Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The act of killing oneself.

Efficacy of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in combination with cytokine gene therapy in an experimental metastatic breast cancer model. (1/9364)

Immunotherapy in combination with suicide gene therapy for breast cancer was tested using a metastatic animal model. Subcutaneous injection of the nonimmunogenic breast cancer cell line 4T1 in BALB/C mice gave rise to tumors in 100% of mice with both micrometastases and macrometastases in the lung. We used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene along with the cytokine genes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) to determine their effect on tumor regression and inhibition of lung metastasis. Adenoviral (AV) vectors carrying these transgenes, in separate constructs, were used in this study. Intratumoral administration of AV-TK followed by 10 days of ganciclovir treatment resulted in a delay in tumor growth and, in some cases, in a low to moderate reduction in tumor volume. Inclusion of either GM-CSF or IL-2 gene with HSV-TK resulted in a slightly greater reduction in tumor volume, although these data were not significantly different from those obtained for TK treatment alone. However, when both cytokine genes were combined with TK, a substantial reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with HSV-TK alone (P < .02). Tumor weight data also exhibited superior efficacy of TK/GM-CSF/IL-2 treatment when compared with animals treated with TK gene only (P < .01). More importantly, TK/GM-CSF/IL-2 combination gene therapy induced a significant reduction in lung metastasis compared with any other treatment groups in the 4T1 model (P < .001 between TK GM-CSF/IL-2 versus TK only). Surgical excision of primary tumors after TK/GM-CSF/IL-2 plus ganciclovir treatment resulted in anti-metastatic activity that was similar to that observed for animals in which no surgery was performed. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between animals treated with AV-TK/GM-CSF/IL-2 and animals treated with TK only at 35 days after virus injection (P < .01). Immunophenotypic data suggest infiltration of lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment in TK- and cytokine gene-treated animals. Thus, the overall data presented here demonstrate that TK gene therapy in combination with GM-CSF and IL-2 gene-mediated immunotherapy strategies have important implications in the treatment of breast cancer.  (+info)

Primary cultured hepatocytes of the bony fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, the tilapia: a valid tool for physiological studies on IGF-I expression in liver. (2/9364)

In spite of the importance of IGF-I for growth and development, knowledge about regulation of its production in submammalian species is rather limited. In order to create a tool for investigation of direct regulatory effects on the expression of IGF-I in bony fish liver, a primary cell culture of hepatocytes from Oreochromis mossambicus, the tilapia, was established. The cells were viable for up to 3 days and IGF-I mRNA synthesis was detected by northern blot and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Northern blot analysis of the primary cultured hepatocytes revealed four different IGF-I transcripts, 0.5, 1.9, 3.9 and 6.0 kb in size, which were identical to those in liver tissue. However, the expression rate was weaker than that in liver. The direct effects of recombinant tilapia (rt) growth hormone (GH) and salmon (s) IGF-I on the expression of IGF-I in primary cultured hepatocytes were investigated in time-course and dose-response experiments. In untreated cultures, IGF-I mRNA decreased with time. Hepatocytes treated with 100 nM rtGH resulted in a pronounced stimulation of IGF-I mRNA expression throughout the experiment. Treatment with rtGH in concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 1 microM caused a clear dose-dependent increase in the amount of IGF-I mRNA. Significant stimulation was obtained even with 0.1 nM, reaching a plateau with 10 nM. Neither significant inhibitory nor stimulatory effects were detected by adding sIGF-I from 0.1 nM to 1 microM to the hepataocytes. Our results indicate that the established primary cell culture of tilapia hepatocytes is a useful system in which to study direct effects of potential regulators of bony fish liver cell function.  (+info)

Exclusive androgenic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone in sebaceous glands of rat skin. (3/9364)

In order to analyze the hormonal effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in skin sebaceous glands, the precursor steroid was administered to ovariectomized (OVX) female Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 30 mg applied on the dorsal skin, twice daily, for 3, 6 and 12 months. In a parallel experiment, female OVX rats were treated with DHEA at the same daily percutaneous dose of 30 mg, alone or in combination with the antiandrogen Flutamide or the pure antiestrogen EM-800, for 12 months, in order to determine the androgenic and/or estrogenic components of DHEA action. Treatment of female OVX rats with DHEA resulted in a similar mild to moderate hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands of both dorsal (site of application) and ventral skin, as illustrated by an increase in the number and size of the acini. The above-indicated effects were observed at all time intervals studied, beginning at 3 months of treatment, and they were not further increased after longer term administration of DHEA (for 6 and 12 months). The addition of Flutamide to DHEA treatment completely prevented the DHEA-induced changes in the sebaceous glands, whereas the antiestrogen EM-800 had no effect. The present data indicate an exclusive androgenic stimulatory action of DHEA on the sebaceous glands, thus pointing out the importance of local intracrine DHEA transformation into androgens for skin anatomical integrity and function, while showing that estrogens, if active in rat skin, do not originate from DHEA.  (+info)

Electrophysiological and cardiohemodynamic effects of AH-1058, a new type calcium channel blocker, assessed by the in vivo canine model. (4/9364)

AH-1058 (4-(5H-dibenzo[a, d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)- 1-[(E)-3-(3-methoxy-2-nitro)phenyl-2-propenyl]piperidine hydrochloride) is a novel calcium channel blocker whose chemical structure is quite different from those of typical calcium channel blockers. In this study, electrophysiological and hemodynamic effects of AH-1058 were assessed in the halothane-anesthetized, closed-chest canine model. Intravenous administration of a canine antiarrhythmic dose of 100 microg/kg of AH-1058 (n = 6) did not affect the cardiovascular variables, except that the cardiac output was decreased at 30 min after the drug administration. Additional administration of 200 microg/kg of AH-1058 (n = 6) suppressed the sinus nodal automaticity, AV nodal conduction and ventricular contraction and decreased the mean blood pressure, cardiac output and double product. The effects gradually appeared, while no change was detected in the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization period, ventricular effective refractory period, preload to the left ventricle and total peripheral vascular resistance during the observation period of 30 min. The cardiosuppressive effects of AH-1058 can be explained by its calcium channel blocking action demonstrated in a previous in vitro experiment, while the lack of the effect on the vascular resistance would suggest that AH-1058 may become a slow-acting cardioselective calcium channel blocker.  (+info)

