Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Trans-Splicing: The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).TailGene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
"A database featuring behavioral and structural anatomy of Caenorhabditis elegans". "Specification of the nervous system of C. ... a brain in its entirety after the impressive achievements in studying the entire nervous system of a simple model organism, ... "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... Burke, Robert E. (2007). "Sir Charles Sherrington's the integrative action of the nervous system: a centenary appreciation". ...
"The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner chose it as a model organism for studying the way that genes control development. One of the ... Except for a few primitive organisms such as sponges (which have no nervous system) and cnidarians (which have a nervous system ... Hobert, O (2005). The C. elegans Research Community, ed. "Specification of the nervous system". WormBook: 1-19. doi:10.1895/ ...
1986). "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. ... description of model organisms WWW Virtual Library guide to several model organism resource lists The Generic Model Organism ... There are many model organisms. One of the first model systems for molecular biology was the bacterium Escherichia coli, a ... What are model organisms? Archived October 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. NIH model organisms Archived August 22, 2007, at ...
... is an online biological database about the biology and genome of the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans ... The wiring diagram of the worm nervous system; Protein-protein interaction Interactome data; Genetic regulatory relationships; ... The annotated genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, Caenorhabditis brenneri, ... The gene models of C. elegans, C. briggsae, C. remanei, and C. brenneri genes are manually curated. The majority of gene ...
It is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system. The neurons do not fire action potentials, and do not express any ... "Introduction to C. Elegans". C. Elegans as a model organism. Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 2002-08-18. ... Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bergerac (for instance strain BO). *Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol (for instance ... Mitotic chromosomes of Caenorhabditis elegans. DNA (red)/ Kinetochores (green). Holocentric organisms, including C. elegans, ...
Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... the study of the nervous system Population biology - the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including Population ecology ... Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from the scale of the ecology of individual organisms, to those of ... Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable ...
"The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... Sydney Brenner chose it as a model organism for studying the way that genes control development. One of the advantages of ... Generic bilaterian nervous system. Nervous system of a generic bilaterian animal, in the form of a nerve cord with segmental ... Except for a few primitive organisms such as sponges (which have no nervous system) and cnidarians (which have a nervous ...
... melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms, and ... and the evolution of the bilaterian nervous system". Frontiers in Zoology. 4: 14. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-14. PMC 1885248 . ... Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible ... Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another. In ...
Starlight (interstellar probe)
... elegans have been used extensively in biological research as a model organism, owing to the fact that the worm has one of the ... least number of cells for an animal possessing a nervous system. A backup option for C. elegans are tardigrades, micro-animals ... and the lead candidate is Caenorhabditis elegans, a minuscule nematode. The organism will spend most of the voyage in a frozen ... Following their revival, the organisms will be monitored by various sensors, and the data they produce will be sent back to ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
C. elegans has a short life-cycle, is easy to manipulate genetically, and has a simple but well-understood nervous system. The ... Many different organisms are used as models for studying ALS, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a species of yeast), ... Caenorhabditis elegans (a roundworm), Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly), Danio rerio (the zebrafish), Mus musculus ... the SOD1G93A model remains both the most widely used SOD1 mouse model and the most widely used ALS mouse model overall.[23 ...
"Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans" ... was identified in Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an enzyme that produces inositol ... Study models. For technical reasons, synaptic structure and function have been historically studied at unusually large ... Organisms with mutant ttx-7 genes demonstrated behavioral and localization defects, which were rescued by expression of IMPase ...
"Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans ... A gene (ttx-7) was identified in Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an enzyme that ... Organisms with mutant ttx-7 genes demonstrated behavioral and localization defects, which were rescued by expression of IMPase ... Nerve cells have long been used as models for cellular polarization, and of particular interest are the mechanisms underlying ...
Outline of biology
... inbreeding Model organisms: Drosophila - Arabidopsis - Caenorhabditis elegans - mouse - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Escherichia ... excretion Nervous system: limbic system - vestibular system - neuron - axon - dendrite - brain - eye - vision - audition - ... Systems biology - computational modeling of biological systems. Theoretical Biology - the mathematical modeling of biological ... Reproductive system Mammalian reproductive system Human reproductive system Mammalian penis Os penis Penile spines Genitalia of ...
Studies in multiple organisms including, mice, rats, chicks, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila ... Studies of central nervous system (CNS) development in chick and rodent models have identified the netrin-1 protein as a ... Netrin was first described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1990, and named UNC-6, according to standard C. elegans ... Netrin has been discovered to play a key role in the development and mature regulation of tissue outside the nervous system. ...
Research on Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that multiple mechanisms including RNA regulation may play a role in maintaining ... epidermal tissues and nervous system). However, cell pluripotency is a continuum, ranging from the completely pluripotent cell ... iPSCs can potentially replace animal models unsuitable as well as in vitro models used for disease research. Recent findings ... is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism. Spores and zygotes are ...
... elegans. Each of these has its own advantages and disadvantages as a model system. For example, the C. elegans nervous system ... "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... Nothing approaching this level of detail is available for any other organism, and the information has been used to enable a ... The vertebrate nervous system is divided into the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system (CNS) ...
"Caenorhabditis elegans Battling Starvation Stress: Low Levels of Ethanol Prolong Lifespan in L1 Larvae". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): ... and that such induction of endogenous free radical production extends life span of a model organism. Most importantly, this ... who elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the nervous system responds adaptively to mild bioenergetic stresses ... For policy making purposes, the commonly accepted model of dose response in radiobiology is the linear no-threshold model (LNT ...
The roundworm C. elegans has one of the simplest nervous systems of any organism, with its hermaphrodite type having only 302 ... elegans is a model organism. Being a model organism, the genome is fully known, along with many well characterized mutants ... OpenWorm is an international open science project to simulate the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans at the cellular level as a ... model of a relatively simple organism like C. elegans, new tools are being developed which will make it easier to model more ...
Thus, JM109 is useful for cloning and expression systems. E. coli is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology ... Strain OP50 of Escherichia coli is used for maintenance of Caenorhabditis elegans cultures. Strain JM109 is a mutant form of E- ... In 25% of HUS patients, complications of nervous system occur, which in turn causes strokes due to small clots of blood which ... E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and ...
British Society for Research on Ageing
Research interests: investigating mechanisms of ageing in short lived animal models (especially Caenorhabditis elegans), ... Doctoral thesis on the development of the enteric nervous system in vivo and in vitro. Postdoctoral positions at UCL and the ... Research interests include understanding the role of epigenetic factors in regulating ageing rate using the model organism ... bacteria influence ageing using the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and its interaction with Escherichia coli as a model. ...
Decay of mature miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the 5´-to-3´ exoribonuclease XRN2, also known as Rat1p. In ... As indicated by work in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), mature plant miRNAs appear to be stabilized by ... miRNAs appear to regulate the development and function of the nervous system. Neural miRNAs are involved at various stages of ... nervous system development and cell signaling. Altered miRNA levels were found in the medial prefrontal cortex of alcohol- ...
For instance, the nervous system of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans includes eleven ganglionic components, which have 11 ... Like other organism systems, the genome has limited capacities. So the more neuroanatomy "for free, directly from physics", the ... Bounded-resource models of the agent characterize our rationality as falling between nothing and perfection. The apercu ... In addition, a "Size Law" appears to apply to systems with such local-global tradeoffs: If a complete system is in fact ...
Protein kinase C zeta type
Model organisms have been used in the study of PRKCZ function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Prkcztm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi ... Noda Y, Takeya R, Ohno S, Naito S, Ito T, Sumimoto H (2001). "Human homologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity ... Cooke SF, Bliss TV (2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Kuroda S, Nakagawa N, Tokunaga C, Tatematsu K, Tanizawa K (1999). "Mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-76 ...
Animal models such as rodents, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have been used to observe the origins and/ ... Excitable cells in living organisms have voltage-gated ion channels. These can be observed throughout the nervous system in ... GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and are found on neurons, glial cells, ... The scope of this subject covers topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system ...
