Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The fermented mixture is then distilled. The distilled product is colorless until it is aged in wooden barrels and other ... is boiled again and water and yeast are added to the molasses and water mixture and allowed to ferment. ...
The strontium is distilled from the mixture. Strontium metal can also be prepared on a small scale by electrolysis of a ... Therefore, the front panel is made from a different glass mixture with strontium and barium to absorb the X-rays. The average ... Natural strontium is a mixture of four stable isotopes: 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr. Their abundance increases with increasing ... The element was eventually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 by the electrolysis of a mixture containing strontium chloride ...
HD - distilled mustard gas. *T - O-mustard. *Q - sesquimustard. *L - Lewisite. *HL - mustard-lewisite mixture ... Mixtures of agents have been identified with either a hyphen (e.g., CN-DM), or combining letters of the two agents (e.g., HD ...
This mixture is then distilled to separate the different classes of material. Uranium enrichment produces large quantities of ... In this process, used oxide nuclear fuel is treated with fluorine gas to form a mixture of fluorides. ...
The mixture from the cleavage reactor was flash distilled in the Evaporator. This removed most of the acetone and phenol from a ... The catalyst was a mixture of phosphoric acid on a clay base. The reactor produced a mixture of cumene, propylene and benzene. ... BTX is a mixture of these chemical species plus many other species. Both liquids are stored in large steel tanks surrounded by ... The mixture of benzene, xylenes etc. is then purified in two distillation columns. The benzene is then stored in the tank farm ...
The mixture was treaded with a large volume of ethanol. The ethanol precipitated inorganic salts, ellagic acid and a large ... After distilling, the residue was extracted with diethyl ether. The crystals were recrystallized several times from water, ...
Once the alcoholate is ready, it is then added into a mixture of alcohol, sugar and water. This mixture is then tested to ... The resulting contents are then twice distilled in copper alembics. The usage of natural plants and herbs is one of this ...
From these influences, he distilled his own individual guitar style. Some of his songs feature a basic Travis picking style of ... The other major influence was Davy Graham who, himself, brought together an eclectic mixture of musical styles. Also, in his ...
Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta. Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of ... Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds. Agar oil or oodh, ... Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35-65% thymol. Angelica root oil, distilled from the ... Garlic oil is distilled from Allium sativum. Geranium oil, also referred to as geranol. Used in herbal medicine, aromatherapy, ...
HT - Codenamed Runcol by the British, and Mustard T- mixture by the US. A mixture of 60% mustard gas (HD) and 40% T (bis[2-(2- ... and Distilled Mustard by the US. Distilled sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); approximately 96% pure. The term " ... Mustard agent was dispersed as an aerosol in a mixture with other chemicals, giving it a yellow-brown color and a distinctive ... In its history, various types and mixtures of mustard gas have been employed. These include: H - Also known as HS ("Hun Stuff ...
... readily reacts with acetic acid to give a mixture of nortricyclyl acetate and exo-norbornyl acetate. ... The yield is higher for freshly distilled norbornadiene, but commercial reagents will suffice. ...
It was a mixture of original and aggregated content, before moving to entirely original content. The website was founded in ... "Distilled Media". "Student Loans". New Tech Post. "New editor for TheJournal.ie". Business & Leadership. 13 May 2011. "Twitter ... early 2010 and is owned by Distilled Media. It was edited by Jennifer O'Connell in 2010-2011, and by Susan Daly between 2011 ...
A test tube is filled with distilled water and acetic acid is added. To this mixture one drop of the effusion to be tested is ... To perform this test, a transparent reagent tube (volume 10 ml) is filled with approximately 7-8 ml distilled water, to which 1 ...
The reaction mixture is refluxed for several hours, or distilled over several hours. The isopropyl chloride is then separated ...
The former affords a mixture of 1-and 2-butenes, while the latter affords only the terminal alkene. It is distilled to give a ...
A syrupy mixture of complex carbohydrates and most of the flavor compounds are retained by the filter. Alcohol is distilled out ... essentially the opposite of the process used to make distilled beverages. Most modern breweries utilize vacuum evaporation to ...
After this time, the mixture is then distilled to create the potent fotika liquor. People of the Rabha tribe believe that ... A technique is to muddle fruit in a glass, to which beer is added, and the resulting mixture is then used as an ingredient in ... The jonga is carefully sealed with banana leaf that has been warmed by fire, and the mixture sits to ferment. After aging, the ... which may then distilled to create a liquor called fotika. The rice-beer cake is prepared using rice that has been ground into ...
... is a mixture consisting of formalin, cresol and glycerine used in dentistry. It is used for vital pulpotomy of ... Buckley's solution is a 20% form of formocresol, diluted with glycerine and distilled water. The use of formocresol in ...
Licor de oro (golden liquor): A liquor distilled from a mixture of aguardiente and fermented milk. Cola de mono (literally, ... Humitas: similar to Mexican tamales, the humita is a mixture of fresh and ground corn baked inside corn husks. Porotos granados ... This is called a Replica (aftershock). Mango sour: a mixture of aguardiente and mango juice, similar to the Peruvian pisco sour ... Completo: Hot dog with tomato, avocado, salsa americana (a mashed mixture of gherkins, pickled carrots and onion) and ...
Methanol is distilled followed by addition of water. The mixture is cooled for a few hours, neotame is isolated via ...
The mixture is slowly stirred, while 20 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid is added. After adding another 40 mL of distilled ... Despite the different stoichiometry in these mixtures which varies the concentration of the reagent, they all follow the same ... 5 grams of mercury(II) oxide (HgO) is dissolved in 40 mL of distilled water. ... reagent can also be prepared by dissolving 5 grams of HgO in 20 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid and 100 mL of distilled water ...
The E stereoisomer can be isolated by slow crystallization of a distilled E/Z mixture. Acetaldoxime can be prepared by ... The compound exists as a mixture of its Z and E stereoisomers (i.e. syn and anti, or cis and trans) in its normal form. ...
