Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.HydrocarbonsIndicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.EstersBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Benzene DerivativesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedTaste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pseudoephedrine: A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Enbucrilate: A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Protein HydrolysatesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lanolin: A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Pegaptanib specifically binds to the 165 isoform of VEGF, a protein that plays a critical role in angiogenesis (the formation ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1989). "Structure and function of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and related proteins". Biochim ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein[5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[6][7] BDNF ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... "Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein". MedicalXpress.com. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.. ... 2010). "Extended kinase profile and properties of the protein kinase inhibitor nilotinib". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... recruiting the phosphotyrosine-binding proteins to EGFR to assemble protein complexes that transduce signal cascades to the ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "iHOP - Information Hyperlinked over Proteins [ FGF10 ]". Archived from the original on 2012-02-14.. ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... These two proteins are p75 (NTR), which binds to all neurotrophins, and subtypes of Trk, which are each specific for different ... It is a protein growth factor that has activity on certain neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system; it helps to ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support ... Whereas neurotrophic factors within the neurotrophin family commonly have a protein tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk), ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Three transcript variants that encode distinct proteins have been identified.[6] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... protein binding. • ephrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • anchored component of membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • growth factor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • protein tyrosine kinase ... positive regulation of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. • angiogenesis. • Wnt ... positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity. • activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • anchored component of external side of plasma membrane. • ... Ephrin A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA5 gene.[5][6][7] ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • Ras guanyl- ... membrane protein proteolysis. • phosphorylation. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • positive ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Fibroblast growth factor 20 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FGF20 gene.[1] ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), also known as neurotrophin-5 (NT-5), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTF4 gene.[5] It is a ... protein binding. • growth factor activity. Cellular component. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. • extracellular region. • ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... The GDNF family receptor-α (GFRα) proteins are a group of co-receptors which form complexes with GDNF-family ligands (GFLs) to ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFLP) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Protein or other substance that stimulates cellular proliferation. "Growth factors" redirects here. For the journal, see Growth ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Excreting protein [usually plasma proteins] in the urine. Not dangerous in itself but it is indicative kidney damage ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Sorafenib is a small inhibitor of several tyrosine protein kinases, such as VEGFR, PDGFR and Raf family kinases (more avidly C- ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... The proteins are activated by adding a phosphate group to the protein (phosphorylation), a step that TKIs inhibit. TKIs are ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Protein kinase inhibitor. References[edit]. *^ Yaish P, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1988). "Blocking of EGF-dependent cell ...
Wnt signaling proteins. *Additional growth factor receptor modulators: Cerebrolysin (neurotrophin mixture). See also. Receptor/ ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... In the blood, it is almost completely (90-96%) bound to plasma proteins such as albumin. It is metabolised to N- ... protein in urine, kidney stones, weakness, fatigue, pain, and edema.[5] ...
Damm KL, Carlson HA (2006). "Gaussian-Weighted RMSD Superposition of Proteins: A Structural Comparison for Flexible Proteins ... Petitjean M (2002). "Chiral mixtures". Journal of Mathematical Physics. 43 (8): 185-192. doi:10.1063/1.1484559. Shibuya T (2009 ... of superimposed proteins. Note that RMSD calculation can be applied to other, non-protein molecules, such as small organic ... a tool for protein structure comparison. Uses RMSD. SuperPose - a protein superposition server. Uses RMSD. superpose - ...
Bressani, Ricardo; Elias, Luiz G.; Brahan, J. Edgar (July 1964). "All-vegetable Protein Mixtures for Human Feeding" (PDF). The ... His experiments lead to the creation and production of Incaparina, a nutritional supplement based on a mixture of corn flour, ...
The egg proteins separated (precipitated) from the mixture. He was able to conclude that the blood of different species of ... animals contained unique proteins. These discoveries extended to being able to differentiate human blood from animal blood. ...
On his return to Uppsala he resumed his interest in proteins, and the application of physical methods to biochemical problems. ... Tiselius, A. (1937). "A new apparatus for electrophoretic analysis of colloidal mixtures". Transactions of the Faraday Society ... A Tiselius (1930). "The moving-boundary method of studying the electrophoresis of proteins". Nova Acta Regiae Societatis ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins." Tiselius was born in Stockholm. Following ...
Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the ... omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, and detritivores eat detritus. Fungi digest organic matter outside ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the ...