One roundworm of note, C. elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire ... Nervous system. See also: Muscle arms. Four peripheral nerves run the length of the body on the dorsal, ventral, and ... "The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans". www.wormbook.org.. *^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in ... The nematode model species C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibit androdioecy, which is very rare among animals. The single genus ...
Animal testing on invertebrates
2004). "Functional genomic approaches using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system". J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37 ( ... "Methods in Cell Biology: Caenorhabditis Elegans : Modern Biological Analysis of an Organism" Academic Press (October 1995) ISBN ... The simple nervous system of this nematode allows the effects of genetics on the development of nerves to be studied in detail ... C. elegans is especially valuable as the precise lineage of all the organism's 959 somatic cells is known, giving a complete ...
The original technique has recently been adapted for use with other model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster, ... Caenorhabditis elegans, and Arabidopsis thaliana. While earlier labeling techniques allowed for the mapping of ... "Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system". Nature. 450 (7166): 56-62. ... elegans. Mice were the first organisms in which the Brainbow method of neuroimaging was successfully employed. Livet et al. ( ...
John Sulston, had identified part of the cell lineage in the developing nervous system of C. elegans. Recurring results showed ... These approaches promise to provide more comprehensive analysis of lineage relationships in model organisms. Collins English ... Kimble, J; Hirsh, D (1979). "The postembryonic cell lineages of the hermaphrodite and male gonads in Caenorhabditis elegans". ... Some organisms such as C. elegans have a predetermined pattern of cell progeny and the adult male will always consist of 1031 ...
Tavernarakis N, Driscoll M (1997). "Molecular modeling of mechanotransduction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Annual ... the mechanisms of sensory transduction and integration by the nervous system. He has also contributed towards the development ... Kourtis N, Tavernarakis N (2009). "Autophagy and cell death in model organisms". Cell Death and Differentiation. 16 (1): 21-30 ... Syntichaki P, Tavernarakis N (2004). "Genetic models of mechanotransduction: the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". ...
nervous system development. • macrophage differentiation. • dendritic cell migration. • positive regulation of cytokinesis. • ... Noda Y, Takeya R, Ohno S, Naito S, Ito T, Sumimoto H (February 2001). "Human homologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell ... multicellular organism growth. • epidermis morphogenesis. • nucleus localization. • epithelial cell-cell adhesion. • sprouting ... small molecule drug AZA197 suppresses primary colon cancer growth and prolongs survival in a preclinical mouse xenograft model ...
பயனர்:Shrikarsan/Vital articles/Expanded/Biology and health sciences - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
188.8.131.52 Nervous system (22 articles). *184.108.40.206 Reproductive system (9 articles) ... Organisms (900 articles)[தொகு]. Animals (595 articles)[தொகு]. General classification (8 articles)[தொகு]. *. கணுக்காலி ... Caenorhabditis elegans. *. Tardigrade. Lophotrochozoa (6 articles) *. Lophotrochozoa. *. வளையப் புழு *. மண்புழு. *. அட்டை. *. ... 1.9 Organisms (900 articles) *1.9.1 Animals (595 articles) *220.127.116.11 General classification (8 articles) ...
Evolution of sexual reproduction
Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system? Why do some organisms have gamete dimorphism? ... In 2011, researchers used the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a host and the pathogenic bacteria Serratia ... Kondrashov's model requires synergistic epistasis, which is represented by the red line - each subsequent mutation has ... For the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the mutation rate per effective genome per sexual generation is 0.036. ...
NAS Award in Molecular Biology
By using X-chromosome inactivation as a model system, Lee has made unique contributions to our understanding of epigenetic ... significant contributions to the genetic analysis of the development of cell lineages in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. ... components responsible for controlling neurotransmitter vesicle release and chemical communication within the nervous system. ... contributions to our understanding of gene regulation networks and molecular mechanisms governing the development of organisms ...
Development of the nervous system
... and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Myelination, formation of the lipid myelin sheath around neuronal axons, is a process ... Developmental neuroscience uses a variety of animal models including the mouse Mus musculus, the fruit fly Drosophila ... Neurons are 'post-mitotic', meaning that they will never divide again for the lifetime of the organism. ... Patterning of the nervous system. In chordates, dorsal ectoderm forms all neural tissue and the nervous system. ...
Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila ... Neuroscience - the study of the nervous system. *Paleontology - the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of ... Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a ... Whither model organism research?". Science. 307 (5717): 1885-86. doi:10.1126/science.1108872. PMID 15790833.. CS1 maint: ...
Nervous system. Neurons differ in invertebrates from mammalian cells. Invertebrates cells fire in response to similar stimuli ... Two of the most commonly studied model organisms nowadays are invertebrates: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the ... nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They have long been the most intensively studied model organisms, and were among the first ... Respiratory system. Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the ...
Research on Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that multiple mechanisms including RNA regulation may play a role in maintaining ... epidermal tissues and nervous system). However, cell pluripotency is a continuum, ranging from the completely pluripotent ... iPSCs can potentially replace animal models unsuitable as well as in vitro models used for disease research. ... is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism. Spores and zygotes are ...
Evolution of sexual reproduction
Why do most sexual organisms use a binary mating system? Why do some organisms have gamete dimorphism? ... In 2011, researchers used the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a host and the pathogenic bacteria Serratia ... Birdsell, JA; Wills, C (2003). The evolutionary origin and maintenance of sexual recombination: A review of contemporary models ... For the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the mutation rate per effective genome per sexual generation is 0.036. ...
It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin.[ ... in the synthesis of huge amounts of enzyme kinetic and gene expression data into mathematical models of entire organisms. This ... Host microbe interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans. Plants. *Phytobiome. *Root microbiome. *Seagrass microbiome ... Thomson RB, Bertram H (December 2001). "Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections". Infectious Disease Clinics ...
... functions as a neurotransmitter in the nervous systems of most animals. For example, in the roundworm Caenorhabditis ... Lipton J, Kleemann G, Ghosh R, Lints R, Emmons SW (August 2004). "Mate searching in Caenorhabditis elegans: a genetic model for ... Unicellular organismsEdit. Serotonin is used by a variety of single-cell organisms for various purposes. SSRIs have been found ... Outside the nervous systemEdit. In the digestive tract (emetic)Edit. The gut is surrounded by enterochromaffin cells, which ...
A model organism for studying of ageing is the nematode C. elegans. Thanks to its short lifespan of 2-3 weeks, our ability to ... "The Effects of Normal Aging on Nerve Fibers and Neuroglia in the Central Nervous System". In Riddle, David R. (ed.). Brain ... "Analysis of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans". In Joel H. Rothman; Andrew Singson (eds.). Caenorhabditis Elegans: Cell Biology ... Early life forms on Earth, starting at least 3.7 billion years ago, were single-celled organisms. Such organisms ( ...
Pain in invertebrates
Suitable nervous system. Central nervous system. Brain size does not necessarily equate to complexity of function.[ ... Acids are also known to activate nociceptors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in Hirudo medicinalis, commonly known ... "The Octopus: a model for a comparative analysis of the evolution of learning and memory mechanisms". Biology Bulletin. 210 (3 ... experience nociception has been subject to natural selection and offers the advantage of reducing further harm to the organism ...
"The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system. The production and study ... In particular, computational models can be used to predict the dynamic effect of lesions in the connectome. The connectome can ... in scale from a detailed map of the full set of neurons and synapses within part or all of the nervous system of an organism to ...
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance
Though no systematic study of epigenetic inheritance has been conducted (most focus on model organisms), there is preliminary ... mostly in Caenorhabditis elegans Epigenetic variation may take one of four general forms. Others may yet be elucidated, but ... In modern terms, a nervous fluid transmitted to offspring would be a form of epigenetic inheritance. Lamarckism, as this body ... Nanney DL (July 1958). "Epigenetic Control Systems". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
... organisms with enhanced DNA repair systems, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation-resistant known organism, ... Tissenbaum, HA; Guarente, L. (2001). "Increased dosage of a sir-2 gene extends life span in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. ... In experimental mouse models, loss of DNA damage response-mediated cell senescence was observed after using a short hairpin RNA ... "CRISPR gene-editing tool has scientists thrilled - but nervous" CBC news. Author Kelly Crowe. November 30, 2015. Listen to this ...