It is composed of a mixture of two solutions. Part A is 0.5 g of copper (II) sulfate in 100 ml of distilled water. Part B ...
The crude ester mixture is distilled to remove all the heavy boilers and residue produced; the lighter esters are recycled to ... The acid mixture resulting from the oxidation is esterified with methanol to produce a mixture of esters. ... A mixture of p-xylene (PX) and methyl p-toluate is oxidized with air in the presence of a cobalt and manganese catalysts. ...
To achieve a high reaction yield, the ethanol is distilled off from the reaction mixture. The product is purified by vacuum ... It can form ignitable mixtures with air. DMAEA tends to spontaneously polymerize at elevated temperatures, upon irradiation, ...
The generated methyl iodide can be distilled from the reaction mixture. Methyl iodide may also be prepared by treating iodoform ... Methyl iodide is formed via the exothermic reaction that occurs when iodine is added to a mixture of methanol with red ...
Part 1.?Determination of the densities of mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and water". Transactions of the Faraday Society. 48: ... It may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.[6] ... Hydrogen peroxide and water form a eutectic mixture, exhibiting freezing-point depression; pure water has a freezing point of 0 ... Hydrogen peroxide, either in pure or diluted form, can pose several risks, the main one being that it forms explosive mixtures ...
It is a type of schnapps made from distilled potatoes and flavoured with either caraway seeds or angelica. Its potency has ... Strong beer was banned until 1989, so bjórlíki, a mixture of legal, low-alcohol pilsner beer and vodka, became popular. Several ... Iceland's signature alcoholic beverage is brennivín (literally "burnt [i.e., distilled] wine"), which is similar in flavouring ... Martin Miller blends Icelandic water with its England-distilled gin on the island. ...
... is distilled from the base wine in two phases. In the first, large part of water and solids is removed from the base, ... or a mixture of potable alcoholic distillates, obtained by the distillation of wine. The minimum specified aging period is six ... Initially, wine was distilled as a preservation method and as a way to make it easier for merchants to transport. It is also ... This liquor, distilled only once, was called spirit of wine or brandy. Purified by another distillation (or several more), this ...
Agriculture, fishing, tourism and whisky distilling are important in the local economy. Along the north coast of Moray is a ... mixture of fishing towns and villages such as Lossiemouth, Portessie and Portknockie. Lossiemouth houses the RAF Lossiemouth ... Rural communities in this region predominantly rely upon tourism, whisky distilling and agriculture for employment. In the ...
... which is made from a mixture of steamed rice, water, kōji, and yeast.[20] This mixture becomes known as the moromi (the main ... Rice, Kōji rice, Distilled alcohol[note 1] Below 60% or produced by special brewing method At least 15% ... On the second day, the mixture is left to stand for a day to allow the yeast to multiply.[20] ... This number is determined by titration of the sake with a mixture of sodium hydroxide solution and formaldehyde, and is equal ...
The eutectic mixture melts at −12.6 °C.[108] An alloy of 41% caesium, 47% sodium, and 12% potassium has the lowest known ... this process works because at such high temperatures potassium is more volatile than sodium and can easily be distilled off, so ... A notable reagent is Schlosser's base, a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium tert-butoxide. This reagent reacts with ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ...
Distilled alcoholic beverage purification[edit]. See also: Lincoln County Process. Activated carbon filters (AC filters) can be ... Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH)3 ... Tannins are a mixture of large and medium size molecules. Carbons with a combination of macropores and mesopores adsorb tannins ... Aizpuru A, Malhautier L, Roux JC, Fanlo JL (2003). "Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular ...
In 1669 (or later), his experiments with distilled human urine resulted in the production of a glowing white substance, which ... the Greek philosopher Aristotle proposed that everything is made up of a mixture of one or more roots, an idea that had ...
... mixtures of ionic and non-ionic solid substances which have much lower melting points than the pure compounds. Certain mixtures ... Some ionic liquids can be distilled under vacuum conditions at temperatures near 300 °C.[17] In the original work by Martyn ... Mixture of nitrate salts with m.p. below 100 deg C *^ R. M. Barrer (1943). "The Viscosity of Pure Liquids. II. Polymerised ... "High pressure phase equilibria of binary mixtures of light hydrocarbons in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ...
The heated coolant mixture can also be used to warm the air inside the car by means of the heater core. ... Some open systems use inexpensive tap water, but this requires higher blowdown rates than deionized or distilled water. ... Automotive and many other engine cooling applications require the use of a water and antifreeze mixture to lower the freezing ...
Some raw materials are either too delicate or too inert to be steam-distilled and can only yield their aroma through solvent ... They are concentrated, highly aromatic, oily mixtures extracted from plants. Whereas essential oils are produced by ...
These are made of a mixture of grape wine and a sweetened, flavoured drink similar to Kool-aid. These wines have similar labels ... Although long overshadowed by huangjiu (sometimes translated as "yellow wine") and the much stronger distilled spirit baijiu, ... In some villages, the ritual of communally gathering a mixture of folk museles brews in a large village urn marks the occasion ... until the volume of the mixture is down to the original volume of the juice, then stored in clay urns together with folk ...
... are fermented and then distilled to make spirits such as gin and vodka. The production of carbon dioxide is used to leaven ... found that sugar was fermented even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture,[10] by an enzyme complex secreted by ...
... 's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives it the properties of a glue and binder that is edible by humans ... Powdered gum arabic for artists, one part gum arabic is dissolved in four parts distilled water to make a liquid suitable for ... Gum arabic is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. It is the original source of the sugars arabinose and ... As a secondary effect, it also acts as a deflocculant, increasing the fluidity of the glaze mixture but also making it more ...
A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the ... type of distilled liquor, 白酒), and spices. A specialty of Suzhou. ... the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold as ... Brewing: The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt brine for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for ...
Southern Africa's oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 AD and have cylindrical heads with a mixture of human and ... In revolt against the naturalism of Rodin and his late-19th-century contemporaries, Brâncuși distilled subjects down to their ...
