allele frequencies under a variety of Wright-Fisher k-allele models with selection and parent independent mutation is well studied. However, the statistical properties of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters under these models are not well understood. We show that under each of these models, there is a point in data space which carries the strongest possible signal for selection, yet, at this point, the likelihood is unbounded. This result remains valid even if all of the mutation parameters are assumed to be known. Therefore, ...
Although complex diseases and traits are thought to have multifactorial genetic basis, the common methods in genome-wide association analyses test each variant for association independent of the others. This computational simplification may lead to reduced power to identify variants with small effect sizes and requires correcting for multiple hypothesis tests with complex relationships. However, advances in computational methods and increase in computational resources are enabling the computation of models that adhere more closely to the theory of multifactorial inheritance. Here, a Bayesian variable selection and model averaging approach is formulated for searching for additive and dominant genetic effects. The approach considers simultaneously all available variants for inclusion as predictors in a linear genotype-phenotype mapping and averages over the uncertainty in the variable selection. This leads to naturally interpretable summary quantities on the significances of the variants and their ...
Biological systems are resistant to perturbations caused by the environment and by the intrinsic noise of the system. Robustness to mutations is a particular aspect of robustness in which the phenotype is resistant to genotypic variation. Mutational robustness has been linked to the ability of the system to generate heritable genetic variation (a property known as evolvability). It is known that greater robustness leads to increased evolvability. Therefore, mechanisms that increase mutational robustness fuel evolvability. Two such mechanisms, molecular chaperones and gene duplication, have been credited with enormous importance in generating functional diversity through the increase of systems robustness to mutational insults. However, the way in which such mechanisms regulate robustness remains largely uncharacterized. In this review, I provide evidence in support of the role of molecular chaperones and gene duplication in innovation. Specifically, I present evidence that these mechanisms ...
We prove a result concerning the joint distribution of alleles at linked loci on a chromosome drawn from the population at stationarity. For a neutral locus, the allele is a draw from the stationary distribution of the mutation process. Furthermore, this allele is independent of the alleles at different loci on any chromosomes in the population.. ...
Use our video lessons and quizzes to learn about sampling distributions. Each lesson breaks down a concept into bite-sized pieces to help you...
Although research effort is being expended into determining the importance of epistasis and epistatic variance for complex traits, there is considerable controversy about their importance. Here we undertake an analysis for quantitative traits utilizing a range of multilocus quantitative genetic models and gene frequency distributions, focusing on the potential magnitude of the epistatic variance. All the epistatic terms involving a particular locus appear in its average effect, with the number of two-locus interaction terms increasing in proportion to the square of the number of loci and that of third order as the cube and so on. Hence multilocus epistasis makes substantial contributions to the additive variance and does not, per se, lead to large increases in the nonadditive part of the genotypic variance. Even though this proportion can be high where epistasis is antagonistic to direct effects, it reduces with multiple loci. As the magnitude of the epistatic variance depends critically on the ...
The dominant character of leaf size varies with different genetic models and leaf positions. In Model 1, the dominant characters of top and lower leaves are small size, but for the middle leaves it is large size. In Model 2, large size is dominant for three types of leaves. In Model 3, small size is dominant for the top and middle leaves, but recessive for lower leaves. In Model 4, small size is dominant in the top and lower leaves, but recessive in the middle leaves (Table 6). Therefore, we can not conclude and illustrate the inheritance of leaf size for tobacco leaves. Leaf size was determined by genetics and environment (Gurevitch, 1992); hence it may be suitable to illustrate the genetic mechanism for leaf size in a fixed position of single leaf, or increase the number of planted locations to increase the generational mean. This would allow us to estimate the effect of genetic-environmental interaction and understand the inheritance of leaf size.. Genetic Models and Inheritance of Leaf ...
In this work, we built a pipeline, extTADA, for the integrated Bayesian analysis of DN mutations and rare CC variants to infer rare-variant genetic architecture parameters and identify risk genes. We applied extTADA to data available for SCZ and four other NDDs (Additional file 1: Figure S1).. The extTADA pipeline extTADA is based on previous work in autism sequencing studies, TADA [16, 31]. It conducts a full Bayesian analysis of a simple rare-variant genetic architecture model and it borrows information across all annotation categories and DN and CC samples in genetic parameter inference, which is critical for sparse rare-variant sequence data. Using MCMC, extTADA samples from the joint posterior density of risk-gene proportion and mean relative risk parameters, and provides gene-level disease-association BFs, PPs, and FDRs. We hope that extTADA (https://github.com/hoangtn/extTADA) will be generally useful for rare-variant analyses across complex traits. extTADA can be used for rare CC variant ...
Overview press publications with toplists of bulls. The file with breeding values of sire opens when clicking on download. The lists are sorted according to NVI with the exception of the beef merit index. Sire that are not included in the toplists can be found with the function Sire Search.. Information on the publication. For information about the publication, see News. The national toplists contains breeding values based on Dutch/Flemish daughter information. The Interbull toplists contains converted breeding values based on information from abroad. The genomic toplists contains breeding values based on pedigree information combined with genomic information. The combined toplists contains the top 500 bulls on NVI-base from the described list ...
3. The last point we discussed, which is maybe the most interesting, is the issue of the "infinitesimal model". The "infinitesimal model," originated by Fisher, assumes that contributions to the genetic variance are additive, relatively small and coming from many loci. The multiplication of QTL studies and other genomic approaches this last years has led to numerous discussions questioning this model, assuming that the reason for the lack of evidence for phenotypic traits controlled by few loci was more or less technological. We have ourselves discussed this issue in this very blog including when studies about human height and some QTLs found to explain just a few percents of variation. Well in light of this article it seems that it is again the case in drosophila, as control for height is seems to be largely polygenic, and the estimates presented here are even a low estimate as the methodology used is quite conservative (polymorphisms with population frequencies under 10% were not even analyzed ...
Lahrouz, A. and Omari, L. (2013) Extinction and stationary distribution of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with non-linear incidence. Statistics & Probability Letters, 83, 960-968.