David B. Dusenbery
Dusenbery focused on experimental studies of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans because of its small nervous system and ... Mathematical modeling and quantitative characterization of bacterial motility and chemotaxis. In Modeling the Metabolic and ... Later, he turned to the flow of information outside the organism, and how physics constrains how organisms behave. More ... S.G. Donkin & D.B. Dusenbery (1993).A soil toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and an effective method of ...
... functions as a neurotransmitter in the nervous systems of most animals. For example, in the roundworm Caenorhabditis ... "Mate searching in Caenorhabditis elegans: a genetic model for sex drive in a simple invertebrate". J. Neurosci. 24 (34): 7427- ... Serotonin is used by a variety of single-cell organisms for various purposes. SSRIs have been found to be toxic to algae. The ... It is seen in insect processes in roles similar to in the human central nervous system, such as memory, appetite, sleep, and ...
Final Report Summary - ELEGANSNEUROCIRCUITS (Neuromodulation of Oxygen Chemosensory Circuits in Caenorhabditis elegans) |...
SWISS-MODEL | Caenorhabditis elegans
The SWISS-MODEL Repository is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology- ... C. elegans is a model organism for nervous system development as well as senescence. Of interest to researchers is the ... Protein models in Repository. From left to right: i) The number of proteins in the reference proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans ... Model Quality. Global quality estimation of SWISS-MODEL Repository models is assessed by the QMEAN4 composite scoring function ...
Caenorhabditis elegans - Wikipedia
It is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system. The neurons do not fire action potentials, and do not express any ... "Introduction to C. Elegans". C. Elegans as a model organism. Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 2002-08-18. ... Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bergerac (for instance strain BO). *Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol (for instance ... Mitotic chromosomes of Caenorhabditis elegans. DNA (red)/ Kinetochores (green). Holocentric organisms, including C. elegans, ...
An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans | Protocol
... soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970s. ... ... In fact, the entire connectivity of the C. elegans nervous system has now been mapped. ... elegans as a model organism. Caenorhabditis elegans belongs to the phylum Nematoda of the animal kingdom. C. elegans are ... Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the ...
Model Organism: Caenorhabditis elegans
It was chosen because it is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system, it is easy to grow in bulk populations, and is ... elegans has been used as a model organism in scientific research since 1963. ... C. elegans was the first multicellular organism to have its whole genome sequenced. ... It is a multicellular eukaryotic organism, yet is simple enough to be studied in great detail. Its transparency facilitates the ...
An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans | Protocol
... elegans as a model organism. Caenorhabditis elegans belongs to the phylum Nematoda of the animal kingdom. C. elegans are ... In fact, the entire connectivity of the C. elegans nervous system has now been mapped. ... In 1963, Sydney Brenner decided to establish C. elegans as a model system, and used it to explore gene function. In 1974, he ... Now that we have reviewed C. elegans basics, lets learn what makes them a powerful model organism. First, it is relatively ...
Antagonistic Serotonergic and Octopaminergic Neural Circuits Mediate Food-Dependent Locomotory Behavior in Caenorhabditis...
... because of its compact nervous system, manipulable genetics, and a host of food-related behaviors, is a powerful model organism ... 2005) Tyramine functions independently of octopamine in the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. Neuron 46:247-260. doi: ... 2015) An imaging system for C. elegans behavior. Methods Mol Biol 1327:199-207. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2842-2_14 pmid:26423976 ... 2008) Insulin, cGMP, and TGF-β signals regulate food intake and quiescence in C. elegans: a model for satiety. Cell Metab 7:249 ...
Regulation of Experience-Dependent Bidirectional Chemotaxis by a Neural Circuit Switch in Caenorhabditis elegans | Journal of...
1986) The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340 ... outputs at a cellular resolution by using the single-neuron manipulation techniques that are available for this model organism. ... elegans has an intrinsic bias toward ventral curving, probably due to dorsoventral asymmetry of the nervous system, and the ... 2005) A circuit for navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3184-3191, doi:10.1073/pnas.0409009101, ...
Genomic identification and functional analysis of essential genes in Caenorhabditis elegans | SpringerLink
Background Essential genes are required for an organisms viability and their functions can vary greatly, spreading across many ... and nervous system (HOXA1). Similar large-scale loss-of-function studies is also available for several other model organisms ... were attributed to the use of model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, in which essential genes is estimated to take up 25% of ... Lipocalin signaling controls unicellular tube development in the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory system. Dev Biol. 2009;329(2 ...
PIM-Related Kinases Selectively Regulate Olfactory Sensations in Caenorhabditis elegans | eNeuro
As our model organism, we used the Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, which express two PIM-related kinases, PRK-1 and PRK-2. We ... its nervous system provides a well-defined framework for studies on sensory functions. In the head of C. elegans, there are ... The Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes provide a useful model organism to study evolutionarily conserved physiological phenomena ... we have now conducted behavioral studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which was chosen as our model organism for ...
Use of the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans to Elucidate Neurotoxic and Behavioral Effects of Commercial Fungicides |...
Caenorhabditis elegans, as an effective strategy for examining fungicide effects on growth, reproduction, nervous system and ... This chapter considers the use of the model organism and key beneficial soil nematode, ... Understanding the biological effects of fungicide contaminants in the environment on non-target organisms including humans is ... elegans. The soil nematode, C. elegans, is an excellent model organism for neurotoxicology study of fungicides . C. elegans ...
The World of Touch - Scholarpedia
Lower invertebrate model systems Figure 2: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism in neuroscience. ... All animals with a Central Nervous System (CNS) respond to touch. Even the tiny, un-segmented worm Caenorhabditis elegans, a ... Another fascinating mollusc model system is the Octopus, that has long been known for its cognitive abilities. A number of ... The lateral line system of fish and amphibians Figure 5: The fish lateral line system provides a sensitive organ for detecting ...
Pharmacological assays reveal age-related changes in synaptic transmission at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction...
1986). The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 314, 1-340. ... The fundamental biology of the ageing process is conserved between humans and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (Kenyon ... 2012). Neurite sprouting and synapse deterioration in the aging Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. J. Neurosci. 32, 8778- ... 1993). The GABAergic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 364, 337-341. ...
Searching for Neuronal Left/Right Asymmetry: Genomewide Analysis of Nematode Receptor-Type Guanylyl Cyclases | Genetics
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a simple model organism to study the lateralization of nervous system function (H ... and S. Chang, 2002 Left-right asymmetry in the nervous system: the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3: 629-640 ... Expression within the nervous system:. Within the nervous system, most but not all, C. elegans gcy genes are expressed in ... 1986 The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 314: ...
Neuroheuristics - Wikipedia
"A database featuring behavioral and structural anatomy of Caenorhabditis elegans". "Specification of the nervous system of C. ... a brain in its entirety after the impressive achievements in studying the entire nervous system of a simple model organism, ... "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... Burke, Robert E. (2007). "Sir Charles Sherringtons the integrative action of the nervous system: a centenary appreciation". ...
These Science Photos are So Beautiful They're Basically Art | Gizmodo UK
C. elegans are one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system, making them a valuable model in neurobiology. Mr. Brown is ... This image depicts a colony of Caenorhabditis elegans nematode worms feeding on bacteria. The worms congregate in patches where ... Research Focus: Targeted drug delivery systems for cancer treatment.. In recent years, much research has been conducted on ... The ultimate goal is to develop predictive models to enhance the production of bioenergy crops and mitigate the negative ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worm is a well-studied biological organism model. The nervous system of C. elegans is ... At first glance, the neuronal network seems like a tangled web in many areas throughout the nervous system. Often, our best ... Stochastic Modeling of Reversible Biochemical Reaction-Diffusion Systems and High-Resolution Shock-Capturing Methods for Fluid ... Uncertainty Quantification Problems in Tsunami Modeling and Reduced Order Models for Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations ...