... Hiranya S. Roychowdhury hroychow at NMSU.EDU Tue Mar 16 12:11:58 EST 1999 *Previous message: Setting up a ...
Processing complex mixtures of intact proteins for direct analysis by mass spectrometry.. Meng F1, Cargile BJ, Patrie SM, ... for one protein that differed from that predicted in a yeast database of approximately 19,000 protein forms. This ALS-PAGE/RPLC ... problem that accompanies direct analysis of whole proteins and assists the future realization of protein identification with ... For analysis of intact proteins by mass spectrometry (MS), a new twist to a two-dimensional approach to proteome fractionation ...
SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures. Gang Hao, Behrad ... Proteins were precipitated in iced acetone, and the SNO-protein content was measured by the Saville-Griess assay. Note that ... SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures ... SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures ...
Reproducibility of quantitative proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures by multidimensional protein identification ... Proteins of potential low abundance were detected, identified, and quantified by identical peptides from three independent ... In addition, when multiple peptides were matched to a protein, the relative abundance of each peptide was in agreement across ... Last, quantitative MudPIT analyses will likely be improved by increasing the number of peptide hits per protein in a given ...
Chia Protein Ball Mixture. Youd need to walk 50 minutes to burn 179 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and ... There are 179 calories in 1 dry mixture for 3 balls (37 g) of Funch Cacao & ... How long would it take to burn off 179 Calories of Funch Cacao & Chia Protein Ball Mixture? ... Where do the calories in Funch Cacao & Chia Protein Ball Mixture come from? ...
... by Medindia Content Team on August 6, 2005 at 1:27 PM ... A recent study shows that consuming a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture with carbohydrates increases insulin ... Studies in the past have also demonstrated the benefits of such a protein mix on insulin in healthy subjects, as well as ... A protein-based diet could help in improving resistance in Type II diabetes. ...
Colloidal Characterization and Thermodynamic Stability of Binary Protein Mixtures. Add to your list(s) Download to your ... Colloidal Characterization and Thermodynamic Stability of Binary Protein Mixtures ...
Shotgun protein sequencing: Assembly of MS/MS spectra from mixtures of modified proteins. Nuno Bandeira, Karl R. Clauser and ... Shotgun protein sequencing: Assembly of MS/MS spectra from mixtures of modified proteins ... Shotgun protein sequencing: Assembly of MS/MS spectra from mixtures of modified proteins ... Shotgun protein sequencing: Assembly of MS/MS spectra from mixtures of modified proteins ...
1 surface mixture of III(1-2) and III(9-10), and a recombinant protein "duplex" containing both domains in one fusion protein. ... We report a robust strategy for conjugating mixtures of two or more protein domains to nonfouling polyurethane surfaces. In our ... Surface derivatization strategy for combinatorial analysis of cell response to mixtures of protein domains.. [Chunyi Chiang, ... The mixture performed as well as or better than the other surfaces in these assays. Our surface activation strategy is amenable ...
For heterogeneous samples such as those present for interacting proteins, typically only average spectroscopic features can be ... Circular dichroism spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to characterise proteins and other biomolecules. ... Resolving protein mixtures using microfluidic diffusional sizing combined with synchrotron radiation circular dichroism ... Resolving protein mixtures using microfluidic diffusional sizing combined with synchrotron radiation circular dichroism C. ...
Farmers looking to increase the amount of protein produced off farm may be interested in a new unique grass mixture that can be ... It is a mixture designed to give maximum summer cuts of high protein silage from spring sowing, followed by an autumn and ... Farmers looking to increase the amount of protein produced off farm may be interested in a new unique grass mixture that can be ... About 24ha of the new mixture has been sown on 10 different farms this spring. Mr Ingles added: "the mixture wasnt sown until ...
... we show results from a protein mixture spiked at different concentrations into a cytosolic E.coli lysate. ... Attomole Detection of Proteins in a Complex Mixture Using the SYNAPT G2-S System. Attomole Detection of Proteins in a Complex ... In this application brief, we show results from a protein mixture spiked at different concentrations into a cytosolic E.coli ... A standard protein mixture containing equal molar amounts of yeast enolase, bovine serum albumin, rabbit glycogen phosphorylase ...
Direct analysis and identification of proteins in mixtures by LC/MS/MS and database searching at the low‐femtomole level. Anal ... Identification of Proteins in Complex Mixtures Using Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. ... Basic Protocol 3: Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology for Analyzing Complex Mixtures. Materials * Microcapillary ... Shotgun identification of protein modifications from protein complexes and lens tissue. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99:7900‐ ...