The effect of the prostaglandin I2 analogue OP-2507 on adrenaline-induced pulmonary edema in rabbits and analysis of hemodynamic changes. (5/9364)

This study was carried out to understand the onset mechanism of adrenaline (ADR)-induced pulmonary edema (PE) and the effect of drugs related to the arachidonate cascade in a rabbit model. ADR was administered intravenously by a bolus injection to the rabbits at 50, 75 and 100 microg/kg. To evaluate the severity of PE, the lung-water ratio (LWR) was calculated as a ratio of the difference between wet and dry lung weight to dry lung weight. The PE incidence and LWR exhibited a dose-dependent increase, and LWR correlated with the left atrial pressure (LAP). The involvement of the arachidonate cascade was evaluated by the co-administration of flurbiprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; ozagrel, a thromboxane synthase inhibitor; and OP-2507 (15-cis-(4-n-propylcyclohexyl)-6,17,18, 19,20-pentanor-9-deoxy-6,9-alpha-nitriloprostaglandin F1 methyl ester), a prostaglandin I2 analogue. Co-treatment of the rabbits with ADR and flurbiprofen resulted in an increase in LAP and the incidence of PE, whereas co-administration of ozagrel did not exhibit any significant changes in the measured parameters. Conversely, OP-2507 reduced the LAP, PE incidence and LWR when co-administered with ADR. Rabbits co-treated with OP-2507 displayed an improved cardiac function. The results of these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of OP-2507 in protecting the lung and cardiac function from the ADR-induced PE.  (+info)

Standardized ejection fraction as a parameter of overall ventricular pump function. (6/9364)

To evaluate the pump function of the ventricle, a parameter which (i) incorporates systolic and diastolic function and (ii) separates the heart from preload and afterload is needed. This study utilized ejection fraction (EF), calculated from the end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) pressure-volume relationship (PVR) using an arbitrary set of loading conditions. Ten isolated canine hearts with a balloon placed inside the left ventricle were used to determine the ESPVR and EDPVR. An end-diastolic volume (EDV) at a pressure of 15 mmHg and an end-systolic volume (ESV) at 70 mmHg were obtained from the EDPVR and ESPVR, respectively. EF was calculated as (EDV-ESV)/EDV. With low-dose (8 microg/min) and high-dose (40 microg/min) dobutamine infusion, the EF increased from 0.25+/-0.16 to 0.33+/-0.13 and 0.57+/-0.08 (p<0.01), respectively, in conjunction with increases in end-systolic elastance from 3.11+/-0.83 to 3.48+/-1.08 and 5.38+/-1.91 mmHg/ml (p<0.01). It was thus concluded that because the estimation of EF separates the heart from preload and afterload, this method may facilitate comparing overall pump function of hearts beating under different loading conditions.  (+info)

Carnosine as a potential anti-senescence drug. (7/9364)

The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been found to exert an anti-senescence effect when used as a dietary supplement. Carnosine clearly improved the external appearance of experimental animals and provided beneficial physiological effects, thus maintaining the animals in better condition than control animals receiving no carnosine or a mixture of beta-alanine and L-histidine.  (+info)

DNA vaccines. (8/9364)

DNA vaccination or genetic immunization is a rapidly developing technology that offers new approaches for the prevention and therapy of disease. Regarding the inoculation method of DNA vaccine, we recommend the gene gun delivery system, which is a highly reliable method compared to intramuscular inoculation. DNA vaccines could have potential advantages over other types of vaccines in that these vaccines can induce strong cellular immune responses, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and type 1 helper T cells, without resorting to live organisms or complicated protein formulation. The cellular immune responses are especially required for the protection against infections with intracellular pathogens such as viruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and protection against cancers, suggesting that they seem to be suitable targets of DNA vaccines. We describe here that their application to bacterial infections requires optimization of codon usage in the DNA vaccines to the host animal to improve translational efficiencies of the bacteria genes. DNA vaccines for a variety of pathogens and cancers have now entered phase I/II human clinical trials.  (+info)

"Animal Use Alternatives" refers to the methods and techniques used in scientific research, testing, and education that avoid or reduce the use of animals. The three main categories of alternatives are:

1. Replacement: This involves using non-animal methods to entirely replace the use of animals in a particular procedure or experiment. Examples include the use of computer modeling, cell cultures, and tissue samples instead of live animals.
2. Reduction: This refers to methods that reduce the number of animals used in a given procedure or experiment while still achieving the same scientific objective. Examples include using statistical methods to design experiments that require fewer animals, or sharing data and resources between research groups.
3. Refinement: This involves modifying procedures to minimize suffering and improve animal welfare for those animals that are still used. Examples include using anesthesia and pain relief during surgical procedures, providing appropriate housing and enrichment, and implementing humane endpoints in experiments.

The development and implementation of animal use alternatives is a key goal in the ethical and responsible conduct of scientific research, testing, and education.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