Cellular & Anti-aging Biology - MDI Biological Laboratory
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for aging research. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models 27:3-13. ... A simple nervous system, genetic homology with mammals, a short life span of three weeks and a fully mapped connectome are some ... C. elegans has been considered a classical model organism and several aging studies and age associated disorder studies have ... of the unique features that has enabled C.elegans to serve as a classical model organism. A recent study published in the ...
Brain - Wikipedia
"The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner chose it as a model organism for studying the way that genes control development. One of the ... Except for a few primitive organisms such as sponges (which have no nervous system) and cnidarians (which have a nervous system ... Hobert, O (2005). The C. elegans Research Community, ed. "Specification of the nervous system". WormBook: 1-19. doi:10.1895/ ...
When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation ... Caenorhabditis elegans C. elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode. It is a multicellular eukaryotic organism, yet is ... It is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system and as of 2012, the only organism to have its connectome completed. ... History of Model Organisms. Charles Darwin Tree of Life Sketch - 1837 The history of model organisms began with the idea that ...
First complete wiring diagram of an animal's nervous system
... the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, used by scientists worldwide as a model organism. The study includes adults of both sexes ... researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine describe the first complete wiring diagram of the nervous system of an ... "Since the roundworm nervous system contains many of the same molecules as the human nervous system, what we learn about the ... the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, used by scientists worldwide as a model organism. The study includes adults of both sexes ...
Stephen Fields - Department of Biology | Emporia State University
The first area uses the model nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, to determine the role of myosin V and melatonin in nervous ... Molecular Genetics Advanced Molecular Techniques in Model Organisms. Research Projects. I have two distinct branches of active ... In the system we are studying, the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium acidotum ingests free-living cryptomonad algal cells and then ... The latter function has been poorly characterized in higher organisms, so we are developing a model for melatonin-mediated ...
Connections between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease explored | EurekAlert! Science News
C. elegans has an accessible and well characterized nervous system and features several genes homologous to human genes ... Michael Morcos and Harald Hutter report that the classical model organism in aging research, the nematode Caenorhabditis ... The Model Caenorhabditis elegans in Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimers Disease Michael Morcos, Harald Hutter ... They speculate that a deficiency in leptin levels or function may contribute to systemic and central nervous system ...
Sulston, Sir John Edward | FactMonster
Caenorhabditis elegans - encyclopedia article - Citizendium
The C. elegans are part of the model system. The key attributes of C. elegans as an experimental system for biological systems ... Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple organism that is an small free living nematode. It is found in various parts of the world. A ... The c. elegans have a simple nervous system, there are many nerves connected to the muscles that generates simple movements. ... There were many in vitro and in vivo models of alzheimers disease, the transgenic C. elegans model system has been used ...
The brains behind research on the brain - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
The group first developed microfluidic chips to manipulate small animals such as the invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans and ... both used extensively as model organisms in biological research. "We have machines that can take these animals from their ... screening and therapeutic technologies for the nervous system. ... Kidneys and Urinary System*Male Reproductive*Low Testosterone. ... The C. elegans screening chip, for example, led to the discovery of genes and druglike small molecules that enhance neuronal- ...
... using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Among... ... using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Among the specific interests of our lab are the molecular ... the molecular mechanisms of sensory transduction and integration by the nervous system, the interplay between cellular ... Tavernarakis N. and Driscoll M. (1997) Molecular modeling of mechanotransduction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Annual ...
C. elegans: A Practical Approach by Ian A. Hope: Oxford University Press 9780199637386 Paperback, 1. - Books Express
Synopsis: Caenorhabditis Elegans has been a popular model organism for biological research for over thirty years and has been ... and the development of the nervous system. It has recently taken on new importance with the publication of the entire genome ... Caenorhabditis Elegans has been a popular model organism for biological research for over thirty years and has been used to ... Caenorhabditis Elegans has been a popular model organism for biological research for over thirty years and has been used to ...
Regulators of H3K4 methylation mutated in neurodevelopmental disorders control axon guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans |...
Caenorhabditis elegans, in which the H3K4 methylation machinery is well conserved, is an amenable model system for studying ... 2004). The GABA nervous system in C. elegans. Trends Neurosci. 27, 407-414. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.05.005. ... 2015). Addressing the genetics of human mental health disorders in model organisms. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 16, 173-197 ... elegans as a model system. Our results demonstrate the requirement of the catalytic activity of SET-2, and therefore for H3K4 ...
Free living nBehaviorHermaphroditeWormRoundwormPowerful model organismEukaryoticNematodesMillimeter longHermaphroditesHumansSynaptic2016TractableCell lineageBiologicalImportant model organismProteinsInvertebrate modelSimple model organismWormsAdultTissuesBiologySpeciesZebrafishEmbryonicSoilGenome sequenced1986GeneticsSydney BrennerVivoVertebrateLifespanMitochondrialTransparent nematodeBehaviorsNeurodegenerationBiochemical1963ProcessesResearchersTransgenicAnatomyNeural circuitsSimplestStudiesEntire genomePeripheral nervouSimplerMaupasScientistsSomatic cells
Free living n4
- In this regard Caenorhabditis elegans , a free living nematode is widely used for development, genetic and aging studies. (mdibl.org)
- Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple organism that is an small free living nematode. (citizendium.org)
- Caenorhabditis elegans , a 1 mm long free-living nematode, is a popular model animal that has been widely utilized for genetic investigations of various biological processes. (mdpi.com)
- The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can adapt to harsh environments by undergoing a whole-animal change, involving exiting reproductive development and entering the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. (pnas.org)
- Biogenic amines are conserved signaling molecules that link food cues to behavior and metabolism in a wide variety of organisms. (jneurosci.org)
- Understanding the molecular pathways through which biogenic amines function in model organisms may improve our understanding of dysfunctions of appetite and behavior found in mammals, including humans. (jneurosci.org)
- The ability to alter behavior in response to nutritional cues is a crucial trait for organisms to adapt to changing environments. (jneurosci.org)
- How the nervous system initiates and sustains quiescent behavior during hibernation is poorly understood ( Andrews, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
- This chapter considers the use of the model organism and key beneficial soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, as an effective strategy for examining fungicide effects on growth, reproduction, nervous system and behavior. (intechopen.com)
- In order to understand human processes and behavior mammalian models provide the biggest insights as they share a high degree of homology with humans. (antibodies-online.com)
- These connected networks serve as starting points for deciphering the neural control of C. elegans behavior," said Dr. Emmons. (phys.org)
- With respect to changes in behavior, the pathway regulates this timing by acting in the nervous system itself, not in a tissue that sends timing signals to the nervous system. (brightsurf.com)
- This would allow scientists to systematically perform experiments to understand how the nervous system controls all animal behavior, a goal that it is the holy grail of neuroscience. (elifesciences.org)
- In addition, much remains unknown about how the specific spatiotemporal pattern of activity of the nervous systems integrate external sensory inputs and internal neural network states in order to selectively generate different behavior. (elifesciences.org)
- Students will work with different experimental set-ups that will allow us to explore a variety of C. elegans behavior. (mbl.edu)
- We will analyze C. elegans behavior in response to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli. (mbl.edu)
- The goal of my research is to understand how the nervous system orchestrates complex behaviors and how evolutionary forces shape behavior. (mbl.edu)
- The simplicity and completely defined synaptic connectivity of C. elegans nervous system in combination with powerful genetic methods, optogenetics, calcium imaging and electrophysiology allows us to address how the nervous controls behavior with a cellular and molecular resolution that cannot be readily attained in any other system. (mbl.edu)
- Specifically, I am using the learned thermotaxis behavior of C. elegans as a model to examine how learning impacts synaptic physiology and neural circuit activity. (mbl.edu)
