Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Quantitative assessment of the morphology of the pig's head used as a model in surgical experimentation. Part 1: Methods of Measurements. (1/79074)

Thirty-two surface measurements were described for assessment of the effect of complex surgical operations on the skeleton of the face in pigs. The methods of measurements imitate those of anthropometry. The surface measurements can complement cephalometry with data about the changes in the soft tissue and thus improve the documentation of the effect of surgery. This paper can help in the evaluation of complicated osteotomy procedures using the pig as the animal model, for facial reconstruction research in humans.  (+info)

Investigation of the theory and mechanism of the origin of the second heart sound. (2/79074)

To investigate further the origin of the second heart sound we studied human subjects, dogs, and a model in vitro of the cardiovascular system. Intra-arterial sound, pressure, and, where possible, flow and high speed cine (2,000 frames/sec) were utilized. The closure sound of the semilunar valves was of higher amplitude in be ventricles than in their respective arterial cavities. The direction of inscription of the main components of intra-arterial sound were opposite in direction to the components of intraventricular sound. Notches, representative of pressure increments, were noted on the ventricular pressure tracings and were coincident with the components of sound. The amplitude of the closure sound varied with diastolic pressure, but remained unchanged with augmentation of forward and retrograde aortic flow. Cines showed second sound to begin after complete valvular closure, and average leaflet closure rate was constant regardless of pressure. Hence, the semilunar valves, when closed, act as an elastic membrane and, when set into motion, generate compression and expansion of the blood, producing transient pressure changes indicative of sound. The magnitude of the initial stretch is related to the differential pressure between the arterial and ventricular chambers. Sound transients which follow the major components of the second sound appear to be caused by the continuing stretch and recoil of the leaflets. Clinically unexplained findings such as the reduced or absent second sound in calcific aortic stenosis and its paradoxical presence in congenital aortic stenosis may be explained by those observations.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (3/79074)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

Hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations. (4/79074)

The amount of hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations is studied by using the infinite site model and stepwise mutation model simultaneously. A formula is developed for the bivariate probability generating function for the number of codon differences and the number of electromorph state differences between two randomly chosen cistrons. Using this formula, the distribution as well as the mean and variance of the number of codon differences between two identical or nonidentical electromorphs are studied. The distribution of the number of codon differences between two randomly chosen identical electromorphs is similar to the geometric distribution but more leptokurtic. Studies are also made on the number of codon differences between two electromorphs chosen at random one from each of two populations which have been separated for an arbitrary number of generations. It is shown that the amount of hidden genetic variability is very large if the product of effective population size and mutation rate is large.  (+info)

The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters. (5/79074)

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed.  (+info)

Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms. (6/79074)

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (7/79074)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/79074)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

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Definition of internal-external balance model in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is internal-external balance model? Meaning of internal-external balance model as a finance term. What does internal-external balance model mean in finance?
From 1870, Sophus Lies work put the theory of differential equations on a more satisfactory foundation. He showed that the integration theories of the older mathematicians can, by the introduction of what are now called Lie groups, be referred to a common source, and that ordinary differential equations that admit the same infinitesimal transformations present comparable difficulties of integration. He also emphasized the subject of transformations of contact. Lies group theory of differential equations has been certified, namely: (1) that it unifies the many ad hoc methods known for solving differential equations, and (2) that it provides powerful new ways to find solutions. The theory has applications to both ordinary and partial differential equations.[18] A general approach to solve DEs uses the symmetry property of differential equations, the continuous infinitesimal transformations of solutions to solutions (Lie theory). Continuous group theory, Lie algebras, and differential geometry ...
From 1870, Sophus Lies work put the theory of differential equations on a more satisfactory foundation. He showed that the integration theories of the older mathematicians can, by the introduction of what are now called Lie groups, be referred to a common source, and that ordinary differential equations that admit the same infinitesimal transformations present comparable difficulties of integration. He also emphasized the subject of transformations of contact. Lies group theory of differential equations has been certified, namely: (1) that it unifies the many ad hoc methods known for solving differential equations, and (2) that it provides powerful new ways to find solutions. The theory has applications to both ordinary and partial differential equations.[18]. A general approach to solve DEs uses the symmetry property of differential equations, the continuous infinitesimal transformations of solutions to solutions (Lie theory). Continuous group theory, Lie algebras, and differential geometry ...
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The first contemporary textbook on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to include instructions on MATLAB , Mathematica , and MapleTM, A Course in Ordinary Differential Equations focuses on applications and methods of analytical and numerical solutions, emphasizing approaches used in the typical engineering, physics, or mathematics students field of study.Stressing applications wherever possible, the authors have written this text with the applied math, engineer, or science major in mind. It includes a number of modern topics that are not commonly found in a traditional sophomore-level text. For example, Chapter 2 covers direction fields, phase line techniques, and the Runge-Kutta method; another chapter discusses linear algebraic topics, such as transformations and eigenvalues. Chapter 6 considers linear and nonlinear systems of equations from a dynamical systems viewpoint and uses the linear algebra insights from the previous chapter; it also includes modern applications like epidemiological models
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Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. In this introductory course on Ordinary Differential Equations, we first provide basic terminologies on the theory of differential equations ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mathematical equation of fusion index of tetanic contraction of skeletal muscles. AU - Watanabe, Shogo. AU - Kitawaki, T.. AU - Oka, Hisao. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The fusion index (FI) is an index that can evaluate the tetanic progression of the skeletal muscles. Although the FI-frequency curve (FFC), which is obtained by changing the stimulation frequency, is greatly affected by muscle fiber type and fiber compositions, there are no reports of a mathematical equation that can express the FFC. In this study, the FFC was measured for the gastrocnemius, vastus intermedius, and soleus muscles of rats, and the mathematical equation (FFC-equation) was proposed. The FFC-equation (FI(f)) was proportional to the h-th power of f, and was in inverse proportion to the sum of the h-th power of k and the h-th power of f. f was the stimulation frequency, k was the stimulation frequency at 50% of FI, and h reflected the gradient of FFC. As a result, the approximated curve produced by ...
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Nts did not maintain a stable steady state when pyruvate and lactate were included in the baseline perfusate so data were averaged 25 to 35 min post DCA
Mechanistic within-host models integrating blood anti-malarial drug concentrations with the parasite-time profile provide a valuable decision tool for determining dosing regimens for anti-malarial treatments, as well as a formative component of population-level drug resistance models. We reviewed published anti-malarial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models to identify the challenges for these complex models where parameter estimation from clinical field data is limited. The inclusion of key pharmacodynamic processes in the mechanistic structure adopted varies considerably. These include the life cycle of the parasite within the red blood cell, the action of the anti-malarial on a specific stage of the life cycle, and the reduction in parasite growth associated with immunity. With regard to estimation of the pharmacodynamic parameters, the majority of studies simply compared descriptive summaries of the simulated outputs to published observations of host and parasite responses from clinical ...
Estimation of fluxes through metabolic networks from redistribution patterns of (13)C has become a well developed technique in recent years. However, the approach is currently limited to systems at metabolic steady-state; dynamic changes in metabolic fluxes cannot be assessed. This is a major impediment to understanding the behaviour of metabolic networks, because steady-state is not always experimentally achievable and a great deal of information about the control hierarchy of the network can be derived from the analysis of flux dynamics. To address this issue, we have developed a method for estimating non-steady-state fluxes based on the mass-balance of mass isotopomers. This approach allows multiple mass-balance equations to be written for the change in labelling of a given metabolite pool and thereby permits over-determination of fluxes. We demonstrate how linear regression methods can be used to estimate non-steady-state fluxes from these mass balance equations. The approach can be used to
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) generate electrical potential under deformation and can be used as sensors. Recently, Zhu et al. have proposed a sensor model which describes distribution of cations, water molecules and electrical potential under bending deformation. In this paper, we discuss a simplification of the multi-physical sensor model, which is represented by a set of nonlinear partial differential equations. The nonlinear partial differential equations are simplified and approximated into a set of linear ordinary differential equations, i.e., a state-space equation model. At the end, the simplified model is validated by comparing the simulation results with those of the partial differential equation model ...
It is well understood that populations cannot grow without bound and that it is competition between individuals for resources which restricts growth. Despite centuries of interest, the question of how best to model density dependent population growth still has no definitive answer. We address this question here through a number of individual based models of populations expressed using the process algebra WSCCS. The advantage of these models is that they can be explicitly based on observations of individual interactions. From our probabilistic models we derive equations expressing overall population dynamics, using a formal and rigorous rewriting based method. These equations are easily compared with the traditionally used deterministic Ordinary Differential Equation models and allow evaluation of those ODE models, challenging their assumptions about system dynamics. Further, the approach is applied to epidemiology, combining population growth with disease spread ...
Mathematical modeling and computer simulations have become an integral part of modern biological research. The strength of theoretical approaches is in the simplification of complex biological systems. We here consider the general problem of receptor-ligand binding in the context of antibody-antigen binding. On the one hand, we establish a quantitative mapping between macroscopic binding rates of an ordinary differential equation model and their microscopic equivalents as obtained from simulating the spatio-temporal binding kinetics by agent-based models. On the other hand, we investigate the impact of various receptor properties - such as their dimensionality of motion, morphology and binding valency - on the receptor-ligand binding kinetics. To this end, we implemented an algorithm that simulates antigen binding by B cell derived receptors with a Y-shaped morphology that can move in different dimensionalities, i.e. either as membrane-anchored receptors or as soluble receptors. The mapping of the
Recently, epigenetic-mediated mechanisms - which involve heritable changes in gene expression in the absence of alterations in DNA sequences - have been proposed as contributing to asthma. In this issue of the JCI, Hollingsworth and colleagues report on the effect of prenatal maternal dietary intake of methyl donors on the risk of allergic airway disease in offspring in mice and show that these effects involve epigenetic regulation (see the related article beginning on page 3462). Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors was associated with greater airway allergic inflammation and IgE production in F1 and, to some extent, F2 progeny. Site-specific differences in DNA methylation and reduced transcriptional activity were detected. If these findings are confirmed, a new paradigm for asthma pathogenesis may be emerging. ...
Recently, epigenetic-mediated mechanisms - which involve heritable changes in gene expression in the absence of alterations in DNA sequences - have been proposed as contributing to asthma. In this issue of the JCI, Hollingsworth and colleagues report on the effect of prenatal maternal dietary intake of methyl donors on the risk of allergic airway disease in offspring in mice and show that these effects involve epigenetic regulation (see the related article beginning on page 3462). Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors was associated with greater airway allergic inflammation and IgE production in F1 and, to some extent, F2 progeny. Site-specific differences in DNA methylation and reduced transcriptional activity were detected. If these findings are confirmed, a new paradigm for asthma pathogenesis may be emerging. ...
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a control system governed by a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations. The partial differential equations govern the evolution of the system in the interior of some spatial domain, and the ordinary differential equations describe the evolution of the boundary data; the control enters through the boundary ordinary differential equations in a bilinear fashion. We provide sufficient conditions for feedback stabilization of such ``hybrid systems. Two examples to wave equations with dynamic boundary conditions are provided ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor growth dynamics with nutrient limitation and cell proliferation time delay. AU - Alsheri, Ahuod. AU - Alzahrani, Ebraheem O.. AU - Asiri, Asim. AU - El-Dessoky, Mohamed M.. AU - Kuang, Yang. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - It is known that avascular spherical solid tumors grow monotonically, often tends to a limiting final size. This is repeatedly confirmed by various mathematical models consisting of mostly ordinary differential equations. However, cell growth is limited by nutrient and its proliferation incurs a time delay. In this paper, we formulate a nutrient limited compartmental model of avascular spherical solid tumor growth with cell proliferation time delay and study its limiting dynamics. The nutrient is assumed to enter the tumor proportional to its surface area. This model is a modification of a recent model which is built on a two-compartment model of cancer cell growth with transitions between proliferating and quiescent cells. Due to the limitation of ...
Research in this group spans a broad spectrum underpinned by the rigorous treatment and analysis of linear and nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs).. This ranges from PDEs arising in geometry, physics and mechanics to those in control theory, finance and material sciences.. A core of our activities is on calculus of variations and geometric and harmonic analysis and there are subgroups with major interests in geometric measure theory, spectral theory, function spaces, dynamical systems, fluid mechanics, nonlinear elasticity and homogenisation.. For details see the Research tab.. ...
Oscar A Linares,1 William E Schiesser,2 Jeffrey Fudin,3–6 Thien C Pham,6 Jeffrey J Bettinger,6 Roy O Mathew,6 Annemarie L Daly7 1Translational Genomic
Attempts to formulate realistic models of the development of the human oculomotor control system have led to the conclusion that evolutionary factors play a crucial role. Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. In particular, I shall consider the evolution of appropriate innate starting points for learning/adaptation, patterns of learning rates that vary across different system components, learning rates that vary during the systems lifetime, and the relevance of individual differences across the evolved populations.. ...
As you might borrow for also, Benjamin Franklin found almost specifically an olfactory Stability,, Behaviour, and control, but not one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. His years were well in Boston, where he decided considered in 1706 as the evoluton of a Part. other boronic Stability, Instability and Chaos: An Introduction to the Theory, Abiah Folger.
Mathematics is a very helpful tool that can be used to describe naturally arising phenomena, quantity, structure, shape, change, and relationships.What constitutes the notion of useless anyway? Mathematical equations are simply there to state the relationship of two expressions. There is also an infinite amount of mathematical equations, so you could not possibly write all the useless ones here anyway. Because mathematical equations can be created indiscriminately, there will be infinite numbers of useless mathematical equations and infinite numbers of useful mathematical equations depending on your definition of useless ...
Mathematics is a very helpful tool that can be used to describe naturally arising phenomena, quantity, structure, shape, change, and relationships.What constitutes the notion of useless anyway? Mathematical equations are simply there to state the relationship of two expressions. There is also an infinite amount of mathematical equations, so you could not possibly write all the useless ones here anyway. Because mathematical equations can be created indiscriminately, there will be infinite numbers of useless mathematical equations and infinite numbers of useful mathematical equations depending on your definition of useless ...
