Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.AnguillaDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pacific OceanSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Mediterranean SeaBacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Alteromonadaceae: A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Tenacibaculum: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Tenacibaculum adheres to surfaces of marine organisms and is pathogenic to fish.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.SvalbardMollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HydrocarbonsWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Atlantic OceanSerratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Arbacia: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
One half-pint of seawater every day.. *A mixture of garlic, mustard, and horseradish in a lump the size of a nutmeg. ...
"Seawater and Fermented Seawater" (PDF). Cho Global Natural Farming. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016. Reddy 2011, p. 78. Reddy ... The mixture is covered with rice straw sprayed with WSP or biochar. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic. In the absence of ... "Seawater and Fermented Seawater" (PDF). Cho Global Natural Farming. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016. Hunt, Josiah; DuPonte, ... Fermented seawater increase fruit's sugar content and enhance ripening. Fermented seawater prevents and controls anthracnose. ...
He proceeded to develop yeast strains which could ferment a mixture of molasses and seawater. Aft He and his brother Isidor ...
Anchialine caves are caves, usually coastal, containing a mixture of freshwater and saline water (usually sea water). They ...
Once the pits had been filled with sea water, labourers tramped the mixture to ensure the drug's destruction. The residue was ... In the evening the mixture was let out by sluices, and allowed to flow out to sea with the ebb tide. Lin's initial plan called ...
The most common solution for this purpose is a mixture of borax and boric acid. Another process involves boiling cut bamboo to ... A bamboo filter is used to remove the salt from seawater[dubious - discuss]. Many ethnic groups in remote areas that have water ... Four-foot-long sections of bamboo are cut, and a mixture of water and calcium carbide are introduced. The resulting acetylene ...
Nitrox is a mixture of oxygen and air, and generally refers to mixtures which are more than 21% oxygen. It can be used as a ... Risk of acute oxygen toxicity increases rapidly at pressures greater than 6 metres sea water. It was much used in frogmen's ... Heliox is a mixture of oxygen and helium and is often used in the deep phase of a commercial deep dive to eliminate nitrogen ... Hydrox, a gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, is used as a breathing gas in very deep diving. Neox (also called neonox) is a ...
Recently, recovery of potassium fertilizer salts from sea water has been studied in India.[19] During extraction of salt from ... The deposits are a naturally occurring mixture of potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl), more commonly known as ... Most of the world reserves of potassium (K) were deposited as sea water in ancient inland oceans. After the water evaporated, ... In above-ground processing plants, the KCl is separated from the mixture to produce a high-analysis potassium fertilizer. Other ...
The water is now a mixture of salt water and sweet water from the rain and it is called as freshwater. This is a steep wall, ... All above jellyfishs are identical with it are found in seawater, cannot sting human, but still have poison and can sting its ... Kakaban was probably uplifted during the Holocene and sea water was trapped turning the area and formed a landlocked marine ... as the island hugs the lake from the surrounding seawater. In the middle of this island is a mangrove-fringed lake, slightly ...
"Roman Seawater Concrete Holds the Secret to Cutting Carbon Emissions". Berkeley Lab. Retrieved 14 June 2013. J.A.H. Oates, ... ratio of the mixture with aggregates and water; the sizes and types of aggregate; contaminants in the mixing water; workmanship ... The seawater instantly triggered an exothermic chemical reaction. The lime was hydrated - incorporating water molecules into ... its structure - and reacted with the ash to cement the whole mixture together. In India and surrounding countries, lime ( ...
... seawater mixtures". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75 (8): 2187-2199. Bibcode:2011GeCoA..75.2187R. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.01. ...
The source of water is a mixture of rain water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond and sea water from Kagoshima Bay. From about 1919 ...
nov., an extremely halophilic, gas-vacuolate archaeon isolated from Dead Sea-Red Sea water mixtures in experimental outdoor ...
During the Swissair Flight 111 salvage operation, a mixture of sea water, silt and aircraft pieces was pumped out of the ...
... have also been recovered from soil and appear to be a mixture of Gram-positive, Gram-negative and cell wall ... This term was coined in 1981, describing cocci in seawater that were less than 0.3 μm in diameter. ...
The water in the bay is a complex mixture of sea water and fresh water which supports a wide variety of marine life. The bay ...
... colored carbonated mineral water of the cave is a brackish mixture of spring water from the mountain and salty seawater. The ...
Li, Yuan-Hui (May 15, 1967). "Equation of State of Water and Sea Water" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 72 (10): 2665- ... Ananthaswamy, J.; Atkinson, Gordon (1984-01-01). "Thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte mixtures. 4. Pitzer-Debye-Hueckel ...