I started this guide with a problem that gives conventional statistics extreme difficulty but is strikingly simple for Bayesian analysis: Conventional statistics do not allow researchers to make claims about one of the models being tested (sometimes the only model). This inferential asymmetry is toxic to interpreting research results. Bayes factors solve the problem of inferential asymmetry by treating all models equally, and have many other benefits: 1) No penalty for optional stopping or multiple comparisons. Collect data until you feel like stopping or run out of money and make as many model comparisons as you like; 2) Bayes factors give directly interpretable outputs. A Bayes factor means the same thing whether n is 10 or 10,000, and whether we compared 2 or 20 models. A credible interval ranging from .38 to .94 means that we should believe with 95% certainty that the true value lies in that range. 3) Prior probability distributions allow researchers to intimately connect their theories to ...
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree ismodelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the samplemean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean isapproximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.. ...
Populations diverge from each other as a result of evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, natural selection, mutation, and migration. For certain types of genetic markers, and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular, it is reasonable to presume that genotypes at most loci are selectively neutral. Because demographic parameters (e.g. population size and migration rates) are common across all loci, locus-specific variation, which can be measured by Wrights FST, will depart from a common mean only for loci with unusually high/low rate of mutation or for loci closely associated with genomic regions having a substantial effect on fitness. We propose two alternative Bayesian hierarchical-beta models to estimate locus-specific effects on FST. To detect loci for which locus-specific effects are not well explained by the common FST, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence measure (KLD) to measure the divergence between the posterior distributions of locus-specific effects and the common FST
... (GA) are a computational paradigm inspired by the mechanics of natural evolution, including survival of the fittest, reproduction, and mutation. Surprisingly, these mechanics can be used to solve (i.e. compute) a wide range of practical problems, including numeric problems. Concrete examples illustrate how to encode a problem for solution as a genetic algorithm, and help explain why genetic algorithms work. Genetic algorithms are a popular line of current research, and there are many references describing both the theory of genetic algorithms and their use in practical problem solving ...
Math has an impact on just about every aspect of our lives including some that we dont often think about. Math helped change the outcome of WWII, it also shows up in the way we drive our cars and the way we manage our finances. In celebration of Math Awareness Month, here are four TI-Nspire activities to use in your classes - whether you teach algebra, calculus or statistics. 1: German Tanks: Exploring Sampling Distributions. In this activity, your students will be challenged with the same problem the WWII Allies generals had: How do you determine how many German tanks there are? In WWII, the statisticians working for the Allies used sample statistics and sampling distributions to help determine the number of German tanks. Students explore different sample statistics and use simulation to develop a statistic that is effective in approximating the maximum number in a population. ...
Mode: for a discrete random variable, the value with highest probability (the location at which the probability mass function has its peak); for a continuous random variable, the location at which the probability density function has its peak ...
We present SumHer, software for estimating confounding bias, SNP heritability, enrichments of heritability and genetic correlations using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies. The key difference between SumHer and the existing software LD Score Regression (LDSC) is th...read more ...
An organisms genome is continually being alteredby mutations, the vast majority of which are harmful to the organism or its descendants, because they reduce the bearers viability or fertility
Response to the genetic challenge from Book of Mormon defenders[edit]. Book of Mormon population models[edit]. Defenders of the ... 3 Response to the genetic challenge from Book of Mormon defenders *3.1 Book of Mormon population models ... 1 Overview of the genetic challenges to the Book of Mormon story *1.1 The genetic challenge ... The Limited Geography Model of the Book of Mormon supports this position. This geographical and population model was formally ...
3 Model organism in genetics *3.1 History of use in genetic analysis ... History of use in genetic analysis[edit]. Alfred Sturtevant's Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map: This was the first ... Genetic markers[edit]. Genetic markers are commonly used in Drosophila research, for example within balancer chromosomes or P- ... Drosophila is being used as a genetic model for several human diseases including the neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson's, ...
"Agent-Based Modeling" (PDF). Social Self-Organization. Berlin: Springer: 25-70.. *. Holland, John H. (1992). "Genetic ... Simulation models[edit]. *Collection of Agent-Based Models at RunTheModel.com. *Multi-agent Meeting Scheduling System Model by ... Building DREAM models allows model comparison across scientific disciplines.. *Validated agent-based modeling using Virtual ... In essence, by the time the simulation model is complete, one can essentially consider it to be one model containing two models ...
In vivo models. Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant ... Genetic analysis[edit]. The phenolic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and enzymes can be studied by mean of transgenesis of ... Simple natural phenols can lead to the formation of B-type procyanidins in wines[15] or in model solutions.[16][17] This is ... an Experimental Model". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (5): 673-93. doi:10.1080/07352689991309441.. ...
Genetic algorithms deliver methods to model biological systems and systems biology that are linked to the theory of dynamical ... Fraser AS (1958). "Monte Carlo analyses of genetic models". Nature. 181 (4603): 208-9. Bibcode:1958Natur.181..208F. doi:10.1038 ... Koza, John R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0 ... Evolutionary programming was introduced by Lawrence J. Fogel in the US, while John Henry Holland called his method a genetic ...
"Down syndrome: searching for the genetic culprits". Disease Models & Mechanisms. 4 (5): 586-95. doi:10.1242/dmm.008078. PMC ... Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third ... The extra genetic material present in DS results in overexpression of a portion of the 310 genes located on chromosome 21.[63] ... 2011). Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-1 ...
"The Bargaining Model of Depression". Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-08326-3 ... Behavioral shutdown model[edit]. The behavioral shutdown model states that if an organism faces more risk or expenditure than ... Although the model views depression as an adaptive response, it does not suggest that it is beneficial by the standards of ... In animal models, the prolonged overreaction of the immune system, in response to the strain of chronic disease, results in an ...
Model organism[edit]. The yeast-like growth of U. maydis makes it an appealing model organism for research, although its ... The fungus is exceptionally well-suited for genetic modification. This allows researchers to study the interaction between the ... The availability of the entire genome is another advantage of this fungus as model organism.[13] ... "Recombinational repair of gaps in DNA is asymmetric in Ustilago maydis and can be explained by a migrating D-loop model". PNAS ...
