Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
A genus in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. The anamorph is ASPERGILLUS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (1/3676)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

Patterns of evolutionary rate variation among genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. (2/3676)

The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is responsible for the production of anthocyanin pigments in plant tissues and shares a number of enzymes with other biochemical pathways. The six core structural genes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized in two taxonomically diverse plant species (maize and snapdragon). We have recently cloned these genes for a third species, the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. This additional information provides an opportunity to examine patterns of evolution among genes within a single biochemical pathway. We report here that upstream genes in the anthocyanin pathway have evolved substantially more slowly than downstream genes and suggest that this difference in evolutionary rates may be explained by upstream genes being more constrained because they participate in several different biochemical pathways. In addition, regulatory genes associated with the anthocyanin pathway tend to evolve more rapidly than the structural genes they regulate, suggesting that adaptive evolution of flower color may be mediated more by regulatory than by structural genes. Finally, for individual anthocyanin genes, we found an absence of rate heterogeneity among three major angiosperm lineages. This rate constancy contrasts with an accelerated rate of evolution of three CHS-like genes in the Ipomoea lineage, indicating that these three genes have diverged without coordinated adjustment by other pathway genes.  (+info)

The PalkBFGHJKL promoter is under carbon catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas oleovorans but not in Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. (3/3676)

The alk genes are located on the OCT plasmid of Pseudomonas oleovorans and encode an inducible pathway for the utilization of n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. We have investigated the influence of alternative carbon sources on the induction of this pathway in P. oleovorans and Escherichia coli alk+ recombinants. In doing so, we confirmed earlier reports that induction of alkane hydroxylase activity in pseudomonads is subject to carbon catabolite repression. Specifically, synthesis of the monooxygenase component AlkB is repressed at the transcriptional level. The alk genes have been cloned into plasmid pGEc47, which has a copy number of about 5 to 10 per cell in both E. coli and pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida GPo12 is a P. oleovorans derivative cured of the OCT plasmid. Upon introduction of pGEc47 in this strain, carbon catabolite repression of alkane hydroxylase activity was reduced significantly. In cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 and W3110 carrying pGEc47, induction of AlkB and transcription of the alkB gene were no longer subject to carbon catabolite repression. This suggests that carbon catabolite repression of alkane degradation is regulated differently in Pseudomonas and in E. coli strains. These results also indicate that PalkBFGHJKL, the Palk promoter, might be useful in attaining high expression levels of heterologous genes in E. coli grown on inexpensive carbon sources which normally trigger carbon catabolite repression of native expression systems in this host.  (+info)

Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). (4/3676)

1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.  (+info)

Null mutation in IRE1 gene inhibits overproduction of microsomal cytochrome P450Alk1 (CYP 52A3) and proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/3676)

Overproduction of microsomal cytochrome P450Alk1 (P450Alk1) of Candida maltosa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an extensive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induction of Kar2p and Pdi1p. The ire1 null mutation severely suppressed ER proliferation, reduced the level of functional P450Alk1, and showed no induction of these ER chaperones, suggesting that the function of Ire1p is required for ER proliferation upon the overproduction of P450Alk1. Cerulenin, a potent inhibitor of lipid biosynthesis, also induced these chaperones in an Ire1p-dependent manner and limited the production of functional P450Alk1. These results imply that Ire1p may function to restore the balance between membrane proteins and lipids of the ER when the ER is relatively overcrowded by membrane proteins.  (+info)

Structure of a cytochrome P450-redox partner electron-transfer complex. (6/3676)

The crystal structure of the complex between the heme- and FMN-binding domains of bacterial cytochrome P450BM-3, a prototype for the complex between eukaryotic microsomal P450s and P450 reductase, has been determined at 2.03 A resolution. The flavodoxin-like flavin domain is positioned at the proximal face of the heme domain with the FMN 4.0 and 18.4 A from the peptide that precedes the heme-binding loop and the heme iron, respectively. The heme-binding peptide represents the most efficient and coupled through-bond electron pathway to the heme iron. Substantial differences between the FMN-binding domains of P450BM-3 and microsomal P450 reductase, observed around the flavin-binding sites, are responsible for different redox properties of the FMN, which, in turn, control electron flow to the P450.  (+info)

Immunophilins, Refsum disease, and lupus nephritis: the peroxisomal enzyme phytanoyl-COA alpha-hydroxylase is a new FKBP-associated protein. (7/3676)

FKBP52 (FKBP59, FKBP4) is a "macro" immunophilin that, although sharing high structural and functional homologies in its amino-terminal domain with FKBP12 (FKBP1), does not have immunosuppressant activity when complexed with FK506, unlike FKBP12. To investigate the physiological function of FKBP52, we used the yeast two-hybrid system as an approach to find its potential protein partners and, from that, its cellular role. This methodology, which already has allowed us to find the FK506-binding protein (FKBP)-associated protein FAP48, also led to the detection of another FKBP-associated protein. Determination of the sequence of this protein permitted its identification as phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase (PAHX), a peroxisomal enzyme that so far was unknown as an FKBP-associated protein. Inactivation of this enzyme is responsible for Refsum disease in humans. The protein also corresponds to the mouse protein LN1, which could be involved in the progress of lupus nephritis. We show here that PAHX has the physical capacity to interact with the FKBP12-like domain of FKBP52, but not with FKBP12, suggesting that it is a particular and specific target of FKBP52. Whereas the binding of calcineurin to FKBP12 is potentiated by FK506, the specific association of PAHX and FKBP52 is maintained in the presence of FK506. This observation suggests that PAHX is a serious candidate for studying the cellular signaling pathway(s) involving FKBP52 in the presence of immunosuppressant drugs.  (+info)

Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. (8/3676)

Hydroxylation of salicylate into 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) by human liver microsomal preparations was investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that salicylate was 5-hydroxylated with two apparent Km: one high-affinity Km of 606 microM and one low-affinity Km greater than 2 mM. Liver microsomes prepared from 15 human samples catalyzed the formation of 2,5-DHBA at metabolic rate of 21.7 +/- 8.5 pmol/mg/min. The formation of 2, 3-DHBA was not P-450 dependent. Formation of 2,5-DHBA was inhibited by 36 +/- 14% following preincubation of microsomes with diethyldithiocarbamate, a mechanism-based selective inhibitor of P-450 2E1. Furthermore, the efficiency of inhibition was significantly correlated with four catalytic activities specific to P-450 2E1, whereas the residual activity was correlated with three P-450 3A4 catalytic activities. Troleandomycin, a mechanism-based inhibitor selective to P-450 3A4, inhibited by 30 +/- 12% the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate, and this inhibition was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation, specific to P-450 3A4. The capability of seven recombinant human P-450s to hydroxylate salicylate demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and 3A4 contributed to 2, 5-DHBA formation in approximately equal proportions. The Km values of recombinant P-450 2E1 and 3A4, 280 and 513 microM, respectively, are in the same range as the high-affinity Km measured with human liver microsomes. The plasmatic metabolic ratio 2,5-DHBA/salicylate, measured 2 h after ingestion of 1 g acetylsalicylate, was increased 3-fold in 12 alcoholic patients at the beginning of their withdrawal period versus 15 control subjects. These results confirm that P-450 2E1, inducible by ethanol, is involved in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Furthermore, this ratio was still increased by 2-fold 1 week after ethanol withdrawal. This finding suggests that P-450 3A4, known to be also inducible by alcoholic beverages, plays an important role in this increase, because P-450 2E1 returned to normal levels in less than 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. Finally, in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A4, both inducible by alcohols, catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate.  (+info)