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Membranes are the most common cellular structures in both plants and animals. They are now recognized as being involved in almost all aspects of cellular activity ranging from motility and food entrapment in simple unicellular organisms, to energy transduction, immunorecognition, nerve conduction and biosynthesis in plants and higher organisms. This functional diversity is reflected in the wide variety of lipids and particularly of proteins that compose different membranes. An understanding of the physical principles that govern the molecular organization of membranes is essential for an understanding of their physiological roles since structure and function are much more interdependent in membranes than in, say, simple chemical reactions in solution. We must recognize, however, that the word understanding means different things in different disciplines, and nowhere is this more apparent than in this multidisciplinary area where biology, chemistry and physics meet ...
The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data is one of the most difficult problems in systems biology. This is due to several reasons, among them the combinatorial explosion of possible network topologies, limited information content of the experimental data with high levels of noise, and the complexity of gene regulation at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. At the same time, quantitative, dynamic models, ideally with probability distributions over model topologies and parameters, are highly desirable. We present a novel approach to infer such models from data, based on nonlinear differential equations, which we embed into a stochastic Bayesian framework. We thus address both the stochasticity of experimental data and the need for quantitative dynamic models. Furthermore, the Bayesian framework allows it to easily integrate prior knowledge into the inference process. Using stochastic sampling from the Bayes posterior distribution,
ABSTRACT:We consider a minimal cascade model previously proposed ~1 for the mitotic oscillator driving the embryonic cell division cycle. The model is based on a bicyclic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cascade involving cyclin and cdc2 kinase. By constructing stability diagrams showing domains of periodic behavior as a function of the maximum rates of the kinases and phosphatases involved in the two cycles of the cascade, we investigate the role of these converter enzymes in the oscillatory mechanism. Oscillations occur when the balance of kinase and phosphatase rates in each cycle is in a range bounded by two critical values. The results suggest ways to arrest the mitotic oscillator by altering the maximum rates of the converter enzymes. These results bear on the control of cell proliferation. The original paper reference is cited below: Arresting the mitotic oscillator and the control of cell proliferation: insights from a cascade model for cdc2 kinase activation, Goldbeter, A. and ...
Title: Stochastic and deterministic spatial models for complex systems Abstract: Interacting particle models are often employed to gain understanding of the emergence of macroscopic phenomena from microscopic laws of nature. These individual-based models capture fine details, including randomness and discreteness of individuals, that are not considered in continuum models such as partial differential equations (PDE) and integral-differential equations. The challenge, which is fundamental in any multi-scale modeling approach for complex systems, is how to simultaneously retain key information in microscopic models as well as efficiency and robustness of macroscopic models. In this talk, I will discuss how this challenge can be overcome by elucidating the probabilistic connections between particle models and PDE, in particular, why naively adding diffusion terms to ordinary differential equations might fail to account for spatial dynamics in population models. These connections also explain how ...
Title: Stochastic and deterministic spatial models for complex systems Abstract: Interacting particle models are often employed to gain understanding of the emergence of macroscopic phenomena from microscopic laws of nature. These individual-based models capture fine details, including randomness and discreteness of individuals, that are not considered in continuum models such as partial differential equations (PDE) and integral-differential equations. The challenge, which is fundamental in any multi-scale modeling approach for complex systems, is how to simultaneously retain key information in microscopic models as well as efficiency and robustness of macroscopic models. In this talk, I will discuss how this challenge can be overcome by elucidating the probabilistic connections between particle models and PDE, in particular, why naively adding diffusion terms to ordinary differential equations might fail to account for spatial dynamics in population models. These connections also explain how ...
Greaves, M. F. (2004) Biological models for leukaemia and lymphoma. In: Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis: Contributions of Molecular Epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications, 157 . IARC Press, Lyon, France, pp. 351-372. ISBN 978-928322157-9 ...
Watch video lessons on the biological model of abnormality, and learn about the brain, the endocrine system, and the physiology of mental health....
Multiscale modeling has emerged as a powerful approach to interpret and capitalize on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. We present a multiscale model of angiogenesis that heralds the start of a large scale initiative to integrate related biological models. The goal of the integrative project is to better understand underlying biological mechanisms from the molecular level up through the organ systems level, and test new therapeutic strategies. Model methodology includes ordinary and partial differential equations, stochastic models, complex logical rules, and agent-based architectures. Current modules represent blood flow, oxygen transport, growth factor distribution and signaling, cell sensing, cell movement and cell proliferation. Challenges of integration lie in connecting modules that are diversely designed, seamlessly coordinating feedback, and representing spatial and time scales from ligand-receptor interactions and intracellular signaling, to cell-level movement ...
Madzvamuse, A. and Maini, P. K. and Wathen, A. J. (2005) A moving grid finite element method for the simulation of pattern generation by Turing models on growing domains. Journal of Scientific Computing, 24 (2). pp. 247-262. Maini, P. K. (2005) Foreword, Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation. In: Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation. Birkhauser, Boston, vii-viii. ISBN 987654321 Maini, P. K. (2005) Morphogenesis, Biological, Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science. Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science, n/a (n/a). pp. 587-588. Maini, P. K. and Dallon, J. C. and Sherratt, J. A. (2005) A multiscale model for collagen alignment in wound healing. Journal of Physiology, 561P, . 5P. Meyer-Hermann, M. E. and Maini, P. K. (2005) Cutting edge: back to one-way germinal centers. The Journal of Immunology, 174 (5). pp. 2489-2493. Meyer-Hermann, M. E. and Maini, P. K. (2005) Interpreting two-photon imaging data of lymphocyte motility. Physical Review E, 71 (6). 061912-1. ...
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Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling is traditionally employed to predict drug concentration-time profiles in plasma and tissues using information from physiology / biology, in vitro experiments and in silico predictions. Model-based analysis of population pharmacokinetic (PK) data is rarely performed in such a mechanistic framework, as empirical compartmental models are mainly utilised for this purpose. However, the combination of traditional PBPK methodologies with parameter estimation techniques and non-linear mixed effects modelling is an approach with progressively increasing impact due to the significant advantages it offers. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to illustrate, explore and thus further facilitate the application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models in the context of population data analysis.In order to pursue this aim, this work firstly particularly focuses on the population pharmacokinetics of simvastatin (SV) and its active metabolite, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Stability of stationary solutions for a scalar non-local reaction-diffusion equation. AU - Frettas, Pedro. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - The stability of stationary solutions of the non-local reaction-diffusion equation with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions is studied. Depending on a, bounds on the dimension of the unstable manifold of a stationary solution are given. In particular, it is shown that only constant or monotone stationary solutions may be stable. For the specific case of a cubic like f, the existence of a Hopf bifurcation is proven. Finally, some related equations are discussed. © 1995 Oxford University Press.. AB - The stability of stationary solutions of the non-local reaction-diffusion equation with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions is studied. Depending on a, bounds on the dimension of the unstable manifold of a stationary solution are given. In particular, it is shown that only constant or monotone stationary solutions may be stable. For the ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Recent progress on reaction-diffusion systems and viscosity solutions. AU - Du, Yihong. AU - Ishii, Hitoshi. AU - Lin, Wei Yueh. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - This book consists of survey and research articles expanding on the theme of the International Conference on Reaction-Diffusion Systems and Viscosity Solutions, held at Providence University, Taiwan, during January 3-6, 2007. It is a carefully selected collection of articles representing the recent progress of some important areas of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book is aimed for researchers and postgraduate students who want to learn about or follow some of the current research topics in nonlinear partial differential equations. The contributors consist of international experts and some participants of the conference, including Nils Ackermann (Mexico), Chao-Nien Chen (Taiwan), Yihong Du (Australia), Alberto Farina (France), Hitoshi Ishii (Japan), N Ishimura (Japan), Shigeaki Koike (Japan), Chu-Pin ...
In this paper we investigate additional regularity properties for global and trajectory attractors of all globally defined weak solutions of semi-linear parabolic differential reaction-diffusion equations with discontinuous nonlinearities, when initial data uτ ∈ L2(Ω). The main contributions in this paper are: (i) sufficient conditions for the existence of a Lyapunov function for all weak solutions of autonomous differential reaction-diffusion equations with discontinuous and multivalued interaction functions; (ii) convergence results for all weak solutions in the strongest topologies; (iii) new structure and regularity properties for global and trajectory attractors. The obtained results allow investigating the long-time behavior of state functions for the following problems: (a) a model of combustion in porous media; (b) a model of conduction of electrical impulses in nerve axons; (c) a climate energy balance model; (d) a parabolic feedback control problem. ...
This book deals with equations that have played a central role in the interplay between partial differential equations and probability theory. Most of this material has been treated elsewhere, but it is rarely presented in a manner that makes it readily accessible to people whose background is probability theory. Many results are given new proofs designed for readers with limited expertise in analysis. The author covers the theory of linear, second order, partial differential equations of parabolic and elliptic types. Many of the techniques have antecedents in probability theory, although the book also covers a few purely analytic techniques. In particular, a chapter is devoted to the De Giorgi-Moser-Nash estimates, and the concluding chapter gives an introduction to the theory of pseudodifferential operators and their application to hypoellipticity, including the famous theorem of Lars Hormander. ...
|p style=text-indent:20px;|In this paper, we present a multiscale model reduction framework within Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for nonlinear elliptic problems. We consider an exemplary problem, which consists of nonlinear p-Laplacian with heterogeneous coefficients. The main challenging feature of this problem is that local subgrid models are nonlinear involving the gradient of the solution (e.g., in the case of scale separation, when using homogenization). Our main objective is to develop snapshots and local spectral problems, which are the main ingredients of GMsFEM, for these problems. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. (1) We re-cast the multiscale model reduction problem onto the boundaries of coarse cells. This is important and allows capturing separable scales as discussed. (2) We introduce nonlinear eigenvalue problems in the snapshot space for these nonlinear harmonic functions. (3) We present convergence analysis and numerical results, which show that
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Abstract: The main bottleneck when performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of combustion systems is the computation and integration of the highly non-linear and stiff chemical source terms. In recent times, machine learning has emerged as a promising tool to accelerate combustion chemistry, involving the use of regression models to predict the chemical source terms as functions of the thermochemical state of the system. However, combustion is a highly nonlinear phenomenon, and this often leads to divergence from the true solution when the neural network representation of chemical kinetics is integrated in time. This is because these approaches minimize the error during training without guaranteeing successful integration with ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers. In this work, a novel neural ODE approach to combustion modeling, ChemNODE, is developed to address this issue. The source terms predicted by the neural network are integrated during training, and by ...
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In this article we present a system of coupled bulk-surface reaction-diffusion equations on exponentially evolving volumes. Detailed linear stability analysis of the homogeneous steady state is carried out. It turns out that due to the nature of the coupling (linear Robin-type boundary conditions) the characterisation of the dispersion relation in the absence and presence of spatial variation (i.e. diffusion), can be decomposed as a product of the dispersion relation of the bulk and surface models thereby allowing detailed analytical tractability. As a result we state and prove the conditions for diffusion-driven instability for systems of coupled bulk-surface reaction-diffusion equations. Furthermore, we plot explicit evolving parameter spaces for the case of an exponential growth. By selecting parameter values from the parameter spaces, we exhibit pattern formation in the bulk and on the surface in complete agreement with theoretical predictions.. ...
The contaminant transport equation is solved in three dimensions using the Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM). Trilinear and finite volume test functions defined by the characteristics of the governing equation are employed and compared. Integrations are simplified by forward tracking of integration points along the characteristics. The resulting equations are solved using a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm is coupled to a block-centered finite difference approximation of the groundwater flow equation similar to that used in the popular MODFLOW code. The ELLAM is tested by comparison with 1D and 3D analytic solutions. The method is then applied with random, spatially correlated hydraulic conductivities in a simulation of a tracer experiment performed on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The linear test function ELLAM was found to perform better than the finite volume ELLAM. Both ELLAM formulations were found to be robust, computationally efficient and relatively ...
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en] Biological systems and, in particular, cellular signal transduction pathways are characterised by their high complexity. Mathematical models describing these processes might be of great help to gain qualitative and, most importantly, quantitative knowledge about such complex systems. However, a detailed mathematical description of these systems leads to nearly unmanageably large models, especially when combining models of different signalling pathways to study cross-talk phenomena. Therefore, simplification of models becomes very important. Different methods are available for model reduction of biological models. Importantly, most of the common model reduction methods cannot be applied to cellular signal transduction pathways. Using as an example the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathway, we discuss how quantitative methods like system analysis and simulation studies can help to suitably reduce models and additionally give new insights into the signal transmission and processing ...
We study systems of two nonlinear reaction-diffusion partial differential equations undergoing diffusion driven instability. Such systems may have spatially inhomogeneous stationary solutions called Turing patterns. These solutions are typically non-unique and it is not clear how many of them exists. Since there are no analytical results available, we look for the number of distinct stationary solutions numerically. As a typical example, we investigate the reaction-diffusion system designed to model coat patterns in leopard and jaguar ...
We introduce an algorithm for solving two-sided space-fractional partial differential equations. The space-fractional derivatives we consider here are left-handed and right-handed Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives which are expressed by using Hadamard finite-part integrals. We approximate the Hadamard finite-part integrals by using piecewise quadratic interpolation polynomials and obtain a numerical approximation of the space-fractional derivative with convergence order ...
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We investigate the long term behavior in terms of finite dimensional global attractors and (global) asymptotic stabilization to steady states, as time goes to infinity, of solutions to a non-local semilinear reaction-diffusion equation associated with the fractional Laplace operator on non-smooth domains subject to Dirichlet, fractional Neumann and Robin boundary conditions.