Fearon ER, Vogelstein B (June 1990). "A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis". Cell. 61 (5): 759-67. doi:10.1016/0092- ... Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation and epimutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance ...
Marchand, H. The Genetic Epistemologist Volume 29, Number 3 *^ Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (1984a). A general model of ... In 1993 a model was published explaining the connection between Piaget's theory of development and Abraham Maslow's concept of ... Commons, M. L., Gane-McCalla, R., Barker C. D., Li, E. Y. (in press). The Model of Hierarchical Complexity as a measurement ... Commons, M. L., & Richards, F. A. (1984b). Applying the general stage model. In M. L. Commons, F. A. Richards, & C. Armon (Eds ...
Fearon ER, Vogelstein B (June 1990). "A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis". Cell. 61 (5): 759-67. doi:10.1016/0092- ... Genetic and epigenetic[edit]. There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes that may contribute to ... Dalerba P, Cho RW, Clarke MF (2007). "Cancer stem cells: models and concepts". Annual Review of Medicine. 58: 267-84. doi: ... This model of carcinogenesis is popular because it explains why cancers grow. It would be expected that cells that are damaged ...
Assumptions in population genetic modelsEdit. Effective population size is an essential concept in evolutionary biology and ... Genetic diversityEdit. Whether a species has overlapping generations or not can influence the genetic diversity in the new ... In population genetics models, such as the Hardy-Weinberg model, it is assumed that species have no overlapping generations. In ... For the economic model, see Overlapping generations model. For the doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses since 2010, see Eschatology_ ...
Genomic and functional gene annotation of the two major yeast models can be accessed via their respective model organism ... Tong AHY, Boone C (2006). "Synthetic genetic array analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". In Xiao W. Yeast Protocols. Springer ... Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 439-444. ISBN 978-1-58829-933-8.. ... The evolutionary origin and maintenance of sexual recombination: A review of contemporary models. Evolutionary Biology Series ...
"Molecular genetic approach to identify inhibitors of signal transduction pathways". In Conn PM (ed.). Sourcebook of Models for ... Genomic and functional gene annotation of the two major yeast models can be accessed via their respective model organism ... "In Sunnerhagen P, Piskur J (eds.). Comparative Genomics: Using Fungi as Models. Berlin: Springer. pp. 29-46. ISBN 978-3-540- ... Yeasts include some of the most widely used model organisms for genetics and cell biology.[55] ...
Bharathi S. Gadad, Laura Hewitson, Keith A. Young, and Dwight C. German, "Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic ... "Neuropathology and animal models of autism: Genetic and environmental factors". Autism Research and Treatment. 2013: 731935. ... Hewitson's more recent research has focused on the study of genetic versus epigenetic (environmental) causes of ... Examination of the Safety of Pediatric Vaccine Schedules in a Non-Human Primate Model: Assessments of Neurodevelopment, ...
Judson, Olivia P. (1994). Parasites, sex and genetic variation in a model metapopulation (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. ... Judson, O. P. (1994). "The rise of the individual-based model in ecology". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 9 (1): 9-14. doi: ... In 2007 she co-presented Animal Farm with Giles Coren; the series, which explored genetic modification and pharming, was ... Judson, O.; Haydon, D. (1999). "The genetic code: What is it good for? An analysis of the effects of selection pressures on ...
... genetic insights from diverse animal models" (PDF). Nature Reviews. Genetics. 7 (11): 873-84. doi:10.1038/nrg1923. PMID ... as a model genetic organism. This progress has been facilitated by advances in genomics, bioinformatics, and somatic cell ... Alejandro Sanchez-Alvarado and Philip Newmark transformed planarians into a model genetic organism in the beginning of the 20th ... Coleman CM (September 2008). "Chicken embryo as a model for regenerative medicine". Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo ...
In vivo models. Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant ... Genetic analysisEdit. The phenolic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and enzymes can be studied by mean of transgenesis of ... Simple natural phenols can lead to the formation of B-type procyanidins in wines[19] or in model solutions.[20][21] This is ... an Experimental Model". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (5): 673-93. doi:10.1080/07352689991309441.. ...
Mungrue IN, Husain M, Stewart DJ (October 2002). "The role of NOS in heart failure: lessons from murine genetic models". Heart ...
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 46 (6): 2412-2422. doi:10.1021/ci060149f. PMID 17125183.. ... "Melting point prediction employing k-nearest neighbor algorithms and genetic parameter optimization". ... this outlier model, along with another classic data mining method, local outlier factor, works quite well also in comparison to ...
Some models for migration inherently include nonrandom mating (Wahlund effect, for example). For those models, the Hardy- ... These influences include genetic drift, mate choice, assortative mating, natural selection, sexual selection, mutation, gene ... The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and ... In the absence of selection, mutation, genetic drift, or other forces, allele frequencies p and q are constant between ...
"Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (6): 1720-1724 ... "Statistical Modeling: The Wisdom of Hercules". The Economist. August 25, 2005.. *^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. ( ... Evolutionary Models *. Johnson, D.D.P.; Fowler, James H. (15 September 2011). "The Evolution of Overconfidence" (PDF). Nature. ... More recently, he has shown evidence that social networks have a partly genetic basis.[28] In 2010, he published a paper ...
The genetic operators used in the GEP-RNC system are an extension to the genetic operators of the basic GEP algorithm (see ... So it's quite straightforward to evaluate the fitness of the evolving models by comparing the output of the model to the value ... From genetic algorithms it inherited the linear chromosomes of fixed length; and from genetic programming it inherited the ... Indeed, genetic diversity is created with genetic operators such as mutation, recombination, transposition, inversion, and many ...
A model for tracing the history of genetic variation. Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a ... and possibly the standard coalescent population genetic model. Population genetic influences could have a major influence on ... Coalescent theory can also be used to model the amount of variation in DNA sequences expected from genetic drift and mutation. ... CoaSim - software for simulating genetic data under the coalescent model.. *DIYABC - A user-friendly approach to ABC for ...
