Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

Quantitative assessment of the morphology of the pig's head used as a model in surgical experimentation. Part 1: Methods of Measurements. (1/79074)

Thirty-two surface measurements were described for assessment of the effect of complex surgical operations on the skeleton of the face in pigs. The methods of measurements imitate those of anthropometry. The surface measurements can complement cephalometry with data about the changes in the soft tissue and thus improve the documentation of the effect of surgery. This paper can help in the evaluation of complicated osteotomy procedures using the pig as the animal model, for facial reconstruction research in humans.  (+info)

Investigation of the theory and mechanism of the origin of the second heart sound. (2/79074)

To investigate further the origin of the second heart sound we studied human subjects, dogs, and a model in vitro of the cardiovascular system. Intra-arterial sound, pressure, and, where possible, flow and high speed cine (2,000 frames/sec) were utilized. The closure sound of the semilunar valves was of higher amplitude in be ventricles than in their respective arterial cavities. The direction of inscription of the main components of intra-arterial sound were opposite in direction to the components of intraventricular sound. Notches, representative of pressure increments, were noted on the ventricular pressure tracings and were coincident with the components of sound. The amplitude of the closure sound varied with diastolic pressure, but remained unchanged with augmentation of forward and retrograde aortic flow. Cines showed second sound to begin after complete valvular closure, and average leaflet closure rate was constant regardless of pressure. Hence, the semilunar valves, when closed, act as an elastic membrane and, when set into motion, generate compression and expansion of the blood, producing transient pressure changes indicative of sound. The magnitude of the initial stretch is related to the differential pressure between the arterial and ventricular chambers. Sound transients which follow the major components of the second sound appear to be caused by the continuing stretch and recoil of the leaflets. Clinically unexplained findings such as the reduced or absent second sound in calcific aortic stenosis and its paradoxical presence in congenital aortic stenosis may be explained by those observations.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (3/79074)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

Hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations. (4/79074)

The amount of hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations is studied by using the infinite site model and stepwise mutation model simultaneously. A formula is developed for the bivariate probability generating function for the number of codon differences and the number of electromorph state differences between two randomly chosen cistrons. Using this formula, the distribution as well as the mean and variance of the number of codon differences between two identical or nonidentical electromorphs are studied. The distribution of the number of codon differences between two randomly chosen identical electromorphs is similar to the geometric distribution but more leptokurtic. Studies are also made on the number of codon differences between two electromorphs chosen at random one from each of two populations which have been separated for an arbitrary number of generations. It is shown that the amount of hidden genetic variability is very large if the product of effective population size and mutation rate is large.  (+info)

The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters. (5/79074)

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed.  (+info)

Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms. (6/79074)

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (7/79074)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/79074)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

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Definition of internal-external balance model in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is internal-external balance model? Meaning of internal-external balance model as a finance term. What does internal-external balance model mean in finance?
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The first contemporary textbook on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to include instructions on MATLAB , Mathematica , and MapleTM, A Course in Ordinary Differential Equations focuses on applications and methods of analytical and numerical solutions, emphasizing approaches used in the typical engineering, physics, or mathematics students field of study.Stressing applications wherever possible, the authors have written this text with the applied math, engineer, or science major in mind. It includes a number of modern topics that are not commonly found in a traditional sophomore-level text. For example, Chapter 2 covers direction fields, phase line techniques, and the Runge-Kutta method; another chapter discusses linear algebraic topics, such as transformations and eigenvalues. Chapter 6 considers linear and nonlinear systems of equations from a dynamical systems viewpoint and uses the linear algebra insights from the previous chapter; it also includes modern applications like epidemiological models
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Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. In this introductory course on Ordinary Differential Equations, we first provide basic terminologies on the theory of differential equations ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mathematical equation of fusion index of tetanic contraction of skeletal muscles. AU - Watanabe, Shogo. AU - Kitawaki, T.. AU - Oka, Hisao. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - The fusion index (FI) is an index that can evaluate the tetanic progression of the skeletal muscles. Although the FI-frequency curve (FFC), which is obtained by changing the stimulation frequency, is greatly affected by muscle fiber type and fiber compositions, there are no reports of a mathematical equation that can express the FFC. In this study, the FFC was measured for the gastrocnemius, vastus intermedius, and soleus muscles of rats, and the mathematical equation (FFC-equation) was proposed. The FFC-equation (FI(f)) was proportional to the h-th power of f, and was in inverse proportion to the sum of the h-th power of k and the h-th power of f. f was the stimulation frequency, k was the stimulation frequency at 50% of FI, and h reflected the gradient of FFC. As a result, the approximated curve produced by ...
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Nts did not maintain a stable steady state when pyruvate and lactate were included in the baseline perfusate so data were averaged 25 to 35 min post DCA
Mechanistic within-host models integrating blood anti-malarial drug concentrations with the parasite-time profile provide a valuable decision tool for determining dosing regimens for anti-malarial treatments, as well as a formative component of population-level drug resistance models. We reviewed published anti-malarial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models to identify the challenges for these complex models where parameter estimation from clinical field data is limited. The inclusion of key pharmacodynamic processes in the mechanistic structure adopted varies considerably. These include the life cycle of the parasite within the red blood cell, the action of the anti-malarial on a specific stage of the life cycle, and the reduction in parasite growth associated with immunity. With regard to estimation of the pharmacodynamic parameters, the majority of studies simply compared descriptive summaries of the simulated outputs to published observations of host and parasite responses from clinical ...
Mathematical modeling and computer simulations have become an integral part of modern biological research. The strength of theoretical approaches is in the simplification of complex biological systems. We here consider the general problem of receptor-ligand binding in the context of antibody-antigen binding. On the one hand, we establish a quantitative mapping between macroscopic binding rates of an ordinary differential equation model and their microscopic equivalents as obtained from simulating the spatio-temporal binding kinetics by agent-based models. On the other hand, we investigate the impact of various receptor properties - such as their dimensionality of motion, morphology and binding valency - on the receptor-ligand binding kinetics. To this end, we implemented an algorithm that simulates antigen binding by B cell derived receptors with a Y-shaped morphology that can move in different dimensionalities, i.e. either as membrane-anchored receptors or as soluble receptors. The mapping of the
Recently, epigenetic-mediated mechanisms - which involve heritable changes in gene expression in the absence of alterations in DNA sequences - have been proposed as contributing to asthma. In this issue of the JCI, Hollingsworth and colleagues report on the effect of prenatal maternal dietary intake of methyl donors on the risk of allergic airway disease in offspring in mice and show that these effects involve epigenetic regulation (see the related article beginning on page 3462). Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors was associated with greater airway allergic inflammation and IgE production in F1 and, to some extent, F2 progeny. Site-specific differences in DNA methylation and reduced transcriptional activity were detected. If these findings are confirmed, a new paradigm for asthma pathogenesis may be emerging. ...
Recently, epigenetic-mediated mechanisms - which involve heritable changes in gene expression in the absence of alterations in DNA sequences - have been proposed as contributing to asthma. In this issue of the JCI, Hollingsworth and colleagues report on the effect of prenatal maternal dietary intake of methyl donors on the risk of allergic airway disease in offspring in mice and show that these effects involve epigenetic regulation (see the related article beginning on page 3462). Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors was associated with greater airway allergic inflammation and IgE production in F1 and, to some extent, F2 progeny. Site-specific differences in DNA methylation and reduced transcriptional activity were detected. If these findings are confirmed, a new paradigm for asthma pathogenesis may be emerging. ...
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a control system governed by a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations. The partial differential equations govern the evolution of the system in the interior of some spatial domain, and the ordinary differential equations describe the evolution of the boundary data; the control enters through the boundary ordinary differential equations in a bilinear fashion. We provide sufficient conditions for feedback stabilization of such ``hybrid systems. Two examples to wave equations with dynamic boundary conditions are provided ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor growth dynamics with nutrient limitation and cell proliferation time delay. AU - Alsheri, Ahuod. AU - Alzahrani, Ebraheem O.. AU - Asiri, Asim. AU - El-Dessoky, Mohamed M.. AU - Kuang, Yang. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - It is known that avascular spherical solid tumors grow monotonically, often tends to a limiting final size. This is repeatedly confirmed by various mathematical models consisting of mostly ordinary differential equations. However, cell growth is limited by nutrient and its proliferation incurs a time delay. In this paper, we formulate a nutrient limited compartmental model of avascular spherical solid tumor growth with cell proliferation time delay and study its limiting dynamics. The nutrient is assumed to enter the tumor proportional to its surface area. This model is a modification of a recent model which is built on a two-compartment model of cancer cell growth with transitions between proliferating and quiescent cells. Due to the limitation of ...
Oscar A Linares,1 William E Schiesser,2 Jeffrey Fudin,3–6 Thien C Pham,6 Jeffrey J Bettinger,6 Roy O Mathew,6 Annemarie L Daly7 1Translational Genomic
Attempts to formulate realistic models of the development of the human oculomotor control system have led to the conclusion that evolutionary factors play a crucial role. Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. In particular, I shall consider the evolution of appropriate innate starting points for learning/adaptation, patterns of learning rates that vary across different system components, learning rates that vary during the systems lifetime, and the relevance of individual differences across the evolved populations.. ...
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Mathematics is a very helpful tool that can be used to describe naturally arising phenomena, quantity, structure, shape, change, and relationships.What constitutes the notion of useless anyway? Mathematical equations are simply there to state the relationship of two expressions. There is also an infinite amount of mathematical equations, so you could not possibly write all the useless ones here anyway. Because mathematical equations can be created indiscriminately, there will be infinite numbers of useless mathematical equations and infinite numbers of useful mathematical equations depending on your definition of useless ...
Mathematics is a very helpful tool that can be used to describe naturally arising phenomena, quantity, structure, shape, change, and relationships.What constitutes the notion of useless anyway? Mathematical equations are simply there to state the relationship of two expressions. There is also an infinite amount of mathematical equations, so you could not possibly write all the useless ones here anyway. Because mathematical equations can be created indiscriminately, there will be infinite numbers of useless mathematical equations and infinite numbers of useful mathematical equations depending on your definition of useless ...