Read SAD, a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase highly expressed in high-oil maize inbred lines, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Peptidylglycine alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase/PAM Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
1AFR: Crystal structure of delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from castor seed and its relationship to other di-iron proteins.
1AFR: Crystal structure of delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from castor seed and its relationship to other di-iron proteins.
Download Free Full-Text of an article EFFECTS OF 3 - METHYL CHOLANTHEREN ON LIVER MICROSOMAL MIXED FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITIES OF ACIPENSER PERSICUS
The posttranslational processing enzyme peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) occurs naturally in integral membrane and soluble forms. With the goal of understanding the targeting of these proteins to secretory granules, we have compared the maturation, processing, secretion, and storage of PAM proteins in stably transfected AtT-20 cells. Integral membrane and soluble PAM proteins exit the ER and reach the Golgi apparatus with similar kinetics. Biosynthetic labeling experiments demonstrated that soluble PAM proteins were endoproteolytically processed to a greater extent than integral membrane PAM; this processing occurred in the regulated secretory pathway and was blocked by incubation of cells at 20 degrees C. 16 h after a biosynthetic pulse, a larger proportion of soluble PAM proteins remained cell-associated compared with integral membrane PAM, suggesting that soluble PAM proteins were more efficiently targeted to storage granules. The nonstimulated secretion of soluble PAM ...
Glycine max isolate D227G(F1396) stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SACPD) mRNA, SACPD-A allele, complete cds; chloroplast ...
Adult male rats were subjected either to sham operation or to hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy and maintained for a total of 10 days before treatment with growth hormone. Results of the early effects of growth hormone on the activities of the mixed-function oxidases in rat liver over a 96h period after growth-hormone treatment are presented. 2. Hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy result in decreased body and liver weight and decreased drug metabolism (mixed-function oxidases). Concentrations of electron-transport-system components are also decreased. 3. In the hypophysectomized/adrenalectomized rats, growth hormone decreases the activities of the liver mixed-function oxidases and the cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome c reductases, as well as decreasing the concentration of cytochrome P-450 compared with that of control rats. Similar but less dramatic results are obtained with sham-operated rats. 4. It is concluded that whereas growth hormone enhances liver growth, including induction of many enzyme ...
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Cytochrome P450 1A2, abbreviated as CYP1A2, is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system. It is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. In humans, the CYP1A2 enzyme is encoded by the CYP1A2 gene.. CYP1A2 is mainly confined to the liver and expressed at a very low level in extrahepatic tissue.. CYP2A6 and CYP1A2 were found to be the most important P450 enzymes involved in 1-hydroxylation of estragole (methyl chavicol).[19]. ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human PAM protein (ab116776). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Paymaster General Dawn Primarolo said The success of the Operation Humbug speaks for itself, HM Customs gave clear warnings of their intentions and many of those who did not heed those warnings have paid a high price.. Smuggling will simply not be tolerated. It is not a jack-the-lad activity, it is a criminal act which takes money out of the pockets of honest taxpayers - money which could be spent on public services such as schools and hospitals.. Further information available from Nigel Knott, (01304) 224399 or Dover Collection Co-ordination Unit (24 hours) (01304) 215639.. If you have any information concerning illegally imported drugs, alcohol, cigarettes or tobacco, call Customs Confidential 24 hours a day free and in confidence on 0800 59 5000.. Visit our Website on: http://www.hmce.gov.uk. ...
2 major biochemical reactions that occur in the peroxisome is the mixed function oxidase and the other is a catalase but what 2 enzymes are involved in these reactions?...beta oxidation one of them ...
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Ive forgot to pick up my anti-malarials today,bah humbug! So now i might as well get them as soon as i arrive in Mumbai. Anyone know of a good
What effect are your CRO efforts really having? Contributor Brian Massey explains some of the factors that may be skewing your numbers.
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Introduction: Because of the unique lack of genetic diversity despite the multiethnicity in the Asian population, we hypothesize that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9*3) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) at position 381, used to infer VKORC1haplotype in combination with demographic factors, can accurately predict warfarin doses. The aims of this study were to derive a pharmacogenetics-based dosing algorithm by use of retrospective information and to validate it through a data-splitting method in a separate cohort of equal size. Methods: We used 215 records of warfarin patients recruited into a CYP2C9/VKORC1 genotyping study to perform this analysis. Univariate analyses for individual predictors, including age, weight, gender, serum albumin concentration, ethnic group, international normalized ratio, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 381 genotypes, were conducted to select variables with P < .1 for further inclusion into the multivariate ...
Humans and chimpanzees are more sensitive to endotoxin than are mice or monkeys, but any underlying differences in inflammatory physiology have not been fully described or understood. We studied innate immune responses in Cmah−/− mice, emulating human loss of the gene encoding production of Neu5Gc, a major cell surface sialic acid. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) loss occurred ∼2-3 million years ago, after the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, perhaps contributing to speciation of the genus Homo. Cmah−/− mice manifested a decreased survival in endotoxemia following bacterial LPS injection. Macrophages from Cmah−/− mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines with LPS stimulation and showed more phagocytic activity. Macrophages and whole blood from Cmah−/− mice also killed bacteria more effectively. Metabolic reintroduction of Neu5Gc into Cmah−/− macrophages suppressed these differences. Cmah−/− mice also showed enhanced bacterial clearance during ...
Primary treatment-related effects included: initial sedation of animals exposed to 3,000 ppm and its subsequent resolution correlating with induction of hepatic mixed function oxidase activity and S-phase DNA synthesis; elevated mortality in high-exposure male rats and mice (chronic study); elevated deposition of alpha2u-globulin (alpha2U-G) and associated nephropathy and S-phase DNA synthesis in male rat kidneys; accelerated atrophy of the adrenal gland X-zone in female mice (subchronic study only); and increased occurrence and/or severity of eosinophilic foci of altered hepatocytes in male rats ...
VKORC1 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 (VKORC1), transcript variant 1
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:7:127893063:127895617:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000031112 transcript:OTTMUST00000077081 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Vkorc1 description:vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 ...
Genetic polymorphism (mainly CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17) exists for CYP2C19 expression, with approximately 3-5% of European and 15-20% of Asian populations being poor metabolizers with no CYP2C19 function.[12][13] This may reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel (Plavix). The basis for this reduced effect of clopidogrel in patients who have a gene of reduced activity may seem somewhat paradoxical, but can be understood as follows. Clopidogrel is administered as a prodrug; that is, a drug that is inactive when taken, and then depends on the action of an enzyme in the body in order to be activated. In patients who have a gene of reduced activity, clopidogrel may not be metabolized to its active form and therefore not achieve pharmacological effect in the body. In patients with an abnormal CYP2C19 variant certain benzodiazepines should be avoided, such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), and temazepam (Restoril).[14] On the basis of their ability to metabolize ...
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. CYP2A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of nicotine and cotinine. It is also involved in the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals, carcinogens, and a number of coumarin-type alkaloids. CYP2A6 is the only enzyme in the human body that appreciably catalyzes the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin, such that the formation of the product of this reaction, 7-hydroxycoumarin, is used as a probe for CYP2A6 activity. The CYP2A6 gene is part of a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP2A, CYP2B and CYP2F subfamilies on chromosome 19q. The gene was formerly referred to as CYP2A3; however, it has been renamed CYP2A6. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File: [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two enzymes concerned in peptide hormone α-amidation are synthesized from a single mRNA. AU - Kato, Ichiro. AU - Yonekura, Hideto. AU - Tajima, Masahiro. AU - Yanagi, Mitsuo. AU - Yamamoto, Hiroshi. AU - Okamoto, Hiroshi. PY - 1990/10/15. Y1 - 1990/10/15. N2 - By expressing truncated rat pituitary peptidylglycine α-amidating enzyme cDNAs in COS-7 cells, we found that the two reactions concerned in peptide carboxyl-terminal amidation, namely the peptidylglycine α-hydroxylation reaction and the peptidyl-hydroxyglycine amidation reaction, were catalyzed by 37-and 53-K proteins, which were derived from the 5′- and 3′-coding sequences, respectively. The full-length cDNA directed the expression of both the 37- and 53-K enzymes, and in the combined presence of the two enzymes the full conversion of a glycine-extended peptide into the amidated product was achieved. These results indicated that two enzymes concerned in peptide hormone α-amidation are generated from a common ...