The process for example is useful in producing caseins, other proteins and lactose from the residue of milk after extracting ... that at least a part of the lipid component in the liquid is taken up by the fluid then recovering at least part of the protein ... There is described a process for recovery of at least part of the proteins and/or non-lipid-solids from an aqueous liquid ... containing lipids and proteins comprising bringing a supercritical fluid at a suitable temperature and pressure and of a type ...
... ... TITLE = {{On the Student-t Mixture Inverse Gaussian Modelwith an Application to Protein Production}}, JOURNAL = {Revista ... we apply the obtained results to novel bacterium-based protein production data and statistically compare two types of protein ... McLachlan, G. J. & Peel, D. (2000), Finite Mixture Models, John Wiley and Sons, New York. [ Links ]. 24. Montgomery, D. C., ...
The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ... The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the precipitating and protective actions of mixtures of two proteins on colloidal ...
... without or with multi-enzyme mixtures on growth performance, nutrient utilization, jejunal digesta viscosity, and excreta ... Improvement of the nutritional value of high-protein sunflower meal for broiler chickens using multi-enzyme mixtures ... Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with a high-protein sunflower meal ( ... HiSFM) without or with multi-enzyme mixtures on growth performance, nutrient utilization, jejunal digesta viscosity, and ...
Though both the concentrate mixtures were iso-nitrogenous the degradability of protein from SBG based concentrate mixture was ... mixtures. The RUDP as per cent of protein increased (p,0.05) with the increase in level of RUDP in concentrate mixtures. ... concentrate mixtures. The proportion of RUDP as percent of crude protein in SBG based concentrate mixtures was 30% higher (P, ... L, Low; M, Medium; H, High; RUDP, Rumen undegradable protein; CSC-CM, Cotton seed cake based concentrate mixture; SBG-CM, Spent ...
A system-wide approach for the identification of druggable proteins in a complex mixture. 14.02.2018. ... The principle of this approach is based on the supposition that small molecules/metabolites interacting with proteins are ... This alternate approach relies on a global analysis of protein-bound small molecules using metabolomics techniques. ... such as proteins, RNA, DNA, or membranes. On the other hand it enables the identification of natural or chemically synthesized ...
... vaccination of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a soluble mixture of secreted mycobacterial proteins.. P ... An experimental vaccine that was based on secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated in a mouse model of ... I used a short-term culture filtrate (ST-CF) containing proteins secreted from actively replicating bacteria grown under ... vaccination of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a soluble mixture of secreted mycobacterial proteins. ...
The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to ... We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained ... Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic ... Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. ...
Ozone/oxygen mixture modifies the subcellular redistribution of Bax protein in renal tissue from rats treated with cisplatin ... Ozone/oxygen mixture modifies the subcellular redistribution of Bax protein in renal tissue from rats treated with cisplatin. ... Ozone/oxygen mixture modifies the subcellular redistribution of Bax protein in renal tissue from rats treated with cisplatin. ... Influence of a protein free blood serum on the content of oxygen and carbon di oxide in tissue from dnp treated rats. Naunyn- ...
... we use N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester as template to bio-imprint protein-nucleic acid mixture from herring sperm,and then ... the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester.The result shows that the bio-imprinted protein-nucleic acid mixture is ... bio-imprinting in which proteins acts as matrix plays an important role in preparing enzyme mimics.Here, ... Bio-imprinting of protein-nucleic acid mixture and its catalytic behavior in hydrolysis. ...
The list of peptides identified in the complex sample can be used to identify the proteins present in the sample, track the ... Protein identification in a complex sample begins by selecting a database having proteins likely to be in the sample. In-silico ... chromatographic retention times of peptides between samples, and quantitate the peptides and proteins present in complex ... 1. A method for identifying proteins in a mixture comprising: performing an LC/MS experiment using the mixture and acquiring ...