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Membranes are the most common cellular structures in both plants and animals. They are now recognized as being involved in almost all aspects of cellular activity ranging from motility and food entrapment in simple unicellular organisms, to energy transduction, immunorecognition, nerve conduction and biosynthesis in plants and higher organisms. This functional diversity is reflected in the wide variety of lipids and particularly of proteins that compose different membranes. An understanding of the physical principles that govern the molecular organization of membranes is essential for an understanding of their physiological roles since structure and function are much more interdependent in membranes than in, say, simple chemical reactions in solution. We must recognize, however, that the word understanding means different things in different disciplines, and nowhere is this more apparent than in this multidisciplinary area where biology, chemistry and physics meet ...
The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data is one of the most difficult problems in systems biology. This is due to several reasons, among them the combinatorial explosion of possible network topologies, limited information content of the experimental data with high levels of noise, and the complexity of gene regulation at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. At the same time, quantitative, dynamic models, ideally with probability distributions over model topologies and parameters, are highly desirable. We present a novel approach to infer such models from data, based on nonlinear differential equations, which we embed into a stochastic Bayesian framework. We thus address both the stochasticity of experimental data and the need for quantitative dynamic models. Furthermore, the Bayesian framework allows it to easily integrate prior knowledge into the inference process. Using stochastic sampling from the Bayes posterior distribution,
ABSTRACT:We consider a minimal cascade model previously proposed ~1 for the mitotic oscillator driving the embryonic cell division cycle. The model is based on a bicyclic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cascade involving cyclin and cdc2 kinase. By constructing stability diagrams showing domains of periodic behavior as a function of the maximum rates of the kinases and phosphatases involved in the two cycles of the cascade, we investigate the role of these converter enzymes in the oscillatory mechanism. Oscillations occur when the balance of kinase and phosphatase rates in each cycle is in a range bounded by two critical values. The results suggest ways to arrest the mitotic oscillator by altering the maximum rates of the converter enzymes. These results bear on the control of cell proliferation. The original paper reference is cited below: Arresting the mitotic oscillator and the control of cell proliferation: insights from a cascade model for cdc2 kinase activation, Goldbeter, A. and ...
Title: Stochastic and deterministic spatial models for complex systems Abstract: Interacting particle models are often employed to gain understanding of the emergence of macroscopic phenomena from microscopic laws of nature. These individual-based models capture fine details, including randomness and discreteness of individuals, that are not considered in continuum models such as partial differential equations (PDE) and integral-differential equations. The challenge, which is fundamental in any multi-scale modeling approach for complex systems, is how to simultaneously retain key information in microscopic models as well as efficiency and robustness of macroscopic models. In this talk, I will discuss how this challenge can be overcome by elucidating the probabilistic connections between particle models and PDE, in particular, why naively adding diffusion terms to ordinary differential equations might fail to account for spatial dynamics in population models. These connections also explain how ...
Title: Stochastic and deterministic spatial models for complex systems Abstract: Interacting particle models are often employed to gain understanding of the emergence of macroscopic phenomena from microscopic laws of nature. These individual-based models capture fine details, including randomness and discreteness of individuals, that are not considered in continuum models such as partial differential equations (PDE) and integral-differential equations. The challenge, which is fundamental in any multi-scale modeling approach for complex systems, is how to simultaneously retain key information in microscopic models as well as efficiency and robustness of macroscopic models. In this talk, I will discuss how this challenge can be overcome by elucidating the probabilistic connections between particle models and PDE, in particular, why naively adding diffusion terms to ordinary differential equations might fail to account for spatial dynamics in population models. These connections also explain how ...
Greaves, M. F. (2004) Biological models for leukaemia and lymphoma. In: Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis: Contributions of Molecular Epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications, 157 . IARC Press, Lyon, France, pp. 351-372. ISBN 978-928322157-9 ...
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Multiscale modeling has emerged as a powerful approach to interpret and capitalize on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. We present a multiscale model of angiogenesis that heralds the start of a large scale initiative to integrate related biological models. The goal of the integrative project is to better understand underlying biological mechanisms from the molecular level up through the organ systems level, and test new therapeutic strategies. Model methodology includes ordinary and partial differential equations, stochastic models, complex logical rules, and agent-based architectures. Current modules represent blood flow, oxygen transport, growth factor distribution and signaling, cell sensing, cell movement and cell proliferation. Challenges of integration lie in connecting modules that are diversely designed, seamlessly coordinating feedback, and representing spatial and time scales from ligand-receptor interactions and intracellular signaling, to cell-level movement ...
Madzvamuse, A. and Maini, P. K. and Wathen, A. J. (2005) A moving grid finite element method for the simulation of pattern generation by Turing models on growing domains. Journal of Scientific Computing, 24 (2). pp. 247-262. Maini, P. K. (2005) Foreword, Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation. In: Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation. Birkhauser, Boston, vii-viii. ISBN 987654321 Maini, P. K. (2005) Morphogenesis, Biological, Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science. Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science, n/a (n/a). pp. 587-588. Maini, P. K. and Dallon, J. C. and Sherratt, J. A. (2005) A multiscale model for collagen alignment in wound healing. Journal of Physiology, 561P, . 5P. Meyer-Hermann, M. E. and Maini, P. K. (2005) Cutting edge: back to "one-way" germinal centers. The Journal of Immunology, 174 (5). pp. 2489-2493. Meyer-Hermann, M. E. and Maini, P. K. (2005) Interpreting two-photon imaging data of lymphocyte motility. Physical Review E, 71 (6). 061912-1. ...
Partial differential equations arise in the mathematical modeling of many physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. They play a crucial role in diverse subject areas, such as fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, material science, astrophysics, financial modeling, and hydrogeology, for example. This course is an introduction to partial differential equations with emphasis on the wave, diffusion and Laplace equations. The focus will be on understanding the physical meaning and mathematical properties of solutions of partial differential equations. Methods of solutions include separation of variables using orthogonal series, transform methods, method of characteristics, and some numerical methods. 3 sh.. Prerequisites: MATH 420.. ...
Biological systems are inherently hierarchal and multiscale in time and space. A major challenge of systems biology is to describe biological systems as a computational model, which can be used to derive novel hypothesis and drive experiments leading to new knowledge. The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis approach has been successfully applied to metabolism and to the macromolecular synthesis machinery assembly. Here, we present the first integrated stoichiometric multiscale model of metabolism and macromolecular synthesis for Escherichia coli K12 MG1655, which describes the sequence-specific synthesis and function of almost 2000 gene products at molecular detail. We added linear constraints, which couple enzyme synthesis and catalysis reactions. Comparison with experimental data showed improvement of growth phenotype prediction with the multiscale model over E. colis metabolic model alone. Many of the genes covered by this integrated model are well conserved across enterobacters and ...
We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second- order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter ...
You Are Here: Incremental Model Identification of Reaction and Mass Transfer Kinetics In a Liquid-Liquid Reaction System : An Experimental Study. ...
An accurate cell-integrated semi Lagrangian and semi-implicit scheme based on step-functions. A new and very accurate cell-integrated semi Lagrangian (CISL) two time level scheme has been formulated and tested for the shallow water equations in a plane channel model with realistic variation of the Coriolis-parameter and including topography. The implementation includes semi-implicit time stepping of the gravity wave terms. Furthermore, two-dimensional advection of passive tracers has been tested in idealized flows as well as in a fully general flow.. Regarding basic features, the new formulation is based on step-functions, which implicitly are advected with the flow across cell boundaries. The scheme is exact in case of passive advection by a flow that is constant in time and space. This means that the accuracy is of indefinite order. In addition to this attractive feature the scheme shows very small numerical dispersion in fully non-linear and divergent flows and in such flows the scheme is ...
Mathematical models are powerful tools in modern life sciences. Similar to experimental techniques, models facilitate the study of biological processes and hypothesis testing. Furthermore, models allow for the integrative assessment of multiple datasets as well as the prediction of latent variables and the design of future experiments. To achieve this, the model structure has to be defined and the unknown model parameters have to be estimated from experimental data. These tasks are challenging for a wide range of application problems. In this presentation, I will outline some of our work on data-driven mathematical modelling. Firstly, I will talk about the modelling of intracellular signalling using large-scale ordinary differential equations (ODEs). I will present a scalable optimization framework we developed to calibrate ODEs with thousands of state variables and parameters, and how our models outperform established statistical models. Secondly, I will talk about the modelling of ...
Computational cardiac models provide important insights into the underlying mechanisms of heart function. Parameter estimation in these models is an ongoing challenge with many existing models being overparameterised. Sensitivity analysis presents a key tool for exploring the parameter identifiability. While existing methods provide insights into the significance of the parameters, they are unable to identify redundant parameters in an efficient manner. We present a new singular value decomposition based algorithm for determining parameter identifiability in cardiac models. Using this local sensitivity approach, we investigate the Ten Tusscher 2004 rapid inward rectifier potassium and the Mahajan 2008 rabbit L-type calcium currents in ventricular myocyte models. We identify non-significant and redundant parameters and improve the models by reducing them to minimum ones that are validated to have only identifiable parameters. The newly proposed approach provides a new method for model validation and
Would you like to know how to customize the promotion of Actual Configuration Items (CIs) in SmartCloud Control Desk and Change and Configuration Management Database (CCMDB)? The new wiki article System Properties used by Actual CI Promotion describes several system properties and maxvars that you can use to affect the behavior of promotions. For example, you can define whether a promotion should create attributes even if the effective value is blank. This article is available on the SmartCloud Control Desk wiki and the Change and Configuration Management Database wiki .
What is experimental literature? How has experimentation affected the course of literary history, and how is it shaping literary expression today? Literary experiment has always been diverse and challenging, but never more so than in our age of digital…
Several cellular activities, such as directed cell migration, are coordinated by an intricate network of biochemical reactions which lead to a polarised state of the cell, in which cellular symmetry is broken, causing the cell to have a well defined front and back. Recent work on balancing biological complexity with mathematical tractability resulted in the proposal and formulation of a famous minimal model for cell polarisation, known as the wave pinning model. In this study, we present a three-dimensional generalisation of this mathematical framework through the maturing theory of coupled bulk-surface semilinear partial differential equations in which protein compartmentalisation becomes natural. We show how a local perturbation over the surface can trigger propagating reactions, eventually stopped in a stable profile by the interplay with the bulk component. We describe the behaviour of the model through asymptotic and local perturbation analysis, in which the role of the geometry is ...