Animal testing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees Pit of despair, an apparatus used for animal models of clinical ... Therefore, animal models of depression often display altered anxiety-related behavior. An appropriate animal model of human ... model is probably the most valid animal model of depression. It aims to model a chronic depressive-like state that develops ... Learned helplessness: The learned helplessness model (LH), one of the well validated animal models, is the best replicated one ...
... genetic animal models, chemically induced models, and electrically induced models. New models are using light-gated ion ... Animal models of epilepsy have helped to advance the understanding of how normal brains develop epilepsy (a process known as ... Löscher, Wolfgang (31 May 2011). "Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and ... Animal models of epilepsy and seizures can be divided into three basic categories: ...
Parkinson's disease animal models are divided into two categories: neurotoxin models and genetic models. Neurotoxin models ... "Animal Model of Parkinson Disease: Neuroinflammation and Apoptosis in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model", Experimental Animal ... Animal models of Parkinson's disease are essential in the research field and widely used to study Parkinson's disease. ... A limitation to the LRRK2 animal model is that although there is a loss in dopaminergic neurons, neurodegeneration is very low ...
Animal models of autism Animal models of schizophrenia Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Animal testing ... An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... As in noted the introduction, animal models can be classified as homologous, isomorphic or predictive. Animal models can also ...
Thus, for each stroke etiology one or more animal models have been developed: Animal models of ischemic stroke Animal models of ... Animal models of stroke are procedures undertaken in animals (including non-human primates) intending to provoke ... intracerebral hemorrhage Animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm Animal models of sinus vein thrombosis ... Stroke models are carried out on animals which inevitably suffer during the procedure. These encumbrances are e.g. social ...
While no animal model can fully encompass all aspects of schizophrenia, progress has been made in using animals to model ... Animals used as models for schizophrenia include rats, mice, and primates. The modelling of schizophrenia in animals can range ... In order for an animal model to be useful in developing treatments, results from the animal model must translate into results ... These fit into four basic categories: pharmacological models, developmental models, lesion models, and genetic models. ...
Klauck, S. M.; Poustka, A. (2006). "Animal models of autism". Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. 3 (4): 313-318. doi:10.1016 ... researchers often focus only on single features of autism when using animal models. One of the more common rodent models is the ... "Animal Models of Autism". Transgenic and Knockout Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience. p. ... "Finding an Animal Model for Language Development". Archived from the original on 2016-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-10. Condro, M. C ...
Graham, S.M; McCullough, L.D; Murphy, S.J (2004). "Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke: Balancing Experimental Aims and Animal ... or artificial spheres into the carotid artery of animals as an animal model of ischemic stroke. Thrombembolic MCAO is achieved ... animal models of stroke ^ Beech, J. S.; S. C. Williams; C. A. Campbell; P. M. Bath; A. A. Parsons; A. J. Hunter; D. K. Menon ( ... Animal models of ischemic stroke are procedures inducing cerebral ischemia. The aim is the study of basic processes or ...
Orians predicted that animals exhibiting resource defence polygyny, such as the fish Neolamprologus pulcher would fit to this ... The model shows how females may gain a higher level of biological fitness by mating with a male who already has a mate. The ... The polygyny threshold model is an explanation of polygyny, the mating of one male of a species with more than one female. ... The graphical depiction of the model presented in Gordon Orians' 1969 paper is often used to explain the concept. The graph ...
... help to explain the variance in foraging behaviour in animals. This model allows powerful ... Risk sensitive foraging is based on experimental evidence that the net energy budget level of an animal is predictive of type ... Risk sensitive foraging has also been found in other animal species. Laboratory rats have also been found to display risk ... When the hummingbirds are given three different choices of food supply, risk sensitivity foraging model was not entirely ...
Christie, Kevin W.; Eberl, Daniel F. (October 2014). "Noise-induced hearing loss: new animal models". Current Opinion in ... Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L. (2012). "Animal models". Epilepsy. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 107. pp. 63-98. ... It is encoded by the TMEM211 gene and is found in almost all animals. Human TMEM211 RNA is expressed in relatively low levels, ... Fibrinogen alpha is understood to be a rapidly evolving protein, while cytochrome C is a model of a slowly evolving protein. ...
"Diabetic Animal Models". In Hau J, Van Hoosier Jr GL (eds.). Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Animal Models. Vol. II (2nd ... Merkel cell polyomavirus closely related to SV40 and mouse polyomaviruses that have been used as animal models for cancer ... The viruses that infect plants are harmless to animals, and most viruses that infect other animals are harmless to humans. The ... It can be a virus that is isolated from its natural reservoir or isolated as the result of spread to an animal or human host ...
"Animal Models". IT'IS Foundation. Retrieved 2022-08-08. "ViP: In Silico Clinical Tests and Trials The Future Today" (PDF). ... virtual human and animal models for investigations of anatomy-dependent interactions and optimization of therapies via computer ...
... from one food-motivated individual to another-among humans and other animals. Models of food-sharing are based upon general ... This model was designed to address problems that Trivers' model failed to address. One problem, according to Moore, was that ... Since the theoretical basis of these models involves reproductive fitness, one underlying assumption of these models is that ... model of reciprocal altruism. Following Trivers' ideas, reciprocal altruism models of food-sharing generate expectations of ...
Animal models in neuroscience '. i J Hau & SJ Schapiro (red), Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science: Vol. II. Animal Models. 3 ... a model that deals with the seeming contradiction between the localization and post-traumatic recovery of various functions in ...
Boyd, Robert; Silk, Joan B. (1983). "A method for assigning cardinal dominance ranks". Animal Behaviour. 31 (1): 45-58. doi: ... The Bradley-Terry model is a probability model for the outcome of pairwise comparisons between individuals, teams, or objects. ... Ordinal regression Rasch model Scale (social sciences) Elo rating system Thurstonian model Hunter, David R. (2004). "MM ... Machine learning, Statistical models, Logistic regression, Regression models). ...
Schmid-Hempel, Paul (February 1987). "Efficient Nectar-Collecting by Honeybees I. Economic Models". The Journal of Animal ... Optimality modeling is the modeling aspect of optimization theory. It allows for the calculation and visualization of the costs ... The results from Parker's experiment agree with this model. One common use of the optimality model is in optimal foraging ... In his model, Zach predicted the optimal height for crows to drop the whelks. To do this, Zach calculated the total distance ...
All models are simplified abstractions of the real-life situation. There exists a basic tradeoff between model precision and ... Jeanson, R (2012). "Long-term dynamics in proximity networks in ants". Animal Behaviour. 83 (4): 915-923. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav ... Stephen P. Ellner & John Guckenheimer (2006). "Building dynamic models". Dynamic Models in Biology. Princeton University Press ... such models should generally be kept simple. Therefore, we generally should not expect models for social insect task allocation ...
"Research Animal Models". CRiver.com. Charles River Laboratories. 2021. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. "Lewis Rat". ... Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... While less commonly used for research than laboratory mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in ... Laboratory mouse Animal testing on rodents Morris water maze Rat Genome Database Vandenbergh, J. G. (1 January 2000). "Use of ...