- This module introduces students to the powerful tools and resources available to learn about genes involved in behavior and neural systems. (carleton.edu)
- Introducing students to this approach to studying important biological questions, when combined with the more familiar behavioral experimentation and the powerful nematode model organism enhances the learning of current issues in neuroscience and behavior. (carleton.edu)
- Dirk Albrecht, PhD, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at WPI, a co-investigator of the grant, also studies how neuronal signals govern behavior using the worm model. (prweb.com)
- However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. (frontiersin.org)
- Now, in that authoritative tradition, comes C. elegans II -- not a second edition but a book that breaks new ground and defines the current status of the field, providing a detailed molecular explanation of how development is regulated and the nervous system specifies varied aspects of behavior. (cshlpress.com)
- Our investigation reveals that neuropeptides can alter developmental decision-making and behavior in stressed C. elegans . (pnas.org)
- The movie below shows mating behavior of C. elegans. (elegantmind.org)
- My lab uses C. elegans male mating behavior as a model to understand how integration and regulation of chemosensory, mechanosensory, and motor control are genetically controlled. (searlescholars.net)
- Characteristic features that make C. elegans a powerful model of choice for eukaryotic genetic studies include its rapid life cycle (development from egg to adult in 3.5 days at 20 °C), well-annotated genome, simple morphology (comprising only 959 somatic cells in the hermaphrodite), and transparency (which facilitates non-invasive fluorescence observations). (mdpi.com)
- Cell lineage of a C. elegans hermaphrodite. (els.net)
- C. elegans eggs are laid by the hermaphrodite. (thefullwiki.org)
- C. elegans is normally hermaphrodite but does also have males and so it is acceptable from that point of view. (wordpress.com)
- The model organism of our studies was a tiny soil worm named C. elegans, which, despite a small nervous system, performs complex behaviors. (europa.eu)
- Even the tiny, un-segmented worm Caenorhabditis elegans , a nematode, shows touch-induced locomotion away from the stimulus (Figure 2). (scholarpedia.org)
- C. elegans has been considered a classical model organism and several aging studies and age associated disorder studies have been carried out on this simple nematode worm. (mdibl.org)
- Since the nematode worm has a short lifespan of only three to four weeks it is easier to assess and analyze the effects of environmental and genetic interventions to extend healthy lifespan in the organism. (mdibl.org)
- For scientists, technicians, and teachers working with the worm C. elegans in the research lab or classroom, this report is intended to give useful information to help improve their daily work. (leica-microsystems.com)
- The worm is used as a model organism for studies in neurological development, cellular differentiation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), aging, etc. (leica-microsystems.com)
- About 1/3 of genes in the C. elegans genome are homologous (derived from common ancestors) with some human genes and, as a result, make the worm useful as a model organism for the study of human-related diseases. (leica-microsystems.com)
- This is being investigated on a molecular level in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans*, a transparent round worm with a size of about 1 mm. (innovations-report.com)
- In the intervening years Drosophila is no longer seen by biologists as the perfect test model and, for example, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is now viewed as preferable because 'the fly is much more complex than the worm and the anatomy of the nervous system has not reached the level of completeness achieved for the worm' ( Brenner 2003 , p. 278). (lyellcollection.org)
- Despite its small size, the worm is a complex organism capable of carrying out all of the processes required for animal survival, including foraging for food and seeking out mates, making it one of the most powerful research models in molecular biology. (prweb.com)
- Genetic analysis in the small nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has elucidated the mechanisms of many basic biological processes. (els.net)
- This volume is a must for any investigator doing worm studies but it has been written and rigorously edited to illuminate for a wider community of investigators in cell and molecular biology who should know how new knowledge of C. elegans relates to their own specialty. (cshlpress.com)
- For example, the material in the single chapter The Nervous System in the worm book occupies six chapters in C. elegans II . (cshlpress.com)
- The reason for using the roundworm is because it represents a good "model organism," and many of the physiological effects that might occur with the worm can be transposed to people. (digitaljournal.com)
- The worm being examined is Caenorhabditis elegans (a millimeter-long roundworm. (digitaljournal.com)
- The worm is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system. (digitaljournal.com)
- The scientists will study how the physiological systems of the worm alter in response to microgravity. (digitaljournal.com)
- This unique approach has led us to determine the dependence of swimming velocity on the form of the gait and allowed us to model the turning maneuvers of the worm. (redorbit.com)
- Nobel lectures by the researches of C. elegans can be found in Worm History in WorbBook. (elegantmind.org)
- A research group at Uppsala University has now demonstrated that the worm is an even more complete model system than previously thought, which could enable more detailed research into areas such as early embryonic development. (uu.se)
- My lab addresses these two questions by studying the small round worm Caenorhabditis elegans. (searlescholars.net)
- Although this cuticle allows movement and shape changes via a hydrostatic skeletal system, it is very inelastic so does not allow the volume of the worm to increase. (bionity.com)
- There are a lot of science experiments that use C. elegans but none are as exciting, in my opinion, as the OpenWorm Project , which seeks to build an exact digital model of the small worm. (mnn.com)
- It contains the story of how the worm Caenorhabditis elegans became an important model organism. (wordpress.com)
- Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970's. (jove.com)
- In this study, we investigated the roles of the biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine in regulating locomotion behaviors associated with feeding and fasting in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans . (jneurosci.org)
- In a study published online today in Nature , researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine describe the first complete wiring diagram of the nervous system of an animal, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, used by scientists worldwide as a model organism. (phys.org)
- Dr. Brenner's laboratory, in an effort led by laboratory member John White, published the first map of the C. elegans nervous system in 1986, after painstakingly analyzing neural structures visible on thousands of serial electron micrographs of the roundworm. (phys.org)
- The tour de force effort by Drs. Brenner and White, 20 years in the making, launched the field of connectomics and established the roundworm as an essential animal model for the study of biology and human disease. (phys.org)
- For the new study, Dr. Emmons' team analyzed new roundworm electron micrographs as well as Dr. Brenner's old ones and pieced them together using specially developed software to create complete wiring diagrams of entire adult animals of both C. elegans sexes. (phys.org)
- Since the roundworm nervous system contains many of the same molecules as the human nervous system, what we learn about the former can help us understand the latter. (phys.org)
- The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model organism for neuroscience, developmental and molecular biology, and genetics for over 40 years . (leica-microsystems.com)
- Very little is known about how the onset of puberty is controlled in humans, but the discovery of a new gene in the roundworm C. elegans could be the "missing link" that determines when it's time to make this juvenile-to-adult transition. (brightsurf.com)
- Two new studies in the labs of Douglas Portman, Ph.D. at the University of Rochester Medical Center and David Fitch at New York University, published in Developmental Cell and eLife , identified a new developmental timing mechanism involving a long non-coding RNA in the microscopic roundworm C. elegans . (brightsurf.com)
- In the roundworm nervous system, some neural circuits undergo a functional transition in males as they become sexually mature adults, which is critical for generating adult-specific behaviors important for reproductive success. (brightsurf.com)
- In my lab, We use a free-living tiny roundworm, called Caenorhabditis elegans, as a model. (duke.edu)
- Researchers from IUF and HHU in Düsseldorf investigate this in the roundworm, an established organism for aging research. (innovations-report.com)
- The roundworm C. elegans is widely used in aging research for several reasons: It is a multicellular organism with a short life cycle and mean lifespan of 15-20 days. (innovations-report.com)
- Within this context, the Weeks lab turned its focus to the small roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, a powerful model organism for biological inquiry. (uoregon.edu)
- The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans can exit reproductive growth and enter the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. (pnas.org)
- That tour de force effort, 20 years in the making, launched the field of connectomics and established the roundworm as an essential animal model for studying biology and human disease. (yu.edu)
- Since the roundworm nervous system contains many of the same molecules as the human nervous system, what we learn about the former can help us understand the latter," says Dr. Emmons, who is currently studying how the roundworm connectome is encoded by its genome. (yu.edu)
- The one millimetre long roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model organism in scientific research, and has therefore been extensively examined. (uu.se)