The study of Complex Systems focuses on how interactions of constituents within a system, individually or grouped into clusters, produce behavioral patterns locally or globally and how these interact with the external environment. Over the last few decades the study of Complex Systems has gone through a growing rate of interest and today, given a sufficiently big set of data, we are able to construct comprehensive models describing emerging characteristics and properties of complex phenomena transcending the different domains of physical, biological and social sciences. The use of network theory has shown, amongst others, a particular t in describing statical and dynamical correlations of complex data sets because its ability to deal not only with deterministic quantities but also with probabilistic methods. A complex system is generally an open system flexible in adapting to variable external conditions in the way that it exchanges information with environment and adjusts its internal structure ...
Biological pattern formation often relies on self-organization, integrating biochemical with mechanical patterning processes. Such patterns are particularly important during embryogenesis, as they increase spatial complexity through a sequence of organizing processes that generally build upon previously established pre-patterns. How pre-patterns control self-organization remains unexplored. Here we investigate PAR polarity establishment in the C. elegans zygote, by combining measurements of the spatial distribution of protein numbers and fluxes with a physical theory. We characterize the handover from a pre-pattern to mechanochemical self-organization, and find that guiding cues from the centrosome steer the patterning system comprised of PAR proteins and the actomyosin cortex to a transition point beyond which the patterned state becomes self-organized. This mechanism of controlled pattern formation integrates mechanical and molecular aspects of biological pattern formation with guiding cues. ...
Article Estimation of total nitrogen transport and retention during flow in a catchment using a mass balance model incorporating the effects of land cover distribution and human activity information. The load of total nitrogen (TN) in stream water wa...
Brain cancer is a very complex and deadly disease. Traditional diagnoses and treatments of this disease are from in vitro experimental observations. Although biologists have developed many experimental data at the molecular, cellular, micro-environmental and tissue scales, only very few scientists have integrated these data into multi-scale models to study tumor response to treatment.. Cellular automata (CA) methods have been widely applied to model brain tumor growth [1, 2]. Although CA models are good at describing cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions, this type of discrete modelling approach falls short on investigating most fluid dynamic aspects of the tumor microenvironment. Alternatively, Continuum models employ systems of partial differential equations to simulate the solid tumor invasion by updating boundaries of different sub-domains of tumor based on the level-set method [3, 4]. It is, however, hard with this approach to describe cell-cell interactions, such as the ...
In this work, we develop a mathematical formalism based on a 3D in vitro model that is used to simulate the early stages of angiogenesis. The model treats cells as individual entities that are migrating as a result of chemotaxis and durotaxis. The phenotypes used here are endothelial cells that can be distinguished into stalk and tip (leading) cells. The model takes into account the dynamic interaction and interchange between both phenotypes. Next to the cells, the model takes into account several proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor, delta-like ligand 4, urokinase plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase, which are computed through the solution of a system of reaction-diffusion equations. The method used in the present study is classified into the hybrid approaches. The present study, implemented in three spatial dimensions, demonstrates the feasibility of the approach that is qualitatively confirmed by experimental results ...
MODULE 3: INTEGRAL CALCULUS. VTU Important Questions. Lecture 1: Review of Integral Calculus. Lecture 2: Evaluation of Multiple Integrals. Lecture 3: Evaluation of Double Integrals over the region. Lecture 4: Changing the Order of Integration. Lecture 5: Changing into Polar Coordinates. Lecture 6: Applications of Multiple Integrals. Lecture 7: Beta & Gamma functions - Properties. Lecture 8: Problems on Gamma function. Lecture 9: Problems on Beta functions. MODULE 4: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. VTU Important Questions. Lecture 1: Exact - Reducible to Exact D.E. - Problems. Lecture 2: Bernoullis Differential Equations. Lecture 3: Applications - Orthogonal Trajectories. Lecture 4: Applications - Newtons Law of Cooling Lecture 5: Applications - Electrical Circuits. Lecture 6: Nonlinear Differential Equations. Lecture 7: Clairauts Equation - Problems. Lecture 8: Reducible to Clairauts equation ...
In the last three decades, several models on the interaction of glucose and insulin have appeared in the literature, the mostly used one is generally known as the "minimal model" which was first published in 1979 and modified in 1986. Recently, this minimal model has been questioned by De Gaetano and Arino [4] from both physiological and modeling aspects. Instead, they proposed a new and mathematically more reasonable model, called "dynamic model". Their model makes use of certain simple and specific functions and introduces time delay in a particular way. The outcome is that the model always admits a globally asymptotically stable steady state. The objective of this paper is to find out if and how this outcome depends on the specific choice of functions and the way delay is incorporated. To this end, we generalize the dynamical model to allow more general functions and an alternative way of incorporating time delay. Our findings show that in theory, such models can possess unstable positive ...
The aim of this work is to study, by means of computational simulations, the induction and sustaining of nonsynaptic epileptiform activity.The computational model consists of a network of cellular bodies of neurons and glial cells connected to a three-dimensional (3D) network of juxtaposed extracellular compartments. the extracellular electrodiffusion calculation was used to simulate the extracellular potential. Each cellular body was represented in terms of the transmembrane ionic transports (Na(+)/K(+) pumps, ionic channels, and cotransport mechanisms), the intercellular electrodiffusion through gap-junctions, and the neuronal interaction by electric field and the variation of cellular volume.The computational model allows simulating the nonsynaptic epileptiform activity and the extracellular potential captured the main feature of the experimental measurements. the simulations of the concomitant ionic fluxes and concentrations can be used to propose the basic mechanisms involved in the ...
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Robustness of system behavior to parameter variation. Correlation between the time-binned PSTH of equally-spaced groups of neurons responding to the same object
This workshop, closely related to DArcy Thompsons legacy, will focus on recent advances, mathematical challenges, and promising new directions in research on mathematical aspects of form in living systems. Stochastic models and topological approaches, including knot theory, have been employed to study shape evolution, for example the structure of the DNA. Cellular and developmental biology have recently seen a surge in the use of mathematical models and new conceptual frameworks for problems such as the self-organisation of the cytoskeleton or gradients of morphogens in embryos. However, the constitutive features of living systems pose unique technical and conceptual challenges. Some of these challenges concern construction a multiscale framework for agent-based models, and employing non-equilibrium physics to address non-conservative nature of living systems, using continuum models such as the (visco)elasticity of growing bodies.. Workshop details and registration will be available at ...
Many mathematical models have been proposed for the process of cell polarization. Some of these are functional models that capture a class of dynamical behaviour, whereas others are derived from features of signalling molecules. Some mechanistic models are detailed, and therefore complex, whereas others are simplified. Each type contributes to our understanding of cell polarization. However, the huge variety at different levels of detail makes comparisons challenging. Here, we provide examples of both elementary and more detailed models for polarization. We also display how a recent mathematical method, local perturbation analysis, can provide an appropriate tool for such comparisons. This technique simplifies and speeds up the model development process by revealing the effect of model extensions, parameter variations and in silico manipulations such as knock-out or over-expression of key molecules. Finally, simulations in both one dimension and two dimensions, and particularly in deforming two
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This paper presents a parametric study of the effects of radiation heat loss and non-constant heating on the measurement accuracy of thermal properties of micro/nanoscale
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of the nuclear membrane, active transport, and cell shape on the Hes1 and p53-Mdm2 pathways. T2 - Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. AU - Sturrock,Marc. AU - Terry,Alan J.. AU - Xirodimas,Dimitris P.. AU - Thompson,Alastair M.. AU - Chaplain,Mark A. J.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - There are many intracellular signalling pathways where the spatial distribution of the molecular species cannot be neglected. These pathways often contain negative feedback loops and can exhibit oscillatory dynamics in space and time. Two such pathways are those involving Hes1 and p53-Mdm2, both of which are implicated in cancer.In this paper we further develop the partial differential equation (PDE) models of Sturrock et al. (J. Theor. Biol., 273:15-31, 2011) which were used to study these dynamics. We extend these PDE models by including a nuclear membrane and active transport, assuming that proteins are convected in the cytoplasm towards the nucleus in order to model transport along ...
The Membership Focal Points are a network of dedicated staff based in the IUCN regional and country Offices. Please note that in addition to the below list, there are a number of national Membership Focal Points.. Please contact the relevant Membership Focal Point below for any necessary assistance, who will of course let you know if there is a national focal point for your country/territory. N.B. The Membership Focal Points are listed according to Secretariats operational regions/areas, not the official Statutory regions.. ...
The Membership Focal Points are a network of dedicated staff based in the IUCN regional and country Offices. Please note that in addition to the below list, there are a number of national Membership Focal Points.. Please contact the relevant Membership Focal Point below for any necessary assistance, who will of course let you know if there is a national focal point for your country/territory. N.B. The Membership Focal Points are listed according to Secretariats operational regions/areas, not the official Statutory regions.. ...
Many processes in physics, the life sciences and technology that evolve in time are modeled by initial and boundary value problems for partial differential or integro-differential equations. The resulting mathematical theory of Evolution Equations involves tools from many fields of mathematical analysis, notably from functional analysis, operator theory and partial differential equations. This course is a self-contained introduction to the subject. It covers background materials like duality theory, the Bochner integral, vector-valued analytic functions, distributions and Fourier multipliers, vector-valued Laplace transforms, Tauberian theorems, asymptotic analysis, and spectral theory for closed operators on Banach spaces. The theory of Cauchy problems and operator semigroups will be developed completely in the spirit of Laplace transforms. Existence and uniqueness, regularity, numerical approximation, and asymptotic behavior of solutions will be covered and diverse applications to concrete ...
This study examines two factors which affect the dimensions of the postcranial skeleton of Bovidae: physical constraints of increasing size and adaptations to particular habitats or modes of locomotion. Total limb lengths, lengths of proximal bones, diameters, and areas of long bones all scale more or less predictably with body size. All lengths scale with negative allometry, whereas areas and diameters vary from slightly negative to positive, depending on the bone. Comparisons of exponents of the scaling relationships to expectations of geometric and elastic scaling theory show that bovids do not scale geometrically, and in some dimensions seem to scale elastically. However, elastic factors cannot be the sole physical constraint governing scaling since many dimensions differ significantly from elastic theory. In addition, some limb elements show changes in gross morphology which violate the assumptions of elastic theory. Length of radius, metacarpal, and metatarsal do not scale predictably with ...