The global sensitivity analysis of a complex numerical model often calls for the estimation of variance-based importance measures, named Sobol indices. Metamodel-based techniques have been developed in order to replace the CPU time-expensive computer code with an inexpensive mathematical function, which predicts the computer code output. The common metamodel-based sensitivity analysis methods are well suited for computer codes with scalar outputs. However, in the environmental domain, as in many areas of application, the numerical model outputs are often spatial maps, which may also vary with time. In this paper, we introduce an innovative method to obtain a spatial map of Sobol indices with a minimal number of numerical model computations. It is based upon the functional decomposition of the spatial output onto a wavelet basis and the metamodeling of the wavelet coefficients by the Gaussian process. An analytical example is presented to clarify the various steps of our methodology. This ...
Tumor growth from a single transformed cancer cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans many spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Implementation of cellular automata simulations of such tumor growth can be straightforward but computing performance often counterbalances simplicity. Computationally convenient simulation times can be achieved by choosing appropriate data structures, memory and cell handling as well as domain setup. We propose a cellular automaton model of tumor growth with a domain that expands dynamically as the tumor population increases. We discuss memory access, data structures and implementation techniques that yield high-performance multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations of tumor growth. We discuss tumor properties that favor the proposed high-performance design and present simulation results of the tumor growth model. We estimate to which parameters the model is the most sensitive, and show that tumor volume depends on a number of parameters in a non-monotonic
This study focuses on the biodynamic responses of a seated human model to whole-body vibrations in a vehicle. Five-degree-of-freedom nonlinear equations of motion for a human model were derived, and human parameters such as spring constants and damping coefficients were extracted using a three-step optimization processes that applied the experimental data to the mathematical human model. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the linearized model were also calculated. In order to examine the effects of the human parameters, parametric studies involving initial segment angles and stiffness values were performed. Interestingly, mode veering was observed between the fourth and fifth human modes when combining two different spring stiffness values. Finally, through the frequency responses of the human model, nonlinear characteristics such as frequency shift and jump phenomena were clearly observed.
Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology have a long history in basic science applications and device design and evaluation, but have significant potential for clinical applications in all areas of cardiovascular medicine, including functional imaging and mapping, drug safety evaluation, disease diagnosis, patient selection, and therapy optimisation or personalisation. For all stakeholders to be confident in model-based clinical decisions, cardiac electrophysiological (CEP) models must be demonstrated to be trustworthy and reliable. Credibility, that is, the belief in the predictive capability, of a computational model is primarily established by performing validation, in which model predictions are compared to experimental or clinical data. However, there are numerous challenges to performing validation for highly complex multi-scale physiological models such as CEP models. As a result, credibility of CEP model predictions is usually founded upon a wide range of distinct factors, including
We present a method for orientation-selective edge detection and enhancement based on the irradiance transport equation. The proposed technique distinguishes the sign of the derivative of the intensity pattern along an arbitrarily selected direction. The method is based on the capacity of liquid-crystal displays to generate simultaneously a contrast reverted replica of the image displayed on it. When both images (the original one and its replica) are imagined across a slightly defocused plane, one obtains an image with enhanced first derivatives. Unlike most Fourier methods, the proposed technique works well with a low-coherence light source, and it does not require precise alignment. The proposed method does not involve numerical processing, and thus it could be potentially useful for processing large images in real-time applications. Validation experiments are presented.. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Constraint-based modeling uses mass balances, flux capacity, and reaction directionality constraints to predict fluxes through metabolism. Although transcriptional regulation and thermodynamic constraints have been integrated into constraint-based modeling, kinetic rate laws have not been extensively used. In this study, an in vivo kinetic parameter estimation problem was formulated and solved using multi-omic data sets for Escherichia coli. To narrow the confidence intervals for kinetic parameters, a series of kinetic model simplifications were made, resulting in fewer kinetic parameters than the full kinetic model. These new parameter values are able to account for flux and concentration data from 20 different experimental conditions used in our training dataset. Concentration estimates from the simplified kinetic model were within one standard deviation for 92.7% of the 790 experimental measurements in the training set. Gibbs free energy changes of reaction were calculated to identify reactions that
We examine the evolution of a bistable reaction in a one-dimensional stretching flow, as a model for chaotic advection. We derive two reduced systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the dynamics of the governing advection-reaction-diffusion partial differential equations (PDE), for pulse-like and for plateau-like solutions, based on a non-perturbative approach. This reduction allows us to study the dynamics in two cases: first, close to a saddle-node bifurcation at which a pair of nontrivial steady states are born as the dimensionless reaction rate (Damkoehler number) is increased, and, second, for large Damkoehler number, far away from the bifurcation. The main aim is to investigate the initial-value problem and to determine when an initial condition subject to chaotic stirring will decay to zero and when it will give rise to a nonzero final state. Comparisons with full PDE simulations show that the reduced pulse model accurately predicts the threshold amplitude for a pulse ...
Finite volume method in computational fluid dynamics is a discretization technique for partial differential equations that arise from physical conservation laws. These equations can be different in nature, e.g. elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic. First well-documented use was by Evans and Harlow (1957) at Los Alamos. The general equation for steady diffusion can be easily be derived from the general transport equation for property Φ by deleting transient and convective terms.[1] General Transport equation can be define as ...
書名:Advanced Spatial Modeling With Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Using R and Inla,語言:英文,ISBN:9781138369856,頁數:298,作者:Krainski, Elias T./ Go´mez-rubio, Virgilio/ Bakka, Haakon/ Lenzi, Amanda/ Castro-camilo, Daniela,出版日期:2018/12/19,類別:自然科普
TY - JOUR. T1 - Understanding biological variability in susceptibility to respiratory disease. AU - Levitt, Roy C.. PY - 1991/11. Y1 - 1991/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026254568&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026254568&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/00008571-199111000-00006. DO - 10.1097/00008571-199111000-00006. M3 - Article. C2 - 1726951. AN - SCOPUS:0026254568. VL - 1. SP - 94. EP - 97. JO - Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. JF - Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. SN - 1744-6872. IS - 2. ER - ...
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Physical Principles and Techniques of Protein Chemistry, Part A deals with the principles and application of selected physical methods in protein chemistry evaluation. This book is organized into nine chapters that cover microscopic, crystallographic, and electrophoretic techniques for protein conformational perturbations evaluation. This text first presents a general account of electron microscopy, its specimen preparation, optimum conditions for high resolution, measurement of electron micrographs, and illustrative examples of protein study. This book then examines the different types of maps from X-ray methods and the diffraction data from fibrous proteins. The subsequent chapters cover discussions on UV spectroscopy of proteins; luminescence properties of proteins and related compounds; and perturbation and flow methods for evaluation of proteins dynamic properties and rate constants. Other chapters deal with the evaluation of proteins dielectric properties using dielectric relaxation, electric
Physical Principles and Techniques of Protein Chemistry, Part A deals with the principles and application of selected physical methods in protein chemistry evaluation. This book is organized into nine chapters that cover microscopic, crystallographic, and electrophoretic techniques for protein conformational perturbations evaluation. This text first presents a general account of electron microscopy, its specimen preparation, optimum conditions for high resolution, measurement of electron micrographs, and illustrative examples of protein study. This book then examines the different types of maps from X-ray methods and the diffraction data from fibrous proteins. The subsequent chapters cover discussions on UV spectroscopy of proteins; luminescence properties of proteins and related compounds; and perturbation and flow methods for evaluation of proteins dynamic properties and rate constants. Other chapters deal with the evaluation of proteins dielectric properties using dielectric relaxation, electric
Free outflow boundary conditions have been widely adopted in hemodynamic model studies, they, however, intrinsically lack the ability to account for the regulatory mechanisms of systemic hemodynamics and hence carry a risk of producing incorrect results when applied to vascular segments with multiple outlets. In the present study, we developed a multiscale model capable of incorporating global cardiovascular properties into the simulation of blood flows in local vascular segments. The multiscale model was constructed by coupling a three-dimensional (3D) model of local arterial segments with a zero-one-dimensional (0-1-D) model of the cardiovascular system. Numerical validation based on an idealized model demonstrated the ability of the multiscale model to preserve reasonable pressure/flow wave transmission among different models. The multiscale model was further calibrated with clinical data to simulate cerebroarterial hemodynamics in a patient undergoing carotid artery operation. The results ...
A new method was developed to analyse the dynamic properties of oxidative phosphorylation, in particular the sensitivity of the phosphate potential with respect to fluctuating cellular ATP utilization. This treatment is based on the eigenvalue sensitivity analysis of an experimentally supported non-equilibrium thermodynamic model of oxidative phosphorylation. Such an analysis allows direct access to the kinetic information, while circumventing the awkward conventional numerical integration of a set of nonlinear differential equations. This procedure revealed, for the parameters characteristic for liver of starved rats in vivo, that the sensitivity of oxidative phosphorylation to a fluctuating ATP utilization is minimal at a degree of coupling q = 0.95. This means that the phosphate potential is highly buffered with respect to fluctuating energy demands at that degree of coupling. This value of q agrees well with the degree of coupling qecf, at which net ATP production of oxidative ...
The purposes of the research are to determine the main factors affecting the business success of agri-based exporting firms in Thanh Hoa Province. To achieve these research objectives, quantitative and qualitative method were used concurrently. 275 questionnaire survey was sent out, but only 180 respondents replied suitably for the quantitative analysis through SPSS 20.0 software. Cronbachs Alpha, EFA, and regression are taken to confirm the research result further. The research finding shows that external factors have much more affecting than others internal one on the business success of exporting SMEs, in which external factors have much effect on the Business Success of Agri-based Exporting Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thanh Hoa Province than internal factors.
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An analytical model that is based on purely differential equations of the nonlinear dynamics of two plasma modes driven resonantly by high-energy ions near the instability threshold is presented here. The well-known integro-differential model of Berk and Breizman (BB) extended to the case of two plasma modes is simplified here to a system of two coupled nonlinear differential equations of fifth order. The effects of the Krook, diffusion and dynamical friction (drag) relaxation processes are considered, whereas shifts in frequency and wavenumber between the modes are neglected. In spite of these simplifications the main features of the dynamics of the two plasma modes are retained. The numerical solutions to the model equations show competition between the two modes for survival, oscillations, chaotic regimes and blow-up behavior, similar to the BB model.
Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics (SPAM) and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) are numerical methods for solving the equations of continuum mechanics (the continuity equation, the equation of motion, and the energy equation) with particles. This approach was originated by independently by Lucy [1] and by Gingold and Monaghan [2] in 1977 for astrophysical applications, and has since been applied to many challenging problems in fluid and solid mechanics. The main advantage of smooth-particle methods is that the partial differential equations (continuity, motion, energy) are replaced by ordinary differential equations (like molecular dynamics) describing the motion of particles. The particles can be of any size, from the microscopic to the astrophysical, and can obey any chosen constitutive equation. The main disadvantages are the difficulties in treating sharp surfaces or interfaces with discrete particles and in avoiding the instabilities that can result for materials under tension. Some ...
The MIT Biology Department core courses, 7.012, 7.013, and 7.014, all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. 7.014 focuses on the application of the fundamental principles toward an understanding of human biology. Topics include genetics, cell biology, molecular biology, disease (infectious agents, inherited diseases and cancer), developmental biology, neurobiology and evolution ...
Abstract: Turing first theorized that many biological patterns arise through the processes of reaction and diffusion. Subsequently, reaction-diffusion systems have been studied in many fields, including computer graphics. We first show that for visual simulation purposes, reaction-diffusion equations can be made unconditionally stable using a variety of straightforward methods. Second, we propose an anisotropy embedding that significantly expands the space of possible patterns that can be generated. Third, we show that by adding an advection term, the simulation can be coupled to a fluid simulation to produce visually appealing flows. Fourth, we couple fast marching methods to our anisotropy embedding to create a painting interface to the simulation. Unconditional stability to maintained throughout, and our system runs at interactive rates. Finally, we show that on the Cell processor, it is possible to implement reaction-diffusion on top of an existing fluid solver with no significant ...
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The STQ-77 model is therefore based on Rusalov's model and also on Luria's theory related to three neuroanatomic systems ( ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 383 (1744): 20170166. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0166. PMC 5832690. PMID 29483350. Trofimova, IN ( ... The benefits of activity-specific approach of Rusalov's model of temperament do not mean, however, that this model is complete ... Clinical studies conducted the FET/STQ-77 models showed that the activity-specific model of temperament matches the structure ...
... computational models of biological vision; computational models of cognition to study how humans and animals perform tasks such ... His research interests include computational models of vision, mathematical models of cognition, medical image analysis, and ... Yuille develops models of vision and cognition for computers, intended for creating artificial vision systems. He studied under ... Yuille develops mathematical models of vision and cognition that enable computers to reconstruct three-dimensional structures ...
Meinhardt, H. (1982). Models of Biological Pattern Formation. Academic Press. Murray, James D. (9 March 2013). Mathematical ... The theory, which can be called a reaction-diffusion theory of morphogenesis, has become a basic model in theoretical biology. ... Reaction-diffusion systems have attracted much interest as a prototype model for pattern formation. Patterns such as fronts, ...
He has worked on applying his dynamic causal modelling technique and an alternative approach to modelling the pandemic. On 7 ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1457): 983-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1642. PMC 1854926. PMID 16087442. Harrison, L. M.; ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1457): 1075-91. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1648. PMC 1854931. PMID 16087449. David, O; Harrison ... Friston currently works on models of functional integration in the human brain and the principles that underlie neuronal ...
Mathematical models in biological oceanography. UNESCO Press, Paris, France. pp. 54-65. ISBN 978-92-3-101922-7. Fasham, M. J. R ... This work led to the development by Fasham and colleagues of a seminal open ocean plankton ecosystem model. This model, ... 1999). "Modeling the relative contributions of autotrophs and heterotrophs to carbon flow at a Lagrangian JGOFS station in the ... He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of open ocean plankton ecosystem models. Fasham was born in 1942 in ...