On the other hand, insects can be used as alternative animal models in biomedical research. Due to the close evolutionary ... "Short CV , Anton Windfelder , Alternative Animal Models". Meinewebsite. Retrieved 15 September 2023. Windfelder, Anton G.; ... as an alternative animal model for medical research.[excessive citations] His work has received international attention and ... using the above methods as an alternative animal model for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ...
Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). Gillian R. Bullock (series ed.), Tracie bunton ( ... Prior to the Animal Welfare Act, animal welfare law was largely reactive and action could only be taken once an animal had ... Animal dealers are people who sell animals bred at their facility. Examples of dealers include pet and laboratory animal ... Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations from the United States Department of Agriculture Animal Welfare Act History ...
Prenatal MAM exposure in rats results in a model of brain malformation. In some MAM animals, video-EEG monitoring has ... Methylazoxymethanol acetate, MAM, is a neurotoxin which reduces DNA synthesis used in making animal models of neurological ... Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF (1 October 2011). "Animal models of schizophrenia". British Journal of Pharmacology. 164 (4 ... In rat models, the specific effect of MAM on neural development depends on the gestational age of the subject. At the ...
One significant limitation of thermal assays lies in the specificity and validity of results in animals as models of human pain ... Le Bars, Daniel; Gozariu, Manuela; Cadden, Samuel W. (2001). "Animal Models of Nociception". Pharmacological Reviews. 53 (4): ... and the Von Frey hairs are inserted through the mesh to poke the animal's hindpaw. Normal reactions for the animal include ... Animal subjects used must be restrained to a fairly high degree when performing the tail withdrawal test due to the exact ...
Le Bars, D; Gozariu, M; Cadden, S. (2001). "Animal Models of Nociception". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... Most commonly, an intense light beam is focused on the animal's tail and a timer starts. When the animal flicks its tail, the ... The tail flick test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the hot plate test. It is used in basic pain research ... The tail flick test is one test to measure heat-induced pain in animals. This reflexive response is an indicator of pain ...
Journal of Animal Ecology. 59, 1129-1146. Tokeshi, M. (1993). Species abundance patterns and community structure. Adv. Ecol. ... Fixed Division Model was similar to the random fraction model, but the randomness of the model is drawn from a triangular ... the Dominance Pre-emption model to the most even the Dominance Decay and MacArthur Fraction models. This model describes a ... The random fraction model of niche apportionment is an extreme of the power fraction model where k=0, and the other extreme of ...
... mechanistic and predictive models. The activity-based anorexia model has been one of the most suitable animal models when ... Sham-feeding was the most prominent model used to study BED. Animal models have been able to provide key knowledge of the ... Relevance of animal models to human eating disorders and obesity. Psychopharmacology, 199, 313-329. Smith, G. (1989) Animal ... Animal models have contributed a fair amount to the current understanding of eating disorders and obesity, in different ways ...
Le Bars D, Gozariu M, Cadden SW (December 2001). "Animal models of nociception". Pharmacological Reviews. 53 (4): 597-652. PMID ... Garfield, Natasha; Karaplis, Andrew C. (2001). "Genetics and animal models of hypoparathyroidism". Trends in Endocrinology & ... However, animals living in the wild do not reproduce in the colder months, even though they do not hibernate.) The pups are ... The tail is also used for balance when the mouse is climbing or running, or as a base when the animal stands on its hind legs ( ...
The development of animal models for complex psychiatric diseases has also improved over the last few years. Rodent models have ... Studies in animal models for several brain diseases has shown that the blood brain barrier (BBB) undergoes modification at many ... Studying the impact of these candidates would ideally demonstrate a schizophrenia phenotype in animal models, which is usually ... Mice models of the BBB and models of disease states have served well in conceptualizing the BBB as a regulatory interface ...
Hahn, Bevra Hannahs; Kono, Dwight (2013). "Animal Models of SLE". Dubois' Lupus Erythematosus and Related Syndromes. pp. 190- ...
A predictive intake modelling approach is used to estimate voluntary food intake (VFI) by animals where their eating habits ... A mechanistic modelling approach is one where a model is derived from basic theory. Examples of these include compartmental ... Predictive modelling Exposure science Exposure Assessment Hackmann T. J.; Spain J. N. (2010). "A mechanistic model for ... Predictive intake modelling uses mathematical modelling strategies to estimate intake of food, personal care products, and ...
... Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2020 Oct;10(5):1561-1579. doi: 10.21037/cdt-20-400. ... Selecting the right animal model for the right study is hence important, but may be difficult due to the plethora of different ... In this review we provide an overview of the available animal models of acute and chronic right heart failure and discuss the ... When initiating new pre-clinical or basic research studies it is key to choose the right animal model to ensure successful ...
Animal testing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees Pit of despair, an apparatus used for animal models of clinical ... Therefore, animal models of depression often display altered anxiety-related behavior. An appropriate animal model of human ... model is probably the most valid animal model of depression. It aims to model a chronic depressive-like state that develops ... Learned helplessness: The learned helplessness model (LH), one of the well validated animal models, is the best replicated one ...
Many animal models of musculoskeletal infection have been described in the literature; however, there remains a dearth of fully ... An inherent limitation of animal models is the difficulty in extrapolating results not only to humans, but also to other ... animals or to the same model in another laboratory.. In the orthopaedic and trauma field, standardisation and refinement of ... implementation of this technology relies on well-designed and clinically relevant in vivo simulation using animal models. ...
... a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model ... Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to ... In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar ... The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not ...
The program seeks to train talented graduate students to conduct studies of human infectious diseases using animal models and ... Objectives The Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training Program, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), ... Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training Program (AMID T32) ... Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training Program * AMID - ... Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training Program (AMID T32). Objectives. The Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training ...
Researchers have found an animal model of hysterectomy resulted in decreased memory capacity and an altered hormonal profile ... Hysterectomy linked to memory deficit in an animal model. Date:. December 6, 2018. Source:. Arizona State University. Summary: ... "Hysterectomy linked to memory deficit in an animal model." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2018. /. 12. /. ... Researchers have found an animal model of hysterectomy resulted in decreased memory capacity and an altered hormonal profile ...
Alzheimer diseaseAnatomyAnimal modelsBiomarkersBrainCentral nervous systemCerebrumDiagnosisDisease modelsDrug discoveryDrug ... "This APP/PS1 mouse model has been extensively characterized, and we are delighted to be able to offer it to our clients to help ... "We intend to further characterize the model and hope to be able to identify early onset and robust behavioral and physiological ...