External Factors and their Influence on Gene ExpressionBy Jessica SaxtonAbstractThe discovery of DNA as the source of heredity and genetics opened countless doors for the development of more theories on genetics. Through the development of the known ge...
The effect of radiation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing system of partial differential equations was transformed into ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference method. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. It was found that the local heat transfer rate at the surface decreases with increasing values of the magnetic and radiation parameters ...
Thanks for your answers. Im not sure I was clear in my original post. Im trying to determine the basis or most fundamental principle associated with the principle of least action (or stationary action). The laws of motion can be derived from that principle. Since they can be derived from it, I dont have to rely on them being correct beforehand; thats the whole point of the principle of least action. I should be able to calculate the Lagrangian and the correct equations should just fall out. Feynman seemed to indicate that the most fundamental principle is that the proper laws of motion will follow curves with the smallest action (or stationary action). However, there is one other requirement according to his article -- for the curves to be valid, they must start and end at the same point ...
There a wide variety of biological theories of ageing from macro-level concepts such as evolutionary trade-offs and reliability theory to system-based theories of neuroendocrine and immune function and molecular and cellular theories such as the role of a biological clock. Animal studies can elegantly demonstrate the role of specific pathways such as insulin signalling but their relevance to human ageing remains controversial. Fundamentally, the loss of homeostatic control across a wide range of systems may suggest that no single pathway is necessary or sufficient for ageing. The new findings from GWAS studies of chronic diseases may also highlight commonality of pathways across phenotypes.. Within the context of the Halcyon programme we will present preliminary results around our work on telomeres, the hypothalamic pituitary axis and genetic variants on potential ageing traits. We will discuss future outputs as well the challenges of exploring these ideas within an epidemiological ...
A new two-dimensional surfactant flooding simulator for a three-component (water, petroleum, chemical), two-phase (aqueous, oleous) system in porous media is developed and analyzed. The compositional physical model is governed by a system of non-linear partial differential equations composed of Darcys and mass conservation equations. The system is then numerically solved by a finite difference method using the IMPEC (IMplicit Pressure and Explicit Concentration) scheme. Physical properties are described by a set of concentration-dependent algebraic equations. Additionally, a novel numerical stability analysis is presented in order to study the robustness of the new simulator. The oil recovery factor showed a strong dependency on the surfactant properties and phase behavior, which should be carefully evaluated. In order to achieve this, the new simulator utilizes and modifies a simplified ternary diagram to model accurately the component partitioning. Results showed that surfactant partitioning ...
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Our approach to the problem of understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a material focuses on fundamental concepts, which are exact and lead to broad results that encompass all material systems. For example, one can calculate precisely and without approximation the fundamental limit of the efficiency Organic nonlinear optics
Provides a broad spectrum of numerical techniques and real life applications of these techniques All fundamentally important aspects of numerical
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Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: It is shown by means of some examples from the theories of linear algebraic equations, linear integral equations and nonlinear differential equations that the effectiveness of the method of expanding a solution in a power series in terms of a parameter may in many cases be greatly increased by expanding in terms of a suitably chosen function of the parameter. This is particularly the case when the physical setting of the problem allows only positive values of the parameter to enter ...
Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. It is relevant in determining the malignancy of several tumor lesions including glioblastomas. Mathematical descriptions of sprouting angiogenesis have to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell ...
This paper is an introduction to biologically oriented computer laboratory projects using Excel. These projects help students develop mathematical and computational skills needed to pursue quantitatively oriented biological problems. Necessary Excel techniques and biological background will be provided. These projects are appropriate in calculus, biocalculus, modeling, and differential equations courses ...
How are muscles connected to bones at the cellular/tissue level? E.g., how are the ligaments and muscles attached to each other and the bone at the molecular level? Im trying to understand what "keeps them there". Thanks!!! ...
Cell signaling networks are complex systems that integrate information from the cellular environment (1-5). Maps of complex networks were derived by interconnecting the individual pathways obtained from experimental data (6, 7). These studies revealed that signaling networks contain numerous features, such as feedback and feedforward loops (8, 9), which render it virtually impossible for the human mind to decipher how signals are integrated within the pathways. Thus, computational approaches are needed to elucidate the regulatory properties of signaling networks (10-12).. Several groups have used ordinary differential equations (ODE) to analyze the dynamics of signaling networks and generate experimentally testable predictions (6, 13-17). The use of mass action ODE modeling, however, is impaired because of incomplete knowledge about the concentrations and kinetics of signaling intermediates.. Inferring the parameters for mass action modeling in signaling networks is challenging. The most common ...
Abstract: Techniques for modeling living biological systems include receiving constant values for multiple interaction factors w.sub.ij. A set of initial state values is received for state variables that indicate relevant properties of a living biological system. Also received is a set of trial values for perturbation variables that indicate factors that might affect one or more of the relevant properties of the biological system. A temporal change in a value for a particular state variable is determined based on a non-linear transformation of a sum of the trial value for the perturbation that affects the particular state added to a sum of all non-zero values for a product of w.sub.ij and a state variable over all state variables. In some embodiments, measurement-based values are received for a measurable subset of the state variables. Values for the constant interaction factors w.sub.ij are determined based on the measurement-based values ...
Comparative biochemistry demonstrates that the metabolites, complex biochemical networks, enzymes and regulatory mechanisms essential to all living cells are conserved in amazing detail throughout evolution. Thus, in order to evolve, an organism must overcome new adverse conditions without creating different but equally dangerous alterations in its ongoing successful metabolic relationship with its environment. Evidence suggests that stable long-term acquisitive evolution results from minor increases in mutation rates of genes related to a particular stress, with minimal disturbance to the balanced and resilient metabolism critical for responding to an unpredictable environment. Microorganisms have evolved specific biochemical feedback mechanisms that direct mutations to genes derepressed by starvation or other stressors in their environment. Transcription of the activated genes creates localized supercoiling and DNA secondary structures with unpaired bases vulnerable to mutation. The resulting ...
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BACKGROUND: Mathematic models and sensitivity analyses of biologic pathways have been used for exploring the dynamics and for detecting the key components of signaling pathways. METHODS: The authors previously developed a mathematic model of the epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (EGFR-ERK) pathway using ordinary differential equations from existing EGFR-ERK pathway models. By using prolonged ERK activation as an indicator that may lead to cell proliferation under certain circumstances, in the current study, a pathway sensitivity analysis was performed to test its capability of detecting pro-proliferative activities through altered protein levels to examine the effects on ERK activation. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that 12 of 20 oncoproteins and 4 of 5 tumor suppressors were detected, consistent with reported experimental works. Because pathway dynamics depend on many factors, some of which were not included in the current models, failure to detect ...
Essential knowledge 2.D.1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free ...
To understand this response, we constructed multiple models of the p53-Mdm2 negative feedback loop ranging in detail from a minimal 3-equation abstract model to a detailed, 25-equation mass-action model. These models vary both in their representations of the species, as well as their reactions with one another. In order to compare their mechanisms of operation, we are challenged to identify lumped parameters that can be computationally measured from each model. With such metrics in hand, it would be possible to compare their relationship to features of output trajectories across multiple models.. We have developed a small-signal technique to obtain two such metrics, and can compute the gain and transit time around feedback loops consisting of cascades of nonlinear chemical reactions. This method reduces to the lifetime of species in a reaction cascade under hypothesis that allow this lifetime to be computed. These particular metrics are motivated by the fact that many biological systems are ...
ABSTRACT: A total of 16 data sets on wild and cultivated fishes, crustaceans and molluscs were used to test and compare conventional growth curves (von Bertalanffy, Logistic, Gompertz and Richards) and a new growth model. Statistical properties for estimation of the models were evaluated and compared to determine suitability. The absolute value of the Hougaard measure of skewness of parameter estimates (h) was used as the criterion to evaluate statistical behavior of the models. For conventional curves, the cases where the estimates were severely skewed or contained considerable nonlinearity (h , 0.15) were: von Bertalanffy (93.5%), Logistic (87.5%), Gompertz (85.1%) and Richards (97.6%). Depending on the parameterization used in the new model, 87.5 to 91.6% had negligible skewness (h ≤ 0.1), indicating desirable close-to-linear behavior and better performance than conventional growth curves. The poor statistical properties for estimation of conventional growth curves call for a critical ...
View Notes - Lecture Week 1 & 2 from AHS 132 at Nassau CC. Homeostasis Control or regulation of bodily processes at optimal levels Maintain normal values of heart rate, blood pressure, pH, blood
The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work ...
In many important physical systems involving both diffusion and nonlinearity it often occurs that initially diffusion is the dominant mechanism. The question then arises as to whether or not linearization provides a uniformly valid first approximation for large times. The author attempts to partially answer this question by examining a number of simple model equations, both deterministic and stochastic. Several of the models are physically important and have been treated incorrectly in recent works. A major part of the analysis involves constructing asymptotic expansions for an interesting class of multidimensional integrals. (Author)(*INTEGRAL EQUATIONS
... ON THE MECHANISM OF COMPETITION IN YEAST CELLS. (1) No mathematical theories can be accepted by biologists without a most careful experimental verification. We can but agree with the following remarks made in Nature (H. T. H. P. 31) concerning the mathematical theory of the struggle for existence developed by Vito Volterra: "This work is connected with Prof. Volterras researches on integro-differential equations and their applications to mechanics. In view of the simplifying hypothesis adopted, the results are not likely to be accepted by biologists until they have been confirmed experimentally, but this work has as yet scarcely begun." First of all, very reasonable doubts may arise whether the equations of the struggle for existence given in the preceding chapter express the essence of the processes of competition, or whether they are merely empirical expressions. everybody remembers the attempt to study from a purely formalistic viewpoint the phenomena of heredity by calculating ...