2.1.3 Genetic factors. *2.1.4 Animal models. *2.1.5 Treatment (pharmaceutical) ... While such models are useful, they are also limited; it is unclear whether the behavior is ego dystonic in animals. That is, it ... Animal modelsEdit. Animals exhibiting obsessive and compulsive behaviors that resemble OCD in humans have been used as a tool ... Genetic factorsEdit. Canine compulsions are more common in some breeds and behavioral dispositions are often shared within the ...
Main article: Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor ... "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged ,20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of ... The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ...
Tetrahymena have the advantages of a "do-it-all" model system; this is especially true as a genetic model system. Tetrahymena ... Why Use Tetrahymena as a Genetic Model Organism?. Model systems are typically chosen based on their utility in identifying new ... GENETIC model systems have a long-standing history as important tools to discover novel genes and processes in cell and ... Tetrahymena as a Unicellular Model Eukaryote: Genetic and Genomic Tools. Marisa D. Ruehle, Eduardo Orias and Chad G. Pearson ...
Analyzing and Disseminating Information on Genetic Tests. Cystic Fibrosis1 Hemochromatosis2 Venous Thromboembolism3 Breast & ... ACCE Model System for Collecting, Analyzing and Disseminating Information on Genetic Tests. In September 2000, the Office of ... ACCE: A Model Process for Evaluating Data on Emerging Genetic Tests. In: Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for ... Draft Genetic Test Reviews. Final drafts of component sections of Genetic Test Reviews are posted online for viewing. ...
The genetic cause and phenotype of the Loa and Cra mouse models were often used as an argument in favor of the hypothesis that ... Genetic Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. L. Van Den Bosch. Neurobiology, Vesalius Research Center, K.U. Leuven ... In addition, these genetic rodent models play a crucial role in testing and selecting potential therapeutics that can be used ... In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the most important genetic rodent models that show motor neuron degeneration ...
ACCE, which takes its name from the four main criteria for evaluating a genetic test - analytic validity, clinical validity, ... testing for disorders with a genetic component in a format that allows policy makers to have access to up-to-date and reliable ... clinical utility and associated ethical, legal and social implications - is a model process that includes collecting, ... ACCE Model Process for Evaluating Genetic Tests including an introduction to ACCE, ACCE resources and references. It includes ...
New Model May Help in Successfully Translating Data from Animal Studies to Humans. ... Plant Models Engineered Crops Could Produce Low Cost Medicines and Industrial Proteins. ...
Mouse genetic models for prepulse inhibition: an early review.. Geyer MA1, McIlwain KL, Paylor R. ... This review provides a synopsis of the use of mouse models to explore genetic and neurochemical influences on PPI. Studies ... various inbred mouse strains and genetically modified mouse lines have been examined to investigate the potential genetic basis ... describing the PPI responses of various inbred strains of mice, mice with genetic mutations, and mice treated with various ...
A New, Genetic Model for Schizophrenia. A new study points to rare gene duplications and deletions that are believed to play a ... Until now, most scientists believed that it was likely that a cluster of relatively common genetic mutations was to blame.. ... Their probes turned up a few possible genetic suspects, but the findings were contradicted by those from other studies. In ... Sebat acknowledges that the data presented is merely consistent with the rare mutation gene model and not direct proof of it. ...
Curricular Models/GenEvo. (back to the library) GenEvo 1 Genetic Switch. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is ... Models:. Library. Community. Modeling Commons. User Manuals:. Web. Printable Chinese. Czech. Japanese. Spanish *(intro) ... GenDrift Sample Models. HOW TO CITE. If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you ... For the model itself:. *Dabholkar, S., Bain, C. and Wilensky, U. (2016). NetLogo GenEvo 1 Genetic Switch model. http://ccl. ...
This a multi-agent model of a genetic circuit in a bacterial cell and is an extension of the GenEvo 1 model. This model shows ... Models:. Library. Community. Modeling Commons. User Manuals:. Web. Printable Chinese. Czech. Japanese. NetLogo Models Library: ... Curricular Models/GenEvo. (back to the library) Synthetic Biology - Genetic Switch. If you download the NetLogo application, ... The genetic circuit modelled here has the following components:. *promoter with a lac operator - Transcription starts at the ...
While efforts should be made to evaluate the predictive validity of these genetic rat models, we propose that they have the ... lesion-induced and genetic mouse models, the present review focuses on describing the most relevant genetically-based rat ... To be considered a valid analogue of the disorder, a given model should present good face validity (i.e. similarity of symptoms ... As several recent works have already reviewed the main behavioural and developmental models, as well as the most used drug- ...
Performance of common genetic variants in breast-cancer risk models.. Wacholder S1, Hartge P, Prentice R, Garcia-Closas M, ... The inclusion of newly discovered genetic factors modestly improved the performance of risk models for breast cancer. The level ... were in the same quintile of risk as in a model without genetic variants; 32.5% were in a higher quintile, and 20.4% were in a ... The AUC for a risk model with age, study and entry year, and four traditional risk factors was 58.0%; with the addition of 10 ...
With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the tooth fairy, researchers at the University of ... "This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling ... "Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPC6 is a novel predisposing gene for ASD that may act in a multiple-hit model," ... With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the "tooth fairy," researchers at the University of ...
... Francesca Sciandra,1 Maria Giulia Bigotti,2 Bruno ... V. Gupta, G. Kawahara, S. R. Gundry et al., "The zebrafish dag1 mutant: a novel genetic model for dystroglycanopathies," Human ... T. E. Lloyd and J. P. Taylor, "Flightless flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease," Annals of the New York Academy of ... dystroglycan and comparison with the murine model," PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, Article ID e103866, 2014. View at Publisher · View ...
Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, ... Here, we describe genetic mouse models, which are categorized with functions in the retina and relationship with human diseases ... Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, ... Maeda A., Maeda T. (2018) Modeling Retinal Diseases Using Genetic Approaches in Mice. In: Tanimoto N. (eds) Mouse Retinal ...