The final distilled product can be served as is or can be flavored (called cremas) with almonds, coffee, cocoa fruits and other ... broadleafed trees and a mixture of the two. In the lower elevations by the coast there are evergreen and deciduous rainforest, ... The tradition of the making of the distilled liquor called mezcal has been a strong tradition in the Oaxacan highlands since ...
... the air-gasoline mixture is too lean and does not ignite. If the concentration is above 7.6%, the mixture is too rich and also ... straight-run gasoline, commonly referred to as naphtha, which is distilled directly from crude oil. Once the leading source of ... See also: Ethanol fuel and Common ethanol fuel mixtures. European Union[edit]. In the EU, 5% ethanol can be added within the ... Later in the war the C-3 grade was improved to where it was equivalent to the U.S. 150 grade (rich mixture rating).[42] ...
They are usually made by vacuum distilling tinctures. Dry extracts are extracts of plant material that are evaporated into a ... or a mixture of 100% ethanol with water) with the herb. A completed tincture has an ethanol percentage of at least 25% ( ... Chinese herb mixtures, comfrey, herbs containing certain flavonoids, germander, guar gum, liquorice root, and pennyroyal.[52] ...
2 distilling as a vapor while O. 2 is left as a liquid.[13] ... Ambient pressure divers breathe air or gas mixtures with an ... Both men lowered the temperature of air until it liquefied and then distilled the component gases by boiling them off one at a ... can occur by breathing an air mixture with 21% O. 2 at 66 m (217 ft) or more of depth; the same thing can occur by breathing ... he proved that air is a mixture of two gases; 'vital air', which is essential to combustion and respiration, and azote (Gk. ...
About 90% of the sap is water, the remaining 10% being a mixture of various sugars and certain minerals.[115] The sap is ... Sassafras oil is a flavouring obtained from distilling bark from the roots of the sassafras tree (Sassafras albidum). ...
This mixture is then distilled to separate the different classes of material. ... In this process, used oxide nuclear fuel is treated with fluorine gas to form a mixture of fluorides. ...
ManX Spirit from the Isle of Man is distilled elsewhere and re-distilled in the country of its nominal "origin". The ManX ... Blended malt whisky is a mixture of single malt whiskies from different distilleries. If a whisky is labelled "pure malt" or ... Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, although some are distilled a third time and others even up to twenty times.[65] ... Irish whiskeys are normally distilled three times, Cooley Distillery being the exception as they also double distill.[57] ...
Delegates used two streams of intellectual tradition, and any one delegate could be found using both or a mixture depending on ... was appointed to distill a final draft constitution from the twenty-three approved articles.[32] The final draft, presented to ...
... distilled ethanol diluted with fruit juice, beer, vodka, gin, white wine, whisky, rum, red wine and brandy.[23][24] ... the Ritz-Carlton Hotel provided a hangover remedy in the form of a mixture of Coca-Cola and milk[37] (Coca-Cola itself having ... beer and distilled spirits. Hangovers can last for several hours or for more than 24 hours. Typical symptoms of a hangover may ...
Average molar mass of mixturesEdit. The average molar mass of mixtures M. ¯. {\displaystyle {\bar {M}}}. can be calculated from ... a sample which has been distilled will be enriched in the lighter isotopes of all the elements present. This complicates the ... An average molar mass may be defined for mixtures of compounds.[1] This is particularly important in [polymer science], where ...
Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the ... In 1839 Eduard Simon, discovered polystyrene by accident by distilling storax. In 1856, William Henry Perkin discovered the ... engine coolant - ethylene glycol, water and inhibitor mixture. *polyesters - any of several polymers with ester linkages in the ...
These early solutions distilled from wine-salt mixtures were referred to as aqua ardens (burning water) or aqua flamens ( ... In 2006, the Indy Racing League switches to a 10% ethanol-90% methanol fuel mixture, as part of a phase-in to an all-ethanol ... American Petroleum Industries Committee, "Economic and technical aspects of Alcohol-gasoline mixtures," Oct. 15, 1935; American ...
... distilled beverages and rice; equal status between the states; and a boundary wall as mutual border. ... Many scholars believe the Xiongnu confederation was a mixture of different ethno-linguistic groups, and that their main ...
Distilled beverages. Rakı. Kanyak. Wines. Turkish wine (main article). Adakarası. Boğazkere. Çalkarası. Kalecik Karası. ... İnegöl meatballs consist of veal, lamb, salt, sodium-bicarbonate and onion mixture in specific proportions. Prepared meatballs ...
The final stage is a second wash with water to minimize the level of residual soap in the mixture.[52] ... The molecules are distilled using high pressure steam injected through a vacuum system.[54] ... Once the clay is added, the mixture is agitated, which allows the clay to bind the contaminants in the oil, either physically ( ... The second stage of neutralization is the repetition of stage one with the addition of more caustic soda to the mixture. ...
A 1:1 mixture of orchid medium with moss or perlite has been used for germination and culture. Seed may take two months to ... "miraculous distilling plant", and was the first to clearly illustrate a tropical pitcher plant.[14] Three years later, in 1686 ...
Is distilled water a mixture?. * Q: What is a homogeneous substance?. * Q: Can you drink water while fasting for a blood test? ...
Heavy water can serve as a neutron moderator in a nuclear reactor, which slows down fast particles and encourages the fission reaction. Neutrons in a fission reaction travel either fast or slowly....
Uh, he put up with a better mixture with more complete mixture. Uh, so does that. You can still see a few clubs off some tom ... Oh, distilled water. So this is it. What? That you need you going out this Exanta going, abusing xanthan gum for this jail. Im ... This is distilled water off Laurel. You have the sickening agent, which is a challenge, agent. Uh, you might need an adjustment ... Its a mixture of different looks here, uh, who start with basic composition off jail. Once you understand the business of ...