Much of the study of turbulence requires statistics and stochastic processes, simply because the instanteous motions are too complicated to understand. This should not be taken to mean that the govering equations (usually the Navier-Stokes equations) are stochastic. Even simple non-linear equations can have deterministic solutions that look random. In other words, even though the solutions for a given set of initial and boundary conditions can be perfectly repeatable and predictable at a given time and point in space, it may be impossible to guess from the information at one point or time how it will behave at another (at least without solving the equations). Moreover, a slight change in the intial or boundary conditions may cause large changes in the solution at a given time and location; in particular, changes that we could not have anticipated. Most of the statistical analyses of turbulent flows are based on the idea of an ensemble average in one form or another. In some ways this is rather ...
A continuation of either CHE 129 or 131, introducing the fundamental principles of chemistry, including substantial illustrative material drawn from the chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biochemical systems. The principal topics covered are stoichiometry, the states of matter, chemical equilibrium and introductory thermodynamics, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, electron structure and chemical bonding, and chemical periodicity. The sequence emphasizes basic concepts, problem solving, and factual material. It provides the necessary foundation for students who wish to pursue further coursework in chemistry. This sequence is inappropriate for students who have completed two or more years of chemistry in high school; such students should take CHE 141, 142. Three lecture hours and one 80-minute workshop per week. May not be taken for credit in addition to CHE 152. This course has been designated as a High Demand/Controlled Access (HD/CA) course. Students registering for HD/CA courses for the ...
A continuation of either CHE 129 or 131, introducing the fundamental principles of chemistry, including substantial illustrative material drawn from the chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biochemical systems. The principal topics covered are stoichiometry, the states of matter, chemical equilibrium and introductory thermodynamics, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, electron structure and chemical bonding, and chemical periodicity. The sequence emphasizes basic concepts, problem solving, and factual material. It provides the necessary foundation for students who wish to pursue further coursework in chemistry. This sequence is inappropriate for students who have completed two or more years of chemistry in high school; such students should take CHE 141, 142. Three lecture hours and one 80-minute workshop per week. May not be taken for credit in addition to CHE 142.. Prerequisite: C or higher in CHE 129 or CHE 131; or C or higher in CHE 125 and D or higher in CHE 129 or CHE 131. Pre- or ...
Mathematical and computational models have become indispensable tools for integrating and interpreting heterogeneous biological data, understanding fundamental principles of biological system function
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Mathematical modeling is concerned with translating a natural phenomenon into a mathematical form. In this abstract form the underlying principles of the phenomenon can be carefully examined and real-world behavior can be interpreted in terms of mathematical shapes. The models we investigate include feedback phenomena, phase locked oscillators, multiple population dynamics, reaction-diffusion equations, shock waves, morphogenesis, and the spread of pollution, forest fires, and diseases. Many of these systems allow for some aspect of control, and we will investigate how to operate such controls in order to achieve a specific goal or optimize measures of performance.. ...
It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since ...
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The emerging of nanotechnology has increasingly gained expansions and applications in various materials science research and development. However, the exposure to nanoparticles and engineered nanomaterials can lead to adverse biological effects because the small sizes of nanoparticles can enter the human body and deposit in the organs or translocate from the intake area to the secondary organs and can cause inflammation. One of the most used nanoparticles is TiO2, which is commonly found in skin care and household products. It is still unclear how TiO2 nanoparticles are remained in human bodies after exposing. In the present study, we develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the bio-distribution of TiO2 concentrations in rat tissues. The model is validated with an existing in-vivo study in rats. We also extend our PBPK model to predict cell death caused by TiO2 nanoparticles in the rat liver using a dose-response model. The dose-response model accounts for the interplay
Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in stochastic partial differential equations where the driving noise is discontinuous. In this comprehensive monograph, two leading experts detail the evolution equation approach to their solution. Most of the results appeared here for the first time in book form. The authors start with a detailed analysis of Lévy processes in infinite dimensions and their reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces; cylindrical Lévy processes are constructed in terms of Poisson random measures; stochastic integrals are introduced. Stochastic parabolic and hyperbolic equations on domains of arbitrary dimensions are studied, and applications to statistical and fluid mechanics and to finance are also investigated. Ideal for researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and partial differential equations, this self-contained text will also interest those working on stochastic modeling in finance, statistical physics and environmental science. ...
Several stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) have been recently proposed for modelling reaction-diffusion processes in cellular and molecular biology. In this talk, two commonly used SSAs will be studied. The first SSA is an on-lattice model described by the reaction-diffusion master equation. The second SSA is an off-lattice model based on the simulation of Brownian motion of individual molecules and their reactive collisions. The connections between SSAs and the deterministic models (based on reaction-diffusion PDEs) will be presented. I will consider chemical reactions both at a surface and in the bulk. I will show how the microscopic parameters should be chosen to achieve the correct macroscopic reaction rate. This choice is found to depend on which SSA is used. I will also present multiscale algorithms which use models with a different level of detail in different parts of the computational domain ...
The green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has been widely recognized as a promising candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to store high lipid content and its natural metabolic versatility. Compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic models constructed from genome sequences enable quantitative insight into the transport and metabolism of compounds within a target organism. These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here, we describe the reconstruction, validation, and application of a genome-scale metabolic model for C. vulgaris UTEX 395, iCZ843. The reconstruction represents the most comprehensive model for any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism to date, based on the genome size and number of genes in the reconstruction. The highly curated model accurately predicts phenotypes under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. The model was validated against experimental data and lays the ...
The book lies at the interface of mathematics, social media analysis, and data science. Its authors aim to introduce a new dynamic modeling approach to the use of partial differential equations for describing information diffusion over online social networks.
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology. It defines a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. It originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Prices formalisation of contests, analysed as strategies, and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the results of competing strategies. Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory in focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change. This is influenced by the frequency of the competing strategies in the population. Evolutionary game theory has helped to explain the basis of altruistic behaviours in Darwinian evolution. It has in turn become of interest to economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and philosophers. Classical non-cooperative game theory was conceived by John von Neumann to determine optimal strategies in competitions between adversaries. A contest involves players, all of whom ...
Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) plays a central role in metabolic engineering and systems biology [1]. Metabolic fluxes most closely reflect the underlying metabolic phenotype, whereas other omics approaches only yield a sense of metabolic capacities (transcriptomics/proteomics) or thermodynamic driving forces (metabolomics). Metabolic flux analysis is particular important in rational strain engineering, where we specifically seek to manipulate the metabolic phenotype.. Due to the high complexity of the examined metabolic network, flux analysis typically involves the use of a stoichiometric model, in which the metabolic reactions available to the cell are parameterized before the fluxes are estimated from experimental data [2]. State-of-art flux analysis today includes the use of stable isotopes to overcome problems such as incomplete resolution of important cellular pathways or the need to rely on stoichiometric parameters with high uncertainty such as ATP yield (Yx/ATP) or P/O ratio which are ...
Photothermal therapy is a local treatment method for cancer and the heat energy generated from it could destroy the tumor cells. This study is aimed to investigate the temperature distribution in tumor tissue and surrounding health tissue of tumor bearing mice applying mathematical simulation model. Tumor bearing mice treated by laser combined with or without indocyanine green. Monte Carlo method and the Pennes bio-heat equation were used to calculate the light distribution and heat energy. COMSOL Multiphysic was adopted to construct three dimensional temperature distribution model. This study revealed that the data calculated by simulation model is in good agreement with the surface temperature monitored by infrared thermometer. Effected by the optical parameters and boundary conditions of tissue, the highest temperature of tissue treated by laser combined with indocyanine green was about 65 °C which located in tumor tissue and the highest temperature of tissue treated by laser was about 43 °C which
... the developmental biological model has been argued to better reflect underlying biological processes. Distinct genetic, ... Developmental biological model[edit]. Modern conceptions of personality, such as the Temperament and Character Inventory have ... The personality theorists consider temperament EAS model similar to the Big Five model in adults; however, this might be due to ... model is used to assess temperament in children. This model measures levels of emotionality, activity, sociability, and shyness ...
Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... Furthermore, these computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ...
Proving properties of biological models,. *Termination and liveness proving,[2] and. *Discovering invariants regarding mutable ...
Comparison of Neuron Models. Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Neocortical Pyramidal Neuron (Biological Neuron). HTM Model ... Similarity to other models[edit]. Bayesian networks[edit]. Likened to a Bayesian network, an HTM comprises a collection of ... HTMs model only layers 2 and 3 to detect spatial and temporal features of the input with 1 cell per column in layer 2 for ... Similarly to SDM developed by NASA in the 80s[19] and vector space models used in Latent semantic analysis, HTM also uses ...
Friedman, Morton (2008). Principles and models of biological transport. Springer. ISBN 978-0387-79239-2. .. ... In vivo model of facilitated diffusion[edit]. In living organisms, the main physical and biochemical processes that are ... The in vitro model, which is a very well known method of facilitated diffusion, that takes place outside of a living cell, ... The in vivo model mentioned above clearly explains 3-D and 1-D diffusion along the DNA strand and the binding of proteins to ...
Modelling biological systems. Computational biomodeling is a field concerned with building computer models of biological ... Various types of models of the brain include: *Realistic Brain Models: These models look to represent every aspect of the brain ... Simplifying Brain Models: These models look to limit the scope of a model in order to assess a specific physical property of ... is the science of using biological data to develop algorithms or models to understand biological systems and relationships. ...
Modell, J. G.; Rosenthal, N. E.; Harriett, A. E.; Krishen, A.; Asgharian, A.; Foster, V. J.; Metz, A.; Rockett, C. B.; Wightman ... The Journal of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research. 31 (4): 523-531. doi:10.3109/07420528.2013.874355. PMID 24397301.. .mw- ... a model to explain seasonal changes of brain 5-HTT as intermediate phenotype of the 5-HTTLPR". Psychopharmacology. 230 (3): 333 ... Biological Psychiatry. 58 (8): 658-667. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.07.021. PMID 16271314.. ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1457): 983-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1642. PMC 1854926 . PMID 16087442. Harrison, L. M.; ... Friston currently works on models of functional integration in the human brain and the principles that underlie neuronal ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 360 (1457): 1075-91. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1648. PMC 1854931 . PMID 16087449. David, O; Harrison ... Friston, K (2005). "A theory of cortical responses". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. ...
1. Inverse linear models. Weed Science 37:771-776. [6] Pantone, D. J., S. M. Brown, and C. Womersley. 1985. Biological control ... Biological Conservation 71:305-311. [3] Pantone, D. J., J. B. Baker, and P. W. Jordan. 1992. Path analysis of red rice (Oryza ... Weed-crop competition models and response-surface analysis of red rice competition in cultivated rice: A review. Crop Science ... Pantone completed his doctoral research at UC Davis on the use of biological control agents which is a non-chemical means of ...