  • 3, 193- comprising biotinylation of protein SNO-Cys residues, trypsinolysis, affinity purification of biotinylated-peptides, and amino acid sequencing by liquid chromatography tandem MS. With this approach, 68 SNO-Cys sites were specified on 56 distinct proteins in S -nitrosoglutathione-treated (2-10 μM) rat cerebellum lysates. (pnas.org)
  • abstract = "In an attempt to fractionate mouse liver cytochrome P-450 in its native state, electrofocusing systems were examined under conditions in which the surface net charge of solubilized proteins was preserved. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "We report a robust strategy for conjugating mixtures of two or more protein domains to nonfouling polyurethane surfaces. (princeton.edu)
  • A mixture of the zwitterionic detergent, SB 14 , and the nonionic detergent, Triton X-100, appeared capable of completely solubilizing intergral membrane proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Since charge properties were not altered, it was possible, for the first time, to focus basic membrane proteins in such detergent mixtures. (elsevier.com)
  • The pH gradients (pI range 7-11) formed in the presence of these detergents were sufficiently stable to allow electrofocusing to the steady state of the solubilized membrane proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the difficulty of expressing and purifying functional membrane proteins has drastically hindered in-depth understanding of the molecular structures and physiological functions of these proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • This study may serve as a general guide for improving the yields of other membrane protein preparations and selecting the appropriate detergent to stabilize membrane proteins for biophysical and biochemical analyses. (mdpi.com)
  • Membrane proteins are considered important therapeutic and diagnostic target structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until now, however, elucidating the structure of membrane proteins has been very difficult since it first requires researchers to isolate large numbers of these molecules and form crystals from them. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therein lies the difficulty: membrane proteins are insoluble in water and often too large and heterogeneous to be crystallised using the standard methods. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a publication in the journal Nature Communications , the group presents a general method, which can be used to crystallise membrane proteins of any type or size. (eurekalert.org)
  • In channels of this kind, the membrane proteins embed themselves into the walls using the hydrophobic part that otherwise sits in the cell membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is precisely because the channels offer so little space that in the past, only small membrane proteins could be crystallised - large proteins were crushed out and did not form crystals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thanks to these swollen lipidic mesophases, indeed, Mezzenga and his colleagues managed to crystallise large membrane proteins and then elucidate their structure. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new "generalised in meso" method is likely to be of great interest to structural biologists in particular, who until now have struggled to elucidate the structure of large membrane proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • At present, scientists know the exact structure of only 360 small membrane proteins, or about a seventh of all membrane proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • As such, this technique may be used to create biologically specific materials through the immobilization of specific protein groups or mixtures thereof on a substrate surface. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2. The cleansing composition of claim 1 wherein the silicone is selected from the group consisting of hexamethylsiloxane, dimethicone, dimethiconol, cyclomethicone, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • We demonstrate that by allowing stable and effective application of electric fields in excess of 100 V cm −1 , the described platform provides the basis for rapid separation of heterogeneous mixtures of proteins and protein complexes directly in their native buffers as well as for the simultaneous quantification of their charge states. (rsc.org)
  • This approach has been applied to modification analyses of proteins in a simple protein mixture, Cdc2p protein complexes isolated through the use of an affinity tag, and lens tissue from a patient with congenital cataracts. (pnas.org)
  • Three proteins from Cdc2p isolated complexes yielded eight sites containing three different types of modifications. (pnas.org)
  • Thereby enabling easier application of native MS or high mass workflows for the structural investigation of larger proteins and/or protein complexes (including antibody drug conjugates). (bruker.com)
  • Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. (plos.org)
  • Thus, by applying size separation of proteins and their ligands by co-fractionation and subsequent size exclusion chromatography or size filtration, unbound and non-covalently-bound ligands will be found in different eluates following size separation. (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • The study of RMSD for small organic molecules (commonly called ligands when their binding to macromolecules, such as proteins, is studied) is common in the context of docking, as well as in other methods to study the configuration of ligands when bound to macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that, for the case of ligands (contrary to proteins, as described above), their structures are most commonly not superimposed prior to the calculation of the RMSD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of this acid-labile surfactant (ALS) facilitates subsequent reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) for a net two-dimensional fractionation illustrated by transforming thousands of intact proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to mixtures of 5-20 components (all within approximately 5 kDa of one another) for presentation via electrospray ionization (ESI) to a Fourier transform MS (FTMS). (nih.gov)
  • Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, BSS methods perform unsupervised decomposition of the mixture samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, mass spectrometric methods are being developed that not only identify proteins in a mixture but also compare the relative level of protein expression between two different samples ( 6 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Immunological methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA and protein adducts. (cdc.gov)
  • The monitoring of exposures to complex mixtures using immunological methods was discussed. (cdc.gov)
  • Although these comprise the main production systems, the search for novel methods to increase protein yield, facilitate manipulation and reduce cost continues. (scienceexchange.com)
  • These methods are widely used because they are simple and relatively fast for identification and quantification, but they lack sensitive detection ability when small amounts of antigens are used, or no antibody is available, or a false positive is found and there is no way to verify the quality, amino acid sequence or post-translational modification of the recombinant protein. (scienceexchange.com)
  • This ideal is desirable not only to tease out specific interactions in a protein complex, but also to give predictive power to protein-protein interaction prediction methods (more on this point later in this section). (plos.org)
  • Both teams developed methods to amplify the prions in blood samples using a technique called protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). (nih.gov)
  • Effective vaccination of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a soluble mixture of secreted mycobacterial proteins. (asm.org)
  • Irrespective of level of RUDP, the concentrate mixture containing CSC had significantly higher rapidly soluble fraction and lower potentially degradable fraction than the concentrate mixture containing SBG. (lrrd.org)
  • as a result, the detection, quantification and characterisation of recombinant molecules rely mainly on the manipulation of total soluble protein (TSP), which contains a complex mixture with a low abundance of the protein of interest. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Cell adhesion, spreading, and fibronectin matrix assembly were examined on surfaces conjugated with single domains, a 1:1 surface mixture of III(1-2) and III(9-10), and a recombinant protein "duplex" containing both domains in one fusion protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The production of recombinant protein is an important step in several academic, industrial and pharmaceutical processes. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Typically, the identification of a recombinant protein is performed using western blot analysis (12) and is quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (13). (scienceexchange.com)
  • Prion rods, i.e. insoluble infectious aggregates of the N-terminally truncated form of the prion protein, PrP 27-30, and the corresponding recombinant protein, rPrP(90-231), were autoclaved in water, bovine lipid or lipid-water mixtures for 20 min at temperatures from 100 to 170 °C. A protocol was developed for the quantitative precipitation of small amounts of protein from large excesses of lipid. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'High-resolution bioactivity profiling of mixtures towards the acetylcholine binding protein aided by nanofractionation spotter technology. (vu.nl)
  • Between 3 and 13 proteins have been detected directly using ESI-FTMS (or MALDI-TOF), and the fractionation showed a peak capacity of approximately 400 between 0 and 70 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • This study describes the evaluation, validation, and use of contactless postcolumn fractionation of bioactive mixtures with acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) affinity analysis with help of a spotter technology. (vu.nl)
  • SRM is particularly useful when predetermined sets of proteins, such as those constituting cellular networks or sets of candidate biomarkers, need to be measured across multiple samples in a consistent, reproducible and quantitatively precise manner. (utmb.edu)
  • An initial step in the systematic investigation of cellular processes is the identification and measurement of expression levels of relevant sets of proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • 0.05) with the increase in level of RUDP in concentrate mixtures. (lrrd.org)
  • The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. (k-state.edu)
  • 0.05) than the emulsions containing either XG or LBG alone at higher concentrations of XG/LBG mixtures. (k-state.edu)
  • Using a pulsating bubble surfactome-ter, we found that inflation pressures of bubbles at minimum radii in these mixtures were 0.34 ± 0.05 cm H 2 0 (± SD, n = 24) after 1 min. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20% replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. (edu.sa)
  • Short peptides consisting of three to eighteen amino acids were assessed in a screening process to inhibit the dimerisation of MIA protein in vitro and in vivo. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Edible insects contain high quality protein, vitamins and amino acids for humans. (fao.org)
  • Whey protein, packed with lean protein and broken chain amino acids, is commonly taken with shakes, but these are often unappetizing, messy and not very portable. (wikihow.com)
  • Results of the study showed that the plasma insulin responses were 299 per cent higher in the diabetics and 132 per cent in the control subjects after ingestion of the protein enriched drink and diabetic patients had an average 28 per cent lower blood sugar response after consuming this drink than the carbohydrate drink alone. (medindia.net)
  • This pie chart shows the breakdown of your average daily calorie intake by fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol. (fitday.com)
  • Tea polysaccharide conjugates (TPC)-one of the main functional components in tea-are protein-bound acidic polysaccharide conjugates. (mdpi.com)