Distilled water. QS. Surfactant or mixtures of surfactants*. 0.1-20 Volatile hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons. 0.1-15 ... The mixture is passed to a filling machine for packaging the gel. The steps are affected in a continuous flow system under ... Add phase C ingredients one at a time to the mixture of phases A and B allowing the batch temperature to come back up to 75 C. ... The mixture is maintained within the continuous flow system for a time and at a pressure and temperature sufficient to produce ...
Although single-malt scotch is only made in Scotland, you can distil single malt whiskey in the convenience of your home. You ... The barley and water mixture is called wort.. Add yeast to the wort. Let the wort and yeast ferment for three to four days. It ... The more you distil a whisky, the more expensive it becomes. The distillation process purifies the alcohol, making it cleaner ... Although single-malt scotch is only made in Scotland, you can distil single malt whiskey in the convenience of your home. You ...
Enhanced activity was observed in 2 other mixtures. The activity of a mixture of tea polyphenols and the whey component ... The ACE inhibitory activities of mixtures of FOSHUs (,i,Healthya, Goma-Mugicha, Lapis Support,/i, and ,i,Ameal,/i,) were ... Distilled water (control); ○, Ameal; ▲, Polyphenon CG in Ameal; △, Polyphenon CG in distilled water. The vertical axis ... Enhanced activity was observed in 2 other mixtures. The activity of a mixture of tea polyphenols and the whey component ...
Distill methanol. The distillate can be lit with a match. Allow at least 30 minutes for the distillation. ...
HD - distilled mustard gas. *T - O-mustard. *Q - sesquimustard. *L - Lewisite. *HL - mustard-lewisite mixture ... Mixtures of agents have been identified with either a hyphen (e.g., CN-DM), or combining letters of the two agents (e.g., HD ...
The mixture was then cooled to 0 and carefully treated dropwise with 1 mL of distilled water. The mixture was stirred for 10 ... particularly isomeric mixtures or mixtures of compounds with different numbers of water solubilizing groups. Such mixtures are ... The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours and then quenched by the careful addition of 10 mL distilled ... The mixture as cooled and carefully quenched on 5 g ice. The product was collected by filtration, washed with 20 mL distilled ...
Mixture I GC Medium Base Agar 36.0 gms. Agar 10.0 gms. Distilled Water 500.0 ml. Mixture 2 Hemoglobin 10.0 gms. Distilled water ... After the two mixtures were autoclaved (21°C, 15 minutes) they were allowed to cool to 56°C. Then, to Mixture 1 was added 10.0 ... After thorough mixing, Mixture 1 was combined with Mixture 2. Eight ml of the liquid Transgrow medium was then poured into a ... Two swabs were placed into the mixture, and one swab used to inoculate each of the media tested. Twenty-five recent isolates of ...
The alcoholic content of distilled liquor is higher than that of beer or wine. ... Distilled spirit, alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from wine of ... The fermented mixture is heated in a still, where the heat vaporizes the alcohol. The alcohol vapours are caught, cooled, ... The Chinese were distilling a beverage from rice beer by 800 bce, and arrack was distilled in the East Indies from sugarcane ...
The neti pot is filled with warm water and a saline mixture. It is not recommended that you use tap water. Distilled water is ...
After 18 days, the plates were stained with crystal violet (0.5% crystal violet in a 3 : 1 (v/v) mixture of distilled water/ ...
Distilled Vinegar. Borax Solution (1 gallon of water to 1 cup of borax, or 1 part borax to 16 parts water). Baking Soda - ... Mixture of household detergent and water. Commercial mold removal product (always follow manufacturers instructions on the ... Distilled Vinegar. Baking Soda -Detergent Solution (1/2 cup baking soda, 1 cup water, 1 Tbsp mild liquid detergent). Borax ...
Add 160mL of the distilled water to the 16g paraformaldehyde. *Allow mixture to stir for at least 2hr at 37-50° ... Store mixture at 4°C. Part C - Day of use.. *Use 600ml of solution lysine-phosphate solution (#8) and add 200mL of the ... Equal parts of 1% dry milk (dissolved in distilled water) and an antibody diluent are mixed and used as the diluent for the ... The trypsin reagent comes in a powder form and, therefore, should be dissolved in distilled water or an enzymatic diluent in ...
The CH2Cl2 was distilled off; the reaction mixture was rediluted with brine and extracted twice with diethylether. After ... The crude mixture (25 mmole, 5.4 g) in CH2Cl2 was coupled to H-gly-Obz-p tosylate with Pybop (27 mmole, 14 g) and diidopropyl ... The crude mixture was concentrated at 40° C. under 100 mbar, extracted with EtOAc and brine to pH 7. The solvent was removed ... TFA was distilled off in azeotropic mode by adding 3 portions of toluene (3×80 mL). The crude product (3.11 g) was directly ...
We followed a standard double-staining procedure59: We applied a 1:1 mixture of Safranin and Astrablue to the micro sections ... We then washed the sections with distilled water59, briefly steamed them to gelatinize any remaining cornstarch granules60, ... rinsed them with distilled water to remove the gelatinized cornstarch, and bleached the sections59. ... for 5 min; washed them with distilled water; and then washed them with ethanol (70, 96 and 99%) to further remove surplus stain ...
Dip a q-tip in this mixture, then gently wipe the tear stains away. You can also try using distilled water instead. ...
Gas holdup in distilled water (dimensionless). υ. Number of ions formed on dissociation (i.e., υ = 2 for most inorganic salt) ... Estimation of transition concentration of aqueous mixtures of single and binary electrolytes for bubble coalescence inhibition ... by applying gas holdup enhancement and surface tension gradient approaches for aqueous solutions in single and binary mixtures ...