ISBN 978-3-527-32191-9. Cram, D. J.; Chao, Y. (1976). "Enzyme Mechanisms, Models, and Mimics". Journal of the American Chemical ... Pauling, L. (1946). "Molecular Architecture and Biological Reactions". Chemical and Engineering News. 24 (10): 1375-1377. doi: ... Because enzymes are structurally complex and difficult to modify, supramolecular catalysts offer a simpler model for studying ... Kirby, A. J. (1996). "Enzyme Mechanisms, Models, and Mimics". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 35 (7): 706-724. doi: ...
L.G. Harrison, Kinetic Theory of Living Pattern, Cambridge University Press (1993) Meinhardt, H. (1982). Models of Biological ... The theory, which can be called a reaction-diffusion theory of morphogenesis, has served as a basic model in theoretical ... Reaction-diffusion systems have attracted much interest as a prototype model for pattern formation. Patterns such as fronts, ...
Fasham, M. J. R. (1981). "Analytic food web models". In T. Platt; K.H. Mann; R.E. Ulanowicz. Mathematical models in biological ... This work led to the development by Fasham and colleagues of a seminal open ocean plankton ecosystem model. This model, ... 1999). "Modeling the relative contributions of autotrophs and heterotrophs to carbon flow at a Lagrangian JGOFS station in the ... He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of open ocean plankton ecosystem models. Fasham was born in 1942 in ...
... is a murine tumor cell line used for research as a model for human skin cancers. These cells are useful models for ... "MicroRNA miR-21 regulates the metastatic behavior of B16 melanoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (45): 39172- ... Tumor models in cancer research. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. Hart, I. R. 2004. "From here to there; a life based on migration. ... Tumor models in cancer research. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. Wosko TJ, DT Ferrara, and LS Sartori. 1984. "Histological ...
Ecological Modelling. ScienceDirect. 198 (3-4): 515-519. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.04.021. Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo; ... Biological Conservation. ScienceDirect. 123 (2): 237-248. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.11.012. Tisdell, Clem (15 October 2006). " ...
a b c d e f Short, Henry L. and Cooper, Robert J. (1985). Habitat suitability index models Great blue heron. Biological report ... 82(10.99). Washington, DC : Western Energy and Land Use Team, Division of Biological Services, Research and Development, Fish ...
Zion, M.; Sadeh, I. (2007). "Curiosity and open inquiry learning". Journal of Biological Education. 41 (4): 162-168. doi: ... By completing an inquiry-based task at the end of the study, the participants demonstrated enhanced mental models by applying ... In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models. A new paradigm of instructional theory Volume II (pp. 115- ... Bronfenbrenner's ecological model, Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, Piaget's child development theory and Dewey's ...
"Alternative Models of Territorial Polygyny in Birds." The American Naturalist 134.3 (1989): 323-43. Print. ... Biological Conservation 147.1 (2012): 22-31. Print. ... "What Do Evolutionary Models Teach Us About Sensitive Periods in ... "Consequences of Variation in Male Harem Size to Population Persistence: Modeling Poaching and Extinction Risk of Bengal Tigers ...
Models of Madness. Psychological, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia. Hove, East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN ... and that the biological disease was much more prevalent in the population due to its "simple" and especially "latent" forms.[18 ... was a secondary symptom not directly caused by the underlying biological process (three other "fundamental symptoms", deficits ...
2005). Modeling in the Neurosciences: from Biological Systems to Neuromimetic Robotics. Boca Raton, Fla.: Taylor & Francis. ... its complexity has inspired several even-more-simplified models, such as the Morris-Lecar model and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, ... Kepler TB, Abbott LF, Marder E (1992). "Reduction of conductance-based neuron models". Biological Cybernetics. 66 (5): 381-387 ... Neuroscience portal Anode break excitation Biological neuron model Bursting Central pattern generator Chronaxie Frog battery ...
Animal models have been able to provide key knowledge of the central and peripheral biological pathways regulating body weight ... mechanistic and predictive models. The activity-based anorexia model has been one of the most suitable animal models when ... Biological Psychiatry, 37(3), 161-169. Benton, D., & Sargent, J. (1992). Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological ... are all reproduced in this model. The "activity/stress" model produces starvation-induced immunodeficiency and various ...
Corwin, Rebecca L; Buda-Levin, Ariel (2004). "Behavioral models of binge-type eating". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 123-130. ... Kalat, James W (2013). Biological Psychology, 11th edition. Wadsworth. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-111-83952-9. "Chewing Gum Associated ...
Neves, S. R.; Iyengar, R (2009). "Models of spatially restricted biochemical reaction systems". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Modeling Cell Regulatory Networks: National Institutes of Health". Retrieved September 26, 2015. Laboratories and Programs/ ... Ma'Ayan, A; Blitzer, R. D.; Iyengar, R (2005). "Toward predictive models of mammalian cells". Annual Review of Biophysics and ... Ma'Ayan, A; Blitzer, R. D.; Iyengar, R (2005). "Toward predictive models of mammalian cells". Annual Review of Biophysics and ...
Models of dispersal in biological systems. Journal of mathematical biology, 26(3):263-298, 1988. H. Thompson. Spatial point ... Stochastic geometry based models for modeling cellular networks in urban areas. Wireless Networks, pages 1-10, 2012. D.J. Daley ... For example, models for cellular or mobile phone networks have been developed where it is assumed the phone network ... A mathematical model may require randomly moving points of a point process to other locations on the underlying mathematical ...
"Exactly Solvable Models of Biological Invasion". CRC Press. The Mathematics Behind Biological Invasions , Mark A. Lewis , ... Another stream of his research is modelling of biological invasions where he discovered a new phenomenon called "patchy ... Sergei Petrovskii is a Russian-born British mathematician who researches the modeling of natural phenomena. He is a professor ... NIMBioS (2016-12-20), Biological Invasion: Patchy Invasion as a New Paradigm of Alien Species Spread, retrieved 2017-01-14 ...
2011 "Multiscale Modeling" 2010 "Regulation & Control in Biological Systems" 2009 "Molecular Evolution" 2008 "Computational ... ". "Multiscale Modeling". "Regulation and Control in Biological Systems". "Molecular Evolution". "Computational Structural ... "Biological Systems In Silico" 2004 "From Information to Simulation" 2003 "Life Sciences Meet IT" "12th [BC]2 Conference 2015 - ...
Optimal Control Applied to Biological Models. Mathematical and Computational Biology Series. Chapman & Hall/ CRC. ISBN 978-1- ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... The Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens (MIEP). *. Anthony J. Davies. The tale of T cells. Immunology Today: 137- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ...
Maini, Philip K.; Othmer, Hans G. (2001). "Mathematical Models for Biological Pattern Formulation". R.F. Bachvarova, Rosemary F ... "Modeling Gastrulation in the Chick Embryo: Formation of the Primitive Streak". PLoS ONE. 5 (5): e10571. doi:10.1371/journal. ... Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K; Newman, Stuart A.; Newman, Timothy J. (2007). Multiscale Modeling of Developmental Systems ...
Basic Models Of The Etiology Of Panic Disorder Neurophysiological Models * Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in ... for a thorough discussion of various permutations of diathesis-stress models that are applicable to biological psychiatry. ... Multiple models have been proposed to explain how similar life stressors can produce such highly variable health outcomes ... All of these models propose that adverse life events act as a triggering mechanism that activates some underlying ...
Theta model[edit]. The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a model originally developed to model neurons in ... Main article: Hodgkin-Huxley model. The Hodgkin-Huxley model (H&H model)[3][4][5][6] is a model of the relationship between ion ... The model looks like I. (. t. ). −. V. m. (. t. ). R. m. =. C. m. d. V. m. (. t. ). d. t. {\displaystyle I(t)-{\frac {V_{\ ... A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain ...
Background Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and ... Model outputs along time for: a the original model (solid lines) and the reduced model (dashed lines); b the original model ( ... Casagranda S, Ropers D, Gouzé J-L. Model reduction and process analysis of biological models. In: 2015 23rd Mediterranean ... "Model description" section introduces the model of mammalian circadian clock. We apply our approach to this complex model in " ...
Analytical Methods for Biological Drugs. Biopharmaceuticals, the majority of which are protein drugs, constitute a distinct ...
This paper is concerned with stability analysis of biological networks modeled as discrete and finite dynamical systems. We ... This paper is concerned with stability analysis of biological networks modeled as discrete and finite dynamical systems. We ... Allen L.J.: Some discrete-time SI, SIR, and SIS epidemic models. Math. Biosci. 124(1), 83-105 (1994)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle ... El Kahoui M., Otto A.: Stability of disease free equilibria in epidemiological models. Math. Comput. Sci. 2(3), 517-533 (2009) ...
The model also suggests that industries with high turnover of firms will have low unionization rates, and that there may be one ... "A Biological Model of Unions," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages ... "A Biological Model of Unions." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1, 2 (April 2009): 150-175. ... The model also suggests that industries with high turnover of firms will have low unionization rates, and that there may be one ...
Previous message: Category vigilance (biological and computational models) *Next message: Category vigilance (biological and ... Previous message: Category vigilance (biological and computational models) *Next message: Category vigilance (biological and ... Is there currently any self-training model, derived either from biological ,research or from AI, which provides for this? The ... Category vigilance (biological and computational models). Todd I. Stark stark at dwovax.enet.dec.com Wed Nov 3 18:54:18 EST ...
Biological models with a square wave driving force  Closson, Taunia Lydia Lynn; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and ... Systems that require a driving force of some kind are very common in physical and biological settings. Driving forces in a ... biological context are usually referred to as rhythms, pulses or clocks. Here we are interested in ... ...
KTH / Course web / Mathematical Modelling of Biological Systems Mathematical Modelling of Biological Systems. Innehåll visas ... The course focuses on mathematical modelling and computer simulation of nerve cells, neuronal networks and other physiological ...