Modeling and prediction of phenotypic side effects of drugs; Computational models of biological systems; and Computational ... Complex Network models transportation systems; Molecular interactome models of complex diseases; Controllability of biological ... His Ph.D. research involved investigation of graph theoretical models of protein structures which led to the observation of ... Complex Network Models of Protein Structures: Structural Correlates of Biophysical Properties (9783843358606): Ganesh Bagler: ...
Convention on Biological Diversity. "Essential Biodiversity Variables". "Mike Gill and Henrique Pereira elected as GEO BON co- ... He was awarded a PhD on Spatial models in animal behavior and ecology in 2002 from Stanford University for research supervised ... E-letter in response to Lindenmayer et al." "Scenarios and models assessment experts , IPBES". ipbes.net. Group of Earth ... From 2014 to 2016 he was Coordinating Lead Author of the Methodological Assessment on Scenarios and Models of the ...
This model is the same as that proposed by Nachman. The advantage of this model is that it does not require counting the ... Let S be the total variance and let V be the biological (real) variance. Then S = V + P {\displaystyle S=V+P} Assuming the ... Kendal, WS (1995). "A probabilistic model for the variance to mean power law in ecology". Ecological Modelling. 80 (2-3): 293- ... Kemp, however, did not explain the parameterizations of his models in mechanistic terms. Other relatively abstract models for ...
Ecological Modelling. 198 (3-4): 515-519. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.04.021. Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo; Swarna Nantha, ... Biological Conservation. 123 (2): 237-248. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.11.012. Tisdell, Clem (15 October 2006). "Knowledge about ...
Ecological Modelling. 77 (2): 123-141. doi:10.1016/0304-3800(93)E0083-F. ISSN 0304-3800. Lang, James D. (July 2003). "Factors ... The Biological Bulletin. 149 (2): 384-396. doi:10.2307/1540534. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1540534. PMID 1239308. Ritchie, Scott A ...
For most biological systems, the Q10 value is ~ 2 to 3. The temperature of a muscle has a significant effect on the velocity ... Ecological Modelling. 431: 109127. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2020.109127. ISSN 0304-3800. Bennett AF (August 1984). "Thermal ... Q10 values for biological processes vary with temperature. Decreasing muscle temperature results in a substantial decline of ... At some minimum temperature biological systems do not function at all, but performance increases with rising temperature (Q10 ...
... ecosystem models and experts". Biological Conservation. 227: 19-28. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2018.08.019. ISSN 0006-3207. Heymans, ... Ecological Modelling. 331: 151-159. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.10.027. ISSN 0304-3800. Timothy M. Lenton, Hermann Held, Elmar ...
Wahba, Grace (1990). Spline models for observational data. SIAM. Schölkopf, Bernhard; Smola, Alexander J. (2002). Learning with ... Girosi, F.; Poggio, T. (1990). "Networks and the best approximation property" (PDF). Biological Cybernetics. Springer. 63 (3): ... the likelihood function measures how likely the observations are from the model that was assumed to be true in the generative ... This allows the construction in a unified framework of both linear and generalized linear models. 3. The squared norm in an ...
"Exactly Solvable Models of Biological Invasion". CRC Press. The Mathematics Behind Biological Invasions , Mark A. Lewis , ... Another stream of his research is modelling of biological invasions where he discovered a new phenomenon called "patchy ... Sergei Petrovskii is a Russian-born British mathematician who researches the modeling of natural phenomena. He is a professor ... doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00324.x. NIMBioS (2016-12-20), Biological Invasion: Patchy Invasion as a New Paradigm of Alien ...
S.R. Thomas (2005). "Modelling and simulation of the kidney". Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry. 5 (2/3): 70-83. doi: ... The kidney is a very complex organ and mathematical modelling has been used to better understand kidney function at several ... A.M. Weinstein (1994). "Mathematical models of tubular transport". Annual Review of Physiology. 56: 691-709. doi:10.1146/ ...
Animal models have been able to provide key knowledge of the central and peripheral biological pathways regulating body weight ... mechanistic and predictive models. The activity-based anorexia model has been one of the most suitable animal models when ... Biological Psychiatry, 37(3), 161-169. Benton, D., & Sargent, J. (1992). Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological ... are all reproduced in this model. The "activity/stress" model produces starvation-induced immunodeficiency and various ...
2011 "Multiscale Modeling" 2010 "Regulation & Control in Biological Systems" 2009 "Molecular Evolution" 2008 "Computational ... ". "Multiscale Modeling". "Regulation and Control in Biological Systems". "Molecular Evolution". "Computational Structural ... "Biological Systems In Silico" 2004 "From Information to Simulation" 2003 "Life Sciences Meet IT" "BC2 Conference". "[BC]2 "Big ...
Corwin, Rebecca L; Buda-Levin, Ariel (2004). "Behavioral models of binge-type eating". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 123-130. ... Kalat, James W (2013). Biological Psychology, 11th edition. Wadsworth. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-111-83952-9. "Chewing Gum Associated ...
ISBN 978-3-527-32191-9. Cram, D. J.; Chao, Y. (1976). "Enzyme Mechanisms, Models, and Mimics". Journal of the American Chemical ... Pauling, L. (1946). "Molecular Architecture and Biological Reactions" (PDF). Chemical and Engineering News. 24 (10): 1375-1377 ... Because enzymes are structurally complex and difficult to modify, supramolecular catalysts offer a simpler model for studying ... Kirby, A. J. (1996). "Enzyme Mechanisms, Models, and Mimics". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 35 (7): 706-724. doi: ...
ISBN 0-471-41759-9. Friedman, Morton (2008). Principles and models of biological transport. Springer. ISBN 978-0387-79239-2. ... The in vivo model mentioned above clearly explains 3-D and 1-D diffusion along the DNA strand and the binding of proteins to ... The in vitro model, which is a very well known method of facilitated diffusion, that takes place outside of a living cell, ... Various attempts have been made by engineers to mimic the process of facilitated transport in synthetic (i.e., non-biological) ...
Maini, Philip K.; Othmer, Hans G. (2001). "Mathematical Models for Biological Pattern Formulation". R.F. Bachvarova, Rosemary F ... Vasiev, Bakhtier; Balter, Ariel; Chaplain, Mark; Glazier, James A.; Weijer, Cornelis J. (2010). Monk, Nick (ed.). "Modeling ... Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K; Newman, Stuart A.; Newman, Timothy J. (2007). Multiscale Modeling of Developmental Systems ...
Wymann has developed several biological models. He has first time introduced direct iterative based how biotech can transform ... and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion into fuels and chemicals ...
2013). Multiple representations in biological education. Models and modeling in science education. 7. New York: Springer Verlag ... Teller, Paul (December 2001). "Twilight of the perfect-model model". Erkenntnis. 55 (3): 393-415. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.201.9410. ... Fallacy of misplaced concreteness Function model Higher order thinking Knowing and the Known Mental model Metamodeling Model- ... Once a concept has been modeled and explored using at least one of the four elements of DSRP, the user goes back to see if the ...
"Aster Models for Life History Analysis". www.stat.umn.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-05. "Ruth G. Shaw , College of Biological Sciences ... Shaw has also developed new statistical methods, such as aster modeling, with statistician Charles Geyer . Aster Modeling ... "Ruth G. Shaw , College of Biological Sciences". cbs.umn.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-06. "Award-Winning Faculty and Staff , College ... Geyer, Charles J.; Wagenius, Stuart; Shaw, Ruth G. (2007). "Aster Models for Life History Analysis". Biometrika. 94 (2): 415- ...
Neves, S. R.; Iyengar, R (2009). "Models of spatially restricted biochemical reaction systems". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Ma'Ayan, A; Blitzer, R. D.; Iyengar, R (2005). "Toward predictive models of mammalian cells". Annual Review of Biophysics and ... Ma'Ayan, A; Blitzer, R. D.; Iyengar, R (2005). "Toward predictive models of mammalian cells". Annual Review of Biophysics and ... Weng, G; Bhalla, U. S.; Iyengar, R (1999). "Complexity in biological signaling systems". Science. 284 (5411): 92-6. doi:10.1126 ...
Roenneberg, Till; Chua, Elaine Jane; Bernardo, Ric; Mendoza, Eduardo (2008-09-09). "Modelling Biological Rhythms". Current ... The Sel'kov model of glycolysis. The daily oscillations in gene expression, hormone levels and body temperature of animals, ... Limit cycles have been used to model the behavior of a great many real-world oscillatory systems. The study of limit cycles was ... Some non-linear electrical circuits exhibit limit cycle oscillations, which inspired the original Van der Pol model. Attractor ...
Biological Conservation 1991. 56: p. 295-315. Smith, A.a.L., DB, Tree hollow requirements of Leadbeater's Possum and other ... Ecological Modelling, 1996. 85: p. 151-163. Harrisson, K.A., et al., Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies ... Biological Conservation, 1981. 21(2): p. 111-126. Arup, Tom (21 July 2013). "Edge of Existence". The Age. Retrieved 15 May 2016 ... Biological Conservation, 1994. 67(2): p. 135-142. "Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater". Parks Victoria. 26 April 2016. ...
The circuitry model has evolved since the first proposed model in the 1990s by DeLong in the parallel processing model, in ... Biological Cybernetics. 103 (3): 237-53. doi:10.1007/s00422-010-0401-y. PMID 20644953. S2CID 853119. Cameron IG, Watanabe M, ... which although was not included in the first formulations of basal ganglia models, has been an addition to more recent models. ... Two models have been proposed for the basal ganglia, one being that actions are generated by a "critic" in the ventral striatum ...
An allosteric model". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 252 (23): 8669-8676. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 925017. Rogers, John C.; ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (27): 15950-15962. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.27.15950. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8663157. S2CID ...
Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... Furthermore, these computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... The Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens (MIEP). *. Anthony J. Davies. The tale of T cells. Immunology Today: 137- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ...
Selected biological properties of endogenous estrogens in rats Estrogen. ER RBA (%). Uterine weight (%). Uterotrophy. LH levels ...
A live model of the effect of changing 2,3 BPG on the oxyhaemoglobin saturation curve ... Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry 4: 217-241. doi: ...
Walter Pagel (1967). William Harvey's Biological Ideas: Selected Aspects and Historical Background. Karger Publishers. p. 340. ... placing it central to Fludd's model of the macrocosm.[10] remained in manuscript.[11] As the sun was to the earth, so was the ...
Ecologists use simplified one trophic position food chain models (producer, carnivore, decomposer). Using these models, ... Linkages connect to nodes in a food web, which are aggregates of biological taxa called trophic species. Trophic species are ... Ecological Modelling. 220 (11): 1376-1382. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.03.005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-07. ... Using these models they can measure and test for generalized patterns in the structure of real food web networks. Ecologists ...
Navy's David Taylor Model Basin; inducted into USMMA Hall of Distinguished Graduates in 2008 ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 39 (8): 1065-70. ... 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES. *. CC(C)(C)NC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1CN(CCN1C[[email protected]](C[[email protected]@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[[email protected]]3c4ccccc4C[[email protected] ...
... that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have potential to possess dangerous biological or ... and an incorrect model of the anatomy and physiology of internal organs.[8][59][60][61][62][63] ... Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological ... The Biological Basis for Mind Body Interactions. Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08 ...
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1465): 173-194. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1737. PMC ... and thus modern cycads are not a good model for a "living fossil".[17] ... Biological Conservation. 138 (3-4): 430-439. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.05.009.. ...
"β-Catenin". Sino Biological Inc.: Biological Solution Specialist. Reynolds AB (June 2011). "Epithelial organization: new ... One possible way to achieve this, which has been successful in mouse models, is to use inhibitors of Ras activation in order to ...
Cao, W., Demeler B. Modeling Analytical Ultracentrifugation Experiments with an Adaptive Space-Time Finite Element Solution for ... Centrifugation in biological researchEdit. MicrocentrifugesEdit. Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Ultracentrifugation makes use of high centrifugal force for studying properties of biological particles. Compared to ...
Resulting information can be used to build biological models, design experiments, or get up to speed in an area of research. ... and is used to help researchers analyze omics data and model biological systems. The software has been cited in thousands of ... which contains biological and chemical interactions and functional annotations created from millions of individually modeled ... to analyze complex biological systems. QIAGEN Silicon Valley's first product, IPA, was introduced in 2003, ...
Biological process. • progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. ... 1999). "Synthesis of multi-subunit domain gonadotropin complexes: a model for alpha/beta heterodimer formation". Biochemistry. ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ...
In 2003, Macdaragh Lambe learned that Lynott was his biological father, and this was confirmed by Philomena Lynott in a ... which in turn came from the nickname for the Ford Model T car.[24] The "h" was deliberately added to mimic the way the word " ... "thin" is pronounced in a Dublin accent.[24] Lynott later discovered Henry Ford's slogan for the Model T, "Any colour you like ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... since more sophisticated models of the scanner Physics can be incorporated into the likelihood model than those used by ... Vardi, Y.; L. A. Shepp; L. Kaufman (1985). "A statistical model for positron emission tomography". Journal of the American ... Psychiatry: Numerous compounds that bind selectively to neuroreceptors of interest in biological psychiatry have been ...
Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... Morimoto K, Fahnestock M, Racine RJ (2004). "Kindling and status epilepticus models of epilepsy: Rewiring the brain". Prog ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Feugier, François (14 December 2006). Models of Vascular Pattern Formation in Leaves (PhD Thesis). University of Paris VI.. ... Read and Stokes (2006) consider two basic models, the "hydrostatic" and "I-beam leaf" form (see Fig 1).[40] Hydrostatic leaves ... "Modeling and Visualization of Leaf Venation Patterns". ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Papers. 24 (3): 702-711. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.102.1926. ...
Disease models. Animal models and in particular non-human primates are being used to study different aspects of Ebola virus ... May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ... Developments in organ-on-a-chip technology have led to a chip-based model for Ebola haemorrhagic syndrome.[262] ... It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ...