Swelling power and water solubility were measured by dispersing 1 g of pulverized samples in 30 mL distilled water and heating ... The phenolic acids of rice/Arari bean mixtures were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.98 μg/g), vanillic acid (1.63 μg/g), rutin (3.81 μ ... The activities of mixtures of rice/Arari beans (20% w/w) cooked in water averaged 29.0 ± 1.5 and 27.7 ± 1.4 mg TE/100 g (normal ... The trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid levels in mixtures cooked in water were 0.31-1.80 and 0.49-1.94 μg/g (normal and high-pressure ...
of water have been azeotropically distilled off.. The mixture is cooled and transferred to a stainless steel vessel with a ... cuprous oxide are added and the mixture is again boiled for 10 hours. The temperatur of the mixture reaches 105 C. at the end ... This mixture is applied to a metal sheet at a thickness of 40 microns and heated for 10 minutes at 160 C. 100% adhesion (cross- ... The mixture is heated for one hour at 65 C., whereafter 7 g. n-propanol are added and heating is continued for further 15 ...
Antiradical scavenging activity, estimated as the inhibitory concentration IC50 and expressed as µg ChAE/mL of reaction mixture ... lavender- and lavandin-distilled straws. LS. the lavender stem fraction obtained after fractionation of lavender-distilled ... Distilled straws from fine lavender and the Super cultivar of lavandin were provided by the company Bontoux SA (Saint Auban sur ... Lavender- and lavandin-distilled straws fractions were compatible with the growth of P. cinnabarinus BRFM 137. Indeed, growth ...
Create a mixture of vitamin C and distilled water. Mix a ½ teaspoon of vitamin C with 5 teaspoons of distilled water in a glass ... In this case, the mixture will include 1 teaspoon of distilled water instead of 1 tablespoon (14.8 ml) of distilled water. ... Dissolve vitamin C powder using distilled water. Mix a ½ teaspoon of vitamin C powder with 1 tablespoon (14.8 ml) of distilled ... Add 2 tablespoons (29.6 ml) of vegetable glycerin to the mixture. If you already included glycerin in the original mixture, you ...
Distilled Water. You can purchase distilled water in most grocery stores. The benefit over using this type of water over ... Once you have it mixed, pour the mixture into an unbreakable bottle. As it doesnt have any chemical ingredients to preserve it ...
Was the entire mixture distilled? If not, there must be a considerable. amount of product that was not distilled, or there are ... estimate the concentrations of all substances in the mixture at a particular. temperature. i.e. if the mixture were refluxed at ... 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled.. At room ... Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium mixture of this reaction. (Hint: Let X be ...
2-4 parts distilled water. Use the mixture warm. Sometimes concentrated HCl or diluted Aqua Regia is used for high carat golds ... Put the mixture in a large copper or ceramic pot filled with boiling water, hang the work by a wire in the boiling mixture for ... Heat the mixture until it is fluid. The work is dipped into a 1:10 nitric acid mixture, rinsed in boiling water, agitated in ... For hot applications like a salt mixture or even in some cases a wax based mixture an inert material is applied to the surface ...
Well, actually, I use cashews instead of walnuts, and the frosting is a mixture of cocoa and-. ... 1 teaspoon distilled white vinegar Beat butter and sugar on medium speed until fluffy. ...
  • I then used Mayhem XT-1 clear coolant mixed with distilled water to fill in my loop again. (xtremesystems.org)
  • A few drops of the orange blossom essential oil is mixed with distilled water and perfumers alcohol. (wisegeek.com)
  • and after this distill until a strong honey vinegar or Metheglin? (sciencemadness.org)
  • And if you're not turning it to vinegar, yes, you can distill it to alcohol. (sciencemadness.org)
  • I drained the loop completely and used vinegar/distilled water (30:70) to rinse and clean out my radiator for several hours and then flushed it all out with a few rounds of distilled water ensuring to remove all of the vinegar/distilled water solution. (xtremesystems.org)
  • Im guessing that the vinegar/distilled water mixture that you circulated through the loop for several hours simply 'stripped' away a layer of copper from all exposed surfaces. (xtremesystems.org)
  • Mix 1 part white distilled vinegar and 3 parts water. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Apply the vinegar mixture to the top of the urine spot. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Instead of using a vinegar mixture to clean the spot, you can use a commercial enzyme cleaner. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Use distilled vinegar to clean your kettle. (countryliving.com)
  • If you have distilled white vinegar on hand, add equal parts water and vinegar to the kettle until it is about halfway full. (countryliving.com)
  • allow the boiled vinegar water mixture to sit in the kettle for 15 or 20 minutes. (countryliving.com)
  • to the ketone oil as a buffer to prevent the ketone from scorching in the distilling flask. (erowid.org)
  • An excess of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was added to 10 cm 3 distilled water in a 50 cm 3 flask. (nist.gov)
  • Pipet 10 milliliters of an 0.6 percent solution of the polysaccharide in distilled water (60 milligrams of water-soluble gum) into a 50-milliliter flask equipped with a standard taper glass joint. (fda.gov)
  • Add distilled water to make up any weight loss from the flask contents. (fda.gov)
  • A yield of 166 g. of product may be obtained by refluxing the mixture for 2.5 hours in a 1-l. flask equipped with condenser and drying tube. (orgsyn.org)
  • 7. To "blanket with nitrogen," the checkers simply prepared the reaction mixture with the flask open, introduced a flow of nitrogen over the surface for a few minutes, and then closed the system with an exit through a mercury bubbler to maintain a positive pressure. (orgsyn.org)
  • pour 400 ml distilled water into a 1 l flask. (scienceinschool.org)
  • place 43 g potassium iodate and approximately 800 ml distilled water into a 1 l flask. (scienceinschool.org)
  • dissolve 16 g malonic acid and 3.4 g manganese (II) sulphate monohydrate in approximately 500 ml distilled water in a 1 l flask. (scienceinschool.org)
  • After drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate the ether is distilled, and the residue is distilled under reduced pressure. (orgsyn.org)
  • The mixture was stirred until the entire dissolved and homogeneous. (ipl.org)
  • Homogeneous mixture is made up of components that cannot be easily distinguished even through the aid of a powerful microscope. (hubpages.com)
  • Salt and water, sugar and water are two examples of homogeneous mixtures. (hubpages.com)
  • Dissolve vitamin C powder using distilled water. (wikihow.com)