... a conservation of function across species that validates transgenic flies as ideal pre-clinical models to improve understanding ... Drosophila effectively models human genes responsible for genetic kidney diseases Assessing the function of human monogenic ... Drosophila effectively models human genes responsible for genetic kidney diseases. Childrens National Health System ... A logical next step will be to generate more personalized in vivo models of genetic renal diseases bearing patient-specific ...
Comparative, Evolutionary and Genetic Models. Editors: Hyndman, Kelly Anne, Pannabecker, Thomas L. (Eds.) ... Greater integration of comparative, evolutionary and genetic animal models in basic science and medical science will improve ... Non-traditional Models: The Molecular Physiology of Sodium and Water Transport in Mosquito Malpighian Tubules ... Non-traditional Models: The Giraffe Kidney from a Comparative and Evolutionary Biology Perspective ...
Researchers have created a model that may explain the complexities of the origins of life. Their work offers new insight into ... how RNA signaling likely developed into the modern genetic code. Full Story ...
The ideal pig model would be of manageable size and manifest both metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis at an early age. Like ... In this Phase 1 STTR we propose to generate a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low ... Indeed, a consensus report concerning FDA approval of the stents recommends the use of the pig model to assess these devices. ... However, a marked deficiency in current pig models is that they do not present with metabolic syndrome and significant ...
Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Hudson, R. R., 2002 Generating samples under a Wright-Fisher neutral model of genetic variation. Bioinformatics 18: 337-338. ... Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations. Badri Padhukasahasram, Paul ... Exploring Population Genetic Models With Recombination Using Efficient Forward-Time Simulations. Badri Padhukasahasram, Paul ...
2018) Prediction of Indoor PM2.5 Index Using Genetic Neural Network Model. In: Huang DS., Bevilacqua V., Premaratne P., Gupta P ... This paper proposes a method based on genetic neural network to predict the indoor PM2.5. We use seven features including ... indoor ventilation rate, air temperature, relative humidity and others to train the model. The experiment results showed that ...
Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to ... Because of this oddity, the mice could be valuable animal models for human disorders, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers ... As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow ... Im Focus: Famous "sandpile model" shown to move like a traveling sand dune. Researchers at IST Austria find new property of ...
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects ... "Genetic defects can be passed from parents to their children; as a result, colon cancer runs in families. Our model will help ... Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects ... The model, called MMRpro, is based on an individuals detailed family history of colorectal and endometrial cancer, as well as ...
... not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models ... We further discuss the future applications of such models, particularly their role in revealing new genetic diseases of the ... development of easier and more precise techniques to manipulate the zebrafish genome have motivated many researchers to model ... not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models ...
Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. M Nei and W H Li ... A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this ... Maintaining their genetic distance; limited gene flow between widely hybridising species of Geum with contrasting mating ...
Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. M Nei and W H Li ... A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this ... model are presented for estimating the number of nucleotide substitutions between two populations or species. To express the ...
  • The aim of this project was to develop a model system for assembling, analyzing, disseminating and updating existing data on the safety and effectiveness of DNA-based genetic tests and testing algorithms. (cdc.gov)
  • Other traditional methods of data mining such as Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms (GA) have a black-box characteristic which makes it difficult for users to apply extracted rules to other cases [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Mathematical models of genetic regulatory networks define features of the regulation by means of mathematical functions and propose algorithms in order to infer network models (i.e. connectivity, parameters etc.) from experimental data. (igi-global.com)
  • This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. (psu.edu)
  • Genetic algorithms are efficient and flexible means of attacking optimization problems that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. (aas.org)
  • Genetic algorithms, on the other hand, converge rapidly onto regions of minimum \chi^2 while continuously generate ``mutant solutions'', allowing an efficient and comprehensive exploration of parameter space. (aas.org)
  • The flexibility of genetic algorithms facilitates incorporating the additional observational constraint of photospheric magnetic flux, reducing the degeneracy of solutions to a range represented by reasonable error bars on the model predictions. (aas.org)
  • By using genetic algorithms we are able to identify and constrain the degeneracy inherent to the models, a task, which, particularly for the more complex second model, would be impractical using a traditional technique. (aas.org)
  • This is done by adjusting the location of a suite of composite subevents, using genetic algorithms (Holland, 1975), to best match the observed waveforms. (scec.org)
  • Genetic algorithms are commonly used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems by relying on bio-inspired operators such as mutation, crossover and selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • in these cases, a simulation may be used to determine the fitness function value of a phenotype (e.g. computational fluid dynamics is used to determine the air resistance of a vehicle whose shape is encoded as the phenotype), or even interactive genetic algorithms are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditional genetic approaches allow the engineering of mouse models of human cancer that have unparalleled similarity to the human disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We use quantitative genetic approaches to map complex traits, including the transcriptome, and study genotype-environment interactions. (wur.nl)
  • This formalism allows us to unify the modelling of both approaches, to take advantage of all results and tools in the field of high level Petri nets like the model checking tool Maria and to prevent the explosion of the number of places. (unice.fr)
  • Using this novel methodology, Knockout Rats and Mice can be generated in as little as four months, about one-third the time required to make a Knockout model using conventional Embryonic Stem Cell (ES cell) based approaches. (medindia.net)
  • Using data from two separate research projects, I propose to evaluate and integrate recent statistical approaches and models to construct a new synthetic approach that will allow the identification of environmental influences on the genetic structure of woody plant populations. (ucsb.edu)
  • This model will set the stage for future work that investigates therapeutic approaches for restoring TREM2 function. (sciencemag.org)
  • With the help of mouse models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the "tooth fairy," researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have implicated a new gene in idiopathic or non-syndromic autism. (scienceblog.com)
  • Researchers have created a model that may explain the complexities of the origins of life. (nsf.gov)
  • Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have developed a new prediction model for genetic defects known as Lynch syndrome , which predisposes families to develop colorectal cancer. (medindia.net)