The experimental site at Gruinard Island is said to have been decontaminated with a mixture of formaldehyde and seawater by the ... Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). PA ...
Although salinity varies throughout the lake system, it approximates a one third fresh, two-thirds sea water mixture, and hence ...
In offshore drilling sea water is typically used while drilling the top section of the hole. Water-based mud (WBM): Most basic ... Red mud was the name for a Quebracho-based mixture, named after the color of the red tannic acid salts; it was commonly used in ... Oil-based muds are usually a mixture of diesel fuel and asphalt, however can be based on produced crude oil and mud "Mud ... air mixture to create specific conditions. A foaming agent is a good example of a polymer. Water: Water by itself is sometimes ...
In 1969 Allen also started an aquaculture project at the marsh to raise salmonids in mixtures of sea water and partially ...
There are different kinds of chouchen in Brittany, some of which are prepared with a mixture of seawater[citation needed] as ... it is very possible that a few bees or discarded stingers remained stuck in the mixture and, aided by the fermentation, would ...
As the ratio of biodiesel is increased in biodiesel/diesel mixtures, the faster the diesel is degraded. Another study using ... degraded much faster than petroleum diesel in sea water. When considering the emissions from fossil fuel and biofuel use, ... were higher in biodiesel mixtures than emissions from pure diesel. Biodiesel use results in higher carbonyl emissions but lower ... Biodegradation and Environmental Behavior of Biodiesel Mixtures in the Sea: An Initial Study. Marine Poll. Bull. 2007, 54, 894- ...
One use of the horn is to scrape shavings from it into a mixture of sea water and apple cider until it turns into vinegar and ...
... it can be found in seawater in large amounts; it is estimated that seawater is approximately 0.14 to 0.25 parts per million ( ... The eutectic mixture melts at −12.6 °C.[108] An alloy of 41% caesium, 47% sodium, and 12% potassium has the lowest known ... A notable reagent is Schlosser's base, a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium tert-butoxide. This reagent reacts with ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ...
4. The action of the enzymes on several galactan sulphates of red algae suggests that an agarase is present in the mixture. ... 1. Two bacteria were isolated from sea water by the enrichment culture technique, both of which could utilize the galactan ...
Label each of the following as a substance, a heterogeneous mixture, or a solution. a seawater b sulfur c fluor.... General ...
nov., an extremely halophilic, gas-vacuolate archaeon isolated from Dead Sea-Red Sea water mixtures in experimental outdoor ... nov., an extremely halophilic, gas-vacuolate archaeon isolated from Dead Sea-Red Sea water mixtures in experimental outdoor ... To study biological phenomena in the Dead Sea and to simulate the effects of mixing Dead Sea water with Red Sea water, ... Dense communities of red halophilic archaea developed in mesocosms filled with 80 % Dead Sea water and 20 % Red Sea water after ...
Volcano Watch - The mixture of lava and seawater creates an explosive hazard ... For many Hawaii residents, interactions with Kīlauea Volcanos eruptions is through vog-a hazy mixture of sulfur dioxide gas ... Littoral hydrovolcanic explosions: a case study of lava-seawater interction at Kīlauea Volcano. ...
Blend the mixture thoroughly in a food processor. Add the mixture to a vacuum-sealed pouch and carefully remove all air bubbles ... For the Seawater Distillate:. Combine the seawater and the seaweed in a beaker. Put the beaker in an ultrasonic distillation ... Add the Seawater Distillate to a separate jar, which will be poured tableside over the oysters, creating a sea "mist" full of ... Texturize the mixture with the thickening agent, taking care to maintain the correct proportion of thickening agent to liquid, ...
Seawater Is a homogeneous mixture of salts with water Contains ... Valley State University Thirsty Seawater Drinking seawater can ... Grand Valley State University Thirsty Seawater Drinking seawater can cause dehydration. Seawater Is a homogeneous mixture of ... Seawater Homogeneous Mixtures A mixture of two or more substances Composition may vary from one sample to another Appears to be ... Liquid Mixtures The Properties of Solutions Simple Mixtures Atkins 7th: Sections 7.4-7.5; Atkins 8th: 5.4-5.5 Liquid Mixtures ...
Oasys plans to use an ammonia and carbon dioxide mixture as a draw solute. When the solution is heated, the dissolved ammonium ... Current RO facilities desalinize seawater for 68 to 90 cents per cubic meter. The average delivery price of municipal water in ... RO plants must filter seawater and inject chemicals to eliminate particles that could cause clogging, and the membranes are ... Drink Up: Taking the Salt out of Seawater. Removing the salt from briny water is becoming more affordable ...