peptidylglycine monooxygenase: forms alpha-amide from C-terminal glycine precursor of peptide hormones by oxidation of hydrogen & spontaneous hydrolysis of resulting imino linkage; posseses both an alpha-hydroxylation domain (PHM) and an alpha-amidation domain (PAL); PAM refers to the bifunctional enzyme; may be the same as bovine Somatotropin; RefSeq NM_013626 (mouse), NM_013000 (rat), NM_138822 (human)
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A flavoprotein (FAD). NADH cannot replace NADPH as coenzyme. In addition to phenylacetone, which is the best substrate found to date, this Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase c
Bardag-Gorce, F., Yuan, Q.X., Li, J., French, B.A., Fang, C., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., French, S.W., 2000. The effect of ethanol-induced cytochrome p4502E1 on the inhibition of proteasome activity by alcohol. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 279, 23-29.. Bondoc, F.Y., Bao, Z., Hu, W.Y., Gonzalez, F.J., Wang, Y., Yang, C.S., Hong, J.Y., 1999. Acetone catabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1: studies with CYP2E1-null mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 58, 461-463.. Cederbaum, A.I., 2014. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction. Redox Biol. 2C, 1048-1054.. Cheng, J., Chen, C., Kristopher, K.W., Manna, S.K., Scerba, M., Friedman, F.K., Luecke, H., Idle, J.R., Gonzalez, F.J., 2013. Identification of 2-piperidone as a biomarker of CYP2E1 activity through metabolomic phenotyping. Toxicol. Sci. 135, 37-47.. Cheung, C., Gonzalez, F.J., 2008. Humanized mouse lines and their application for prediction of human drug metabolism and toxicological risk assessment. J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
Research continues to show that proper nutrition plays an important role in cancer prevention and control. To help provide cancer patients access to fresh vegetables, VCU Massey Cancer Center has partnered with Richmond-based urban farm Tricycle Gardens to establish a monthly farm stand outside of Masseys Dalton Oncology Clinic. Additionally, a grant from the McKesson Foundation allows eligible SNAP/EBT participants to receive $2 worth of produce for every $1 of benefits spent on the farm stand produce.. The goal is to provide fresh produce to our patients who may not have access to it in their own communities, said Shelly Arthur, a local landscape designer and Massey volunteer who helped lead the effort to coordinate the Farm Stand partnership. Massey staff members and a group of other Massey volunteers were seeking a way to help educate patients about the importance of nutrition as it relates to cancer care and prevention, so we approached Tricycle Gardens and they were thrilled by the ...
P450BM3 (CYP102A1), a fatty acid hydroxylase from Bacillus megaterium, has been extensively studied over a period of almost forty years. The enzyme has been redesigned to catalyse the oxidation of non-natural substrates as diverse as pharmaceuticals, terpenes and gaseous alkanes using a variety of engineering strat
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [W J Driscoll, S König, H M Fales, L K Pannell, B A Eipper, G P Mueller].
Drugs that inhibit rate-limiting enzymes have important uses as experimental tools and therapeutic agents. The findings presented here demonstrate that PBA inhibits circulating and tissue PHM and thus offers a pharmacological approach for investigating the regulation and function of this rate-limiting enzyme. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of PHM in neural and endocrine tissues, virtually nothing is known about the physiology of blood-borne PHM, the form most profoundly inhibited by PBA treatment. Thus, PBA may prove to be especially useful in defining the functions of circulating PHM, in addition to increasing our understanding of PHM in peptidergic tissues.. Although the functions of blood-borne PHM remain to be determined, levels of circulating PHM are significant (Eipper et al., 1985; Wand et al., 1985; Ogonowski et al., 1997), and, as shown here, its turnover appears to be rapid. Several α-amidated peptides have been implicated in the control of ...
Each presentation is allowed no more than 5 minutes through a video, internet or a hardware live demonstration only, which will be directly displayed to the audience on a large screen. Videos of company presentations will NOT be accepted. Videos will therefore be required to be made available to the session organizer for approval. It is mandatory that the PHM system is shown in action. Static displays are not acceptable. Each presentation will be followed by a brief Q&A session where the PHM demonstrators must answer questions from the audiences. The test cases being presented can be either based on self-developed or purchased PHM systems. The source of the PHM hardware is eligible to be mentioned but no further advertisement from or about the supplier of the PHM system will be accepted. Any detailed background of the PHM system and the testing can be provided through detailed information on the PHM website. Provision of a manuscript with detailed information is, however, not mandatory. Proposal ...
Diagram for a two-protein design that provides light-inducible programmed localization to the cell membrane.Weve got a new paper thats just been accepted, wo
Haha, I still wonder if youd be able to resist ruining things just a little bit for someone close to you.. after all, isnt it juicier fuel if someone gets really disappointed? (I truly wish you are able to refrain from doing that, but Im just wondering☺). Uhm about the Memories, Im gonna have to dig in Chambers of Memories a bit more, and write it all down in a post. But for my narc, he was really big on the disappointment theme. Any way he could disappoint me, he took the chance! (Very subtle though). Im glad to be free! But, how much would you bet that he will absolutely hoover me by Christmas? He wont be able to resist! Haha. I will be stone cold, though! ☺. ...
If you have any questions, comments, suggestions or requests, let me know! You can comment on individual posts. I read every comment!. ...
The latest peer reviewed research about the causes of RA indicates that it may be the result of a damaged microbiome. Review the information yourself here.
Read about the research being undertaken by Massey Universitys Institute of Fundamental Sciences across a broad range of fields.
Find out more about the world-class palynology laboratory (the science of pollen) operated by Massey Universitys College of Science
Massey, A.J., et al. (2009) Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol. 66: 535-545 Williamson, D.S., et al. (2009) J.Med.Chem. 52: 1510-1513 Massey, A.J., et al. (2010) J.Med.Chem. 53: 7280-7286 Macias, A.T., et al. (2011) J.Med.Chem. 54: 4034-4041 ...
Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used for prevention of thromboembolism in children. Its dosing is difficult due to the narrow therapeutic index & individual variability in effective dosage. Genetic polymorphism in 2 enzymes involved in warfarin metabolism, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC) & cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9), have been associated with lower dose requirements in adults. Testing for these polymorphisms is now recommended and being performed to guide dosing in adult patients(pts). Currently there is no information available on these polymorphisms & warfarin dosing in children. To examine the relationship between warfarin dosing & polymorphisms of CYP2C9 & VKORC1 in pediatric patients. Pts 0 -18 years old on warfarin for minimum 2 weeks were included. Data included ethnicity, age, weight, body surface area, gender, indication, dose, INR, target INR, medical illness or medications & adverse effects. Blood sample tested for CYP2C9 & VKORC1 genotypes & correlated with above ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of human gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. AU - Tars, Kaspars. AU - Rumnieks, Janis. AU - Zeltins, Andris. AU - Kazaks, Andris. AU - Kotelovica, Svetlana. AU - Leonciks, Ainars. AU - Sharipo, Jelena. AU - Viksna, Arturs. AU - Kuka, Janis. AU - Liepinsh, Edgars. AU - Dambrova, Maija. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Latvian State Research Program 4VPP-2010-6/3.3 and by ESF grant 1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/150 . We thank Anna Janson and Ana-Laura Stern for their assistance in data collection. We thank the personnel for their help during our stay at ESRF, in particular Hassan Belrhali for his assistance in quickly obtaining the first SAD map. We thank also Prof. Lars Liljas for critical reading of this manuscript.. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - Gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (GBBH) is a 2-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of l-carnitine by hydroxylation of gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB). l-carnitine is required ...
Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposis sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castlemans disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2). The latter functional axis involves suppression of pro-apoptotic lysosomal protein cathepsin D by ...