  • The structural and functional similarity of the larval zebrafish pronephros to the human nephron, together with the recent development of easier and more precise techniques to manipulate the zebrafish genome have motivated many researchers to model human renal diseases in the zebrafish. (mdpi.com)
  • This animal model could help researchers better understand abnormal brain function in autistic humans, which could help them identify and improve treatment strategies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Powell adds that the model gives researchers insight into mouse brains which share important parallels with brains of living humans, which can only be studied in limited ways with the use of new brain imaging tools. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at UC San Francisco have developed a new genetic model of autism, using neurons created in the lab from patients' own skin cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • This "genetic toolbox" has enabled researchers to not only create mouse models mimicking human diseases, but also use techniques such as gene silencing to explore what a rat model is capable of. (criver.com)
  • The researchers sought to account for the composition of the genetic code, which allows proteins to be built from amino acids with high specificity based on information stored in a RNA or DNA genome. (astrobiology.com)
  • To do so, the researchers analysed the genetic diversity of a collection of 200 japonica rices, using the Ecomeristem model, which simulates rice growth under contrasting water supply conditions. (cirad.fr)
  • To do this, the researchers based their study on the genetic diversity that exists within the japonica group of rices. (cirad.fr)
  • The researchers used the Ecomeristem model, which simulates rice growth under contrasting water supply conditions, to explore these parameters within a collection of 200 japonica rices. (cirad.fr)
  • The combined, data-driven approach that includes validation allows researchers to systematically determine when models are too simple, too complex or just right-the "Goldilocks" approach. (phys.org)
  • The ease of genetic analysis allowed researchers to study processes to a degree not seen for other model organisms. (els.net)
  • DALLAS - June 26, 2017 - Using a new skin cell model, researchers have overcome a barrier that previously prevented the study of living tissue from people at risk for early heart disease and stroke. (eurekalert.org)
  • A team of researchers led by Sandra Seeher at the Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Berlin, Germany, set out to create mouse models to test whether Secisbp2 is essential for selenoprotein biosynthesis and to study the consequences of Secisbp2 deletion in tissues and the whole organism. (thyroid.org)
  • Researchers then compared Secisbp2 mice with similar mouse models lacking tRNA[Ser]Sec. They found that the phenotypes, as well as the consequences on selenoprotein level of our Secisbp2 mice are milder than in tRNA[Ser]Sec knockout mice. (thyroid.org)
  • Collectively, these topics will provide a pipeline for the use of animal models in understanding human craniofacial development and disease for clinical geneticist and basic researchers alike. (nih.gov)
  • A recently developed mouse model of brain tumors common in the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) successfully mimics the human condition and provides unique insight into tumor development, diagnosis and treatment, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new model, developed by Farrer and his team could offer the precise tool that researchers have long hoped would deliver the impact of LRRK2 inhibitors and other disease-modifying drugs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Evidence is presented for the effects of genetic background on PPI (and other symptoms/phenotypes), as well as for environmental influences on genetic predisposition to enhanced apomorphine (mixed dopamine receptor agonist) effects. (scirp.org)
  • It thus provides the means of conducting an integrative analysis of the parameters that account for the diversity of phenotypes within the genetic diversity being studied for this complex system. (cirad.fr)
  • The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has many genetic characteristics which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic architecture of complex human disease and ageing phenotypes. (wur.nl)
  • Zhu H., Khondker Z., Lu Z., Ibrahim J.G. Bayesian Generalized Low Rank Regression Models for Neuroimaging Phenotypes and Genetic Markers . (harvard.edu)
  • GLRR integrates a low rank matrix to approximate the high-dimensional regression coefficient matrix of GLRR and a dynamic factor model to model the high-dimensional covariance matrix of brain imaging phenotypes. (harvard.edu)
  • In: Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease. (cdc.gov)
  • We discuss emerging technologies, including high throughput sequencing and genome editing, and new animal repository resources, and how their application can revolutionize the future of animal models in craniofacial research. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that lentivirus-delivered sgRNA:Cas9 genome editing should be useful to engineer a broad array of in vivo cancer models that better reflect the complexity of human disease. (harvard.edu)
  • used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate a mouse model of FTD-like syndrome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plant modelling serves to formalize, in the form of mathematical equations and by computer simulation, the processes that control plant growth, its regulation by its environment, in this case initial vigour, notably leaf emission, and its regulation by water stress. (cirad.fr)
  • A computer simulation system that embodies these concepts is described and the model is used to generate distributions of chromosome number/cell under various simulated conditions and in a variety of simulated biological settings. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Agent-based modeling is related to, but distinct from, the concept of multi-agent systems or multi-agent simulation in that the goal of ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents obeying simple rules, typically in natural systems, rather than in designing agents or solving specific practical or engineering problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • iii) additive genetic, permanent environmental, residual and the animal as random effects. (ebscohost.com)
  • Genetic models of inheritance of colouration.Number of brown (red bar) and grey (grey bar) offspring colour morphs produced by different combinations of parental colour morphs (B×B, B×G and G×G). The first columns show the observations in the field, second, third and fourth columns show the expected number of offspring colour morphs according to models with brown dominance, grey dominance and an additive genetic model, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • We thus conclude from the above exercises on the basis of comparing fledglings' morphs with their parents' morphs that we find evidence for genetic dominance of brown over grey, whereas dominance of grey and purely additive genetic effects are not supported by this data. (nih.gov)
  • The main reasons why mouse models are important for retinal research include that rodents share a key retinal homology with humans and that genetic manipulation is relatively easily applicable for mice. (springer.com)
  • Because of this oddity, the mice could be valuable animal models for human disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, according to geneticists at Cornell and Stanford universities. (innovations-report.com)
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • E ) Genetic reduction of eEF2K corrects eEF2 hyperphosphorylation in hippocampal lysates from Tg19959 AD model mice. (jci.org)
  • Whichever research path has been taken to obtain a modified mouse, these animals can be used as the primary research focus, or they can be bred with other mice to generate models of greater complexity. (nih.gov)
  • Maximizing mouse cancer models using the various possibilities of inbred mice, engineered mice, and even humanized mouse models enables tremendous strides in understanding cancer biology and translating our understanding to human health. (nih.gov)