The BC SPCAs model animal bylaws are based on effective animal control examples from municipalities and regional districts ... Model municipal bylaws. Model municipal bylaws. Bylaws are an important means of addressing animal welfare concerns at the ... The BC SPCAs model bylaws. In addition to the search tool above, we have combined effective animal-related bylaws from across ... Download a copy of our Model Animal Responsibility Bylaws (PDF). Please contact us with any questions. ...
... bioRxiv. 2022 Mar 28;2022.03. ... We compared immune responses elicited by mosaic-8 (SARS-CoV-2 and seven animal sarbecoviruses) and homotypic (only SARS-CoV-2) ... strains including SARS-CoV and animal sarbecoviruses. Mosaic-8 immunization showed equivalent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 ...
Next generation ALS drug silences inherited form of the disease in animal models. Preclinical study suggests drug may be ready ... "Next generation ALS drug silences inherited form of the disease in animal models." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. ... 2018, July 26). Next generation ALS drug silences inherited form of the disease in animal models. ScienceDaily. Retrieved ... "Next generation ALS drug silences inherited form of the disease in animal models." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 July 2018. , ...
7 Pieces of Technology Modeled After Animals. By Editorial Staff. , Jun 6, 2016. ... Modeled after the water-harvesting texture of the beetles back, the material features bumps that help turn condensation into ... Thats why so many scientists look to the animal kingdom to help overcome the limits of human technology. Here are seven pieces ... While initial prototypes only worked in grayscale, the researchers are working on creating a model that would be able to match ...
Meurs H, Gosens R, Zaagsma J. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: lessons from in vitro model systems and animal models. Eur ... Animal models of airway hyperresponsiveness. S. I. Said. European Respiratory Journal 2009 33: 217-218; DOI: 10.1183/ ... I read with much interest the review by Meurs et al. 1, in which they examined the relative merits of several animal models of ... Animal models of airway hyperresponsiveness Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ...
... many scientists rely on animal models.. Animal models are built upon the idea that many species of animals have a behavior or ... What are the limitations of animal models?. Scientists use different animal models depending on the experimental questions they ... It is important to understand that an animal model is not just the animal studied-it also includes the type of scientific ... What are animal models?. As we strive to better understand how the brain works, as well as how different brain-related diseases ...
ES Cells Used by the UMass Chan Transgenic Animal Modeling Core for Gene Targeting. ... Transgenic Animal Modeling Core • 55 Lake Ave North Worcester, Massachusetts 01605 Questions or Comments? E-mail: Heather. ... The UMass Chan Transgenic Animal Modeling Core (TAMC) also has JM8-strain ES cells for targeting, and routinely injects either ...
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Copyright © 2023 Animal Fair , Wendy Diamond , Pet lifestyle Expert , Animal Rescue Advocate/ Celebrity Pets. All Rights ... Bianca clearly gets her sun-kissed looks from her mother, Beth Ostrosky (a model, actress and relationship expert […] ... In this issue, Animal Fair has a cornucopia of fabulous ideas for […] ... Wendy Diamond, Entrepreneur, Leading Pet Lifestyle expert, Best Selling Author, TV Personality and Endangered Animal and Rescue ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
New mouse model may inform potential therapeutic options for Down syndrome. ... National Institutes of Health researchers compared a new genetic animal model of Down syndrome to the standard model and found ... Researchers study enhanced genetic animal model of Down syndrome. New mouse model may inform potential therapeutic options for ... Scientists often use different strains of mice as animal models to study human diseases because most genes in humans have ...
The cat Anatomy Model contains 10 fully detachable organs and body parts. Can Help you to carry out comprehensive practice ... Promote understanding and mastery,Model We have specially designed digital indicator signs help you conduct accurate and ... effective research and learning.High quatity - This cat anatomy model is made up of high quality environmentally friendly PVC ...
Anand Gururajan on Animal models for depression, part of a collection of multimedia lectures. ... Gururajan, A. (2020, November 30). Animal models for depression [Video file]. In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, ... and animal models will continue to play an important role. ... Animal models for depression. *Dr. Anand Gururajan - University ... I will be reviewing animal models for depression. ... Then I will talk about modeling aspects of depression, and ...
PDX animal models: It is expected that multiple PDX models be established from unique patient sources using established ... PDX animal model deliverables: Establish a serially transplantable, phenotypically stable, human cancer xenograft model in ... Solicited models include patient-derived cell lines, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, and 3D human tissue model ... Furthermore, PDX models are suggested to be a useful tool to mimic human clinical trials using animals. ...
Decrease Quantity of WILD REPUBLIC MARINE ANIMAL COLLECTION Increase Quantity of WILD REPUBLIC MARINE ANIMAL COLLECTION ... WILD REPUBLIC MARINE ANIMAL COLLECTION This collection from Wild Republic® has (10) mini whales (a contradiction, but still fun ... Build your own mini model dinosaur with these 3D puzzles. Each puzzle has (16) to (25) pre-cut pieces of thick, soft material, ...
Customizable - all models or filter a custom list of models. ... Breed Your Model Breed Your Model * Colony Management * Animal ... Customizable - build your own version with all models or filter a custom list ... Breed Your Model * Colony Management * Animal Breeding and Husbandry *Animal Model Housing ... Find Your Model Find Your Model * Model Search * GEMs *Taconic Transgenic Models™ ...
Next-generation ALS drug silences inherited form of the disease in animal models. NIH-funded preclinical study suggests drug ... Antisense oligonucleotides extend survival and reverse decrement in muscle response in ALS models. The Journal of Clinical ...
The authors adeptly compare the different animal models used and provide reasons why 1 animal model is preferred to another. ... It clearly and concisely provides extensive details about the animal models, both past and present, that have been used to ... Taylor K. Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):523. doi:10.3201/ ... Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models, edited by James R. Swearengen, is a timely and invaluable reference for ...
The Citys 1980s-vintage animal shelter and its cramped conditions would be replaced by a building with more space and features ... under pre-design models shared at a community meeting ... Models present vision for new Evanston animal shelter by Bob ... All three models would include features not available at the current facility, such as separate animal areas, compatibility ... Photo courtesy of Evanston Animal Shelter Association). Under the agreement with the County, the expanded animal shelter would ...
The disturbances observed in animals subjected to unpredictable and uncontrollable aversive events resemble post-traumatic ... Finally, animal paradigms are suggested to test the validity of the model and specific hypotheses are derived from the animal ... symptoms and thus may constitute an animal model of this disorder. It is argued that the similarity between animals symptoms ... Thus, animal studies of PTSD in models based on application of electrocutaneous stimulation (ECS) as the stressful traumatizing ...
Genome editing in animal models, Generation and use of genetically modified animal models, Cellular and animal models of human ... Workshop "Genome editing to generate cellular and animal models of human diseases". Cape Town, South Africa13 - 16 September ... Our vision is that in vivo and cellular (alternative) models have to be considered complementary, and not mutually exclusive, ... provide insights on the opportunities and challenges offered by genome editing for the generation of cellular and animal models ...
Japanese designed a phone case using the dead carcass of a crustacean as model. ... Phone Case Modeled After a Dead Animal. Alessia Andreotti July 10th 2014 ... A phone case modeled after a giant isopod passed away earlier this year at the Toba Aquarium in Japan. ... As if having the realistic reproduction of an animal as phone case wasnt special enough! ...