Porcine taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6α-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 4A21 (CYP4A21), differs from other members of the CYP4A subfamily in terms of structural features and catalytic activity. CYP4A21 participates in the formation of hyocholic acid, a species-specific primary bile acid in the pig. The CYP4A21 gene was investigated and found to be approx. 13 kb in size and split into 12 exons. The intron-exon organization of the CYP4A21 gene corresponds to that of CYP4A fatty acid hydroxylase genes in other species. Comparison with a genomic segment of a pig CYP4A fatty acid hydroxylase gene (CYP4A24) revealed a sequence identity with CYP4A21 that extends beyond the exons, indicating a common origin by gene duplication. A pronounced sequence identity was found also within the proximal 5´-flanking regions, whereas the patterns of mRNA expression of CYP4A21 and CYP4A fatty acid hydroxylases in pig liver differ. Sequence comparison aiming to elucidate the origin of the unique features of CYP4A21 ...
Lee, S.-M. and Clemens, M. G. (1992), Effect of α-tocopherol on hepatic mixed function oxidases in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology, 15: 276-281. doi: 10.1002/hep.1840150217 ...
hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system의 중추인 cytochrome p-450은 주위환경, 약물, 식이 및 영양 상태에따라 활성이 변화하는것으로 알려져있다. 또한 이 효소계를 통하여 대사되는 2-acetylaminofluorene은 guinea pig를 제외한 모든 동물에서 간암을 일으키는 물질이라는것이 밝혀져서 연구의 대상이 되고있다. 최근 cholesterol은 성인병에 있어 그 원인 인자로서 중요성이 알려지고 있으며 cytochrome p-450과 b_(5)와의 연관성이 보고된바있다. 한편 인삼은 항암작용, 대사촉진, 간조직에서의 해독작용등 여러가지 기능이 보고되어 있다. 이에 저자는 cholesterol을 투여한 흰쥐에서 hepatic microsomal cytochrome p-450 및 b_(5)의 활성에대한 영향과 2-AAF의 ring-hydroxylation과 N-hydroxylation의 변화를 관찰하고, cholesterol과 인삼을 통시에 투여한 군과 비교관찰하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1) 정상 ...
2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have
TY - JOUR. T1 - Possible association of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450 in reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. AU - Nisimoto, Yukio. AU - Kinosita, Kazuhiko. AU - Ikegami, Akira. AU - Kawai, Norio. AU - Ichihara, Ichiro. AU - Shibata, Yukio. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - A fluorescent probe, N-(1-anilinonaphth-4-yl)-maleimide (ANM), was specifically labeled to SH group(s) in the hydrophilic moiety of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase at a ratio of 1 ± 0.1 ANM/mol of protein. The ANM-labeled reductase and P-450 were reconstituted in phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylserine vesicles in which all of the enzymes were functionally active. The reconstitution of the mixed-function oxidase system was found to be strongly dependent on both the lipid to protein molar ratio and phospholipid composition. The interactions of ANM-labeled reductase with P-450 in proteoliposomes were investigated by perturbation of the fluorescence of ANM. Upon incorporation of P-450 ...
AFB1 is primarily metabolized by the hepatic mixed-function oxidase system to a variety of toxic and nontoxic metabolites. The toxic effects of AFB1 are principally due to the binding of these metabolites to cellular macromolecules, particularly mitochondrial and nuclear nucleic acids and nucleoproteins. The principal bioactivation pathway is the epoxidation of AFB1 to AFB1-2,3-epoxide (also referred to as the 8,9-epoxide), the proximal carcinogen and mutagen. Activation of AFB1 to the epoxide is essential for AFB1 to manifest its mutagenic, carcinogenic, and DNA-binding properties. Cytochrome P450s capable of activating AFB1 in animals include members of the 1A, 2B, 2C, and 3A subfamilies. The extent of in vitro microsomal activation and the susceptibility of animals to AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis are affected by treatment with cytochrome P450 inducers (e.g., phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene) and inhibitors (e.g., piperonyl butoxide, cobalt chloride, carbon monoxide ...
Interindividual variations in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes were investigated in the liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasian patients. The P-450 enzymes used in this study included P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A, and the monooxygenase activities determined were 13 typical P-450 substrates and 9 procarcinogens. Although the total P-450 content was higher in Caucasian (mean, 0.43 nmol/mg of protein) than in Japanese populations (mean, 0.26 nmol/mg of protein), the relative levels (percent of total P-450) of individual forms of P-450 determined immunochemically were not very different except that P-450 2A6 and 2B6 levels were higher in the Caucasians. About 70% of liver P-450 could be accounted for by P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A proteins, and P-450 3A (about 30% of total P-450) and 2C (about 20%) enzymes were found to be the major forms. Considerable levels of P-450 1A2 (about 13%) and 2E1 (about 7%) could be determined, whereas the P-450 2A6 ...
The older rodenticides, formerly referred to as acute toxicants, such as arsenic, phosphorus, red squill, and ANTU, are either no longer registered or of little importance in rat control. The latter two were ineffective for roof rats. Newer rodenticides are much more efficacious and have resulted in the phasing out of these older materials over the last 20 years. At present there are three rodenticides-zinc phosphide, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and bromethalin-registered and available for roof rat control. Since none of these are anticoagulants, all can be used to control anticoagulant-resistant populations of roof rats. Roof rats can be controlled with the same baits used for Norway rats. Most commercial baits are registered for both species of rats and for house mice, but often they are less acceptable to roof rats than to the other species. For best results, try several baits to find out which one rats consume most. No rat bait ingredient is universally highly acceptable, and regional ...
In the present study, we tested the possibility that, in addition to HIF-α down-regulation, the functional inactivation of HIF-α also contributes to the YC-1-induced deregulation of hypoxia-induced genes. In brief, YC-1 stimulated FIH binding to HIF-α CAD, which in turn prevented p300 binding to CAD and led to the functional repression of HIF. The mechanisms underlying HIF inhibition by YC-1 are summarized in Supplementary Fig. S2.5. FIH was first identified as a HIF-1α CAD-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening (25), and its function has been extensively investigated. FIH is an enzyme that hydroxylates the Asn803 residue in HIF-1α and which belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily (26, 27). Like other dioxygenases, FIH requires O2, Fe2+, and 2-oxoglutarate for its enzymatic action. Furthermore, the DMOG used in this study is known to inhibit FIH by competing with 2-oxoglutarate (27, 28). The action of FIH and its X-ray crystal structure are well ...
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Wærsted, Jeanette Ringvoll; Nabong, Marivi; Nordstrand, Line Mari; Meira, LB; Pang, B; Bekkelund, Anders; Dedon, PC; Bjelland, S; Samson, LD; Falnes, Pål & Klungland, Arne (2008). AlkB homologue 2-mediated repair of ethenoadenine lesions in mammalian DNA. Cancer Research. ISSN 0008-5472. 68(11), s 4142- 4149 . doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0796 Vis sammendrag Endogenous formation of the mutagenic DNA adduct 1,N6-ethenoadenine ({varepsilon}A) originates from lipid peroxidation. Elevated levels of {varepsilon}A in cancer-prone tissues suggest a role for this adduct in the development of some cancers. The base excision repair pathway has been considered the principal repair system for {varepsilon}A lesions until recently, when it was shown that the Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase could directly reverse the damage. We report here kinetic analysis of the recombinant human AlkB homologue 2 (hABH2), which is able to repair {varepsilon}A lesions in DNA. Furthermore, cation exchange chromatography of ...
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Aliases : Solyc01g080900.3. Description : 17.6.1.4 hormone metabolism.gibberelin.synthesis-degradation.ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase/oxygenase ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAO2) ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase 2 (KAO2). ...
The bacterial AlkB protein is known to be involved in cellular recovery from alkylation damage; however, the function of this protein remains unknown. AlkB homologues have been identified in several organisms, including humans, and a recent sequence alignment study has suggested that these proteins …
In the presence of NADPH and under aerobic conditions, thioether-containing organo-phosphorus and carbamate pesticides were oxidized by the FAD-dependent monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.8) purified from pig liver microsomes. The stoichiometric relationship between NADPH and substrate during the course of …
Steiner quotes Nietzsche again, approvingly, as saying, in The Will to Power: There is only one world . . . and that world is false, cruel, contradictory, misleading, senseless. . . . We need lies to vanquish this reality, this truth, we need lies in order to live. Steiner seems himself to endorse the view that lying is a necessity of life by which man violates an absurd confining reality in a way that is at every point artistic [and] creative.20 This confused and shoddy defense of lying is what Jeremy Bentham would have called nonsense on stilts. Steiner here seems to be emulating that kind of German metaphysician than whom, according to Carlyle, none could dive deeper or emerge muddier. It is a prime example of the kind of academic or scholarly humbug that consists of saying more than you can reasonably mean, for the sake of the booming sound of your periods (what the older rhetoricians called bomphoiologia). If you fail to make the distinctions that I have been proposing between ...