One half-pint of seawater every day.. *A mixture of garlic, mustard, and horseradish in a lump the size of a nutmeg. ...
The Microsoft founder recently announced plans to invest $300,000 in research into machines that suck up seawater and spray it ... With minor changes to the air fuel mixture it can be burned in any gasoline car. 2. Due to the rising cost of gas, it is now ... Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that ... Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that ...
Sources of Dissolved Substances in Seawater. Seawater is a dynamic chemical mixture that interacts constantly with the land, ... A solution is a mixture of a solvent and solutes. In the solution of seawater, water is the solvent. The hydrogen and oxygen ... 2.5 B. The rings are made up of the different types of salts in the mixture of seawater. Each ring is composed of salts with ... 2.5 B. The rings are made up of different types of salts in the mixture of seawater. Each ring is composed of salts with ...
Similarly, oxygen exists as a mixture of masses 16, 17 and 18. The small differences in mass between the isotopes lead to very ... Collecting Seawater From the Depths. By Alyson Santoro and Carolyn Buchwald April 4, 2011 2:37 pm. April 4, 2011 2:37 pm ... A substantial amount of our work at sea is devoted to getting seawater safely and accurately from different depths. To do this ... meaning they exist in the environment as a mixture of atoms with different masses. Nitrogen with mass 14 accounts for over 99% ...
Methods for separating a mixture depend on differences in the physical properties of its components. ... How do we extract salt from seawater? Methods for separating a mixture depend on differences in the physical properties of its ... SEPARATING MIXTURES. HOW CAN SOLIDS BE SEPARATED? HOW DOES DISTILLATION WORK? HOW ARE GASES SEPARATED? FILTRATION. FIND OUT ... A mixture of liquids and solids is spun at high speed in a tube. The larger, denser particles sink and collect at the bottom. ...
Describe the steps we would take to obtain samples of sodium chloride from seawater & sugar crystals from sugar cane. and find ... This mixture is further refined to remove molasses for this small amount of water is added to form magma. Magma under ... To remove salt from sea water requires the use of a large amount of energy. Normally the water is evaporated off, leaving the ... To increase the purity of the salt, you would first filter the sea water to remove any suspended solids, then remove the water. ...
Seawater is left to evaporate in sandy reservoirs. The solid that can be collected is a mixture of salt contaminated by sand. ... Seawater is left to evaporate in sandy reservoirs. The solid that can be collected is a mixture of salt contaminated by sand. ... Separation of mixtures. Students were reminded of the Cinderella fairy tale and how her wicked stepmother threw lentils into ... Step 1: Adding water to the mixture (and stirring). Mark: 1. Step 2: The sand is filtered or the solution is decanted. Mark: 1 ...
... part of the seawater is directly sprayed on the surface of the plastic pellet to form a seawater film with a large contact area ... the tops of the humidifying towers are provided with the seawater spray heads; part of feed seawater and humid high-temperature ... the seawater film is subjected to heat and humidity exchange with air flowing from bottom to top to form saturated humid air ... seawater spray heads, a draught fan, a plastic pellet, a stainless steel disc, a condenser and a water pump, wherein the ...
... and that nitrogen is the only inert gas used in the breathing-gas mixture; and (ii) mix the appropriate breathing-gas mixture ... b) Regardless of the diving equipment used, the employer must ensure that no diver exceeds a depth of 130 feet of sea water ( ... iv) Separate O2 and diluent-gas cylinders to supply the breathing-gas mixture.. 3. O2 Concentration in the Breathing Gas. The ... f) The employer must ensure that diving equipment using nitrox breathing-gas mixtures or pure O2 under high pressure (i.e., ...
Eventually, Gruinard was de-anthraxed with a mixture of seawater and formaldehyde. But would you go on holiday there?. ... through a mixture of fear and scientific uncertainty, effectively condemn contaminated places. ...
Cleaning emulsions are formed with lesser amounts of sea Water. It will be appreciated that sea water emulsions necessitate a ... although the organic mixture form s useful emulsions in concentrations of between about 5-60 percent by volume. Low ... The preferred concentration of surfactant is in the range of about 0.5 to about 1.0 percent by Weight of the organic mixture, ... The composition may be used as a spray cleaner, the solvent mixture is mechanically mixed with water in any convenient manner ...