According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ... the Provisional model suggests that bipedalism arose in pre-Paleolithic australopithecine societies as an adaptation to ...
Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational ... Examples of these classifications include gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, genre, style, biological species, and form. ... Further progress was made by Georg Rasch (1960), who developed the probabilistic Rasch model that provides a theoretical basis ... For example, applications of measurement models in educational contexts often indicate that total scores have a fairly linear ...
Alternative model of replicationEdit. One of the main competing models for cpDNA asserts that most cpDNA is linear and ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 729-48. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0103. PMC 2817223. PMID 20124341.. ... Leading model of cpDNA replicationEdit. Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[17] ...
"A Small Animal Model of ETEC-Mediated Diarrhea - Grand Challenges". gcgh.grandchallenges.org.. ... She is a life member of the Society of Biological Chemists (India),[17][18] Indian Society of Cell Biology[19] (1995-present) ... "A Small Animal Model of ETEC-Mediated Diarrhea".[7][8] ...
Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry. 4: 217-241. doi: ...
For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... developing models for the evolution of genetic systems, including sex and recombination, inbreeding and outbreeding, separate ... This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... characterised by the application of sophisticated mathematical analysis but focussed on developing biological understanding ...
Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry. 4: 217-241. doi: ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.422410. PMC 3576092 . PMID 23275336.. ... Unique among biological processes, SP release (and expression of its NK1 Receptor (through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 45519-27. doi:10.1074/jbc.M408523200. PMID 15319441.. ... those with a potential to compromise biological integrity. SP is thus regarded as an immediate defense, stress, repair, ...
Klein, Richard G. (1999). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago ... Wood, Bernard; Schroer, Kes (2012). "Reconstructing the Diet of an Extinct Hominin Taxon: The Role of Extant Primate Models". ... Griffith, Cameron S.; Long, Byron L.; Sept, Jeanne M. (2010). "HOMINIDS: An agent-based spatial simulation model to evaluate ... behavioral patterns of early Pleistocene hominids". Ecological Modelling. 221 (5): 738-60. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.11.009. ...
... though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.[19][20] ... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ...
Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ... but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and the human situation is striking. …Abortion would ...
... the fluid mosaic model Models of abnormality#The biological (medical) model, the only model of psychological abnormalities not ... A biological model is an organism or system representing a more complex biological entity. It may refer to: a model organism, a ... representing complex in vivo systems a mathematical model of a biological system, e.g., the biological neuron model, a ... mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system a scientific model of a biological system, e. ...
Theta model[edit]. The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a model originally developed to model neurons in ... Main article: Hodgkin-Huxley model. The Hodgkin-Huxley model (H&H model)[3][4][5][6] is a model of the relationship between ion ... The model looks like I. (. t. ). −. V. m. (. t. ). R. m. =. C. m. d. V. m. (. t. ). d. t. {\displaystyle I(t)-{\frac {V_{\ ... A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain ...
A challenge is the development of models that predict effects across biological scales. Ecotoxicology and models discusses some ... Most current models describe effects on one of many different levels of biological organization (e.g. organisms or populations ... Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology. Computational systems biology ... Biological data visualization Biosimulation Gillespie algorithm Molecular modelling software Stochastic simulation Sometimes ...
Background Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and ... Model outputs along time for: a the original model (solid lines) and the reduced model (dashed lines); b the original model ( ... Casagranda S, Ropers D, Gouzé J-L. Model reduction and process analysis of biological models. In: 2015 23rd Mediterranean ... "Model description" section introduces the model of mammalian circadian clock. We apply our approach to this complex model in " ...
Analytical Methods for Biological Drugs. Biopharmaceuticals, the majority of which are protein drugs, constitute a distinct ...
This paper is concerned with stability analysis of biological networks modeled as discrete and finite dynamical systems. We ... This paper is concerned with stability analysis of biological networks modeled as discrete and finite dynamical systems. We ... Allen L.J.: Some discrete-time SI, SIR, and SIS epidemic models. Math. Biosci. 124(1), 83-105 (1994)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle ... El Kahoui M., Otto A.: Stability of disease free equilibria in epidemiological models. Math. Comput. Sci. 2(3), 517-533 (2009) ...
Previous message: Category vigilance (biological and computational models) *Next message: Category vigilance (biological and ... Previous message: Category vigilance (biological and computational models) *Next message: Category vigilance (biological and ... Is there currently any self-training model, derived either from biological ,research or from AI, which provides for this? The ... Category vigilance (biological and computational models). Todd I. Stark stark at dwovax.enet.dec.com Wed Nov 3 18:54:18 EST ...
The book provides thorough coverage starting from biological aspects and fundamentals of membranes, via modeling and design ... The second edition of Membrane Biological Reactors: Theory, Modeling, Design, Management and Applications to Wastewater Reuse ... Process fundamentals (both the biological and membrane components) have received in-depth coverage in the new edition. A new ... Membrane Biological Reactors: Theory, Modeling, Design, Management and Applications to Wastewater Reuse - Second Edition. ...
We argue that our general model represents a powerful tool for the study of a wide range of biological and societal questions. ... By implementing our model in a real case, we show that mallard ducks introduced in New Zealand benefit from hybridization to ... To investigate how genes and phenotypes are transmitted, we developed a general model that, for the first time, considers ... reveal that the conclusions about how hybridization threatens a species can be biased if they are based on single-gene models, ...
Biological models with a square wave driving force  Closson, Taunia Lydia Lynn; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and ... Systems that require a driving force of some kind are very common in physical and biological settings. Driving forces in a ... biological context are usually referred to as rhythms, pulses or clocks. Here we are interested in ... ...
Within the area of Systems Biology these models provide graph-based descriptions of bio-molecular interactions which describe ... conducted at the Centre for Integrative Systems Biology at Imperial College on the use of machine learning to build models of ... Knowledge Mining Biological Network Models. Zhongzhi Shi; Sunil Vadera; Agnar Aamodt; David Leake. 6th IFIP TC 12 International ... Within the area of Systems Biology these models provide graph-based descriptions of bio-molecular interactions which describe ...
... Organiser: Colm Connaughton (Warwick ... The aim is to explore common aspects of these models and their analysis which spans the boundaries between different areas of ... This two-day inter-disciplinary workshop will bring together researchers from the physical, biological and social sciences ... Interacting particle systems are a powerful mathematical tool for stochastic modeling of systems whose microscopic dynamics can ...
This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications COMPUTATIONAL MODELING IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID DYNAMICS is based on the ... Computational Modeling in Biological Fluid Dynamics. Editors: Fauci, Lisa J., Gueron, Shay (Eds.) ... This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications COMPUTATIONAL MODELING IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID DYNAMICS is based on the ... Computed Simulations of Ciliary and Flagellar Motility Using the Geometric Clutch Model can Replicate a Wide Variety of ...
This Community Page presents a biologist-friendly method for compiling detailed graphical models of biological pathways from ... The modelling framework described here is flexible enough to model all the basic network motifs found in all biological pathway ... a model of the nuclear pore). However, such models cannot currently be used in the computation modelling environment as they do ... Indeed, whilst mathematical modelling of biological pathways was one of the founding activities of systems biology, currently, ...
... Jean-Louis Giavitto,1 Grant Malcolm,2 and Olivier Michel1 ... This paper gives a brief survey of the use of algebraic rewriting systems for modelling and simulating various biological ...
Rigid Biological Systems as Models for Synthetic Composites Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Advances that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of a number of biological ...
... Author(s). Said, Maya Rida ... At a low level of modeling, the thesis introduces a new framework for modeling cellular signal processing based on interacting ... At a high modeling level, the focus is on the network topology rather than the dynamical properties of the components of the ... This thesis introduces systematic engineering principles to model, at different levels of ab-straction the information ...
Also, the processes involved in understanding language are best modeled as a form of direct perception of the world parallel, ... they are more like those norms of function and behavior that account for the survival and proliferation of biological species. ... Language: A Biological Model. Ruth Garrett Millikan. Abstract. Guiding the work of most linguists and philosophers of language ... Also, the processes involved in understanding language are best modeled as a form of direct perception of the world parallel, ...
K. Chopra, R. Bose, and A. Joshi, Duopoly Models for Power Trading in Secure Cooperative Relay Networks, InProceedings, IEEE ...
Theta modelEdit. The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a model originally developed to model neurons in the ... Main article: Hodgkin-Huxley model. The Hodgkin-Huxley model (H&H model)[3][4][5][6] is a model of the relationship between ion ... Some of the earliest biological models took this form until kinetic models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model became dominant.[ ... The model looks like. I. (. t. ). −. V. m. (. t. ). R. m. =. C. m. d. V. m. (. t. ). d. t. {\displaystyle I(t)-{\frac {V_{\ ...
Modelling Biological Complexity MRes. Modelling Biological Complexity MRes. The Modelling Biological Complexity MRes is ... Modelling Biological Complexity: Foundation Course covering machine learning, statistics and mathematical modelling applied to ... a computer programming and biological database task, web development, the research project and an end-of-year viva. ... computational and physical science techniques to real biological problems. The programme provides a broad overview of cutting ...
... Lead Guest Editor: Alain Vande Wouwer. Guest Editors ... The Silent Cooperator: An Epigenetic Model for Emergence of Altruistic Traits in Biological Systems, I. Hashem, D. Telen, P. ... Modeling and Dynamic Analysis in a Hybrid Stochastic Bioeconomic System with Double Time Delays and Lévy Jumps, Chao Liu, ... Dynamical Behavior of a Novel Impulsive Switching Model for HLB with Seasonal Fluctuations, Shujing Gao, Lei Luo, Shuixian Yan ...
... spectroscopy and modeling. [Vikas Tomar; Tao Qu; Deven K Dubey; Deven Verma; Yang Zhang] -- This book covers the latest ... Molecular Modeling: A Review of Nanomechanics Based on Molecular Modeling --. Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab ... Multiscale characterization of biological systems : spectroscopy and modeling. Author:. Vikas Tomar; Tao Qu; Deven K Dubey; ... Molecular Modeling: A Review of Nanomechanics Based on Molecular Modeling -- Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab ...
A biological signal is transmitted by interactions between signaling molecules in the cell. To date, there have been extensive ... we propose a stability kinetic model of cell biological signaling of a simple two-parameter model based on the kinetics of the ... A model of cell biological signaling predicts a phase transition of signaling and provides mathematical formulae. *Tsuruyama T ... Tsuruyama, T. (2014). A model of cell biological signaling predicts a phase transition of signaling and provides mathematical ...
The validity of the solutions to the fractional biological models obtained with first integral method was achieved by putting ... A fractional complex transformation was applied to turn the fractional biological models into an equivalent integer order ... We observed that introducing fractional order to the biological models changes the nature of the solution.,/p, ... p style=text-indent:20px;,Travelling wave solutions of the space and time fractional models for non-linear blood flow in ...
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Influential themed journal issues across the life ...
Models of Madness shows that hallucinations and delusions are understandable reactions to life events and circumstances rather ... than symptoms of a supposed genetic predisposition or biological disturbance. International contributors:* critique the… ... Models of Madness. Psychological, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia, 1st Edition. ... "Models of Madness is a considerable achievement. The authority and accessibility of its robust arguments will make it a popular ...
Yakovlevs research interests including stochastic modeling and the analysis of micro-array data and throughout the book it ... Statistical Modeling for Biological Systems. Book Subtitle. In Memory of Andrei Yakovlev. Editors. * Anthony Almudevar ... Statistical Modeling for Biological Systems. In Memory of Andrei Yakovlev. Editors: Almudevar, Anthony, Oakes, David, Hall, ... More recent work has largely focused on the models for bivariate survival models generated by unobserved random effects, often ...
Modeling Fluctuations in Biological Systems by Timothy Newman available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and ...
To illustrate its unifying potential, this simple model is applied to two very distinct biological processes - the spontaneous ... We hence show how a combination of nonlinear instabilities and state-dependent noise in this model is able to unify these two ... Many biological organisms employ two distinct mechanisms that improve their survival in these circumstances: Firstly they ... We also provide proof of principle that our model can be inverted from empirical data, allowing estimation of the parameters ...