By Don Andrew Griffin Humbug Marsh is located near the mouth of the Detroit River. The area is in the cities of Gibraltar and Trenton, Michigan. Made In Detroit
What goes inside is as important, support your immune system! CollincGro immunesystem Ecomer alkylglycerol which increase the white bloodcells and supports against several illnesses like flu, bacterials etc. Better skin
FIH-1/HIF-1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1/ HIF1AN) is a 40.3kDa protein which is expressed as asparaginyl hydroxylase enzyme in various multicellular organisms from worms/flies to mouse/rat and human beings.
cDNA cloning and expression of bovine aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase.: Aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase which specifically hydroxylates 1 Asp or
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This gene encodes a member of the pterin-dependent aromatic acid hydroxylase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, an important hormone and neurotransmitter. Mutations in this gene may be associated with psychiatric diseases such as bipolar affective disorder and major depression. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two enzymes concerned in peptide hormone alpha-amidation are synthesized from a single mRNA. AU - Kato, I.. AU - Yonekura, H.. AU - Okamoto, H.. PY - 1991/10. Y1 - 1991/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026231464&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026231464&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1770251. AN - SCOPUS:0026231464. VL - 63. SP - 1209. EP - 1213. JO - Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society. JF - Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society. SN - 0037-1017. IS - 10. ER - ...
Every year, the MFO hosts 5 researchers, about 15 affiliated and associate researchers, as well as 10 Masters and doctoral students and post-doctoral researchers. Its staff supports the researchers work and takes part in the organisation of conferences, seminars and workshops.. The MFO welcomes other researchers through a range of scholarships and visiting fellowships.. ...
Credit: Blake Belden, VCU Massey Cancer Center The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental effects on global infrastructure sectors, including economic, political, health care, education and research systems, and there is still no definitive treatment strategy for the disease. A team of scientists, including VCU Massey Cancer Center researcher Masoud Manjili,…
Dr. Richard Massey with Meridian Grace Your Health Questions Answered Dr. Richard Massey joins us LIVE once a month to take health questions from our listeners.
The Fascination of Science brings world-leading scientists to you in this free lecture series at Massey University Auckland. Find out about our previous speakers.
The system also realizes history trend curve, real time trend curve, alarm, print and so on, and this provides one way to monitor product situation and makes the rapid reaction to the unusual things. 实现了历史趋势曲线、实时趋势曲线、报警记录及打印报表等功能,提供了一种能形象直观的了解现场生产情况、对异常情况做出快速反应的监控方式。 dict.cnki.net. ...
On what was once the site of a machine factory, Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon (MFO) in Zurich-Nord has today been transformed into an architectural oasis for the...
De openheid over de bij de Plasma Generator oncontroleerbare en toch bijzondere bovennatuurlijkheden is verbluffend en zou iedereen moeten overtuigen dat het om humbug gaat. WAARSCHUWING: https://www.psiram.com/de/index.php/Inergetix_CoRe_System
Looking for delicious gin sweets made with real alcohol? Try our gin and elderflower humbugs made here in the UK with real london dry gin.
Plasmid pHM6-Q74 from Dr. David Rubinszteins lab contains the insert HTT partial exon 1 Q74 and is published in J Med Genet. 1999 Oct;36(10):739-46. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
4-HYDROXYNORNANTENINE. A 4-HYDROXYLATED NORAPORPHINE. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sharpless, K.B.; Flood, T.C. (1971). "Oxotransition metal oxidants as mimics for the action of mixed-function oxygenases. 'NIH ...
It suggests that the original purpose of luciferases was as mixed-function oxygenases. As the early ancestors of many species ... Bioluminescence has several functions in different taxa. Steven Haddock et al. (2010) list as more or less definite functions ... The following functions are reasonably well established in the named organisms. In many animals of the deep sea, including ... They do not have the same function as the normal suckers because they no longer have any handling or grappling ability due its ...
These enzymes are mixed-function oxygenases, i.e. oxygenation is coupled with production of water and NAD+. CH 4 + O 2 + NADPH ... Similarly, the alcohol can be gelled to reduce risk of leaking or spilling, as with the brand "Sterno". Methanol is mixed with ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-lysine:oxygen 2- ... Takeda H, Hayaishi O (1966). "Crystalline L-lysine oxygenase". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (11): 2733-6. PMID 5911646. Takeda H, ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ... oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include lysine oxygenase, lysine monooxygenase, and L-lysine-2- ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-arginine:oxygen 2- ... Olomucki A, Pho DB, Lebar R, Delcambe L, Thoai NV (1968). "[Arginine oxygenase (decarboxylating). V. Purification and flavin ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ... arginine oxygenase (decarboxylating), and arginine decarboxy-oxidase. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of ...
Measuring the potency of pulp mill effluents for induction of hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activity in fish. Journal of ...
... is a membrane-bound mixed-function oxidase and harbours a fatty acid hydroxylase motif. The iron is ... Other names in use are glyceryl-ether monooxygenase, glyceryl-ether cleaving enzyme, glyceryl ether oxygenase, glyceryl ...
These enzymes are mixed-function oxygenases, i.e. oxygenation is coupled with production of water:[47] ... Methanol is mixed with water and injected into high performance diesel and gasoline engines for an increase of power and a ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). Although the enzyme is part of the group of enzymes that act on ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ... however its exact function is not known [3,4,7]. Although originally thought to have the exact same mechanism as the Renilla ... but functions ineffectively without its larger, subunit counterpart [3,4]. Although the crystal structure of OpLec has yet to ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-lactate:oxygen 2- ... lactic oxygenase, lactate oxygenase, lactic oxidase, L-lactate monooxygenase, lactate monooxygenase, and L-lactate-2- ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is Cypridina-luciferin: ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ...
... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 8'-apo-beta-carotenol: ... oxygenases). The oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O with incorporation of one atom of oxygen ( ...
Conrad HE, Dubus R, Namtvedt MJ, Gunslaus IC (1965). "Mixed Function Oxidation. II. Separation and Properties of the Enzymes ... oxygenase, camphor 1,2-mono, and ketolactonase I. It employs one cofactor, iron. ... Trudgill PW, DuBus R, Gunsalus IC (1966). "Mixed function oxidation. VI. Purification of a tightly coupled electron transport ...
... tryptophan oxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.562 - inositol oxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708 - mixed function oxygenases MeSH ... heme oxygenase (decyclizing) MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.410.500 - heme oxygenase-1 MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.425 - 4- ...
Mixed+Function+Oxygenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Moskwa PS, Vadi H, and ... Mixed-function oxidase is the name of a family of oxidase enzymes that catalyze a reaction in which each of the two atoms of ... The mixed-function oxidase reaction proceeds as follows: AH + BH2 + O2 --> AOH + B + H2O (H2O as catalyst.) High levels of ... The name "mixed-function oxidase" indicates that the enzyme oxidizes two different substrate simultaneously. Desaturation of ...
It has been shown that treatment of mice with carbon tetrachloride, which acts on the mixed function oxygenase system, results ...
... or mixed function oxidase, transfer one oxygen atom to the substrate, and reduce the other oxygen atom to water. Dioxygenases, ... The oxygenases form a class of oxidoreductases; their EC number is EC 1.13 or EC 1.14. Oxygenases were discovered in 1955 ... An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it. ... Hayaishi was awarded the 1986 Wolf Prize in Medicine "for the discovery of the oxygenase enzymes and elucidation of their ...
... impact on plasma cholesterol homeostasis and the function and regulation of microsomal cytochrome P450 and heme oxygenase". The ... who dissected the P450-containing mixed function oxidase system into three constituent components: POR, cytochrome P450, and ... The reduction of cytochrome P450 is not the only physiological function of POR. The final step of heme oxidation by mammalian ... "Diversity and function of mutations in p450 oxidoreductase in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome and disordered ...
In well-mixed water columns plankton are evenly distributed, but a net production only occurs above the compensation depth. ... Therefore, the partial pressure of CO2 at the compensation point, also known as gamma, is a function of irradiation. The ... However at low irradiation, only a small fraction of the sites on RuBP carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) have the electron ...