Within the area of Systems Biology these models provide graph-based descriptions of bio-molecular interactions which describe ... conducted at the Centre for Integrative Systems Biology at Imperial College on the use of machine learning to build models of ... Knowledge Mining Biological Network Models. Zhongzhi Shi; Sunil Vadera; Agnar Aamodt; David Leake. 6th IFIP TC 12 International ... Within the area of Systems Biology these models provide graph-based descriptions of bio-molecular interactions which describe ...
A biological model may refer to: a model organism a mathematical model of a biological system Models of abnormality#The ... biological (medical) model, the only model of psychological abnormalities not based on psychological principles, based on the ... then treating any mental abnormality must be physical/biological. ...
... Organiser: Colm Connaughton (Warwick ... The aim is to explore common aspects of these models and their analysis which spans the boundaries between different areas of ... This two-day inter-disciplinary workshop will bring together researchers from the physical, biological and social sciences ... Interacting particle systems are a powerful mathematical tool for stochastic modeling of systems whose microscopic dynamics can ...
This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications COMPUTATIONAL MODELING IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID DYNAMICS is based on the ... Computational Modeling in Biological Fluid Dynamics. Editors: Fauci, Lisa J., Gueron, Shay (Eds.) ... This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications COMPUTATIONAL MODELING IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID DYNAMICS is based on the ... Computed Simulations of Ciliary and Flagellar Motility Using the Geometric Clutch Model can Replicate a Wide Variety of ...
This Community Page presents a biologist-friendly method for compiling detailed graphical models of biological pathways from ... The modelling framework described here is flexible enough to model all the basic network motifs found in all biological pathway ... a model of the nuclear pore). However, such models cannot currently be used in the computation modelling environment as they do ... Indeed, whilst mathematical modelling of biological pathways was one of the founding activities of systems biology, currently, ...
... Jean-Louis Giavitto,1 Grant Malcolm,2 and Olivier Michel1 ... This paper gives a brief survey of the use of algebraic rewriting systems for modelling and simulating various biological ...
Rigid Biological Systems as Models for Synthetic Composites Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Advances that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of a number of biological ...
... Author(s). Said, Maya Rida ... At a low level of modeling, the thesis introduces a new framework for modeling cellular signal processing based on interacting ... At a high modeling level, the focus is on the network topology rather than the dynamical properties of the components of the ... This thesis introduces systematic engineering principles to model, at different levels of ab-straction the information ...
Also, the processes involved in understanding language are best modeled as a form of direct perception of the world parallel, ... they are more like those norms of function and behavior that account for the survival and proliferation of biological species. ... Language: A Biological Model. Ruth Garrett Millikan. Abstract. Guiding the work of most linguists and philosophers of language ... Also, the processes involved in understanding language are best modeled as a form of direct perception of the world parallel, ...
K. Chopra, R. Bose, and A. Joshi, Duopoly Models for Power Trading in Secure Cooperative Relay Networks, InProceedings, IEEE ...
Theta modelEdit. The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a model originally developed to model neurons in the ... Main article: Hodgkin-Huxley model. The Hodgkin-Huxley model (H&H model)[3][4][5][6] is a model of the relationship between ion ... Some of the earliest biological models took this form until kinetic models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model became dominant.[ ... The model looks like. I. (. t. ). −. V. m. (. t. ). R. m. =. C. m. d. V. m. (. t. ). d. t. {\displaystyle I(t)-{\frac {V_{\ ...
A challenge is the development of models that predict effects across biological scales. Ecotoxicology and models discusses some ... Most current models describe effects on one of many different levels of biological organization (e.g. organisms or populations ... Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology. Computational systems biology ... Biological data visualization Biosimulation Gillespie algorithm Molecular modelling software Stochastic simulation Sometimes ...
It provides an evidence-based, optimistic antidote to the pessimism of biological psychiatry. Models of Madness will be ... Models of Madness is divided into three sections: Section One provides a history of madness, including examples of violence ... parental loss, bullying, abuse and neglect in childhood, poverty, etc) and can be understood using psychological models ranging ... This second edition of Models of Madness challenges those who hold to simplistic, pessimistic and often damaging theories and ...
Modelling Biological Complexity MRes. Modelling Biological Complexity MRes. The Modelling Biological Complexity MRes is ... Modelling Biological Complexity: Foundation Course covering machine learning, statistics and mathematical modelling applied to ... a computer programming and biological database task, web development, the research project and an end-of-year viva. ... computational and physical science techniques to real biological problems. The programme provides a broad overview of cutting ...
... Lead Guest Editor: Alain Vande Wouwer. Guest Editors ... The Silent Cooperator: An Epigenetic Model for Emergence of Altruistic Traits in Biological Systems, I. Hashem, D. Telen, P. ... Modeling and Dynamic Analysis in a Hybrid Stochastic Bioeconomic System with Double Time Delays and Lévy Jumps, Chao Liu, ... Dynamical Behavior of a Novel Impulsive Switching Model for HLB with Seasonal Fluctuations, Shujing Gao, Lei Luo, Shuixian Yan ...
... spectroscopy and modeling. [Vikas Tomar; Tao Qu; Deven K Dubey; Deven Verma; Yang Zhang] -- This book covers the latest ... Molecular Modeling: A Review of Nanomechanics Based on Molecular Modeling --. Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab ... Multiscale characterization of biological systems : spectroscopy and modeling. Author:. Vikas Tomar; Tao Qu; Deven K Dubey; ... Molecular Modeling: A Review of Nanomechanics Based on Molecular Modeling -- Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab ...
  • Given our understanding of diathesis-stress models and advances in molecular cloning and gene sequencing, a new generation of researchers are tracking down genetic markers that may point toward specific disease susceptibility. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • Thus, the ultimate health outcome depends on a complex interaction between precipitating life stressors, individual differences in effective coping strategies, and underlying biological predispositions. (euroformhealthcare.biz)
  • At a low level of modeling, the thesis introduces a new framework for modeling cellular signal processing based on interacting Markov chains. (mit.edu)
  • Creating a cellular model has been a particularly challenging task of systems biology and mathematical biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these platforms has both merits and drawbacks with regard to their utility and in faithful representation of tumor architecture, microenvironment, cellular composition and heterogeneity, stem-differentiation states, growth patterns and responses to perturbagens, with respect to the patient specimen from which the model was initially derived. (nih.gov)
  • Recently a class of two-dimensional vertex models was shown to exhibit a disordered rigidity transition controlled by the preferred cellular geometry, which was subsequently echoed by experimental findings. (rsc.org)
  • The Voronoi model was also endowed with a non-equilibrium model of cellular motility, leading to rich, glassy behavior. (rsc.org)
  • Using a more realistic and complete tissue model is critical to the development of a mechanistic understanding of the cellular radiation responses that occur in vivo. (phys.org)
  • The advantage of the model is that it has a well-defined cellular composition that scientists can modify to gain a fundamental understanding of how different cell types interact following irradiation. (phys.org)
  • In a series of recent papers, fluorescent and confocal microscopy images have been used to characterize the detailed cellular morphology of the skin tissue model. (phys.org)
  • Oscillations and rhythms in biological systems-glycolysis, intracellular calcium, cellular cycles, Modeling Neuronal behavior. (amrita.edu)
  • In conclusion, the present model illustrates a unique feature of cell signaling, and the stability analysis may provide an analytical framework of the cell signaling system and a novel formulation of biological signaling. (mendeley.com)
  • Awardees are expected to form a patient-derived models of cancer (PDMC) consortium and participate in activities as appropriate to their projects that will provide a framework to accelerate multidisciplinary efforts to address compelling fundamental cancer biology questions through PDMC comparisons. (nih.gov)
  • A modeling framework was developed to characterize the relationships between nutritional intake, rate of gastric emptying, gallbladder emptying-refilling patterns and plasma concentrations of bile acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • This modeling framework could be used in combination with systems pharmacology models to predict the drug-drug interactions and food effects associated with gastric emptying, as well as to link the postprandial changes in plasma bile acid concentrations to the variability in drugs' absorption. (diva-portal.org)
  • A modeling framework predicted the postprandial gastric emptying rate and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Overall the aim of the thesis is two-fold: On the one hand, we establish a general hybrid modelling framework for biological excitable membranes and, on the other hand, we are interested in a general advance of PDMP theory which the former necessitates. (bl.uk)
  • Regarding the first aim we exemplify the modelling framework on the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model of a squid giant axon. (bl.uk)
  • present a simple framework for the quantitative modeling of oncogene addiction that provides mechanistic insights into tumor biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Biological systems are optimized to survive in environments whose properties may vary greatly, such as changes in the biochemical environment of bacteria across several orders of magnitude, or even qualitatively, such as seasonal variations that banish food sources and prohibit foraging behavior in some mammalian species. (plos.org)
  • Characterization of topographical effects on macrophage behavior in a foreign body response model. (duke.edu)
  • We also show that DDE-based predictions of oscillatory behavior may fail for the corresponding explicit model. (rice.edu)
  • To obtain a mathematical formulation of cell signaling, we propose a stability kinetic model of cell biological signaling of a simple two-parameter model based on the kinetics of the diffusion-limiting step. (mendeley.com)
  • Fernandez (1995c), using combined results of balance studies and radioisotope kinetics, formulated and resolved a model of P metabolism for pigs to evaluate the nutritional implications of increasing P intake by pigs. (scielo.br)
  • These findings raise the possibility that alpha-syn may contribute to the cascade of events that promote neuronal dysfunction in Gaucher disease and are the first to implicate this protein as a plausible biological intersection between Gaucher disease and parkinsonism using a pharmacological model. (nih.gov)
  • J. S. Nicolis, and M. Benrubi, "A model on the role of noise at the neuronal and the cognitive levels," J. of Theor. (springer.com)
  • Methods in Neuronal Modeling: From Ions to Networks,ed. (amrita.edu)
  • Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival and reproduction of the whole. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding how the division of labor evolved in multicellular organisms is difficult because single cells are expected to act selfishly to protect their own existence instead of working cooperatively to achieve a more productive higher level of organization, explains author Sergey Gavrilets, Associate Director for Scientific Activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using germ and soma cells in volvocacean green algae as an example, Gavrilets' mathematical model describes the evolutionary emergence of the division of labor starting with a colony of undifferentiated individual cells and ending with completely differentiated multicellular organisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is much more straightforward, for example, to capture in lines of computer code the orbit of a satellite or the load on a suspension bridge than it is to build a computational model of even the simplest and most well-studied of biological organisms. (ddw-online.com)
  • In this PhD microscopic images of two model organisms, the C. elegans nematode and the A. thaliana plant, are studied. (ugent.be)
  • Electrical input-output membrane voltage models - These models produce a prediction for membrane output voltage as function of electrical stimulation at the input stage (either voltage or current). (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the developed models enabled the prediction of the in vivo erosion profile of ER formulations based on in vitro dissolution data. (diva-portal.org)