  • Other models are more detailed and account for sub-cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While efforts have been made in this direction to reduce model complexity, they often prove insufficient to grasp which and when model processes play a crucial role. (springer.com)
  • We detect model processes that are always inactive , or inactive on some time interval. (springer.com)
  • Eliminating these processes reduces the complex dynamics of the original model to the much simpler dynamics of the core processes, in a succession of sub-models that are easier to analyse. (springer.com)
  • Mathematical modelling has been used for decades as an approach to understand the functioning of biological systems in terms of their internal processes and components. (springer.com)
  • Complexity arises from the high dimension of the networks, the large number of biological processes involved and their non linearity due to the complex feedback loops that regulate them. (springer.com)
  • Reduction approaches have proven successful to significantly reduce model complexity, but they do not provide a mean to understand how the system dynamics emerges from the cascade of biological processes and regulatory mechanisms at work. (springer.com)
  • It involves the use of computer simulations of biological systems, including cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism, signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks), to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex network of biochemical reaction/transport processes and their spatial organization make the development of a predictive model of a living cell a grand challenge for the 21st century, listed as such by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • The course focuses on mathematical modelling and computer simulation of nerve cells, neuronal networks and other physiological and biochemical structures and processes. (kth.se)
  • This paper gives a brief survey of the use of algebraic rewriting systems for modelling and simulating various biological processes, particularly at the cellular level. (hindawi.com)
  • Part A consists of original research articles, which can be roughly grouped into four thematic areas: (i) branching processes, especially as models for cell kinetics, (ii) multiple testing issues as they arise in the analysis of biologic data, (iii) applications of mathematical models and of new inferential techniques in epidemiology, and (iv) contributions to statistical methodology, with an emphasis on the modeling and analysis of survival time data. (springer.com)
  • The simple algebraic construction of this model affords a systematic analysis of the contribution of stochastic and nonlinear processes to cortical rhythms, complementing a recently proposed biophysical model. (plos.org)
  • To illustrate its unifying potential, this simple model is applied to two very distinct biological processes - the spontaneous activity of the human cortex (i.e. when subjects are at rest), and genetic regulation in a bacteriophage. (plos.org)
  • Multistable dynamics and scale-invariant fluctuations are two complex dynamical processes whose presence in a wide variety of biological organisms suggests an adaptive role where they occur. (plos.org)
  • Model-based simulations of processes are used to explore hitherto unforeseen features and thereby suggest further profitable lines of both experimentation and theoretical study. (google.co.uk)
  • The model helps train our intuition about other more complex evolutionary processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • We develop methods and computational tools for understanding, modelling and simulating various biological and physiological processes and their applications in bio-inspired electronic systems. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • This thesis primarily aimed to improve the mechanistic understanding and the predictability of processes involved in the absorption of orally administered drugs using a population modeling approach. (diva-portal.org)
  • With the advent in the advances of supercomputers, most challenges in understanding the complexities of biological networks and processes occurring in the human body can now be understood. (igi-global.com)
  • The research is part of a burgeoning discipline called "quantum biology," which taps the skyrocketing power of today's high-performance computers to precisely model complex biological processes. (nanowerk.com)
  • The present thesis is concerned with hybrid stochastic models of spatio-temporal dynamics of biological excitable membranes using Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes (PDMPs). (bl.uk)
  • Firstly, we consider the approximation of PDMPs by deterministic models or continuous stochastic processes. (bl.uk)
  • Whereas the latter connects the stochastic fluctuations in the hybrid models to diffusion processes. (bl.uk)
  • This new photosynthesis-nutrient (PN) model was then investigated, validated and determined capable of predicting growth characteristics dependent on both nutrient and photosynthetic processes. (bl.uk)
  • theoretical representations that simulate the behaviour or activity of biological processes or diseases . (biology-online.org)
  • Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although kinetic modeling and the underlying fundamental mathematics are used in vastly different fields of science and engineering, here we will concentrate on biological kinetic networks which model cellular activities as a set of reaction processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One of the most important aspects for all life on this planet is the act to keep their biological processes in a state where they do not reach equilibrium. (diva-portal.org)
  • Develop a model that identifies specific parts and describes specific processes in a multicellular organism. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The goal of this research is to investigate relationships between graphs and finite metric spaces and thereby provide a mathematical foundation of distance-based graph theoretical modelling of various biological processes, such as cellular differentiation and viral evolution. (go.jp)
  • Studies of bioinformatics develop methods and software tools to analyze biological data and provide insight of the mechanisms of biological processes. (sc.edu)
  • Delayed processes are ubiquitous in biological systems and are often characterized by delay differential equations (DDEs) and their extension to include stochastic effects. (rice.edu)
  • The fusion of empirical science with large-scale computing platforms has allowed rapid advances in our ability to model physiological and pathophysiological processes in silico. (sciencemag.org)
  • To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. (harvard.edu)
  • Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Using a Blue Gene supercomputer running Michael Hines's NEURON software, the simulation does not consist simply of an artificial neural network, but involves a partially biologically realistic model of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modeling of biological systems has become an important facet in today's scientific community because it has aided in the simulation of the minute biological entities comprising a living individual. (igi-global.com)
  • The unit will also introduce time series analysis, Bayesian approaches to modelling data, and simulation models including explicitly spatial and individual-based models. (edu.au)
  • This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Results of the computer simulation suggest that the skin-tissue model epidermis can be irradiated without significant exposure to the dermal layer. (phys.org)
  • 2011. "Simulation of Electron-Beam Irradiation of Skin Tissue Model. (phys.org)
  • The methods illustrated in this whitepaper are applicable to almost any modeling and simulation (M&S) study involving large numbers of variables with many levels. (jmp.com)
  • Modeling & Simulation of Biological Syst. (coursehero.com)
  • tackle the challenge of modeling mixotrophy, proposing modifications to one of the classic approaches to modeling plankton, the Shuter approach ( Shuter, 1979 ), that enables the simulation of the two main groups of mixotrophs, namely of the constitutives ("phytoplankton that eat") and non-constitutives ("microzooplankton that photosynthesizes") growing in the North Sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abstract As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States could impact a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. (epa.gov)
  • phdthesis{1919006, abstract = {Model organisms are perhaps the most important experimental subjects in biology nowadays. (ugent.be)
  • This paper is concerned with stability analysis of biological networks modeled as discrete and finite dynamical systems. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, we study a simple class of noisy, dynamical systems that mathematically represent a very broad range of more complex models. (plos.org)
  • We quantify by means of global relative errors the extent to which the simplified models reproduce the main features of the original system dynamics and apply global sensitivity analysis to test the influence of model parameters on the errors. (springer.com)
  • The analysis of the sub-model dynamics allows us to identify the source of circadian oscillations. (springer.com)
  • Interacting particle systems are a powerful mathematical tool for stochastic modeling of systems whose microscopic dynamics can be represented by the local interactions of a collection of discrete entities or agents with discrete internal states. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • From the dynamics of molecular walkers to the growth of atomic clusters on substrates to the spread of ideas or contagion on social networks, such models are becoming increasingly important throughout the quantitative sciences. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications COMPUTATIONAL MODELING IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID DYNAMICS is based on the proceedings of a very successful workshop with the same title. (springer.com)
  • Willard Miller, Jr., Professor and Director Institute for Mathematics and its Applications University of Minnesota 400 Lind Hall, 207 Church St. SE Minneapolis, MN 55455-0436 612-624-6066, FAX 612-626-7370 [email protected] World Wide Web: http://www.ima.umn.edu v PREFACE A unifying theme in biological fluid dynamics is the interaction of moving, elastic boundaries with a surrounding fluid. (springer.com)
  • Travelling wave solutions of the space and time fractional models for non-linear blood flow in large vessels and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule dynamics defined in the sense of Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative via the first integral method are presented in this study. (aimsciences.org)
  • Similar dynamics also occur in a kinetic model of gene regulation, suggesting universality across a broad class of biological phenomena. (plos.org)
  • This volume develops a unifying approach to population studies that emphasizes the interplay between modeling and experimentation and that will provide mathematicians and biologists with a framework within which population dynamics can be fully explored and understood. (google.co.uk)
  • The model was further used in combination with anatomical tablet location data to predict the in vivo erosion dynamics. (diva-portal.org)
  • Qualitative models of dynamics of signalling pathways and gene regulatory networks allow to capture temporal properties of biological networks while requiring few parameters. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A large number of biological systems are intrinsically random, in particular, biological excitable membranes, such as neuronal membranes, cardiac tissue or models for calcium dynamics. (bl.uk)
  • Additionally an investigation into the factors which may influence the results when using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model the flow field within a gas-lift bioreactor was performed. (bl.uk)
  • Moving from basin scales to local scales, we show how atmospheric, physical oceanographic, and biological dynamics interact to create long-term fluctuations in the dynamics of the California Current ecosystem. (tos.org)
  • Additionally, different explicit models with qualitatively different dynamics can give rise to the same DDEs revealing important ambiguities. (rice.edu)
  • We present three classic host-parasitoid models, whose local stability properties have been extensively studied in the past, but whose chaotic dynamics have not previously been explored. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The goal is to create accurate real-time models of a system's response to environmental and internal stimuli, such as a model of a cancer cell in order to find weaknesses in its signalling pathways, or modelling of ion channel mutations to see effects on cardiomyocytes and in turn, the function of a beating heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this talk we survey work being conducted at the Centre for Integrative Systems Biology at Imperial College on the use of machine learning to build models of biochemical pathways. (inria.fr)
  • TCF, LO, and LBS are funded by BBSRC grant [BB/J015105/1] to model pathways associated with Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis, and LBS is supported by an MRC grant [MR/N002970/1]. (plos.org)
  • How to Draw Diagrams of Biological Pathways? (plos.org)
  • Diagrams continue to form the bedrock of our efforts to communicate ideas about the complexity of biological systems and pathways. (plos.org)
  • This thesis introduces systematic engineering principles to model, at different levels of ab-straction the information processing in biological cells in order to understand the algorithms implemented by the signaling pathways that perform the processing. (mit.edu)
  • Studies in a wide variety of organisms have produced a general model for the induction of apoptosis in which multiple signaling pathways lead ultimately to activation of the caspase family of proteases. (duke.edu)
  • Accordingly, an important aspect of biological neuron models is experimental validation, and the use of physical units to describe the experimental procedure associated with the model predictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the area of Systems Biology these models provide graph-based descriptions of bio-molecular interactions which describe cellular activities such as gene regulation, metabolism and transcription. (inria.fr)
  • Here, we describe a modelling framework that consists of a formalised graphical language that supports the depiction of complex biological interactions and molecules, allowing the creation of detailed models of events based on known information. (plos.org)
  • Monitoring individual apples made it possible to include and describe the biological variance of colour in batches of apples and to extract information on chilling injury, as a process active at 1 °C. All variations could be attributed to a single source related to the amount of yellowing compounds at the moment of harvest, indicating differences in state of maturity between individual apples. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this paper, we describe a method to reduce a qualitative model for enhancing the tractability of analysis of transient reachability properties. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • An attractive variant of these models uses a Voronoi tessellation to describe the cells, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom as compared the original vertex model. (rsc.org)
  • A new dynamical model has been developped to describe microalgal growth in a photobioreactor under light and nitrogen limitations. (inria.fr)
  • With massive increases in the availability of ecological and other kinds of biological data, skill in developing models to describe and understand relationships in data and extrapolate beyond existing data, and an understanding of the nuances of particular kinds of data, is fundamental in modern biological research. (edu.au)
  • Here, we describe how models have been used to gain understanding of the physical-biological couplings leading to decadal changes in the southern California Current ecosystem. (tos.org)
  • PLOS One, 2013] and two random walk models that were proposed to describe the data. (arxiv.org)
  • Hence, phenomenological models are often developed that describe the effective relationships among the circuit inputs, outputs, and only the key states and parameters. (caltech.edu)
  • In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Ultimately, biological neuron models aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the nervous system for the purpose of restoring lost control capabilities such as perception (e.g. deafness or blindness), motor movement decision making , and continuous limb control . (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of a number of biological materials (namely mollusk shells and sponge spicules) are discussed here. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we elucidate their fundamental dynamical mechanisms in a canonical model of nonlinear bifurcations under stochastic fluctuations. (plos.org)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to encourage applications wherein similarities and differences in the underlying biological mechanisms that drive cancer phenotype and response to perturbations between two or more patient-derived models of cancer originating from a common patient sample are delineated and compared. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support research projects that delineate and compare the underlying biological mechanisms that drive cancer phenotype and response to perturbations between two or more patient-derived models of cancer originating from a common patient sample. (nih.gov)
  • These findings strongly suggest that mechanisms by which social factors influence drinking have biological roots, and can be studied using rapidly developing new animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • Stable fluorescent protein-expressing HCCLM3-R and HCCLM3-G xenografts in nude mice could be of two useful models for studying mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma growth and metastasis in real time. (nih.gov)
  • Numerous kinetic models of these networks have been developed in computational biology, of increasing complexity due to advances in modelling and parameter estimation approaches (see [ 1 , 2 ] for an example). (springer.com)
  • There is a need for formalised diagrams that both summarise current biological pathway knowledge and support modelling approaches that explain and predict their behaviour. (plos.org)
  • Essential reading for all those involved with the mental health system, this book is apowerful, scholarly, up-to-date critique of biological approaches to madness and the role of the pharmaceutical industry, together with well presented and refreshing analyses of psychological and social approaches. (routledge.com)
  • Overall the project will involve use of artificial and computational intelligence techniques, neural network based modelling, including probabilistic neural network systems and researching computational approaches for studying synaptic modification utilising computational neuroscience learning spike sorting algorithms. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Early developments in biological modelling, driven largely by the convergence in systems biology of complementary approaches from other disciplines, hold the potential to forge a knowledge revolution in biology and to bring modelling into the mainstream of biological research in the way that it is in other fields. (ddw-online.com)
  • as well as new approaches to model marine systems have emerged, altering the way we think about modeling the plankton. (frontiersin.org)
  • Trait-based modeling and size-based scaling approaches have emerged as fruitful approaches, in some marine systems, to categorizes biological entities by their ecological meaningful characteristic ( Litchman and Klausmeier, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings raise the possibility that alpha-syn may contribute to the cascade of events that promote neuronal dysfunction in Gaucher disease and are the first to implicate this protein as a plausible biological intersection between Gaucher disease and parkinsonism using a pharmacological model. (nih.gov)
  • J. S. Nicolis, and M. Benrubi, "A model on the role of noise at the neuronal and the cognitive levels," J. of Theor. (springer.com)
  • Oscillations and rhythms in biological systems-glycolysis, intracellular calcium, cellular cycles, Modeling Neuronal behavior. (amrita.edu)
  • Methods in Neuronal Modeling: From Ions to Networks,ed. (amrita.edu)