  • Through this Training Fellowship Dr Gago aims to replace transgenic mice used to investigate the genetic basis of ABPA pathogenesis with a human in vitro cellular model. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Dr Gago estimates that the Manchester Fungal Infection Group can replace over 50% of their animal use with the proposed in vitro models, with over 200 mice replaced in Dr Gago's studies alone. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Over the last few years, great advances have been made, not only in the modeling techniques of genetic diseases in the zebrafish, but also in how to validate and exploit these models, crossing the bridge towards more informative explanations of disease pathophysiology and better designed therapeutic interventions in a cost-effective in vivo system. (mdpi.com)
  • Emerging data suggest that much of the genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease plays out in microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. (alzforum.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. (biologists.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease Models & Mechanisms web site. (biologists.org)
  • New mouse models can help scientists study a rare disease, called SECISBP2 syndrome, that causes abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism, delayed bone maturation, as well as other abnormal characteristics that vary by individual, according to new data presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) in Québec City, Québec, Canada. (thyroid.org)
  • In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The potential applications using these rodent models of human disease could ultimately eliminate years of research time and save millions of lives," said Dr. Dave Smoller, President, Sigma Research Biotechnology. (medindia.net)
  • In a combined analysis of over 2500 diabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease, each extra point in the genetic risk score was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of having coronary artery disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Even after adjustment for family history, the genetic risk score distinguished between those with and without coronary artery disease, which is in contrast to many previous studies in which similar risk scores lost predictive ability when family history was taken into account. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genetic susceptibility to coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • A new genetic risk score promises personalized risk prediction for cardiovascular disease in diabetics. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, less than 2% of asthma patients exposed to spores contract ABPA suggesting a genetic risk factor is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Mouse models used in these studies are classified as severe, as they entail the development of severe lung disease and mild-to-moderate respiratory distress. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Until now, the best available experimental models of the disease were based on flooding the brain with alpha-synuclein-a protein in the brain that, when it accumulates abnormally into clumps, is linked to Parkinson's-or using neurotoxins to destroy dopamine-producing cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These conventional models exhibit the classic motor and behavioural symptoms of the disease, which is why they have been widely adopted by the Parkinson's field, but the sledgehammer approach to inducing the disease means the cells die-the guitar is smashed-before any of the subtle changes in the tune can be measured. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The model-known as a VPS35 D620N knock-in (VKI)-induces the biology of a disease-causing gene rather than the symptoms of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We're hoping to use PET imaging to provide a clinically relevant biomarker, which would be relevant beyond genetic forms of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For each genotype in the collection, they estimated the parameters of the equations in the growth calculation model (leaf emission and size, branching, sugar storage and structural growth), depending on the abiotic conditions (temperature, radiation and water). (cirad.fr)
  • Bayesian approach to model inference is employed enabling flexible definitions of a priori probability distributions of the model parameters. (igi-global.com)
  • If the modeled observable is non-linear in the parameters, there can exist a degeneracy of minimum \chi^2 in parameter space. (aas.org)
  • The Mean trend of milk yield or 305-day total yield can be modeled with different orders of orthogonal Legendre polynomial because Legendre polynomial produces the lower correlation between parameters than other functions . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • So the objectives of this study were estimation and assessment of genetic parameters and variance components of 305-day milk yield using repeatability and different RRM. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Successful creation of OssabawLDLR -/- minipigs with evidence of enhanced dyslipidemia would justify submission of a Phase II STTR proposal focused on herd expansion, in-depth physiological characterization, and potentially commercialization of the model for sales to the biomedical research community. (sbir.gov)
  • The resulting "eye-in-a-dish" model took on physiological and molecular characteristics similar to native retinal cells, including a polygonal shape and pigmentation. (ucsd.edu)
  • However, to combine initial vigour and water stress tolerance, it is necessary to analyse the genetic diversity of characters that are not necessarily independent from a genetic and physiological point of view. (cirad.fr)
  • Genetic mouse models mimicking human diseases have been developed and utilized for retinal research in various topics, involving anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology. (springer.com)
  • Maeda A, Palczewski K (2013) Retinal degeneration in animal models with a defective visual cycle. (springer.com)
  • They plan to develop this retinal model for more people, and use it to investigate other genes involved in AMD. (ucsd.edu)
  • One of the experimental models in the lab is the tyrosinase gene, which encodes an enzyme that activates synthesis of the pigment melanin, which is regulated throughout development and is tissue-specific (expressed only in melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium cells). (csic.es)
  • Identification of the potential tumor suppressor gene at the insertion site will reveal important information about the genetic basis of the zebrafish retinal tumors. (arvojournals.org)
  • This model includes only these two genes of the operon. (northwestern.edu)
  • To address those research gaps, Zhe Han, Ph.D., principal investigator and associate professor in the Center for Cancer & Immunology Research at Children's National, and colleagues systematically studied NS-associated genes in the Drosophila model, including seven genes whose renal function had never been analyzed in a pre-clinical model. (eurekalert.org)
  • These three genes help repair mismatches that can occur during the duplication of the genetic code when new cells are made, and are known as mismatch repair (MMR) genes. (medindia.net)
  • GENETIC model systems have a long-standing history as important tools to discover novel genes and processes in cell and developmental biology. (genetics.org)
  • The resulting cells behaved like microglia and expressed key microglial genes, the authors report, suggesting they might serve as a model for these ephemeral brain cells. (alzforum.org)
  • Anatoly Samoylenko, Seppo Vainio and colleagues describe a novel model to assay the roles of co-regulated genes in kidney development and renal carcinogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • This paper describes the effects of perturbations, which simulate the knock-out of single genes, one at a time, in random Boolean models of genetic networks (RBN). (aimsciences.org)