- Caenorhabditis elegans (often abbreviated C. elegans) is a roundworm (nematode) used as a model system not only to study human diseases but also for understanding fundamental biological processes. (uu.se)
- The roundworm has for example been used to study the nervous system and the first cell divisions of the fertilised egg cell. (uu.se)
- Caenorhabditis elegans (or just C. elegans ) is a very small roundworm (you could fit 25 of them end to end within the span of one inch) that spends its short life crawling around in the dirt happily munching away at bacteria. (mnn.com)
Powerful model organism2
- It is a multicellular eukaryotic organism, yet is simple enough to be studied in great detail. (ravelry.com)
- The fact that the basic mechanisms involved in the aging process are believed to be universal allows the use of different model systems, from the simplest eukaryotic cells such as fungi to the most complex organisms such as mice or human. (hindawi.com)
- This paper explores some of the recent research, which has been performed in order to uncover the relationship between DNA damage, DNA repair mechanisms, and the aging process, and emphasis is given to the use of eukaryotic model systems for this area of research. (hindawi.com)
- For orientation note that C. elegans is a eukaryotic organism (in contrast to phages or E. coli) which is multicellular (in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and it is an animal (in contrast to Arabidopsis thaliana). (wordpress.com)
- Like all nematodes, they have neither a circulatory nor a respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
- As our model organism, we used the Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, which express two PIM-related kinases, PRK-1 and PRK-2. (eneuro.org)
- We have shown that the escape response allows C. elegans increases it chances to escape from predacious fungi that use constricting rings to entrap nematodes. (mbl.edu)
- Gerontogenes are genes that influence lifespan in many organisms, including nematodes, insects and mammals. (carleton.edu)
- Many new chapters have been included which deal with topics that were accorded only a few lines in the original, such as lifespan and ageing, nematode evolution and the relationship of C. elegans to parasitic nematodes. (cshlpress.com)
- The virulence varied in a strain-dependent manner, but the nematodes were a limited model to study hyphal formation. (openrepository.com)
- Nematodes are unsegmented, bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic protostomes with a complete digestive system . (bionity.com)
- Nematodes are one of the simplest animal groups to have a complete digestive system, with a separate orifice for food intake and waste excretion, a pattern followed by all subsequent, more complex animals. (bionity.com)
- Understanding the biological effects of fungicide contaminants in the environment on non-target organisms including humans is critical. (intechopen.com)
- The fundamental biology of the ageing process is conserved between humans and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans ( Kenyon, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
- The nematode C. elegans, being multi-cellular, yet relatively simple, was therefore chosen as the most appropriate model system, which has then led to characterization of these processes also in humans. (nobelprize.org)
- Remarkably, several age-associated features are conserved between C. elegans and humans: progressive degeneration of different tissues, decline in physiological functions and resistance to stress, and increased probability of death with age. (innovations-report.com)
- Insulin and its signaling systems are implicated in both central and peripheral mechanisms governing the ingestion, distribution, metabolism, and storage of nutrients in organisms ranging from worms to humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism that shares developmental processes like neuron migration with humans. (unr.edu)
- The clinician may well wonder about the applicability to humans of the findings in a model organism. (asahq.org)
- Overall, the zebrafish models included display conserved biochemical and neurobehavioral features of the phenomenology in humans. (frontiersin.org)
- Chemical synaptic transmission is well studied in neuronal activity and nervous system function. (biologists.org)
- As is the case for vertebrates, C. elegans nAChR subtypes mediate excitatory synaptic responses to ACh release at the neuromuscular junction and are also widely expressed in the nervous system. (umassmed.edu)
- This model organism offers a unique approach for studying the effect of various drugs and environmental conditions on neurotransmitter levels, given by the conserved DA and SRT biology, including synaptic release, trafficking and formation. (uni-potsdam.de)
- We are dissecting synaptic function in the simplest organism with a well-defined nervous system - the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (hhmi.org)
- Charlie N, Schade M, Thomure A, Miller K. Presynaptic UNC-31 (CAPS) is required to activate the G alpha(s) pathway of the Caenorhabditis elegans synaptic signaling network. (labome.org)
- The genetically tractable model organism, C. elegans , is a very powerful system in which to investigate cellular sensing and response to CO 2 . (pnas.org)
- These experiments are an ideal introduction to Calcium imaging optogenetics in a genetically tractable organism with a defined neural wiring diagram. (mbl.edu)
- The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a small (1 mm long as adult), optically transparent and genetically tractable model organism with a generation time of 3-4 days. (biologists.org)
- What should be the characteristics of such a tractable model? (asahq.org)
- In 1976, John Sulston, who worked with Brenner, published a complete cell lineage of C. elegans. (jove.com)
- In 1976 he published a map of the cell lineage for a part of the developing nervous system and demonstrated that the processes of cell division and differentiation do not vary from one individual to another. (factmonster.com)
- The defined cell lineage, completely mapped connectome and rapid life cycle of this organism greatly facilitate investigating nervous system at the subcellular resolution. (duke.edu)
- Sulston JE, Schierenberg E, White JG and Thomson JN (1983) The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode C. elegans. (els.net)
- A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand biological processes, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. (antibodies-online.com)
- Model organisms became the irreplaceable tools of fundamental biological and clinical research, and helped scientists to amass an enormous amount of knowledge. (antibodies-online.com)
- Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it in a variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)
- To this end Yanik, now tenured as an associate professor of electrical engineering and biological engineering, founded the High-Throughput Neurotechnology Group at MIT, with the aim of developing advanced analysis, screening and therapeutic technologies for the nervous system. (healthcanal.com)
- The group first developed microfluidic chips to manipulate small animals such as the invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans and the zebrafish, both used extensively as model organisms in biological research. (healthcanal.com)
- Neuware - Caenorhabditis elegans has been a popular model organism for biological research for over thirty years with a dramatic increase in interest since the publication of the entire genome sequence in 1998. (abebooks.co.uk)
- 2 Its biological mechanisms are similar to majority of the animal species that allows an ideal model system. (citizendium.org)
- These advantageous features have allowed C. elegans researchers to uncover novel biological mechanisms, such as apoptosis, and develop novel techniques, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging, in the life sciences research field. (mdpi.com)
- Labeling biological structures of interest with fluorophores - using the high specificity of either immunochemistry or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins - enables excellent signal-to-noise ratios when imaging even individual proteins within the highly complex environments of cells or organisms. (photonics.com)
- Thus C. elegans are involved in a wide range of important biological researches such as Programmed cell death (apoptosis), RNA interference (RNAi), meiosis, nicotine dependence, etc. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- The insights and hypotheses obtained from these reconstituted systems will be validated using cell biological approaches. (europa.eu)
- We conclude that C. elegans are an appropriate model to rapidly assess parameters that may contribute to the basic cell biological effects of e-cigs. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is surprising that a subatomic particle - a proton - can act as a fast transmitter in a biological system. (hhmi.org)
Important model organism1
- From left to right: i) The number of proteins in the reference proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans , ii) the total number of models, iii) the number of unique protein sequences for which at least one model is available and iv) a coverage bar plot is shown. (expasy.org)
- In the third session, "Novel Metabolic Routes of Glycoconjugate Assembly," Karen Colley (University of Illinois College of Medicine) will discuss the biosynthesis of polysialic acid, a unique antiadhesive glycoconjugate found on only a few proteins that play roles in the development and function of the nervous and immune systems. (asbmb.org)
- With state-of-art facilities and years of protein and antigen production experience, Creative Diagnostics now can provide high-quality Caenorhabditis elegans antigens and natural or recombinant Caenorhabditis elegans proteins with cheaper price such as SNAP-25 protein. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- C. elegans' mitochondria in muscles (red) and intestine (green) are visualized through the expression of mitochondrial proteins tagged to fluorescent markers and expressed under different promoters. (innovations-report.com)
- The invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains smn-1, the ortholog of human SMN. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, the invertebrate model systems may actually provide more direct applicability than originally thought. (asahq.org)