  • Creating a cellular model has been a particularly challenging task of systems biology and mathematical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a low level of modeling, the thesis introduces a new framework for modeling cellular signal processing based on interacting Markov chains. (mit.edu)
  • Each of these platforms has both merits and drawbacks with regard to their utility and in faithful representation of tumor architecture, microenvironment, cellular composition and heterogeneity, stem-differentiation states, growth patterns and responses to perturbagens, with respect to the patient specimen from which the model was initially derived. (nih.gov)
  • Recently a class of two-dimensional vertex models was shown to exhibit a disordered rigidity transition controlled by the preferred cellular geometry, which was subsequently echoed by experimental findings. (rsc.org)
  • The Voronoi model was also endowed with a non-equilibrium model of cellular motility, leading to rich, glassy behavior. (rsc.org)
  • Using a more realistic and complete tissue model is critical to the development of a mechanistic understanding of the cellular radiation responses that occur in vivo. (phys.org)
  • The advantage of the model is that it has a well-defined cellular composition that scientists can modify to gain a fundamental understanding of how different cell types interact following irradiation. (phys.org)
  • In a series of recent papers, fluorescent and confocal microscopy images have been used to characterize the detailed cellular morphology of the skin tissue model. (phys.org)
  • To obtain a mathematical formulation of cell signaling, we propose a stability kinetic model of cell biological signaling of a simple two-parameter model based on the kinetics of the diffusion-limiting step. (mendeley.com)
  • Fernandez (1995c), using combined results of balance studies and radioisotope kinetics, formulated and resolved a model of P metabolism for pigs to evaluate the nutritional implications of increasing P intake by pigs. (scielo.br)
  • From the parts and mechanism description of a synthetic biological circuit, it is easy to obtain a chemical reaction model of the circuit under the assumptions of mass-action kinetics using various existing tools. (caltech.edu)
  • In conclusion, the present model illustrates a unique feature of cell signaling, and the stability analysis may provide an analytical framework of the cell signaling system and a novel formulation of biological signaling. (mendeley.com)
  • Awardees are expected to form a patient-derived models of cancer (PDMC) consortium and participate in activities as appropriate to their projects that will provide a framework to accelerate multidisciplinary efforts to address compelling fundamental cancer biology questions through PDMC comparisons. (nih.gov)
  • A modeling framework was developed to characterize the relationships between nutritional intake, rate of gastric emptying, gallbladder emptying-refilling patterns and plasma concentrations of bile acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • This modeling framework could be used in combination with systems pharmacology models to predict the drug-drug interactions and food effects associated with gastric emptying, as well as to link the postprandial changes in plasma bile acid concentrations to the variability in drugs' absorption. (diva-portal.org)
  • A modeling framework predicted the postprandial gastric emptying rate and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Overall the aim of the thesis is two-fold: On the one hand, we establish a general hybrid modelling framework for biological excitable membranes and, on the other hand, we are interested in a general advance of PDMP theory which the former necessitates. (bl.uk)
  • Regarding the first aim we exemplify the modelling framework on the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model of a squid giant axon. (bl.uk)
  • present a simple framework for the quantitative modeling of oncogene addiction that provides mechanistic insights into tumor biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Multistability and scale-invariant fluctuations occur in a wide variety of biological organisms from bacteria to humans as well as financial, chemical and complex physical systems. (plos.org)
  • The transition from colonies of individual cells to multicellular organisms can be achieved relatively rapidly, within one million generations, according to a new mathematical model, published June 10 in the open-access journal PLoS Computational Biology , that simplifies our understanding of this process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival and reproduction of the whole. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding how the division of labor evolved in multicellular organisms is difficult because single cells are expected to act selfishly to protect their own existence instead of working cooperatively to achieve a more productive higher level of organization, explains author Sergey Gavrilets, Associate Director for Scientific Activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using germ and soma cells in volvocacean green algae as an example, Gavrilets' mathematical model describes the evolutionary emergence of the division of labor starting with a colony of undifferentiated individual cells and ending with completely differentiated multicellular organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is much more straightforward, for example, to capture in lines of computer code the orbit of a satellite or the load on a suspension bridge than it is to build a computational model of even the simplest and most well-studied of biological organisms. (ddw-online.com)
  • Model organisms are perhaps the most important experimental subjects in biology nowadays. (ugent.be)
  • In this PhD microscopic images of two model organisms, the C. elegans nematode and the A. thaliana plant, are studied. (ugent.be)
  • Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational systems biology aims to develop and use efficient algorithms, data structures, visualization and communication tools with the goal of computer modelling of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • By far the most widely accepted standard format for storing and exchanging models in the field is the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) The SBML.org website includes a guide to many important software packages used in computational systems biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science. (plos.org)
  • It reflects upon Dr. Yakovlev's many research interests including stochastic modeling and the analysis of micro-array data, and throughout the book it emphasizes applications of the theory in biology, medicine and public health. (springer.com)
  • System identification is a data-driven modeling approach more and more used in biology and biomedicine. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A cross-disciplinary team of experts in nanotechnology, biology and computational modelling is driving the overall effort and establishing reliable, biologically relevant and well-characterised multi-layer 3D tissue scaffolds. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode of microscopic size which, due to its biological characteristics, has been used since the 1970s as a model for research in molecular biology, medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology. (nih.gov)
  • This unit builds on the foundation provided in Quantitative Methods in Biology to familiarise students with more advanced model building techniques including generalised linear, mixed and additive models, regression trees, bootstrapping methods, and non-linear regression. (edu.au)
  • The enormous challenge posed by the complexity of biological systems represents a potential intellectual impasse to researchers and threatens to stall future progress in basic biology and healthcare. (ddw-online.com)
  • R esearchers in biology and the life sciences have yet to embrace modelling in the way that their peers in the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering have done. (ddw-online.com)
  • It is hoped that this Special Feature will spur a discussion that will lead to a more careful delineation of the similarities and the differences between humans and other species, how these impact the study of biological fundamentals, and also help drive the field to think more carefully about humans' place in biology. (phys.org)
  • As a result, progress has been achieved on multiple crucial cornerstones as the following numbers outline: 17 articles were published in reputable scientific journals and two within a Springer encyclopedia on systems biology, two new modeling standards were released for the file format SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language), 19 software releases were developed, including new software and improved versions of existing tools. (europa.eu)
  • Dr. Dräger contributed to establishing the new scientific Special Interest Group (SIG) SysMod about systems modeling as part of the ISMB (annual international conference on Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology). (europa.eu)
  • Mathematical models in biology - Introduction, types of models, levels of modeling, specificity of modeling in biology, Some standard models - unlimited growth , limited growth , constraints with respects to a substrate, competition selection , Lotka-Volterra models . (amrita.edu)
  • Biological systems are optimized to survive in environments whose properties may vary greatly, such as changes in the biochemical environment of bacteria across several orders of magnitude, or even qualitatively, such as seasonal variations that banish food sources and prohibit foraging behavior in some mammalian species. (plos.org)
  • Characterization of topographical effects on macrophage behavior in a foreign body response model. (duke.edu)
  • We also show that DDE-based predictions of oscillatory behavior may fail for the corresponding explicit model. (rice.edu)
  • Although there are many commonalities, two aspects, in particular, distinguish biological networks from networks found in other fields: Firstly, in biological systems, copy numbers of many species are very low, which can give rise to significant relative fluctuations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fluctuations in the concentrations of biomolecules can be quite large and this may require special treatment in modeling the biological networks ( 1 - 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The probabilistic description taken by the models in this category was inspired from laboratory experiments involving either natural or pharmacological stimulation which exhibit variability in the resulting spike pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids 1st edition by Durbin, Richard, Eddy, Sean R., Krogh, Anders, Mitchison, Gr (1998) Paperback by Durbin: Cambridge University Press (2 July 2003) Paperback, 1st - may be Reissue. (abebooks.com)
  • Items related to Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models. (abebooks.com)
  • The book provides thorough coverage starting from biological aspects and fundamentals of membranes, via modeling and design concepts, to practitioners' perspective and good application examples. (google.com)
  • Although there is much to suggest that biological membranes have a lipoprotein character, their actual composition and structure has not been established beyond question. (springer.com)
  • Mercer E.H. (1960) Artificial models of biological membranes. (springer.com)
  • Electrical input-output membrane voltage models - These models produce a prediction for membrane output voltage as function of electrical stimulation at the input stage (either voltage or current). (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the developed models enabled the prediction of the in vivo erosion profile of ER formulations based on in vitro dissolution data. (diva-portal.org)
  • This chapter focuses on how supercomputers facilitate in the prediction of protein structures in its different forms, modeling of protein-ligand binding site identification, as well as in the protein-surface interactions modeling. (igi-global.com)
  • Besides solely relying on the doctors' experiences and stereotyped formulas, researchers could use learning algorithms to analyze sophisticated, high-dimensional and multimodal biomedical data, and construct prediction/classification models to make decisions even when some information was incomplete, unknown, or contradictory. (sc.edu)
  • Finally, we use deep learning techniques to build accurate Down Syndrome (DS) prediction/screening models based on the analysis of newly introduced Illumina human genome genotyping array. (sc.edu)
  • We test this conjecture, exploring the low-effective-temperature limit of the 2D Voronoi model by studying cell trajectories from detailed dynamical simulations in combination with rigidity measurements of energy-minimized disordered cell configurations. (rsc.org)
  • Innovative Design of Experiments (DOE) methods are used to significantly reduce the number of simulations required to model biological warfare (BW) attacks. (jmp.com)
  • This plethora of data can now be organized into a coherent model that precisely describes the structure of cells and enables computer simulations and analysis of the systems. (europa.eu)
  • According to this phenomenon, based on the classical Lotka-Volterra model, we establish a model of two populations of Lotka-Volterra which cannot survive independently, finally he analyzes the stability of the model. (scirp.org)
  • The traditional way of modeling the time evolution of the molecular populations in a reacting system is to use a set of coupled, first order, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) called the reaction rate equations (RRE). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The high growth rates, cell yields of the cultures, and the constitutive expression of an impressively efficient natural competence apparatus, amongst other properties, make some strains of the genus excellent laboratory models to study the molecular basis of thermophilia. (diva-portal.org)
  • These scaffold systems will have a range of applications but are particularly applicable to growth of retinal models, which will form platforms for computational modelling of brain signal processing, as well as learning and adaptation. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • This thesis considers the problem of modelling bioreactors with complex mixing and biokinetic growth based on both soluble nutrients and photosynthesis. (bl.uk)
  • From the results of investigations performed on the different modelling methods for nutrient and photosynthesis dependent biomass growth a method of coupling the two biokinetic models was proposed. (bl.uk)
  • The resulting model is used to simulate Isochrysis affinis galbana growth under light/dark cycles and to study the dependence of biomass production on the dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration. (inria.fr)
  • A Continuum Theory of Multiphase Mixtures for Modelling Biological Growth. (umich.edu)
  • This dissertation presents a continuum treatment of growth in biological tissue developed within the context of modern mixture theory. (umich.edu)
  • Planning the architecture of a registry of standard biological models. (openwetware.org)
  • Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and interactions. (springer.com)
  • A whole cell computational model for the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium, including all its 525 genes, gene products, and their interactions, was built by scientists from Stanford University and the J. Craig Venter Institute and published on 20 July 2012 in Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biological signal is transmitted by interactions between signaling molecules in the cell. (mendeley.com)
  • Alpha-synuclein-glucocerebrosidase interactions in pharmacological Gaucher models: a biological link between Gaucher disease and parkinsonism. (nih.gov)
  • The strong interactions between irradiance and chlorophyll encouraged us to couple biological and radiative models. (inria.fr)
  • However, at the more macroscopic scales at which these systems can be studied as 'biological' entities, the researcher is confronted with an enormous number of moving parts, a web of interactions of astronomical complexity, significant heterogeneity between the many 'copies' of the system and a degree of stochasticity that challenges any intuitive notion of how living systems function, let alone survive and thrive in hostile environments. (ddw-online.com)
  • However, this model does not include cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions critical to maintaining tissue homeostasis. (phys.org)
  • One model incorporates social interactions between the insects, and the second model is a control model that excludes these interactions. (arxiv.org)
  • The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated by the analysis of stability and bifurcations of several discrete biological models using implementations of algebraic methods. (springer.com)
  • Allen L.J.: Some discrete-time SI, SIR, and SIS epidemic models. (springer.com)
  • However, these discrete models typically suffer from the so-called state space explosion problem which makes the formal assessment of their potential behaviours very challenging. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Our results are consistent with published successional patterns of spruce-fir and mixed forests affected by spruce budworm, but also highlight areas of uncertainty in the spatio-temporal patterns of budworm-caused tree mortality and biological disturbances in general. (usda.gov)
  • To accelerate the convergence to a unified theory, we list several models in each category, and where applicable, also references to supporting experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the complexity of biological systems has long prevented their description using general theoretical concepts taken from the physical sciences. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • A biological neuron model , also known as a spiking neuron model , is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane , roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In that sense, biological neuron models differ from artificial neuron models that do not presume to predict the outcomes of experiments involving the biological neural tissue (although artificial neuron models are also concerned with execution of perception and estimation tasks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Covers the latest in multiscaling for molecular models to predict lab-scale sample properties and investigates interface thermomechanics. (worldcat.org)
  • Once those parameters are established, they can be used to create a model to predict the system's response under different conditions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This makes it easier for optimization routines to identify a functional working set of parameters that can then be used to predict the activity of the modeled system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The oncology community has recently focused on the development of patient-derived models of cancer (PDMC) platforms including, but not limited to, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), organoids, spheroids, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), conditionally-reprogrammed cells (CRCs). (nih.gov)
  • This will require the development of modelling platforms that allow biological systems to be described using idioms familiar to biologists, that encourage experimentation and that leverage the connectivity of the internet for scientific collaboration and communication. (ddw-online.com)
  • While cause-and-effect knowledge assembly models encoded in Biological Expression Language are able to support generation of mechanistic hypotheses, they are static and limited in their ability to encode temporality. (fraunhofer.de)
  • We find that the negative feedback loop involving proteins PER, CRY, CLOCK-BMAL1 is the main oscillator, in agreement with previous modelling and experimental studies. (springer.com)
  • Pearson, Spearman, Kendall tau-a,b,c and Goodman-Kruskal correlation coefficients were used in order to identify and to quantify the link and its nature (quantitative, categorical, semi-quantitative, both quantitative and categorical) between experimental values and the values estimated by the mathematical models. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the model could be used as an instrument in analysis of the quality of experimental data. (mdpi.com)
  • Capable of describing models that can be related to experimental data. (openwetware.org)
  • We use topological data analysis as a tool to analyze the fit of mathematical models to experimental data. (arxiv.org)