  • Our modeling studies suggest that the overrepresentation of individual oncogene-bearing chromosomes in aneuploid cell lines may require the activation of gene dose-dependent growth-promoting genes and is not likely to occur in cell lines in which at least two copies of each normal chromosome are required for cell survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To generate mouse models that carry novel, foreign, or modified genes and which are stably inherited, scientists have developed protocols that begin with preparation of the appropriate DNA segment, through injection or introduction of the prepared DNA into suitable recipient eggs or embryos, and ultimately the birth and characterization of the animals. (nih.gov)
  • Although this modelling is not exhaustive, it does show that the tawny owl phenotypic morph has a genetic architecture that relies on few genes with large effects, which is consistent with a Mendelian inheritance of colouration based on one locus with a 'brown' allele dominant over a 'grey' allele. (nih.gov)
  • A related article published by Weiss's group on Nov. 21, 2017, in Molecular Psychiatry developed a second novel genetic model of autism. (ucsf.edu)
  • We improve the shift-scheduling process by using nonstationary queueing models to evaluate schedules and two heuristics to generate schedules. (scielo.br)
  • We present a model for plant dispersal in agricultural landscapes to evaluate the gene dispersal from genetically modified (GM) plants. (comsol.com)
  • The model can help to evaluate co-existence management measures such as spatial isolation between GM and non-GM cultivars on the adventitious presence of GM in non-GM harvest. (comsol.com)
  • These cells will then be challenged with Aspergillus spores to evaluate the immune response to Aspergillus exposure in the genetic context of ABPA. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • In addition, these genetic rodent models play a crucial role in testing and selecting potential therapeutics that can be used to treat ALS and/or other motor neuron disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition and in an attempt to unravel the pathogenic mechanism(s) leading to ALS, a number of rodent models have been created starting from information on the genetic causes of ALS (Tables 2 and 3 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Powell, C.M. and Miyakawa, T. (2006) Schizophrenia-Relevant Behavioral Testing in Rodent Models: A Uniquely Human Disorder? (scirp.org)
  • ST. LOUIS, Aug. 21 Sigma-Aldrich(R) (Nasdaq: SIAL) announced today that scientists at its new Sigma Advanced Genetic Engineering (SAGE(TM)) Labs in St. Louis will leverage its exclusive CompoZr(TM) Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) gene editing technology (www.compozrzfn.com) to define, develop and offer a new generation of genetically-engineered rodent research models. (medindia.net)
  • While most of the associations between polymorphisms and gene expression were the same in the two cell types, the authors found differences as well, with some associations only showing up in the microglial model. (alzforum.org)
  • The research team identified predictive models of transcription-the first step in gene expression-when the yeast cell is responding to osmotic stress (salt), which greatly affects cell growth. (phys.org)
  • In this Phase 1 STTR we propose to generate a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in a strain of minipigs (Ossabaw) with a genetic propensity for Type 2 diabetes. (sbir.gov)
  • The classical approach is then to generate all Petri nets corresponding to all remaining sets of parameter values and to confront each model to the available knowledge or hypothesis. (unice.fr)
  • The authors developed a genetic risk score on the basis of these five SNPs, with each SNP allele contributing 1 point, thereby giving a minimum score of 0 and maximum score of 10. (sciencemag.org)
  • This chapter discusses the relationships among the most commonly used GRN models that can enable effective integration of diverse types of sub-models. (igi-global.com)
  • Longitudinal traits can be analyzed by a multiple trait model which can allow different genetic correlation (commonly unstructured covariance) between records on the same individual. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Our model will help identify individuals likely to have particular genetic defects. (medindia.net)
  • Multiple laboratories have attempted to develop a mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma by expression of the Pax3:Fkhr oncogene in the early embryo, but in each case, birth defects precluded the somatic formation of muscle cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the past decade, considerable work has been carried out on several mouse mutants with genetic defects in and limited to the formation of myelin. (springer.com)
  • Panel B shows results limited to women in the lowest 20% of estimated risk, according to the inclusive model. (nih.gov)
  • The inset shows where this lowest 20% would be located in Panel A. Panel C shows results limited to women in the highest 20% of estimated risk according to the inclusive model. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, consumers have played a passive role in genetic testing: Physicians have ordered the tests, received and interpreted the results, and prescribed treatment. (businessinsider.com)
  • DTC genetic testing offers consumers the flexibility of sidestepping physicians - but results often aren't adequate to inform treatment decisions. (businessinsider.com)
  • The counseling process has typically involved at least two in-person visits - an initial visit to perform risk assessment and, if applicable, informed consent for genetic testing ("pretest counseling") and for those who underwent genetic testing, a posttest visit to disclose test results and discuss results' implications for cancer risk management in patient and family ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although they tend to return results that are better understood by image analysts, the induction of these models is difficult to build due to factors that affect training complexity, such as coexistence of visual patterns in same images, over-fitting or under-fitting and semantic representation differences among image analysts. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall, the results obtained using the model are consistent with a wide variety of flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies in human solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results in the Dravet mouse model using Stoke's ASO technology have been quite remarkable," said Lori Isom, Ph.D., Maurice H. Seevers professor and chair of pharmacology at the University of Michigan Medical School. (businesswire.com)
  • The results show that the composite source model provides a very realistic broadband source description for the Northridge earthquake. (scec.org)
  • There are no plans to give patients the results of genetic tests or questionnaires. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results obtained for each of the three models showed that the higher heritability estimations were always obtained in the third test month. (ebscohost.com)
  • While the result amounted to a very small change in their genetic makeup, it perfectly mimicked the same small change occurring in some patients with human autism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of these models have been of great value to delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms that cause and/or modulate selective motor neuron degeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Our model shows that today's genetic code probably resulted from a combination of selective forces and random chance," explained Justin Jee, a doctoral student at NYU School of Medicine and the paper's lead author. (astrobiology.com)
  • In conclusion, the TDMY trait use into the selective process will promote genetic changes similar to the ones obtained through the MY305. (ebscohost.com)
  • Such an approach will also allow more precise models about the factors which influence genetic diversity that can be used for the development of policies surrounding land and ecosystem management. (ucsb.edu)
  • The two projects, which have generated the opportunity for developing such models, both examine, on the landscape level, genetic diversity of woody plant species in Missouri and California, respectively. (ucsb.edu)
  • The objective of this research project is to identify a limited number of aquatic insects that can serve as model species for genetic diversity studies of the Delta region and similar aquatic habitats. (epa.gov)