... final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution) DMSO and 2% MTXE provide ... final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution) DMSO and 2% MTXE provide ... Sample containers are also important to maintain the level of enzyme activity in natural seawater samples. In a small ... in seawater. Using a fluorometric microplate reader with low protein binding, 96-well microplates produced reliable enzymatic ...
When large bodies of sea water dry up, they leave behind complex mixtures of minerals consisting of these salts. Over millions ... All of the major sources of potassium chloride have their origin in sea water. Sea water is a solution of a number of salts ... The solid mixture is then cleaned and purified before being treated with a flotation agent, usually some type of amine. A ... It also occurs in sea water at a concentration of about 0.076 percent (grams per milliliter of solution). Potassium chloride is ...
whether sea water contains permanent hardness, temporary hardness or a mixture of both.. ... B A 50/50 mixture of temporarily and permanently hard water - labelled as Sea-water ... The other samples will require more soap but E will require less than B, showing that sea water contains both temporary and ... Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. The effect of boiling the ...
My sneakers sloshed with a mixture of wet sand and seawater; sand flies bit my ankles. A few hours earlier, the half-dozen ...
Brackish water is a mixture of fresh and seawater. It is often found where rivers meet the sea. ... Wash wounds and cuts thoroughly with soap and water if they have been exposed to seawater or raw seafood or its juices. ...
The effects of temperature on the water weakening of chalk by seawater. Journal of Petroelum Science and Engineering, 60, pp ... Water weakening of chalk ? Mechanical effects of water-glycol mixtures. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 48 pp 21- ... A chemical induced enhanced weakening of chalk by seawater. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 46 pp 171-184, 2004 ... A chemical induced enhanced weakening of chalk by seawater. 25thAnnual Workshop & Symposium Collaborative Project on Enhanced ...
  • Now, thanks to new technologies, costs have been halved and huge desalination plants are opening around the world.The largest seawater desalination plant ever, Israel's Sorek plant near Tel Aviv, just ramped up to full production. (freerepublic.com)
  • Already in the 60's such membranes were tested for seawater desalination and filtration applications. (nanowerk.com)
  • Magnesium hydroxide scale formation in evaporative desalination units is inhibited by adding to the saline water being processed a mixture of certain polycationic and polyanionic polymers. (google.es)
  • More particularly, this invention relates to such a process wherein by adding to the saline water being processed certain mixtures of polycationic and polyanionic polymers, the time of operation of evaporative desalination units without significant loss of efficiency due to scale formation or sludging can be greatly extended. (google.es)
  • Membranes already have important applications in artificial organs, the processing of biotechnological products, food manufacture, waste water treatment, and seawater desalination. (lovereading.co.uk)
  • A subtler hazard posed by molten lava entering the ocean involves the evaporation of seawater to dryness and the associated series of chemical reactions that produce a dense white "laze" plume comprised of a suspended mixture of hydrochloric acid, concentrated seawater steam, and volcanic glass fragments. (usgs.gov)
  • The machines, developed by a San Francisco-based research group called Silver Lining, turn seawater into tiny particles that can be shot up over 3,000 feet in the air. (inhabitat.com)
  • an ultrasonic vibrator using high frequency, an iontophoresis device, and a cosmetic additive, wherein the cosmetic additive includes a moisturizing cosmetic additive selected from the group consisting of hyaluronic acid, collagen, placental extract, sake lees extract and/or deep seawater sake lees extract, and lactic acid, and wherein the frequency of the ultrasonic vibrator is in a range of 5-6 MHz. (google.com)
  • a cosmetic additive, wherein the cosmetic additive includes a moisturizing cosmetic additive selected from the group consisting of hyaluronic acid, collagen, placental extract, sake lees extract and/or deep seawater sake lees extract, and lactic acid. (google.com)
  • Kumejima's main industries are sugar cane (sato-kibi), tourism, and deep seawater products. (edwardbetts.com)
  • A solution is a mixture of a solvent and solutes. (hawaii.edu)
  • The results showed that both 2% (final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution) DMSO and 2% MTXE provide similarly reliable data for most of the tested substrates, except for some substrates which did not dissolve completely in these assay conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists have known for some time that the groundwater discharging into the ocean from aquifers can be salty, fresh, or a brackish mixture of the two. (whoi.edu)
  • Laboratory study made over 11 month period measuring rate of degradation of 3 hydrocarbon mixtures under simulated conditions of a marine sediment at temperatures of 15, 10 & 5 C. Aim was to predict rates of degradation at tempera tures below 5 C. Mixtures used were a crude oil, a Bunker C oil and a condensate. (worldcat.org)