  • Analysis of the a priori order parameters indicates that the interactive model better describes the experimental data than the control model does. (arxiv.org)
  • These specimens have characteristics such as short life cycles and compact genome sequences that make them suitable for a number of experimental techniques at different biological levels. (ugent.be)
  • Furthermore, the availability of plasmids and up to four thermostable antibiotic selection markers allows its use in physiological studies as a model for ancient bacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • A simple yet elegant quantitative modeling of oncogene addiction advances our predictive understanding of this physiological phenomenon. (sciencemag.org)
  • Automatic annotation of spatial expression patterns via sparse Bayesian factor models. (duke.edu)
  • In this paper, we propose a strategy for the selection of the hidden layer size in feedforward neural network models. (aimsciences.org)
  • Some applications of the proposed procedure to simulated and real data sets show that it allows to select parsimonious neural network models with the highest predictive accuracy. (aimsciences.org)
  • M. La Rocca and C. Perna, Neural network modeling with applications to euro exchange rates,, in Computational Methods in Financial Engineering: Essays in Honour of Manfred Gili , (2008), 163. (aimsciences.org)
  • We proposed a bi-stream convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture with nine layers and two merged CNN models, which took two input chromosome SNP maps in combination. (sc.edu)
  • This two-day inter-disciplinary workshop will bring together researchers from the physical, biological and social sciences along with experts on the mathematical theory of interacting particle systems. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • TCF, MWB and PD are funded by an Institute Strategic Grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) [BB/JO1446X/1]. (plos.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In 'Humans as a model for understanding biological fundamentals', the authors provide a diverse set of perspectives on whether and, if so, how we can use humans as a model for the study of fundamental biological principles. (phys.org)
  • The student will first develop a sound understanding of the state of the art in computational modelling of the retina. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking neuron models. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biological model is an organism or system representing a more complex biological entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An unexpected emergent property of a complex system may be a result of the interplay of the cause-and-effect among simpler, integrated parts (see biological organisation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most importantly, the resulting pathway diagrams are useful in the communication of ideas, in hypothesis testing, in enhancing the understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the system modelled, and thereby in helping to drive forward biological research objectives. (plos.org)
  • It will stimulate thought in a system that has been lacking thought… Models of Madness will win many hearts and minds, and the mental health care of patients will be better for it. (routledge.com)
  • We also provide proof of principle that our model can be inverted from empirical data, allowing estimation of the parameters that express the nonlinear and stochastic influences at play in the underlying system. (plos.org)
  • One solution consists in using mixed effects models but up to now no similar approach exists in the field of dynamical system identification. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The additional computing power will allow them to model complex biological systems with even greater accuracy: "The more atoms you include, the more accurate your system," Shemella said. (nanowerk.com)
  • This system, created in the laboratory of Jasna Brujić, an assistant professor in NYU's Department of Physics and part of its Center for Soft Matter Research, is said to be an oil-in-water solution whose surface properties reproduce those found on biological cells. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • In the present paper we model a multihierarchical level system which communicates with the environment via a specific pair of hierarchical levels Q and W (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • Modeling a biological system relies in part on defining parameters f. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Modeling a biological system relies, in part, on defining parameters for that system, which correspond to how the system functions under normal conditions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Attempts to formulate realistic models of the development of the human oculomotor control system have led to the conclusion that evolutionary factors play a crucial role. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Part models should be used to constrain characterization of parts (maybe an other Registry dedicated to characterization). (openwetware.org)
  • Such a model would enable development of retinal prostheses, facilitate non-animal based testing of novel eye drugs and drive forward improvements in low-power, intelligent artificial vision sensors. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the WSU-TC and PNNL scientists used an artificial skin model made of normal human epidermal skin cells and connective tissue cells called fibroblasts. (phys.org)
  • If pathway modelling is to be more widely adopted by biologists and the results of their efforts useable by others, a new approach is required. (plos.org)
  • Modelling can provide the kind of intellectual frameworks needed to transform data into knowledge, yet very few modelling methodologies currently exist that are applicable to the large, complex systems of interest to biologists. (ddw-online.com)
  • There are some very good reasons for this, not the least of which is that the systems of interest to biologists tend to be far more refractory to modelling than the systems that are studied in these other fields. (ddw-online.com)
  • The former establishes a connection of stochastic hybrid models to deterministic models given, e.g., by systems of partial differential equations. (bl.uk)
  • We show that such explicit models often yield significantly different equilibrium distributions and transition times as compared to DDEs with deterministic delay values. (rice.edu)
  • That these may, in contrast, be the result of intrinsic nonlinearities, present even in very simple deterministic models, was first mooted by May. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Traditional study of biological systems requires reductive methods in which quantities of data are gathered by category, such as concentration over time in response to a certain stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foundation courses use innovative teaching methods for interdisciplinary research to provide essential background knowledge in computational, mathematical and physical techniques and a broad introduction to core biological concepts and systems. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Applied to different large-scale biological networks from the litterature, we show that the reduction can lead to drastic improvement for the scalability of verification methods. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Two mathematical models with seven and six parameters have been created for use as methods for identification of the optimum mobile phase in chromatographic separations. (mdpi.com)
  • Due to its importance, there is a need for methods to process the ever increasing amount of biological image data related to model organism research. (ugent.be)
  • We apply the method to a well-known model of circadian rhythms in mammals. (springer.com)
  • In this article, we review the properties of this organism as biological model and its biotechnological applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this article, we propose a new solution based on an ARX (Auto Regressive model with eXternal inputs) structure using the EM (Expectation-Maximisation) algorithm for the estimation of the model parameters. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The results obtained by applying the model with six parameters for deviations of rank sums suggest that the data of the experiment no. 8 are questionable. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a new method for estimating the parameters used in such models which may advance modeling in research areas ranging from cancer to fertility. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The method we've developed should expedite the development of more accurate parameters, which can be used to create more precise and predictable models of oscillatory biological systems. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers then try to identify the parameters that would result in the closest 'fit' to those concentrations when plugged into the model. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These order parameters measure the overall polarization and angular momentum of the group, and do not rely on a priori knowledge of the models that produced the data. (arxiv.org)
  • However, using these models to guide design decisions during an experiment is difficult due to a large number of reaction rate parameters and species in the model. (caltech.edu)
  • Our results reveal that the conclusions about how hybridization threatens a species can be biased if they are based on single-gene models, while considering two or more genes can correct this bias. (nature.com)
  • spatial effects are investigated by developing models that highlight the consequences that geographical restriction and species mobility may have on population development. (google.co.uk)
  • Based on the classic Lotlk-Volterra cooperation model, we establish a time-delay model of which a species cannot survive independently. (scirp.org)
  • In this paper, we establish a Lotka-Volterra model with time delay which a species cannot survive independently. (scirp.org)
  • By the thought of [1]-[4], we could have got the following Lotka-Volterra model with time delay which a species cannot survive independently. (scirp.org)
  • We both are scientists who got our start exclusively studying non- human species and who have come into studying humans more recently, attracted to what they have to offer as a model species. (phys.org)
  • We strongly feel that there are some general biological questions that are best answered by studying humans, either by themselves or in conjunction with comparative research programs encompassing multiple species, and that our work on humans is relevant for informing our work with other species . (phys.org)
  • This model reduction approach combines the common assumptions of time-scale separation, conservation laws, and species' abundance to obtain the reduced models that can be used for design of synthetic biological circuits. (caltech.edu)
  • Similarly the ability of many phytoplankton and microzooplankton species to be mixotrophic, which has been known for decades with some attempts made to provide a conceptual basis for models (reviewed by Stoecker, 1998 ), is only now becoming mainstream. (frontiersin.org)
  • A model characterized the effect of pH, mechanical stress and formulation on in vitro extended release (ER) tablet erosion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Quite simply the paucity of biologically faithful in vitro or in-silico models for testing and analysis is a major stumbling block in efforts to develop effective medical interventions. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • The availability of a biologically faithful in-vitro retinal model, complemented by a parallel accurate in-silico model and a new understanding of retinal image encoding of natural scenes, would accelerate the development of medical interventions to restore damaged vision in humans. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • However, there is a fundamental problem with most biological pathway diagrams: they are produced on an ad hoc basis with no rules governing their composition or content. (plos.org)
  • K. Chopra, R. Bose, and A. Joshi, ' Duopoly Models for Power Trading in Secure Cooperative Relay Networks ', InProceedings, IEEE National Conference on Communications (NCC 2016) , February 2016, 388 downloads. (umbc.edu)
  • We rely on a transition-centered specification of qualitative models by the mean of automata networks. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Wang, B. and Zhang, H. (2016) Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions for a Time-Delay Biological Model. (scirp.org)
  • The complexity of the structure of the eye, the difficulty in replicating its sophisticated image pre-processing capabilities and the absence of readily available, biologically faithful models limit medical advances and treatments. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. (harvard.edu)
  • Biological characteristics of fluorescent protein-expressing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • To study biological characteristics of stable red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HCCLM3 cell lines and those of their relevant xenograft models in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • This understanding will help development of biologically based risk models and help ensure that radiation protection standards are adequate and appropriate. (phys.org)
  • In a human psoriasis xenograft model, antibody 146B7 reduced the severity of psoriasis, as measured by epidermal thickness, grade of parakeratosis, and numbers of inflammatory cells and cycling keratinocytes. (jci.org)
  • Computers are critical to analysis and modelling of these data. (wikipedia.org)
  • His major research interests are in the area of survival analysis, especially models for the effect of explanatory variables on survival and for multivariate survival data. (springer.com)
  • Analysing b * and L * data using this model provides additional information with respect to the stage of maturity at harvest in a batch or for an orchard of Granny Smith apples. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Investigating Biological Systems Using Modeling describes how to apply software to analyze and interpret data from biological systems. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • To overcome the problem of data snooping, we extend the scheme based on the use of the reality check with modifications apt to compare nested models. (aimsciences.org)
  • Driven by the rapid development of the technology available to scientists in the laboratory, the quantity, scope and resolution of biological data continues to grow at an accelerating pace. (ddw-online.com)
  • We compare data from each model to data from experiment by performing statistical tests based on three different sets of measures. (arxiv.org)
  • This development has been driven by the increasing availability of high-quality biological information, which nowadays covers a large variety of different data sets across all different levels and scales. (europa.eu)
  • The aim is to explore common aspects of these models and their analysis which spans the boundaries between different areas of research. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • A range of interdisciplinary research-driven projects follow in which students gain experience of different research techniques and a range of areas of biological interest. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Student performance is assessed by essays, mini projects, oral and poster presentations, a computer programming and biological database task, web development, the research project and an end-of-year viva. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This book covers the latest research work done in the area of interface mechanics of collagen and chitin-based biomaterials along with various techniques that can be used to understand mechanics of biological systems and materials. (worldcat.org)
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) encourages highly innovative research to develop, characterize or improve animal models and related biological materials for human health and disease or to improve diagnosis and control of diseases that might interfere with animal use for biomedical research purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Applications to develop models that relate strictly to a specific disease or category of research will not be accepted and should be proposed to the appropriate categorical Institute or Center of the NIH. (nih.gov)
  • There is still less research work of the model which cannot exist independently. (scirp.org)
  • Research involving selective irradiation of a human skin tissue model is improving how scientists determine the overall effects of low doses of ionizing radiation such as might be received during certain medical procedures or occupational exposures. (phys.org)
  • Papers in this research topic provide insights into novel developments in the representation of plankton groups and how these improvements affect model outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hence show how a combination of nonlinear instabilities and state-dependent noise in this model is able to unify these two apparently distinct biological phenomena. (plos.org)
  • In conclusion, Principal Process Analysis is a simple-to-use method, which constitutes an additional and useful tool for analysing the complex dynamical behaviour of biological systems. (springer.com)
  • Biological systems manifest many important examples of emergent properties in the complex interplay of components. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fractional complex transformation was applied to turn the fractional biological models into an equivalent integer order ordinary differential equation. (aimsciences.org)
  • A collection of models of biological parts that can be freely reused and composed with each other to produce more complex models. (openwetware.org)
  • Scientists at Washington State University-Tri Cities and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are modeling electron energy deposition patterns as produced by the electron microbeam developed at PNNL to determine how it may be used in the study of more complex biological systems. (phys.org)
  • In order to adopt a general workflow for complex biological matrices with respect to a new blood-brain barrier (BBB) model, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography method has been developed. (wiley.com)
  • Vertex models are a popular approach to simulating the mechanical and dynamical properties of dense biological tissues, describing the tissue as a network of polygons. (rsc.org)
  • Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. (harvard.edu)
  • Microscope image of a vertical slice through a skin-tissue model showing the range of penetration depths calculated for 25-, 50-, and 90-keV electron beams. (phys.org)
  • The procedure herein presented is based on comparison of different models in terms of their out of sample predictive ability, for a specified loss function. (aimsciences.org)
  • The predictive capabilities of these models, in particular under changing environmental conditions, naturally rely strongly on the model formulation, including choice of functional groups and the form of their representation, i.e., their parameterisation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Using powerful computers to model the intricate dance of atoms and molecules, researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have revealed the mechanism behind an important biological reaction. (nanowerk.com)
  • Quantum mechanics allows researchers to do things that can't be done with classical physics, such as modeling the way chemical bonds break and form, or including the effect of proton "tunneling" -- allowing protons to move through energy barriers that normal logic would deem impossible. (nanowerk.com)
  • The results, which matched the researchers' theoretical modelling of the process, offer a method for manipulating force and pressure in order to bind emulsions. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The famous quip of Monod that "… anything found to be true of E [ scherichia ] coli must also be true of elephants" reflects the widely held belief that the attention and resources of researchers are most effectively focused on a few wisely chosen "model systems" ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Modeling biological systems can provide key insights for scientists and medical researchers, but periodic cycles that repeat themselves so-called oscillatory systems pose some key challenges. (bio-medicine.org)