  • Meurs H, Gosens R, Zaagsma J. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: lessons from in vitro model systems and animal models. (ersjournals.com)
  • One limitation in conducting basic, translational, and clinical research investigating the underlying biological causes of CHDs is a substantial lack of relevant in vitro and in vivo-based models. (sbir.gov)
  • Genome editing in animal models, Generation and use of genetically modified animal models, Cellular and animal models of human diseases, Development of innovative genetic therapies, CRISP, Cryopreservation, Mouse embryos and sperm models, In vitro fertilization models, Handling and performing procedures on mice and rats. (icgeb.org)
  • These beneficial biological properties have been extensively studied in humans and animal models, both in vitro and in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • Efficient testing in vitro and in refined animal models is necessary in order to license at least two compounds. (who.int)
  • An inherent limitation of animal models is the difficulty in extrapolating results not only to humans, but also to other animals or to the same model in another laboratory. (ivis.org)
  • In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the 'vascular-leak' syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Animal models are built upon the idea that many species of animals have a behavior or disease similar to one seen in humans. (dana.org)
  • Most chapters are devoted to a specific biological agent or toxin and supply interesting historical information as well as descriptions about the pathogenesis in humans and in animal models. (cdc.gov)
  • These models often serve as an important foundation of drug research before clinical trials can begin in humans. (uab.edu)
  • To understand the underlying pathophysiology of right heart failure and to aid in the development of new treatments we need solid animal models that mimic the pathophysiology of human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Other models mimic disease-caused symptoms such as memory loss or addiction, and can be used to test potential drugs and therapies to see if they ease the symptoms. (dana.org)
  • Furthermore, PDX models are suggested to be a useful tool to mimic human clinical trials using animals. (sbir.gov)
  • Safe and expedient implementation of this technology relies on well-designed and clinically relevant in vivo simulation using animal models. (ivis.org)
  • PDX Mouse Models: PDX models are commonly used in many clinically relevant research applications including characterization of tumor heterogeneity, in vivo therapeutic target validation studies, therapeutic mechanism of action studies, and therapeutic sensitivity and resistance studies. (sbir.gov)
  • Our vision is that in vivo and cellular (alternative) models have to be considered complementary, and not mutually exclusive, toward a better understanding of the genetic component of human diseases and the development of targeted molecular therapies. (icgeb.org)
  • Literature was reviewed on animal models in which in vivo imaging was used to detect and assess lung lesions that resembled pathological changes found in DIILD, such as inflammation and fibrosis. (lu.se)
  • Training emphasizes rigorous scientific research, oral and written scientific communication, and interaction with a broad range of scientists interested in animal models of human infectious diseases. (ucdavis.edu)
  • That's why so many scientists look to the animal kingdom to help overcome the limits of human technology. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Scientists have used this model in many ways, including watching how the connections among neurons grow and what happen to brain networks and behavior when a single gene is modified. (dana.org)
  • To better understand both the physiology of the central nervous system and the different processes that allow it produce thoughts, feelings, and movements, many scientists rely on animal models. (dana.org)
  • Scientists rely on C. elegans worms, fruit flies, rodents, non-human primates, and other types of animals to understand different aspects of brain function and behavior. (dana.org)
  • Animal models showed scientists that neural signaling is electrical in nature. (dana.org)
  • These models may be used to enhance research capabilities of basic scientists and/or provide novel tools to pharmaceutical companies for preclinical oncology studies. (sbir.gov)
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models will certainly benefit scientists designing aerobiology studies or those exploring the infectious agents and toxins discussed in this book. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic scientists at UAB have developed animal models of a specific type of gene mutation - called a premature stop mutation - that is responsible for 20% of NF1 cases. (uab.edu)
  • Animal models are useful in allowing scientists to study the process of specific diseases as well as the effectiveness of new drug treatments. (uab.edu)
  • Using genetic engineering, scientists were able to reproduce the premature stop mutations in the corresponding region of the mouse NF1 gene to create two separate mouse models. (uab.edu)
  • Recreating the NF1 premature stop mutation in mice and zebrafish will enable scientists to study the NF1 disease process as it develops in the animals and to test new drug therapies that hold promise in restoring function to mutated genes. (uab.edu)
  • Scientists at the University of California, Davis and the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a predictive computer model that expresses animal cardiac research as human-specific insights. (acm.org)
  • Nonhuman primate models for human diseases / editor, W. Richard Dukelow. (who.int)
  • In addition, animal models of depression are indispensable for identifying novel therapies for depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an urgent need for the next generation of antidepressant therapies, that address these challenges, and animal models will continue to play an important role. (hstalks.com)
  • This workshop will provide insights on the opportunities and challenges offered by genome editing for the generation of cellular and animal models of human diseases and the development of innovative genetic therapies. (icgeb.org)
  • This innovative research initiative represents the first time that a premature stop mutation has been developed in a mouse model, providing investigators the opportunity to test new drug therapies that hold promise in restoring function to genes with this specific type of mutation. (uab.edu)
  • An appropriate animal model of human depression should fulfill the following criteria as much as possible: strong phenomenological similarities and similar pathophysiology (face validity), comparable etiology (construct validity), and common treatment (predictive validity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, animal paradigms are suggested to test the validity of the model and specific hypotheses are derived from the animal literature regarding trauma variables that are predictive of particular PTSD symptom clusters. (researchgate.net)
  • Finally, a forecast of future Ehrlichia seroprevalence was constructed based on the proposed model using county-level data on five predictive factors identified at a workshop hosted by the Companion Animal Parasite Council and published in 2014: annual temperature, percentage forest coverage,percentage surface water coverage, population density and median household income. (capcvet.org)
  • The BC SPCA has created the search tool below to help the public and local governments find examples of progressive animal-related bylaws. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Simply type in a search term (e.g., "outdoor cats") or click on one of the icons to see a list of model bylaws the BC SPCA recommends. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Please note that the tool is not a search of all animal-related bylaws in the province, but just the ones the BC SPCA believes are most progressive. (spca.bc.ca)
  • In addition to the search tool above, we have combined effective animal-related bylaws from across B.C. into one easy-to-use document, with the goal of creating safe and humane communities. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Models, Animal. (who.int)
  • Researchers have found an animal model of hysterectomy resulted in decreased memory capacity and an altered hormonal profile within two months after surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • While initial prototypes only worked in grayscale, the researchers are working on creating a model that would be able to match colors. (mentalfloss.com)