  • 1 ml = 1 µg CN (x) Chloramine -T: Dissolve 1 gm chloramine - T in 100 ml distilled water. (ipl.org)
  • d) Dissolve all of solid KA 2 in distilled water and filter. (bartleby.com)
  • Dissolve the starter culture in with the distilled water. (smore.com)
  • Technical Consultant, Distilled Spirits Council of the United States. (britannica.com)
  • The production of distilled spirits is based upon fermentation , the natural process of decomposition of organic materials containing carbohydrates. (britannica.com)
  • Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the concentration of ethyl alcohol has been increased above that of the original fermented mixture by a method called distillation. (britannica.com)
  • Production of distilled spirits was reported in Britain before the Roman conquest. (britannica.com)
  • Spain, France, and the rest of western Europe probably produced distilled spirits at an earlier date, but production was apparently limited until the 8th century, after contact with the Arabs. (britannica.com)
  • The first distilled spirits were made from sugar-based materials, primarily grapes and honey to make grape brandy and distilled mead , respectively. (britannica.com)
  • The earliest use of starchy grains to produce distilled spirits is not known, but their use certainly dates from the Middle Ages. (britannica.com)
  • As production methods improved and volume increased, the distilled spirits industry became an important source of revenue. (britannica.com)
  • Distilled beverages, also called liquor or spirits, come from a wide range of sources. (ehow.com)
  • Many spirits, such as whisky, vodka and gin, are made from distilling fermented grain. (ehow.com)
  • Distilled spirits based on fruit include a range of drinks often called 'fruit brandy,' even though they aren't strictly brandy. (ehow.com)
  • Distilled spirits are a class of alcoholic beverage obtained from distillation of mixture produced from alcoholic fermentation. (openpr.com)
  • This results in higher alcohol content in distilled spirits compared to brewed beverages. (openpr.com)
  • oil of turpentine or spirits of turpentine a colourless flammable volatile liquid with a pungent odour, distilled from turpentine oleoresin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Also called oil of turpentine, spirits of turpentine .a distilled form of this oleoresin, having a penetrating odor and a pungent, bitter taste, used as a paint thinner and solvent and in medicine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most settlers also brought along a ration of distilled spirits, which kept even longer than beer. (hoboes.com)
  • Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium mixture of this reaction. (physicsforums.com)
  • Mix and allow the reaction mixture to stand at room temperature for 5 minutes. (fda.gov)
  • Usually, this side-reaction may be limited by the volatile solvent vapors displacing air above the reaction mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction mixture oscillates in colour between red-brown and colourless with a time period of about 20 seconds. (rsc.org)
  • The reaction mixture can be washed down the sink with plenty of tap water after the demonstration. (rsc.org)
  • The reaction mixture was cooled and the solid thus obtained was filtered, washed with cold water and recrystallized with ethanol to obtain the compound 4. (ipl.org)
  • Then reaction mixture was cooled, poured into ice-cold water and neutralized with 20% w/v NaHCO3 solution. (ipl.org)
  • The reaction mixture is poured cautiously into a 3-l. beaker about one-fourth full of cracked ice. (orgsyn.org)
  • 3. The reaction mixture is allowed to stand under an efficient hood during this period. (orgsyn.org)
  • The black, tarry reaction mixture was poured into H2O, and after hydrolysis, the H2O was decanted and the insoluble residues were washed alternately with H2O and with CH2Cl2. (textfiles.com)
  • The reaction mixture is blanketed with dry nitrogen (Note 7) , stirring is begun, and the temperature is raised (heating mantle) to maintain gentle reflux. (orgsyn.org)
  • On completion of the reaction, the mixture is cooled to ambient temperature and filtered. (orgsyn.org)
  • Pour the mixture over the baking soda and allow it to dry completely. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Use a clean, wet sponge to clean the baking soda mixture off the spot. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A heterogeneous mixture is that which does not have the same composition throughout, that is, its components are not uniformly distributed and can be distinguished from each other. (slideshare.net)
  • A heterogeneous mixture, meanwhile is made up of components that can be easily identified. (hubpages.com)
  • Persons whose skin or clothing is contaminated with liquid Lewisite or Mustard-Lewisite Mixture can contaminate rescuers by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Mustard-Lewisite Mixture is a liquid with a garlic-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Lewisite and Mustard-Lewisite Mixture are rapidly absorbed by the skin causing immediate pain and burning followed by erythema and blistering. (cdc.gov)
  • Mustard-Lewisite Mixture is a liquid mixture of distilled Mustard (HD) and Lewisite. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to Mustard-Lewisite Mixture vapor induces immediate respiratory tract irritation and severe inflammation after a few hours latency period. (cdc.gov)
  • Systemic absorption may occur following skin or eye exposure to liquid or vapor Mustard-Lewisite Mixture. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure of the eyes to Mustard-Lewisite Mixture produces lacrimation and inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of either Lewisite or Mustard-Lewisite Mixture is an uncommon route for exposure but can lead to local effects and systemic absorption. (cdc.gov)
  • Mustard-Lewisite Mixture is a mixture of distilled Mustard and Lewisite developed to achieve a lower freezing point for ground dispersal and aerial spraying. (cdc.gov)
  • before use and rinse thoroughly with distilled or deionized water. (cdc.gov)
  • Once everything is as clean as you can get it then using only distilled water, refill your loop and simply let it run for a few hours, then empty the loop, replace the with distilled water, rinse and repeat until the water stops getting discolored. (xtremesystems.org)
  • Pour off the mixture and rinse the kettle. (countryliving.com)
  • Distill methanol. (washington.edu)
  • The instrument was calibrated using a synthetic mixture of 1 % water in methanol. (nist.gov)
  • Synthesis of 2-(2-(Morpholinomethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide (4) To a solution of compound 3 (0.01 M, 2.89 g) in methanol (60 mL), 99% hydrazine hydrate (1 mL) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 6 h. (ipl.org)