The function of this hydrophobic tunnel is unknown, though two hypotheses have been postulated concerning its utility. The ... Hayaishi O, Lardy H, Myrbäck K (1963). "Direct oxygenation by O2, oxygenases". In Boyer PD (ed.). The Enzymes. 8 (2nd ed.). New ... Each catalytic domain is composed of two stacked, mixed topology β sheets and several random coils. These sheets and coils ... Hayaishi S, Katagiri M, Rothberg S (1957). "Pioneering the Field of Oxygenases through the Study of Tryptophan Metabolism: the ...
Both groups were given Vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate) and Vitamin E (mixed tocopherol) supplements. Wasternack C (2007). " ... to modify adipocyte formation and function. Most oxylipins in the body are derived from linoleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid. ... heme-dependent fatty acid oxygenases (plants, fungi), and cyclooxygenases (animals). Fatty acid hydroperoxides or endoperoxides ...
Its main function is to regenerate RuBP, which is the initial substrate and CO2-acceptor molecule of the Calvin Cycle. PRK ... In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, PRK (or RsPRK) exists as a homooctomer with protomers composed of seven-stranded mixed β-sheets, ... Along with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo), phosphoribulokinase is unique to the Calvin Cycle. ... Miziorko HM (2000). "Phosphoribulokinase: Current Perspectives on the Structure/Function Basis for Regulation and Catalysis". ...
In addition to these functions, prokaryotic membranes also function in energy conservation as the location about which a proton ... Deep lakes that experience winter mixing expose the cells to the hydrostatic pressure generated by the full water column. This ... especially ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, RuBisCO, and carbonic anhydrase). It is thought that the high local ... Fimbriae usually function to facilitate the attachment of a bacterium to a surface (e.g. to form a biofilm) or to other cells ( ...
Binding of an inhibitory peptide to the oxygenase domain blocks uncoupled NADPH oxidation". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (8): 5291-6. doi ... 1993). "Cloned murine bradykinin receptor exhibits a mixed B1 and B2 pharmacological selectivity". Mol. Pharmacol. 44 (2): 346- ... motif in the first extracellular loop with other human G-protein coupled receptors implications for HIV-1 coreceptor function ...
ISBN 0-471-24244-6. Dawson, J. (22 April 1988). "Probing structure-function relations in heme-containing oxygenases and ... The inhibitors may work by mixed modalities, owing to affects on the protein, substrate or the diffusible species. The murzymes ... Manoj, Kelath Murali; Parashar, Abhinav; Gade, Sudeep K.; Venkatachalam, Avanthika (23 June 2016). "Functioning of Microsomal ... Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Parashar, Abhinav; Manoj, Kelath Murali (19 February 2016). "Functioning of drug-metabolizing ...
Oxidases and oxygenases are metal systems found throughout nature that take advantage of oxygen to carry out important ... As a mix of biochemistry and inorganic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry is important in elucidating the implications of ... Cobalt is essential for the functioning of vitamin B12. Many other elements aside from metals are bio-active. Sulfur and ... Bioinorganic chemists seek to understand and replicate the function of these metalloproteins. Metal-containing electron ...
Ammonium is the dominate species of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and can be produced by water mass mixing below hydrothermal ... The key enzyme is ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). RuBisCO has been identified in members of the ... due to high microbe density and anaerobic environment allows the function of nitrogenase, a nitrogen fixing enzyme. Evidence ... Hydrogen-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria may be abundant in vents where NO3−-containing bottom seawater mixes with ...
However, as shown below, not all species can use each of the mentioned electron donors (Table 2). Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase ( ... This enriched layer moves down and mixes with underlying sediment. Oxygen that is taken from the water penetrates this ... The researchers found that Type VI SQR functioning in high sulfide environments, and hypothesized that S. 'denitrificans ... Janosch, Claudia (2015). "Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase (Sor) in the Moderately Thermoacidophilic Leaching Bacteria: Studies in ...
Down-regulation of the opioid receptor is caused by endocytosis from the cell membrane that eliminates its function. Typically ... Sydenham's 1669 recipe for laudanum mixed opium with wine, saffron, clove and cinnamon. Sydenham's laudanum was used widely in ... It also decreases cyclo-oxygenase activity. It has recently been discovered that most or all of the therapeutic efficacy of ... Brennan MJ (March 2013). "The effect of opioid therapy on endocrine function". The American Journal of Medicine. 126 (3 Suppl 1 ...
CO functions as an endogenous signaling molecule, modulates functions of the cardiovascular system, inhibits blood platelet ... In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown ... Mixed oxidation states. *Antimony tetroxide (Sb2O4). *Cobalt(II,III) oxide (Co3O4) ... In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown ...
Mixed opioid agonist-antagonist.. IM, IV.. Volume of distribution = 9-12 L/kg; half-life = 2.2-2.7 hours.. Moderate-severe pain ... A cyclo-oxygenase-2 preferential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 36 (2): 115-26. doi:10.2165/ ... It also functions as an analgesic to a lesser degree by increasing the activity of the primary inhibitory (signal reducing) ... Mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, partial agonist at mu-1 receptor; cholinergic actions exist.. IM, IV, PO.. Bioavailability = ...
... (III) oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding large iron parts ( ... Kikuchi, G.; Yoshida, T.; Noguchi, M. (2005). "Heme oxygenase and heme degradation". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... The attenuation of radiation as a function of energy is shown in the graph.[128] ... A typical six-coordinate anion is hexachloroferrate(III), [FeCl6]3−, found in the mixed salt tetrakis(methylammonium) ...
The inhibition of COX-2 is paramount for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic function of the selective COX-2 inhibitor ... Chancellor JV, Hunsche E, de Cruz E, Sarasin FP (2001). "Economic evaluation of celecoxib, a new cyclo-oxygenase 2 specific ... Schönthal AH, Chen TC, Hofman FM, Louie SG, Petasis NA (Feb 2008). "Celecoxib analogs that lack COX-2 inhibitory function: ... After treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor, the restored p53 function allows DNA damaged neuroblastoma cells to commit suicide ...
Clark A (1970). "The potential function for the CCC bending in carbon suboxide". Chem. Phys. Lett. 6 (5): 452-456. doi:10.1016/ ... during heme oxidation by heme oxygenase-1. It can also be formed from malonic acid. It has been shown that carbon suboxide in ... Mixed oxidation states. *Antimony tetroxide (Sb2O4). *Cobalt(II,III) oxide (Co3O4) ...
CO functions as an endogenous signaling molecule, modulates functions of the cardiovascular system, inhibits blood platelet ... Kinetic studies of propane oxidation on Mo and V based mixed oxide catalysts (PDF). 2011.. ... In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown ... In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown ...
"Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on postoperative renal function in adults with normal renal function". Cochrane ... The use of NSAIDS for analgesia following gastrointestinal surgery remains controversial, given mixed evidence of an increased ... "Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of ... This helps maintain normal glomerular perfusion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an indicator of kidney function. This is ...
The PFA-100 (Platelet Function Assay-100) is a system for analysing platelet function in which citrated whole blood is ... In the Multiplate analyzer, anticoagulated whole blood is mixed with saline and a platelet agonist in a single use cuvette with ... cyclo-oxygenase 1, and thromboxane-A synthase. Platelets secrete thromboxane A2, which acts on the platelet's own thromboxane ... Tests of function[edit]. Bleeding time[edit]. Developed by Duke in 1910 and bearing his name, it measured the time for bleeding ...
Many mixed valence compounds contain both iron(II) and iron(III) centers, such as magnetite and Prussian blue (Fe 4(Fe[CN] 6) 3 ... The attenuation of radiation as a function of energy is shown in the graph. The main disadvantage of iron and steel is that ... ISBN 0-935702-73-3. Kikuchi, G.; Yoshida, T.; Noguchi, M. (2005). "Heme oxygenase and heme degradation". Biochemical and ... Iron(III) oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding large iron parts ( ...
ISSN 0967-0637.[permanent dead link] Monaco A, Prouzet P (2015-10-02). Marine Ecosystems: Diversity and Functions. John Wiley ... 5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the bacterial symbiont of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila". Journal ... which inhabits extreme environments and is adapted to the particular composition of the mixed volcanic and sea waters. This ... "Evolution of the sulfide-binding function within the globin multigenic family of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia ...
The bella moth is able to detoxify PAs due to the possession of the gene pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase. It has been ... Although most female moths mate multiply, very low instances of mixed paternities occur. In fact, most progeny in a single ... Lamunyon, Craig (1997). "Increased Fecundity, as a Function of Multiple Mating, in an Arctiid Moth, Utetheisa Ornatrix". ...
"Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on postoperative renal function in adults with normal renal function". The ... Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C (June 2006). "Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and ... Their use following gastrointestinal surgery remains controversial, given mixed evidence of increased risk of leakage from any ... NSAIDs coordinate with metal ions affecting cellular function. Research supports the use of NSAIDs for the control of pain ...
While Type D trichothecenes are thought to be the most toxic, Types A and B have relatively mixed toxicity. The classification ... Trichothecenes also have the ability to affect general cellular enzyme function due to the tendency of active site thiol groups ... McCormick SP, Alexander NJ, Proctor RH (July 2006). "Fusarium Tri4 encodes a multifunctional oxygenase required for ... During intitiation, trichothecenes can either inhibit the association of the two ribosomal subunits, or inhibit the function of ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the ... Mixed Function Oxygenases (Monooxygenases). Subscribe to New Research on Mixed Function Oxygenases ... Oxygenases: 89*Mixed Function Oxygenases: 449*Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: 5248. *Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: 3623 ... required in the mixed-function oxidation.. Also Known As: Monooxygenases; Mixed Function Oxidases; Hydroxylases; Oxidases, ...
Mixed-Function Oxygenases, Oxidative Stress, and Chromosomal Damage Measured in Lesser Scaup Wintering on the Indiana Harbor ...
Ioannides, C, Okine, L and Parke, DV (1979) Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on the hepatic mixed-function oxygenases in ... Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on the hepatic mixed-function oxygenases in the rat ...
... function_oxygenases_in_cultured_fish_cells.pdf"/, ,dcterms:title,Mixed function oxygenases in cultured fish cells : ... Mixed function oxygenases in cultured fish cells : contributions of in vitro studies to the understanding of MFO induction. * ... Mixed function oxygenases in cultured fish cells : contributions of in vitro studies to the understanding of MFO induction. ... Mixed function oxygenases in cultured fish cells : contributions of in vitro studies to the understanding of MFO induction. In ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases · Molecular Sequence Data · Nitrates · Nitrites · Nitrogen · Oxidoreductases · Oxygen · Phylogeny · ... oxygenase, 9037-29-0, 9046-59-7; para coumaric acid, 7400-08-0; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, 9035-51-2; Mixed Function ... Mixed Function Oxygenases · Molecular Sequence Data · NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases · NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase · ... Mixed Function Oxygenases · Models, Biological · Saccharomyces cerevisiae · Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase · Saccharomyces ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases / chemistry* * Mixed Function Oxygenases / classification * Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism ... Non-homologous functions of the AlkB homologs J Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Dec;7(6):494-504. doi: 10.1093/jmcb/mjv029. Epub 2015 May ... The other mammalian homologs have remarkably diverse substrate specificities and biological functions. Substrates recognized by ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism * Nitrogen / metabolism * Petroleum Pollution* * Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons / ... Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics * ...
Metabolic enzymes and mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) system in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus): biochemical and histological ... mixed function oxygenase (MFO), metabolic enzymes such as citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics* * Molecular Sequence Data * Oryza / genetics* * Recombinant Proteins / genetics ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases / biosynthesis, genetics*. Molecular Sequence Data. Molecular Structure. Sorghum / genetics*. ... Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.13.21/flavonoid 3-hydroxylase From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases. *Tandem Mass Spectrometry. *Cyclophosphamide. *Antineoplastic Agents. *Polymorphism. *Cytochrome P- ... CDH19 encodes a cadherin functioning as a cell-cell adhesion receptor and CYP2C19 a CYP450 enzyme with a major function in ... We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing ... DDA are demonstrated to be neither substrates nor inhibitors of BCRP or P-gp function. In summary, o,p-DDD and o,p-DDE might ...
0/Cytochromes; 56-49-5/Methylcholanthrene; 9035-51-2/Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.-/Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14. ... Title: Cell biochemistry and function Volume: 2 ISSN: 0263-6484 ISO Abbreviation: Cell Biochem. Funct. Publication Date: 1984 ...
0 (Ketones); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 1364PS73AF (Acetone); EC 1.- (Mixed Function Oxygenases); J2G84H29AF (2-octanone); ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases. Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the ...
Mixed Function Oxygenases); EC 1.14.11.- (AlkB protein, E coli). ... the importance of SSB-DNA interaction for AlkB function. Using ...
... mixed-function oxygenases). In animals, these CYP enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids ...
Oxygenases [D08.811.682.690]. *Mixed Function Oxygenases [D08.811.682.690.708]. *Fatty Acid Desaturases [D08.811.682.690. ... They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN. ...
Oxygenases [D08.811.682.690]. *Mixed Function Oxygenases [D08.811.682.690.708]. *Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System [D08.811. ... Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A, E, and S Induces Transgenerational Effects on Female Reproductive Functions in Mice. Toxicol ...
mixed function oxygenase. suiso-kin. Hydrogenomonas. suirinyō. water diuresis. suishōtai wo tsutsumu kekkanmaku no izan. ... Does it have Find and Global functions and are they easy to use? (Find is used to find a word, and Global is used to find a ... The keyboard has only 30 keys for inputting text plus about 40 shift and function keys. The keyboard is divided up into two ... such as Find and Copy functions, but documents can be saved by recording them on an ordinary cassette recorder for future ...
Oxygenases: 89*Mixed Function Oxygenases: 449*Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: 564. Experts. 1. Blau, Nenad: 10 articles (03/2015 - ... 01/01/2014 - "Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine ...
1989). Use of mixed-function oxygenases to monitor contaminant exposure in wildlife. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 8 ... 1987). Review and perspective on the use of mixed-function oxygenase enzymes in biological monitoring. Comparative Biochemistry ... Stegeman, J. J. (1978). Influence of environmental contamination on cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxygenases in fish: ... 1985). Enlarged livers and hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase components in tumor-bearing brown bullheads from a ...
Mixed Function Oxygenase Induction by Pulp Mill Effluents: Advances Since 1991 WithPeter V. Hodson ... Effluents from Canadian Pulp and Paper Mills: A Recent Investigation of Their Potential to Induce Mixed Function Oxygenase ... Examination of Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent Fractions for Potential Inducers of Mixed Function Oxygenase Activity in Rainbow ... Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) Mixed Function Oxygenase Responses Caused by Unbleached and Bleached Pulp Mill Effluents: A ...
Sharpless, K.B.; Flood, T.C. (1971). "Oxotransition metal oxidants as mimics for the action of mixed-function oxygenases. NIH ...
Categories: Mixed Function Oxygenases Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
EC 1.13.12 With incorporation of one atom of oxygen (internal monooxygenases or internal mixed function oxidases). EC 1.13.99 ... Other name(s): 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase; 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase; 3-hydroxyanthranilic oxygenase; 3- ... and Pandelia, M.E. Organophosphonate-degrading PhnZ reveals an emerging family of HD domain mixed-valent diiron oxygenases. ... Other name(s): SOR; sulfur oxygenase; sulfur oxygenase reductase. Systematic name: sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydrogen- ...
It suggests that the original purpose of luciferases was as mixed-function oxygenases. As the early ancestors of many species ... Bioluminescence has several functions in different taxa. Steven Haddock et al. (2010) list as more or less definite functions ... The following functions are reasonably well established in the named organisms. In many animals of the deep sea, including ... They do not have the same function as the normal suckers because they no longer have any handling or grappling ability due its ...
TAGS: cholesterol, genes, hydroxycholesterols, mixed function oxygenases, open-angle glaucoma, plasma, polymorphism Invest. ... New Insights On Müller Cells Function And Cholesterol Homeostasis In The Retina ... Inhibition By Voriconazole On Cholesterol Homeostasis And Function In The Rat Retina ...
heme oxygenase is a CYP450 that catabolizes heme to biliverdin through a mixed function oxidase reaction that uses O2 + NADPH ...
Are the health attributes of lycopene related to its antioxidant function? Arch Biochem Biophys 2009;483:229-35. ... Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances carotenoid uptake from mixed micelles by Caco-2 human intestinal cells. J Nutr 2001;131:2921-7 ... Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 15,15′-mono-oxygenase in human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 2004;52:491-9. ... Lycopene extraction was performed by vigorous mixing with 1.5 mL dichloromethane/methanol (1:2, v/v) followed by 2 mL hexane. ...
Mixed function oxygenases and xenobiotic detoxication/toxication systems in bivalve molluscs. *Michael N. Moore, David R. ...