Simple model organism1
- Given all of the characteristics that make C. elegans such an attractive model system, it's no wonder that many landmark discoveries have been made by studying worms. (jove.com)
- The aim of this introductory overview is to give selected examples of research on important model organisms from various classes of the animal kingdom, ranging from the skin of worms to the feelers of insects, and from the whiskers of a rat to the human hand. (scholarpedia.org)
- This image depicts a colony of Caenorhabditis elegans nematode worms feeding on bacteria. (gizmodo.co.uk)
- The research will be conducted using the small, soil-dwelling worms known as Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). (prweb.com)
- But a very small percentage of the C. elegans population is fully male (there are no fully female C. elegans worms). (prweb.com)
- Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. (biomedcentral.com)
- The study on the worms is titled 'Alterations of C. elegans muscle fibers by microgravity (Nematode Muscle). (digitaljournal.com)
- The suitability of the applied model was verified by exposing worms to D-penicillamine and menadione. (uni-potsdam.de)
- After the L4 stage the C. elegans will undergo a final molt to produce an adult. (citizendium.org)
- The more obvious signs of the transition of juvenile-to-adult tend to be external--body morphology, matured genitalia--but nervous system changes are also happening at the same time. (brightsurf.com)
- By establishing and using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an experimental model system, possibilities were opened to follow cell division and differentiation from the fertilized egg to the adult. (nobelprize.org)
- The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. (biomedcentral.com)
- In relation to lipid metabolism, C. elegans does not have any specialized adipose tissues, a pancreas , a liver , or even blood to deliver nutrients compared to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- He followed the descent of every cell as it divided and differentiated and found that first five cell divisions produce six founder cells that differentiate to ultimately give rise to all of the different tissues in the organism. (jove.com)
- C. elegans is not the ideal organism for biochemical studies, but chapter 11 describes several procedures for producing biochemically useful quantities of pure tissues. (abebooks.co.uk)
- Cells differentiate and specialize to form various tissues and organs, for example muscle, blood, heart and the nervous system. (nobelprize.org)
- The internal environment of a living organism self-regulates CO 2 /H + . In mammals the lungs are the organs that dispose of excess CO 2 produced in the different tissues by adjusting the ventilatory pattern. (pnas.org)
- CO 2 chemoreceptors were also identified in the central and peripheral nervous system and pulmonary vascular tissues ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
- Despite being an invertebrate, C. elegans has differentiated tissues including hypodermis, epidermis, muscle, nervous system and others. (pnas.org)
- Caenorhabditis elegans smn-1 is expressed in various tissues including the nervous system and body wall muscle, and knockdown of smn-1 by RNA interference is embryonic lethal. (ox.ac.uk)
- Connectomic studies from Caenorhabditis elegans have uncovered a vast number of gap junctions present in the nervous system and non-neuronal tissues. (biologists.org)
- A new study from the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute now reveals how some of that cross-talk between tissues occurs in a common model organism. (healthcanal.com)
- Numerous studies report measurement of DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from tissues of young and old organisms, with variable outcomes. (hindawi.com)
- In 1974, he began research into the molecular and developmental biology of C. elegans , which has since been extensively used as a model organism . (wikipedia.org)
- This video provides an overview of basic C. elegans biology , a timeline of the many milestones in its short but storied history, and finally a few exciting applications using C. elegans as a model organism. (jove.com)
- C. elegans has long been used by researchers to understand fundamental mechanisms in biology. (brightsurf.com)
- My studies are focused on this question and seek to understand the cell biology of synapses in the thermotaxis circuit of C. elegans , a model system that facilitates in vivo inspection of neuronal cell biology. (mbl.edu)
- From left, Douglas Reilly, a PhD candidate in biology and biotechnology, and Professor Jagan Srinivasan discuss results from a recent experiment with C. elegans. (prweb.com)
- C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998) Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. (els.net)
- Therefore, anyone with an interest in cell and developmental biology, regardless of their area of specialisation, would benefit from reading C. elegans II . (cshlpress.com)
- The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has long been an important organism in biology and medicine labs. (redorbit.com)
- It is satisfying to see that our results make Caenorhabditis elegans a more complete model system than previously thought", says Andrea Hinas, researcher at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. (uu.se)
- Recent advances in developmental biology have been substantial enough for scientists to be confident for the first time that some aspects of development in some organisms are understood at the molecular level. (nap.edu)
- Morphogenesis means the generation of form, and usually in the context of developmental biology where it means the generation of tissue organization and shape in animal and plant embryos (it also covers the generation of internal organization in complex single-cell organisms such as Acetabularia - an area not discussed here). (scholarpedia.org)
- Human based research is practically difficult because it is not possible to carry out experiments directly on human subjects and only few animal species can serve as representative animal models. (mdibl.org)
- The history of model organisms began with the idea that certain organisms can be studied and used to gain knowledge of other organisms or as a control (ideal) for other organisms of the same species. (antibodies-online.com)
- Some of the same organs as larger species can be found in C. elegans . (creative-diagnostics.com)
- Members of the species have many of the same organ systems as other animals. (thefullwiki.org)
- The different Caenorhabditis species occupy various nutrient and bacteria rich environments. (thefullwiki.org)
- Previously, researchers studying C. elegans and zebrafish would have to manually place them under a microscope, orient them precisely and then take an image of these animals. (healthcanal.com)
- The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is an attractive vertebrate model organism for studies into the molecular mechanisms of development ( 2 ), pathology ( 3 ), and pharmacology ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
- Zebrafish constitutes an alternative vertebrate model for the study of movement disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- Furthermore, zebrafish is a vertebrate model particularly suited for large-scale drug screenings. (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, it is central to critically analyze these zebrafish lines and understand their suitability as models of movement disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- A systematic review of the literature was conducted by including all studies reporting the characterization of zebrafish models of the movement disorders selected from five bibliographic databases. (frontiersin.org)
- The majority (62%) of the studies were focused in the characterization of zebrafish models of PD. (frontiersin.org)
- Nevertheless, in light of what is known for all animal models available, the use of zebrafish as a model for drug discovery requires further optimization. (frontiersin.org)
- The worm's simple genetics, transparent body, and ease of cultivation makes them an ideal system for studying embryonic development, neuronal functions, lifespan and aging, and molecular basis of some human diseases. (jove.com)
- New research by scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA overturns a long-standing paradigm about how axons -- thread-like projections that connect cells in the nervous system -- grow during embryonic development. (brightsurf.com)
- C. elegans was the first multicellular organism to have its whole genome sequenced in 1998. (expasy.org)
- It was the first multicellular organism to have its whole genome sequenced , and as of 2012, is the only organism to have its connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed. (wikipedia.org)
- It was also the first multi-cellular organism to have its entire genome sequenced. (phys.org)
- It is one of the first multicellular organisms that have the entire genome sequenced. (citizendium.org)
- It was the first multicellular organism to have its entire genome sequenced and, until the present time, is the only organism whose connectome, i.e., diagram of neuronal connections in the nervous system, is fully mapped . (leica-microsystems.com)
- White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN and Brenner S (1986) The structure of the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans. (els.net)
- Priess JR and Hirsh DI (1986) C. elegans morphogenesis: The role of the cytoskeleton in elongation of the embryo. (els.net)
- Dr. Brenner's laboratory published the first map of the C. elegans nervous system in 1986, after painstakingly analyzing neural structures visible on thousands of serial electron micrographs. (yu.edu)
- Brenner S (1974) The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. (els.net)
- A classic 1988 Cold Spring Harbor monograph, The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, described the basic genetics, anatomy and development of the organism. (cshlpress.com)
- Brenner was looking to understand how genetics determines behaviour and C. elegans gave him an opportunity to make an attack on this problem in two steps. (wordpress.com)
- The genetics of the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) was understood by studying C. elegans. (wordpress.com)