  • This chapter focuses on how supercomputers facilitate in the prediction of protein structures in its different forms, modeling of protein-ligand binding site identification, as well as in the protein-surface interactions modeling. (igi-global.com)
  • Besides solely relying on the doctors' experiences and stereotyped formulas, researchers could use learning algorithms to analyze sophisticated, high-dimensional and multimodal biomedical data, and construct prediction/classification models to make decisions even when some information was incomplete, unknown, or contradictory. (sc.edu)
  • Finally, we use deep learning techniques to build accurate Down Syndrome (DS) prediction/screening models based on the analysis of newly introduced Illumina human genome genotyping array. (sc.edu)
  • We test this conjecture, exploring the low-effective-temperature limit of the 2D Voronoi model by studying cell trajectories from detailed dynamical simulations in combination with rigidity measurements of energy-minimized disordered cell configurations. (rsc.org)
  • Innovative Design of Experiments (DOE) methods are used to significantly reduce the number of simulations required to model biological warfare (BW) attacks. (jmp.com)
  • The high growth rates, cell yields of the cultures, and the constitutive expression of an impressively efficient natural competence apparatus, amongst other properties, make some strains of the genus excellent laboratory models to study the molecular basis of thermophilia. (diva-portal.org)
  • These scaffold systems will have a range of applications but are particularly applicable to growth of retinal models, which will form platforms for computational modelling of brain signal processing, as well as learning and adaptation. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • This thesis considers the problem of modelling bioreactors with complex mixing and biokinetic growth based on both soluble nutrients and photosynthesis. (bl.uk)
  • From the results of investigations performed on the different modelling methods for nutrient and photosynthesis dependent biomass growth a method of coupling the two biokinetic models was proposed. (bl.uk)
  • The resulting model is used to simulate Isochrysis affinis galbana growth under light/dark cycles and to study the dependence of biomass production on the dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration. (inria.fr)
  • A Continuum Theory of Multiphase Mixtures for Modelling Biological Growth. (umich.edu)
  • This dissertation presents a continuum treatment of growth in biological tissue developed within the context of modern mixture theory. (umich.edu)
  • spatial effects are investigated by developing models that highlight the consequences that geographical restriction and species mobility may have on population development. (google.co.uk)
  • The function only simulates binary (presence/absence) models with constraint for total number of presences, and optionally for numbers of species and/or species frequencies. (oulu.fi)
  • We both are scientists who got our start exclusively studying non- human species and who have come into studying humans more recently, attracted to what they have to offer as a model species. (phys.org)
  • We strongly feel that there are some general biological questions that are best answered by studying humans, either by themselves or in conjunction with comparative research programs encompassing multiple species, and that our work on humans is relevant for informing our work with other species . (phys.org)
  • Similarly the ability of many phytoplankton and microzooplankton species to be mixotrophic, which has been known for decades with some attempts made to provide a conceptual basis for models (reviewed by Stoecker, 1998 ), is only now becoming mainstream. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the same time, the human placental arrangement is unique, having no close analogues in other species, so theoretical modelling is of particular value. (findaphd.com)
  • Our results are consistent with published successional patterns of spruce-fir and mixed forests affected by spruce budworm, but also highlight areas of uncertainty in the spatio-temporal patterns of budworm-caused tree mortality and biological disturbances in general. (usda.gov)
  • The oncology community has recently focused on the development of patient-derived models of cancer (PDMC) platforms including, but not limited to, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), organoids, spheroids, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), conditionally-reprogrammed cells (CRCs). (nih.gov)
  • This will require the development of modelling platforms that allow biological systems to be described using idioms familiar to biologists, that encourage experimentation and that leverage the connectivity of the internet for scientific collaboration and communication. (ddw-online.com)
  • While cause-and-effect knowledge assembly models encoded in Biological Expression Language are able to support generation of mechanistic hypotheses, they are static and limited in their ability to encode temporality. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The traditional way of modeling the time evolution of the molecular populations in a reacting system is to use a set of coupled, first order, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) called the reaction rate equations (RRE). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • K. Chopra, R. Bose, and A. Joshi, ' Duopoly Models for Power Trading in Secure Cooperative Relay Networks ', InProceedings, IEEE National Conference on Communications (NCC 2016) , February 2016, 388 downloads. (umbc.edu)
  • Pearce P, Brownbill P, Janáček J, Jirkovská M, Kubínová L, Chernyavsky IL & Jensen OE (2016) Image-based modeling of blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries. (findaphd.com)
  • This two-day inter-disciplinary workshop will bring together researchers from the physical, biological and social sciences along with experts on the mathematical theory of interacting particle systems. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • TCF, MWB and PD are funded by an Institute Strategic Grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) [BB/JO1446X/ (plos.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For international students we also offer a unique 4 year PhD programme that gives you the opportunity to undertake an accredited Teaching Certificate whilst carrying out an independent research project across a range of biological, medical and health sciences. (findaphd.com)
  • This thesis presents a new model that integrates learning of object-specific features with the HMAX. (mit.edu)
  • In this article, we review the properties of this organism as biological model and its biotechnological applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • Due to its importance, there is a need for methods to process the ever increasing amount of biological image data related to model organism research. (ugent.be)
  • Part models should be used to constrain characterization of parts (maybe an other Registry dedicated to characterization). (openwetware.org)
  • Such a model would enable development of retinal prostheses, facilitate non-animal based testing of novel eye drugs and drive forward improvements in low-power, intelligent artificial vision sensors. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the WSU-TC and PNNL scientists used an artificial skin model made of normal human epidermal skin cells and connective tissue cells called fibroblasts. (phys.org)
  • If pathway modelling is to be more widely adopted by biologists and the results of their efforts useable by others, a new approach is required. (plos.org)
  • Modelling can provide the kind of intellectual frameworks needed to transform data into knowledge, yet very few modelling methodologies currently exist that are applicable to the large, complex systems of interest to biologists. (ddw-online.com)
  • There are some very good reasons for this, not the least of which is that the systems of interest to biologists tend to be far more refractory to modelling than the systems that are studied in these other fields. (ddw-online.com)
  • Two mathematical models with seven and six parameters have been created for use as methods for identification of the optimum mobile phase in chromatographic separations. (mdpi.com)
  • Biological characteristics of fluorescent protein-expressing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • In a human psoriasis xenograft model, antibody 146B7 reduced the severity of psoriasis, as measured by epidermal thickness, grade of parakeratosis, and numbers of inflammatory cells and cycling keratinocytes. (jci.org)
  • Such models contain key proteins involved in the process and can be used for prioritizing disease targets, for understanding of drug action and prevention of drug-induced toxicities, for analysis of patient predispositions and design of personalized therapies, for design of diagnostic biomarkers and analysis of patient molecular data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The aim is to explore common aspects of these models and their analysis which spans the boundaries between different areas of research. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • A range of interdisciplinary research-driven projects follow in which students gain experience of different research techniques and a range of areas of biological interest. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Student performance is assessed by essays, mini projects, oral and poster presentations, a computer programming and biological database task, web development, the research project and an end-of-year viva. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This book covers the latest research work done in the area of interface mechanics of collagen and chitin-based biomaterials along with various techniques that can be used to understand mechanics of biological systems and materials. (worldcat.org)
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) encourages highly innovative research to develop, characterize or improve animal models and related biological materials for human health and disease or to improve diagnosis and control of diseases that might interfere with animal use for biomedical research purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Applications to develop models that relate strictly to a specific disease or category of research will not be accepted and should be proposed to the appropriate categorical Institute or Center of the NIH. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a new method for estimating the parameters used in such models which may advance modeling in research areas ranging from cancer to fertility. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Research involving selective irradiation of a human skin tissue model is improving how scientists determine the overall effects of low doses of ionizing radiation such as might be received during certain medical procedures or occupational exposures. (phys.org)
  • Papers in this research topic provide insights into novel developments in the representation of plankton groups and how these improvements affect model outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Using powerful computers to model the intricate dance of atoms and molecules, researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have revealed the mechanism behind an important biological reaction. (nanowerk.com)
  • Quantum mechanics allows researchers to do things that can't be done with classical physics, such as modeling the way chemical bonds break and form, or including the effect of proton "tunneling" -- allowing protons to move through energy barriers that normal logic would deem impossible. (nanowerk.com)
  • The results, which matched the researchers' theoretical modelling of the process, offer a method for manipulating force and pressure in order to bind emulsions. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The famous quip of Monod that "… anything found to be true of E [ scherichia ] coli must also be true of elephants" reflects the widely held belief that the attention and resources of researchers are most effectively focused on a few wisely chosen "model systems" ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Modeling biological systems can provide key insights for scientists and medical researchers, but periodic cycles that repeat themselves so-called oscillatory systems pose some key challenges. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Driving forces in a biological context are usually referred to as rhythms, pulses or clocks. (uleth.ca)
  • As a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. (arctichealth.org)
  • A model characterized the effect of pH, mechanical stress and formulation on in vitro extended release (ER) tablet erosion. (diva-portal.org)
  • The isotopic technique by using labeled P allows the formulation of a model showing the biological flows of phosphorus. (scielo.br)
  • The predictive capabilities of these models, in particular under changing environmental conditions, naturally rely strongly on the model formulation, including choice of functional groups and the form of their representation, i.e., their parameterisation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Barnacle cement: a polymerization model based on evolutionary concepts. (duke.edu)
  • Proceedings of the Workshop on Aquatic Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment Techniques for Application within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers," Miscellaneous Paper EL-98-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Pages 77 - 84. (osu.edu)
  • In the modern era, the limitations imposed by the availability of precious molecular resources such as antibodies or gene clones (and until very recently, of whole genome sequences) have keenly sharpened the emphasis on a few "mainstream" model systems. (pnas.org)