  • 4. Regulators, two-stage, for air, hydrogen and HNO and dilute to 1 L with distilled or argon. (cdc.gov)
  • Dilute to volume with distilled or deionized water. (cdc.gov)
  • Distilled water is then added to dilute the mixture for use. (wisegeek.com)
  • Using distilled water, dilute the solution to 1.0 l. (scienceinschool.org)
  • We compared the quality and physicochemical characteristics of cooked mixtures of rice and adzuki beans prepared using normal and high-pressure rice cookers, with and without the addition of alcohol (15%, v/v). The water-binding capacity and swelling power decreased upon addition of adzuki beans, but water solubility increased. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work, study of coalescence inhibition has been targeted by applying gas holdup enhancement and surface tension gradient approaches for aqueous solutions in single and binary mixtures (CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O + NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 + NaCl) of electrolytes. (springer.com)
  • 2. distilling , processing , refining , purification , filtration Stronger beverages are produced by distillation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A process in which a solution (or a mixture of liquids whose boiling points are widely differing) is heated to a particular temperature to produce a vapor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Distilled spirit , also called distilled liquor , alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky , rum , or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from wine or other fermented fruit or plant juice or from a starchy material (such as various grains) that has first been brewed. (britannica.com)
  • The alcoholic content of distilled liquor is higher than that of beer or wine. (britannica.com)
  • Distilled liquor can come from many different sources. (ehow.com)
  • The minimum alcohol content in distilled spirit is 20% by volume and is therefore called hard liquor. (openpr.com)
  • Far away from traditional beer and wine sources, the colonies saw a lot of distilled liquor. (hoboes.com)
  • Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2 minute) at the point of maximum agitation to a stirred solution of 200 milliliters of distilled water previously heated to 80 deg.C in a 400-milliliter beaker. (fda.gov)
  • The distilled product is colorless until it is aged in wooden barrels and other natural ingredients like caramel is added. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of a mixture of tea polyphenols and the whey component extracted from an Ameal solution was significantly decreased, thus demonstrating that whey protein lowered the ACE inhibitory activity of Healthya . (hindawi.com)
  • Continue mechanical stirring until the mixture is in solution, but stir for a minimum time of 30 minutes. (fda.gov)
  • In the event that a gel is obtained, make up a 1 percent solution of the polysaccharide to be tested in 200 milliliters of distilled water previously heated to 80 deg.C (omit the locust bean gum). (fda.gov)
  • A method of separating a substance that is in solution from its solvent or of separating a liquid from a mixture of liquids having different boiling points. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 17. The method according to claim 1, wherein said first biocompatible material is polyacrylic acid, said substrate is a polymethylmethacrylate substrate, said grafting is induced by argon gas plasma at a frequency of about 13.56 MHz, and after said grafting, said substrate is rinsed with distilled water, and glutaraldehyde and chondroitin sulfate are applied sequentially in a neutral buffer solution to said polyacrylic acid grafted to said polymethylmethacrylate substrate. (google.com.au)
  • 4. Cool the solution by adding a few more drops of distilled water. (prezi.com)
  • For laser ablation generation in mixture of paraffines, 1 cm 2 of parafilm was dissolved in 1 ml of xylene, and then the powdered mixture of antimony-selenium (1 mg) was suspended in this solution. (springer.com)
  • C14H16O3) C,H. To a solution of 3.70 g 3,6-dimethoxy-4-formylbenzonorbornane in 20 g nitromethane, there was added 1.3 g anhydrous ammonium acetate and the mixture was heated on the steam bath for 45 min. (textfiles.com)
  • There was obtained 0.83 g 3,6-dimethoxy-4-formylbenzonorbornane with a mp of 37-40 !C which could be increased, by wasteful recrystallization from MeOH, to 53-54 !C. An intimate mixture of this product with the starting diether (mp 40-41 !C) was a liquid at room temperature. (textfiles.com)
  • The more you distil a whisky, the more expensive it becomes. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Filter out the solids present in the mixture, which are hydroquinone (the degradation product of the benzoquinone) and PdCl 2 . (erowid.org)
  • Distilled witch hazel consists of a mixture of 14% alcohol in water with a trace of volatile oil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The sticky mixture of resin and volatile oil from which turpentine is distilled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. any of various oleoresins derived from coniferous trees and yielding a volatile oil and a resin when distilled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. Separation of Mixtures  Identify the different ways of separating mixtures. (slideshare.net)
  • 4. (Chemistry) purification or separation of mixture by using different evaporation rates or boiling points of their components. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The heating temperature cannot exceed the boiling point of the highest mixture material. (dhgate.com)
  • From the information given, you can easily estimate the concentrations of all substances in the mixture at a particular temperature. (physicsforums.com)
  • The mixture was magnetically stirred in a constant temperature water bath. (nist.gov)
  • The ethanol vaporizes at 173°F, which is the target temperature for the mixture. (thoughtco.com)
  • The name 'brandy' comes from a phrase meaning 'burnt wine,' referring to the fact that this drink is made from distilled wine. (ehow.com)
  • The test item-vehicle mixture was freshly prepared every day, in consideration of test substance density. (europa.eu)
  • Matter is either pure substance or mixture. (hubpages.com)
  • It is an essential oil containing a mixture of terpenes and is used as a solvent for paints and in medicine as a rubefacient and expectorant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With constant swirling, heat the mixture to boiling until the sample dissolves completely, adding more solvent if necessary. (prezi.com)
  • Because it is flammable, ethanol can be prohibitively expensive to ship, so it may make sense to distill your own. (thoughtco.com)
  • Mix a ½ teaspoon of vitamin C powder with 1 tablespoon (14.8 ml) of distilled water in a small container. (wikihow.com)