  • It uses a variant of a chemical reaction called the Fischer-Tropsch process, which is used commercially to produce a gasoline-like hydrocarbon fuel from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen often derived from coal. (newscientist.com)
  • G+C contents of 32-37%, and are widely distributed in soil and fresh and seawater habitats. (edwardbetts.com)
  • The backfill soil at another side of the embankment is modeled as the fluid-filled solid mixture. (asce.org)
  • The momentum equation and storage equation of the saturated elastic solid mixture are combined to derive the pressure wave equation of the backfill soil. (asce.org)
  • effect of heating a mixture of iron and sulphur powders in ignition tubes - a red glow and no yellow powder left after their tube has cooled - what evidence for suggesting chemical change - to extract the contents - does it still contains a mixture or if a new chemical (compound) has been made? (docbrown.info)
  • While making observations at the coastal entry, those of us in the last group of observers are reminded of the unusual hazards posed by the interaction of hot lava and cool seawater. (usgs.gov)
  • This hot, corrosive gas mixture caused two deaths immediately adjacent to the coastal entry point in 2000, when seawater washed across recent and active lava flows,' it said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Conventional analyses have shown that Mediterranean coastal seawater has a low NOM content, slightly aromatic and poorly biodegradability. (iwaponline.com)
  • This means that in a seawater solution, about 3.5 percent of the mass is made up of dissolved solutes like Na + and Cl - (Fig. 2.2). (hawaii.edu)
  • Methods for separating a mixture depend on differences in the physical properties of its components. (factmonster.com)
  • Many biologically-important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen have multiple stable isotopes, meaning they exist in the environment as a mixture of atoms with different masses. (nytimes.com)
  • The diver may recall the old reference to the "Ten and Ten Rule" wherein it supposed that blackout will occur if the percentage of either oxygen or carbon dioxide (C02) reaches 10% in the gas mixture. (undercurrent.org)
  • Each year, more than 10 GT of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is added to seawater by the activity of marine microbes. (nap.edu)
  • In this study, advanced techniques such as fractionation based on adsorption-desorption dynamics (on XAD ® resins), liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and membrane separation techniques were applied to the characterization of seawater NOM. (iwaponline.com)
  • Extracellular proteases are one of the most important classes of enzymes in aquatic microbial ecosystems, and protease activities in seawater are commonly measured using fluorogenic model substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, the solution has a lower freezing point, as the example of seawater shows. (reference.com)
  • Polymers useful in the recovery of natural resources are prepared by polymerizing an N-vinyl lactam by free radical initiation with polymerization conducted in an aqueous solution polymerization medium preferably containing a mixture of dissolved electrolytes, or in a polymerization medium consisting essentially of a tertiary alkanol. (patents.com)
  • This shows that D-6a steel tanks would be ok for molten zinc or zinc/magnesium mixtures, but not for, say, molten aluminum or magnesium. (cmu.edu)
  • The tectonic plate movements cause faulting and seawater that then enters the cracks is superheated by the molten magma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • New land begins to form when molten (2,120°F, 1,160°C) lava encounters the comparatively cool seawater and disintegrates into rubble. (usgs.gov)
  • In a small polypropylene containers (e.g., standard 50-mL centrifugal tube), protease activities in seawater sample rapidly decreased, and it caused underestimation of natural activities, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The oxidation of Fe(II) in artificial seawater was also investigated at nanomolar levels over a range of pH (7.75-8.25) at 25°C in the presence of different glucuronic acid concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dissolved uronic acids (DUA) slightly increased the experimental rate compared to control artificial seawater (ASW) which can be ascribed to the stabilization of the oxidized form by chelation. (frontiersin.org)
  • show that the compound iron sulphide behaves differently from its constituent elements sulphur and iron, eg by adding a small amount of dilute acid to both and observing the differences in the way the mixture behaves compared to the compound. (docbrown.info)
  • The solid mixture is then cleaned and purified before being treated with a flotation agent, usually some type of amine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dorner and colleagues found that using the usual cobalt-based catalyst on seawater-derived CO 2 produced almost entirely methane gas. (newscientist.com)
  • Atmospheric gases mix and dissolve into seawater, especially when winds and waves churn the ocean surface (Fig. 2.3 B). (hawaii.edu)
  • Scientists know that seawater seeps inland-via tidal action, waves lapping on the beach, and other forces. (whoi.edu)
  • This involves heating and crushing a mixture of several ingredients including limestone, sandstone, ash, chalk, iron and clay. (wdtprs.com)