- In 1963, Sydney Brenner proposed research into C. elegans primarily in the area of neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr. Emmons' study builds on the groundbreaking work of the late British biologist Sydney Brenner, who in 2002 shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his C. elegans research. (phys.org)
- Sydney Brenner (b 1927), Berkeley, CA, USA, established C. elegans as a novel experimental model organism. (nobelprize.org)
- Sydney Brenner in Cambridge, UK, took on the challenge, and his choice was the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (biologyjunction.com)
- This came about because Sydney Brenner deliberately searched for an organism with favourable properties and promoted it very effectively once he had found it. (wordpress.com)
- Consistent with these in vitro findings, in vivo studies using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans 10 or human volunteers 11,12 provide evidence that mechanisms beyond an exclusive NMDA receptor antagonism play a role in mediating the xenon anesthetic state. (asahq.org)
- El manejo farmacológico mediante el uso de agonistas y antagonistas α adrenérgicos en modelos experimentales in vivo e in vitro, permiten establecer una aproximación del papel del Sistema Nervioso Simpático (SNS) en el desarrollo de la pancreatitis. (bvsalud.org)
- The pharmacological management through the use of agonists and α adrenergic antagonists in experimental models in vivo and in vitro, allow us to establish an approximation of the role of the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) in the development of pancreatitis. (bvsalud.org)
- The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
- C. elegans possesses a large and diverse family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits that share significant sequence similarity with vertebrate nAChR subunits. (umassmed.edu)
- Hormones similarly influence the vertebrate nervous system with relevance to human health such as Alzheimer's Disease and stress-induced cognitive decline. (uoregon.edu)
- These results can be used as a springboard for studies in other systems, linking biochemical models of protein function and studies of the vertebrate brain. (hhmi.org)
- The team of scientists has identified cellular pathways that work in a synergistic manner for longevity in C. elegans and that amplify its lifespan fivefold than usual (1). (mdibl.org)
- Figure 1 summarizes the different regulatory pathways and their effects on the lifespan of C. elegans . (mdibl.org)
- Graphical depiction of lifespan regulatory pathways in C. elegans. (mdibl.org)
- New data have also shown that neuronal insulin signaling is a determinant of lifespan and reproductive function in these organisms, further broadening the importance of this system to diverse areas of physiology and biomedicine. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Palikaras K., Lionaki E. & Tavernarakis N. (2015) Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans . (forth.gr)
- Artal-Sanz M. & Tavernarakis N. (2009) Prohibitin couples diapause signaling to mitochondrial energy metabolism during ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans . (forth.gr)
- Thus, the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging [ 1 ] postulates that organisms age due to the accumulation of DNA damage and mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, leading to mitochondrial and eventually cellular dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
- Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) is a free living, transparent nematode with a length of about 1mm. (creative-diagnostics.com)
- Mechanosensation, or converting mechanical forces of external touch into electrical signals, is easily studied in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), a transparent nematode with a well-understood nervous system and a fully sequenced genome. (columbia.edu)
- In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine regulate a number of food-related behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
- Behaviors, which are the prominent outputs of the nervous system, are often generated in response to sensory inputs. (jneurosci.org)
- The findings mark a major milestone in the field of "connectomics," the effort to map the myriad neural connections in a brain, brain region, or nervous system to find the specific nerve connections responsible for particular behaviors. (phys.org)
- This robustness could reflect a homeostatic neural control of "housekeeping" behaviors which could have been already present in the earliest nervous systems. (elifesciences.org)
- One possible explanation for this is that its nervous system adapts to the environment to maintain a basic set of actions it needs for survival, although another possibility is that Hydra just does not care and goes along with its basic behaviors, regardless of the environment. (elifesciences.org)
- Of course, the organism must have observable behaviors that are disrupted by anesthetics. (asahq.org)
- Neuropeptides are similarly up-regulated in the infective, dauer-like stages of parasitic roundworms, indicating dauer as a strong model for studying parasitic behaviors. (pnas.org)
- The projection from A1 to the CNC may be part of a system-wide modulation by the noradrenergic system based on stress and arousal level, or it may be part of a separate circuit that modulates its targets during survival behaviors. (labome.org)
- Ming Tong and Suzanne M. de la Monte report on their investigation of the role of ceramides as mediators of neurodegeneration using an in vitro culture model. (eurekalert.org)
- Syntichaki P., Xu K., Driscoll M. & Tavernarakis N. (2002) Specific aspartyl and calpain proteases are required for neurodegeneration in C. elegans . (forth.gr)
- Autophagy thereby protects the organism from pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cancer and infections. (europa.eu)
- Further research is needed to investigate the influence of aging on the gastrointestinal tract and to develop novel approaches to therapy directed at protecting the enteric nervous system from neurodegeneration. (labome.org)
- One is on stochastic reaction-diffusion for biochemical systems and the other on shock-capturing methods for fluid interfaces. (washington.edu)
- Guest Editors Angelika Bierhaus and Peter P. Nawroth, both of the University of Heidelberg, have assembled a group of prominent investigators to explore the connections between AD and T2D pathologies using literature reviews of current human studies, overviews of animal models, reviews of basic pathophysiology findings, and biochemical analyses. (eurekalert.org)
- This understanding of the nematode's nervous system offers advantages for studying the processes between inputs and outputs at a cellular resolution by using the single-neuron manipulation techniques that are available for this model organism. (jneurosci.org)
- In particular, we ask how excitability is modulated by intracellular and neuropeptide signaling and by processes such as learning and sleep, how it varies across individuals, and how it is altered in models of human neuropsychiatric disorders. (mbl.edu)
- Analysis of a melanin-deficient mutant (Mel-3) indicates that melanin plays a role during virulence processes in C. elegans. (openrepository.com)
- In addition, C. eleagans is transparent, facilitating the study of cellular differentiation and other developmental processes in the intact organism. (thefullwiki.org)
- When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. (antibodies-online.com)
- The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate disease states with procedures that imply a level of harm that would not be considered ethical to inflict on a human. (antibodies-online.com)
- Provides information for researchers working with Caenorhabditis elegans , giving basic background on the organism's natural history, anatomy, life cycle, and evolution, and then detailing methods for using C. elegans in research. (abebooks.co.uk)
- This manipulation resulted in highly disorganized and abnormal axon growth, giving the researchers a very detailed view of how netrin1 produced by neural progenitors influences axons in the developing nervous system. (brightsurf.com)
- The simpler nervous system of C. elegans provided the researchers with a more manageable testing ground for their instrument. (eurekalert.org)
- The level of calcium in each brain cell tells the researchers how active that cell is in its communication with other cells in the nervous system. (eurekalert.org)
- The basic anatomy of C. elegans includes a mouth, pharynx , intestine , gonad , and collagenous cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
- The first chapter gives all the basic information on C. elegans required to use it: it's natural history, anatomy, life cycle, development, and evolution. (abebooks.co.uk)
- The C.elegans have an simple anatomy. (citizendium.org)
- Since then C. elegans has rapidly grown in popularity and is now utilized in numerous research endeavors, from studying the forces at work during locomotion to studies of neural circuitry. (jove.com)
- Hannes Buelow (Albert Einstein College of Medicine) will describe his studies of the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in axon guidance and nervous-system development in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. (asbmb.org)
- Recent studies show an acute avoidance of C. elegans from CO 2 levels as small as 1% ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
- Specific symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system such as hyposmia and dysgeusia are the most common manifestations recorded in the selected studies. (bvsalud.org)
- Another goal of this module is for students to grasp both the strengths and the limitations of using simpler model organisms to study complex physiological phenomena like aging. (carleton.edu)
- Although it is evident that these involve complex mammalian physiology, it is becoming clear that homologous systems exist in simpler organisms. (asahq.org)
- Oftentimes this manual handling was too slow and imprecise to allow scientists to screen large numbers of organisms," Yanik says. (healthcanal.com)
- The findings of the study, led by Samantha Butler, associate professor of neurobiology, could help scientists replicate or control the way axons grow, which may be applicable for diseases that affect the nervous system, such as diabetes, as well as injuries that sever nerves. (brightsurf.com)