  • In this case, the mixture will include 1 teaspoon of distilled water instead of 1 tablespoon (14.8 ml) of distilled water. (wikihow.com)
  • This can be done by soaking it in a mixture of 1 tablespoon household bleach to 1 gallon of water for about two hours. (maine.gov)
  • Clean the inside using a mixture such as 1 tablespoon household bleach to 1 gallon of water, and dry. (maine.gov)
  • When the crystal layer is removed, the remainder - molasses - is boiled again and water and yeast are added to the molasses and water mixture and allowed to ferment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equilibrium mixture was analyzed by using radioactive techniques. (nist.gov)
  • If not, there must be a considerable amount of product that was not distilled, or there are other reactions going on that were not mentioned. (physicsforums.com)
  • The mixture with the lowest freezing point consists of 63% Lewisite and 37% Mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • However, lavender- and lavandin-distilled straws are a potentially renewable plant biomass as they are cheap, non-food materials that can be used as raw feedstocks for green chemistry industry. (springer.com)
  • 5. Compounds according to claim 1, in which X is the radical derived from a mixture of at least 25 mole % of an organic carboxylic acid having from 14 to 90 carbon atoms and at most 75 mole % of at least one organic aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acid having less than 14 carbon atoms. (google.es)
  • The predominant phenolic acids in cooked rice/Arari bean mixtures were p -coumaric acid and trans -3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and in cooked rice/Geomguseul bean mixtures, they were syringic acid and trans -3-hydroxycinnamic acid. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, phenolic acid levels were higher in mixtures cooked in plain water. (hindawi.com)
  • 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled. (physicsforums.com)
  • General procedure for synthesis of 1-{(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl}-2-(morpholinomethyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (5a-r) An equimolar mixture of compound 4 (0.001 M) and substituted carboxylic acid in phosphoryl chloride (POCl3) was refluxed for 8-12 h. (ipl.org)
  • Once the water boils, add 1 to 2 tablespoons citric acid and let the mixture sit for 15 to 20 minutes. (countryliving.com)
  • Add a small piece of boiling chip, and 2mL of distilled water into the vial with benzoic acid 3. (prezi.com)
  • The mixture constantly swirled as the mixture was being heated increases rate of dissolution and entropy of the system increasing the interaction between water and benzoic acid molecules. (prezi.com)
  • Food grade ammonium chloride and ascorbic acid are added, and this mixture is heated under pressure. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The ammoniated mixture undergoes catalytic conversion using natural catalysts, including hydrochloric acid and natural enzymes. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Distillation increases the alcohol content of a drink by boiling an alcoholic mixture and collecting the alcohol as it evaporates. (ehow.com)
  • Make sure to mix the ingredients together until the powder is completely dissolved, to avoid a grainy mixture. (wikihow.com)
  • If you make up your own use only distilled water. (fixya.com)
  • Then transfer the mixture to a bottle with a spray attachment. (gardenguides.com)
  • Start by finding a spray bottle that is made of glass or metal for your perfume mixture. (wisegeek.com)
  • The distilled slurry is spray dried at low temperatures forming a concentrated flavonoid powder. (organicconsumers.org)
  • When the meat mixture is back below 35°F, you can mix it. (smore.com)
  • For laser ablation generation in ionic liquid, the powdered Sb-Se mixture was mixed with an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride), dissolved in acetonitrile, and ~ 1 μL of the suspension was deposited onto a target and dried. (springer.com)
  • Although single-malt scotch is only made in Scotland, you can distil single malt whiskey in the convenience of your home. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The binary system Sb-Se was studied via laser ablation using antimony-selenium mixtures made from powdered elements in various ratios generating new Sb m Se n clusters. (springer.com)
  • Orange blossom perfume is made from essential oil distilled from bitter orange tree blossoms. (wisegeek.com)
  • Mixture is made up of two or more pure substances jumbled together either homogeneously or heterogeneously. (hubpages.com)
  • The pellets were then washed with double-distilled water and acetonitrile. (springer.com)
  • Water was double distilled using a quartz apparatus from Heraeus Quarzschmelze (Hanau, Germany). (springer.com)
  • Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum. (scribd.com)
  • I put the mixture into a big plastic bin with the diced fat, the remaining black pepper, the red wine and the starter culture mixture and mix it by hand for about 2 to 3 minutes. (smore.com)
  • You can distil a whiskey at home with the right machine and ingredients. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Copper, sugar cane and distilled water are examples of pure substances. (hubpages.com)
  • Oil and water or rock and water are two examples of heterogeneous mixtures. (hubpages.com)
  • The Chinese were distilling a beverage from rice beer by 800 bce , and arrack was distilled in the East Indies from sugarcane and rice. (britannica.com)
  • This study explored the optimal preparation and the antioxidant levels of rice/adzuki bean mixtures. (hindawi.com)
  • Total polyphenol contents in cooked rice/20% (w/w) Arari and Geomguseul bean mixtures in a normal cooker with addition of alcohol were 3.00 and 3.09 times higher than plain rice. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, rice/adzuki bean mixtures prepared in a normal cooker, with addition of alcohol, exhibited higher antioxidant levels than other samples. (hindawi.com)
  • This is laboratory/home distillation, the best companion in your life, you can distill essential oil, essential oil purified water, distilled water, easy to operate. (dhgate.com)
  • The steam is condensed by a current of cold water, and the mixture of essential oil and water flows into a decanter, where they separate because of a difference in density. (csmonitor.com)
  • Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds. (scribd.com)
  • For example, rum and cachaca are distilled from sugar cane, while tequila is distilled from the agave cactus. (ehow.com)
  • I used a mixture of radishes, red, orange and yellow bell peppers, carrots, fresh sugar snaps and kirby cucumbers, but you can use any firm, crunchy vegetable you think would pickle well here. (smittenkitchen.com)
  • Due to its low freezing point, the mixture remains a liquid in cold weather and at high altitudes. (cdc.gov)