  • 1990). Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants. (springer.com)
  • NO is known to induce expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant enzyme in blood vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested whether NO might modulate the endothelial NADPH oxidase function via heme oxygenase-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • In human microvascular endothelial cells, the NO donor DETA-NONOate (0.1 to 1 mmol/L) strongly induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 but not Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. (ahajournals.org)
  • This was associated with a reduction of the superoxide-generating capacity of NADPH oxidase, an effect that depended on de novo gene transcription and heme oxygenase-1 activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, the heme oxygenase-1 end product bilirubin directly inhibited fully functional NADPH oxidase and seemed to interrupt the assembly and activation of the oxidase. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, NO may modulate superoxide production by NADPH oxidase in human vascular endothelial cells, at least partly by inducing heme oxygenase-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species formation may represent a novel mechanism underlying the cardiovascular protective actions of heme oxygenase-1 and bilirubin. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 In addition, previous studies have revealed that exposure of ECs to exogenous NO induces Nrf2-dependent expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), 10 the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The enzyme β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2), which catalyzes asymmetric cleavage of several carotenoids, is the principal regulator of lycopene metabolism, but the range of BCO2 biological functions is incompletely understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, these findings describe previously unanticipated functions of BCO2 that are independent of its enzymatic role in lycopene metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most other toxic effects of absorbed carbon tetrachloride are related to its metabolism by mixed function cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (in humans, primarily CYP2E1, but also CYP3A). (cdc.gov)
  • Other drugs accelerate the metabolism of cortisol and most synthetic glucocorticoids by inducing hepatic mixed-function oxygenase enzymes (e.g., phenytoin, barbiturates, and rifampin). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This thesis presents data on the responsiveness of pink snapper to the contaminants of concern, using biomarkers such as serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), mixed function oxygenase (MFO), metabolic enzymes such as citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the histological alteration such as hepatic cell lesions (hyperplasia and hypertrophy), and glycogen and lipid droplets. (edu.au)
  • Estabrook RW, Hildebrandt AG, Baron J, Netter KJ, Leibman K (1971) A new spectral intermediate associated with cytochrome P450 function in liver microsomes. (springer.com)
  • Disulfiram (DSM) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, dopamine-beta-oxygenase, microsomal mixed-function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 enzymes. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The function of this unique cytochrome (called P450) was initially revealed in 1963 in studies by Estabrook, Cooper, and Rosenthal 7 using microsomes from the adrenal cortex for the catalysis of the hydroxylation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to deoxycorticosterone. (issx.org)
  • This involved the analysis of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) system such as: total cytochrome P450 content, NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductases and the associated CYP1A1, EROD activity. (csic.es)
  • The cytochrome P45011B1 mRNA expression in distinct cells, probably nerve cells, and especially in regions with high densities of glucocorticoid receptors points to a possible function of brain derived corticosterone in receptor activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Hepatic microsomal cytochrome-P-450 mixed function oxygenase system catalyzes conversion of methylene - chloride to carbon-monoxide and chloride and a second metabolic pathway yields formaldehyde (50000) and inorganic halide. (cdc.gov)
  • and multiple SOD genes that are specific in their subcellular location and function. (biologists.org)
  • The process of oxidation takes place in the presence of mixed function oxidases and mono-oxygenases in the liver. (wikidoc.org)
  • The children with cystic fibrosis all had normal liver function tests and relatively normal respiratory function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 )/ predicted FEV 1 ) as shown in table 1 . (bmj.com)
  • This class of Oxygenases had requirements for both an oxidant (molecular Oxygen) and a reductant (Reduced NADP) and hence was given the trivial name "mixed-function oxidases. (issx.org)
  • 1985). Enlarged livers and hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase components in tumor-bearing brown bullheads from a chemically contaminated river. (springer.com)
  • The hepatic microsomal haem oxygenase activity of rats treated with CoCl2 was studied kinetically by measuring biliverdin, the immediate product of the reaction. (meta.org)
  • Then the in vivo and in vitro arguments in favor of the physiological antioxidant function of intracerebral bilirubin are presented, as well as the potential role of transporters such as ABCC1 and metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P-450 in setting the cerebral cell- and structure-specific toxicity of bilirubin following hyperbilirubinemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases. (nih.gov)
  • In this critical review, we describe studies on the inhibition of 2OG oxygenases, focusing on small molecules, and discuss the potential of 2OG oxygenases as therapeutic targets (295 references). (nih.gov)
  • This article reviews the emerging in vivo and in vitro data showing that transport and metabolic detoxification mechanisms at the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers may modulate bilirubin flux across both cellular interfaces, and that these protective functions can be affected in chronic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Key secondary-structure elements important for catalysis, such as the βαβ fold, β-sheet wall and α12 helix, are conserved across this expanded class of oxygenases. (northwestern.edu)
  • 4-6 Increased NADPH oxidase activation is associated with conditions such as endothelial dysfunction, intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension 7 and has been linked to impairment of endothelial NO function in patients with coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • values were obtained for both the NADH- and NADPH-dependent haem oxygenase reactions. (meta.org)
  • Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A, E, and S Induces Transgenerational Effects on Female Reproductive Functions in Mice. (harvard.edu)
  • There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation. (curehunter.com)
  • The enzyme can catalyze oxidation of NADH in the presence of free flavin, indicating that it can function as a flavin reductase in luminous bacteria. (asm.org)
  • 2-Oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases are ubiquitous iron enzymes that couple substrate oxidation to the conversion of 2OG to succinate and carbon dioxide. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. (meta.org)
  • They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN. (harvard.edu)
  • Nitric oxide is crucial for maintaining normal vascular function, and inactivation of NO by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in several cardiovascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • Commercial applications of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors began with plant growth retardants, and now extend to a clinically used pharmaceutical compound for cardioprotection. (nih.gov)
  • Although GR activation may contribute to POR mRNA induction, regulation of POR expression and function by DEX is primarily PXR-mediated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Several 2OG oxygenases are now being targeted for therapeutic intervention for diseases including anaemia, inflammation and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The first step in the metabolic pathway is the formation of epoxybutene, catalysed by mixed function oxygenases. (europa.eu)
  • abstract = "The abundant production of testicular estrogens and the presence of both ESR1 and ESR2 within boar testes are consistent with a role for estrogen in testicular development and/or function in this species. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, our recent focus is adrenal glucocorticoids as regulators of the expression and function of AHR as well as AHR response pathway components like ARNT and POR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Measurement of enzyme activity in vitro revealed significantly reduced enzymatic function of FA2H associated with these mutations. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The other mammalian homologs have remarkably diverse substrate specificities and biological functions. (nih.gov)
  • This work suggests that the hepatic expression and function of ARNT and POR may be modulated by exposure to exogenous PXR activators and/or conditions that alter glucocorticoid levels such as stress, steroidal therapies, and diseases of excess or deficiency. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although there is strong observational data connecting vitamin D deficiency with incident diabetes, trials of supplementation have yielded mixed results. (acc.org)
  • We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as "Project MIX. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)