  • In one aspect, the composition is a hot-melt extruded (HME) composition comprising a preformed excipient mixture comprising an acidic component and an alkaline thermoplastic matrix-forming. (google.co.uk)
  • By so doing, the acidic component is able to neutralize or render moderately acidic the excipient mixture. (google.co.uk)
  • Work with BMP material isolated from rabbit dentin matrix protein fraction, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has been assigned a molecular weight of about 23,000. (google.ca)
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with a high-protein sunflower meal (HiSFM) without or with multi-enzyme mixtures on growth performance, nutrient utilization, jejunal digesta viscosity, and excreta moisture in broiler chickens. (ovid.com)
  • Insects have a high food conversion rate, e.g. crickets need six times less feed than cattle, four times less than sheep, and twice less than pigs and broiler chickens to produce the same amount of protein. (fao.org)
  • Blends of 7S and 11S proteins with added glucono-δ-lactone were investigated to study the effects of protein composition on gelation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • 3. The process of claim 1 wherein said BMP composition consists essentially of about 7 parts 22-kDa and about 1 part 14-kDa BMP associated proteins, and about 2 parts 18.5 0.5-kDa bBMP factor. (google.ca)
  • The present invention provides an improved process for further purifying and isolating BMP to provide the new BMP composition, namely, the BMP factor and associated proteins. (google.ca)
  • The SYNAPT G2-S System provides improved sensitivity, resulting in the routine detection of attomole levels of tryptically-digested proteins. (waters.com)
  • Specific topics covered included the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/DNA adducts, the detection of benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-I (BPDE-1)/protein adducts, determination of serum antibodies against DNA adducts, and determination of multiple adducts. (cdc.gov)
  • The behaviour of proteins and polypeptides at electrified aqueous-organic interfaces is of benefit in label-free detection strategies. (edu.au)
  • The principle of this approach is based on the supposition that small molecules/metabolites interacting with proteins are forming a stable complex and will fractionate together (3). (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • As an example, components can be generated during disease progression that causes cancerous cells to produce proteins and/or other molecules that can serve as early indicators (biomarkers) representing disease correlated chemical entities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MALDI-MS primarily results in singly charged molecules, while ESI-MS can give multiply charged species (especially for proteins). (utmb.edu)
  • PROTEIN POWER Frances Arnold (left), George Smith (middle) and Gregory Winter (right) have won the 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work bringing evolution into the laboratory to design custom molecules. (sciencenews.org)
  • Note that RMSD calculation can be applied to other, non-protein molecules, such as small organic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron capture dissociation of gaseous multiply-charged proteins is favored at disulfide bonds and other sites of high hydrogen atom affinity. (nature.com)
  • Despite the importance and ubiquity of S-nitrosylation in cell signaling, no method has yet been described for unbiased identification of targeted Cys (SNO-Cys) (where NO is covalently bonded to sulfur) modification sites in proteins. (pnas.org)
  • A hydroxyalkylphosphonate monolayer was synthesized on this layer, which was then used to covalently bind primary amine groups in protein domains using chloroformate-derived cross-linking. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polysaccharide conjugates were alkali-extracted from green tea (TPC-A). Although it contained 11.80% covalently binding proteins, TPC-A could not bind to the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dyes G250 and R250. (mdpi.com)
  • Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protein plays a crucial role in generating the heterogeneity in proteins and also help in utilizing identical proteins for different cellular functions in different cell types. (utmb.edu)
  • This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains. (plos.org)
  • The Click-iT metabolic glycoprotein labeling reagents provide biosynthetic precursors for detecting and characterizing post-translational glycosylation of proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • A process according to claim 14 in which the suspended caseins or proteins are separated from the aqueous phase. (sumobrain.com)
  • A method for analyzing the ADME/PK properties of a mixture of compounds is (1) perfusing an animal or organ with a perfluorocarbon emulsion blood substitute, (2) administering the mixture of test compounds, (3) withdrawing an aliquot of the perfusate, (4) disrupting the emulsion, and (5) analyzing the aqueous phase of the perfusate for the concentration of test compounds. (google.com.au)
  • It is known that combination therapy of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) may be used to treat elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For example, WO02/13797 A2 relates to pharmaceutical combinations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors and atorvastatin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In comparison to other chemotherapeutic agents, anti metastatic agents (substances which inhibit the functional activity of MIA protein) would thus prevent the spreading of these cells and reduce the side effects of systemic chemotherapy dramatically. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We consider the problem of projection of genetic information into the functional space of the proteome, where the latter is defined as a set of molecular functions performed by proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we introduce the automated collection and networking of all possible protein functional annotations. (biomedcentral.com)