  • To study brain activity over longer periods of time and in greater depth requires methods that are far too risky for human test subjects, and so some researchers use animal models. (dana.org)
  • After noticing that human brains and mouse brains are organized similarly, researchers created mouse models to study brain development, memory, and behavior. (dana.org)
  • This reference will equip researchers with pertinent information regarding current animal models, so that future work will not repeat experiments already performed, while at the same time minimizing the number of animals projected for future biodefense studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Psychiatric Disorders is written for researchers in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry who use animal models in research and development of drugs for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autistic spectrum disorder. (politics-prose.com)
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models, edited by James R. Swearengen, is a timely and invaluable reference for those performing animal experimentation to develop medical countermeasures and diagnostics against infectious agents and toxins identified as potential biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • The program seeks to train talented graduate students to conduct studies of human infectious diseases using animal models and novel biological methods that are evolving from the revolutions in genomics and bioinformatics. (ucdavis.edu)
  • It clearly and concisely provides extensive details about the animal models, both past and present, that have been used to investigate a selected number of disease processes caused by exposure to plausible biological threat agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, animal models of depression often display altered anxiety-related behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • We believe that better understanding of biobehavioral characteristics, as well as the continued pursuit of applied strategies, of which we highlight the functional analytical model, will be key factors for the return of behavior analysis to investigate this phenomenon systematically, in both laboratory and social contexts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • The reduction in doses recommended for PEP was based in part on evidence from rabies virus pathogenesis data, experimental animal work, clinical studies, and epidemiologic surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • The Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Training Program, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), established for the first time a training grant in microbiology at UC Davis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Armadillo as an experimental model in biomedical research : proceedings of a workshop held at the Pan American Center for Research and Training in Leprosy and Tropical Diseases, Caracas, Venezuela, 23-27 May 1977. (who.int)
  • A Review of Cartilage Defect Treatments Using Chitosan Hydrogels in Experimental Animal Models. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to review the literature to examine the effects of CS hydrogels on cartilage repair in experimental animal models . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1 , in which they examined the relative merits of several animal models of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and the insights these models provide into the mechanisms of airway physiology and pathophysiology. (ersjournals.com)
  • When initiating new pre-clinical or basic research studies it is key to choose the right animal model to ensure successful translation to the clinical setting. (nih.gov)
  • Psychiatric Disorders has introductory chapters expressing the view of the role and relevance of animal models for drug discovery and development for the treatment of psychiatric disorders from the perspective of (a) academic basic neuroscientific research, (b) applied pharmaceutical drug discovery and development, and (c) issues of clinical trial design and regulatory agencies limitations. (politics-prose.com)
  • The clinical relevance of animal models is discussed in terms of major limitations in cross-species comparisons, clinical trial design of drug candidates, and how clinical trial endpoints could be improved. (politics-prose.com)
  • Most of the drugs currently on the market used to treat different neuropsychiatric diseases were born from studies first done in animal models. (dana.org)
  • Twelve different animal species occurred and nine various imaging modalities were used, with two-thirds of the studies being longitudinal. (lu.se)
  • In conclusion, CS hydrogels were able to stimulate tissue ingrowth and accelerate the process of cartilage repair in animal studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • The additional model of airway hyperresponsiveness worth considering in this context is that recently reported in mice lacking the vasoactive intestinal peptide gene 10 . (ersjournals.com)
  • There are several available animal models of acute and chronic PH. (nih.gov)
  • In this review we provide an overview of the available animal models of acute and chronic right heart failure and discuss the strengths and limitations of the different models. (nih.gov)
  • Data were statistically analyzed to identify factors related to antibody prevalence via a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model. (capcvet.org)
  • Again, depression is a heterogeneous disorder and its many symptoms are hard to be produced in laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not necessary for an "ideal" animal model of depression to exhibit all the abnormalities of depression-relevant behaviors, just as not all patients manifest every possible symptom of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then I will talk about modeling aspects of depression, and testing for depressive-like behaviors in rodents. (hstalks.com)
  • This article presents a behavioral-analytic view about schizophrenia and comprises two parts: (a) presents previous work on animal behavioral experimental models related to schizophrenic behaviors (i.e., social isolation, latent inhibition and learned helplessness) and (b) applied interventions (e.g., the token economy and functional analytic approaches). (bvsalud.org)
  • It is difficult to develop an animal model that perfectly reproduces the symptoms of depression in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, depression, as other mental disorders, consists of endophenotypes that can be reproduced independently and evaluated in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ideal animal model offers an opportunity to understand molecular, genetic, and epigenetic factors that may lead to depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using animal models, the underlying molecular alterations and the causal relationship between genetic or environmental alterations and depression can be examined, which would afford a better insight into pathology of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actually, few models of depression fully fit these validating criteria, and most models currently used rely on either actions of known antidepressants or responses to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this Henry Stewart Talk, I will be reviewing animal models for depression. (hstalks.com)
  • I will briefly touch on some of the strategies used to generate models for depression, and then focus on stress as an inducing manipulation. (hstalks.com)
  • But over the past century, experimental work using animal models has given us many insights into the molecules, genes, cells, and fibrous networks that make up the central nervous system. (dana.org)
  • The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. (mdpi.com)
  • Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • This APP/PS1 mouse model has been extensively characterized, and we are delighted to be able to offer it to our clients to help advance Alzheimer's disease drug discovery," said Emer Leahy, Ph.D., president and CEO of PsychoGenics, in a statement. (genengnews.com)
  • We intend to further characterize the model and hope to be able to identify early onset and robust behavioral and physiological measures, as well as translational biomarkers, as we have done for other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. (genengnews.com)
  • The model can enable animal-to-human translation of electrophysiological measurements such as the effects of drugs, heart rate irregularities, or changes caused by heart disease. (acm.org)
  • Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. (hindawi.com)
  • According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Build your own mini model dinosaur with these 3D puzzles. (sciplus.com)
  • A fantastic range of prehistoric animals, including a model of a Tyrannosaurus rex , Velociraptor mongoliensis and the Papo Triceratops dinosaur model. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • A range of fantastic Papo figures for dinosaur model collectors. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Safari Ltd. Wild Safari Prehistoric World , a collection of amazing prehistoric animals and dinosaurs from Everything Dinosaur. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Everything Dinosaur stocks a huge range of dinosaur and prehistoric animal models. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Everything Dinosaur staff supply free fact sheets so that you can learn about extinct animals. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • For further information, dinosaur facts, help and advice on dinosaur model collecting or any other item in the extensive Everything Dinosaur range such as CollectA Prehistoric Life figures or to find out more about the models in the Bullyland Dinosaurs range, contact a member of staff by sending Everything Dinosaur an email. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Papo dinosaur models, prehistoric animals and figures. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Scale models to buy on-line at Everything Dinosaur. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Dinosaur toys and models are great to collect and ideal for helping to develop creative, imaginative play. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life a collection of amazing prehistoric animals and dinosaurs from Everything Dinosaur. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • Buy dinosaur models from Everything Dinosaur on-line, Everything Dinosaur stocks a huge range of dinosaur models including the Papo prehistoric animal range. (everythingdinosaur.com)
  • however, there remains a dearth of fully standardised or universally accepted reference models hindering advancement in the field. (ivis.org)
  • Each volume examines the rationale, use, robustness and limitations of animal models in each therapeutic area covered and discuss the use of animal models for target identification and validation. (politics-prose.com)
  • In the orthopaedic and trauma field, standardisation and refinement of fixation methods would also improve existing models. (ivis.org)
  • Retroviruses of human A.I.D.S. and related animal diseases : 7e Colloque des "cent gardes", 26-27-28 octobre 1992, Marnes-la-Coquette, Paris, France / edited by Marc Girard, Louis Valette. (who.int)
  • Spontaneous animal homologues of human autoimmune blistering diseases have been identified in the last 2 decades. (medscape.com)
  • The mentors for the training program are 23 NIH-funded investigators at UC Davis, whose work uses animal models to better understand a broad range of viral and bacterial human pathogens. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The City's current 1980s-vintage animal shelter, where volunteers work under cramped conditions, would be replaced by a building with considerably more space to house animals for adoption and features such as a food pantry and event space under pre-design models shared at a community meeting last week. (evanstonroundtable.com)
  • Members of the previous City Council gave the groups approval to proceed with preliminary design work with Holabird & Root after the City received a $2 million grant from Cook County to build a bigger animal shelter at the current site. (evanstonroundtable.com)
  • But, there is mounting evidence from research in animals and people suggesting otherwise. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Promote understanding and mastery,Model We have specially designed digital indicator signs help you conduct accurate and effective research and learning.High quatity - This cat anatomy model is made up of high quality environmentally friendly PVC for durability, not tend to be fragile, can pass on to future students for many years, so it will be a good complement to the lab. (7gadgets.com)
  • The development and validation of appropriate cell and animal-based models to study underrepresented population groups would greatly advance this field of research. (sbir.gov)
  • 3D human tissue model culture systems: While immortalized cell lines have been standard practice in cancer research for decades, adequate modeling of the heterogeneity of human cancer is an unmet need. (sbir.gov)
  • Man and mouse : animals in medical research / William Paton. (who.int)
  • While the mouse is the animal involved in their experiments, the process of making changes to its genome and seeing how it affects the brain is just as important to the model as the animal itself. (dana.org)
  • Relevant experiments in which animals exhibit generalized fear and arousal, discrete fear of a conditioned stimulus (CS), analgesia, and avoidance are reviewed with the view that these manifestations may be analogous to the PTSD symptom clusters of persistent arousal, reexperiencing, numbing, and avoidance, respectively. (researchgate.net)
  • The disturbances observed in animals subjected to unpredictable and uncontrollable aversive events resemble post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and thus may constitute an animal model of this disorder. (researchgate.net)
  • It is argued that the similarity between animals' symptoms and those of trauma victims may reflect common etiological factors. (researchgate.net)
  • While these techniques result in larger signals which are easier to measure, intracellular or patch-clamp techniques are very challenging in live animals, making extracellular recordings the technique of choice for many investigators. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, offerors proposing to generate conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) or cell lines matched to PDX animal models will be preferred. (sbir.gov)
  • The aim of this series of volumes on Animal and Translational Models for CNS Drug Discovery is to identify and provide common endpoints between species that can serve to inform both the clinic and the bench with the information needed to accelerate clinically-effective CNS drug discovery. (politics-prose.com)
  • Twelve different animal species occurred and nine various imaging. (lu.se)
  • Bylaws are an important means of addressing animal welfare concerns at the community level. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Rather, it is a recommendation of a specific bylaw from a community that pertains to the animal welfare issue indicated. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Animal welfare is our top priority. (mediacityuk.co.uk)
  • We compared immune responses elicited by mosaic-8 (SARS-CoV-2 and seven animal sarbecoviruses) and homotypic (only SARS-CoV-2) RBD-nanoparticles in mice and macaques, observing stronger responses elicited by mosaic-8 to mismatched (not on nanoparticles) strains including SARS-CoV and animal sarbecoviruses. (nih.gov)
  • however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Pulmonary reactions to organic dust exposures: development of an animal model. (cdc.gov)
  • An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. (hindawi.com)
  • All three models would include features not available at the current facility, such as separate animal areas, compatibility with life safety codes, accessibility, a food pantry and event space. (evanstonroundtable.com)
  • Why can't we just study the human brain instead of using animal models? (dana.org)
  • This study examines its activity in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In a recent study, approximately 23,000 persons per year were estimated to have been exposed to potentially rabid animals and received rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This semi-experimental study investigated the effect of breastfeeding training based on the BASNEF model on severity of postpartum blues in 2012. (who.int)
  • Solicited models include patient-derived cell lines, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, and 3D human tissue model culture systems established from racially/ethnically diverse patient populations. (sbir.gov)
  • The elevated T-maze (ETM) is a putative model for the assessment of anxiety and memory in rodents. (lww.com)
  • Pemphigus foliaceus, the most common form of pemphigus observed in animals, affects dogs and cats. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, I wrote this small tutorial in R (Spanish) that helped me to better understand such models. (r-bloggers.com)