Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Mitral Valve Annuloplasty
Heart Valve Diseases
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty
Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency
Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
Heart Defects, Congenital
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Severity of Illness Index
Ventricular Function, Left
Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
Endocardial Cushion Defects
Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Heart Septal Defects, Atrial
Heart Septal Defects
Tricuspid Valve Prolapse
Coronary Artery Bypass
Blood Flow Velocity
Predictive Value of Tests
Chordal force distribution determines systolic mitral leaflet configuration and severity of functional mitral regurgitation. (1/2148)OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the chordae tendineae force distribution on systolic mitral leaflet geometry and mitral valve competence in vitro. BACKGROUND: Functional mitral regurgitation is caused by changes in several elements of the valve apparatus. Interaction among these have to comply with the chordal force distribution defined by the chordal coapting forces (F(c)) created by the transmitral pressure difference, which close the leaflets and the chordal tethering forces (FT) pulling the leaflets apart. METHODS: Porcine mitral valves (n = 5) were mounted in a left ventricular model where leading edge chordal forces measured by dedicated miniature force transducers were controlled by changing left ventricular pressure and papillary muscle position. Chordae geometry and occlusional leaflet area (OLA) needed to cover the leaflet orifice for a given leaflet configuration were determined by two-dimensional echo and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Occlusional leaflet area was used as expression for incomplete leaflet coaptation. Regurgitant fraction (RF) was measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter. RESULTS: Mixed procedure statistics revealed a linear correlation between the sum of the chordal net forces, sigma[Fc - FT]S, and OLA with regression coefficient (minimum - maximum) beta = -115 to -65 [mm2/N]; p < 0.001 and RF (beta = -0.06 to -0.01 [%/N]; p < 0.001). Increasing FT by papillary muscle malalignment restricted leaflet mobility, resulting in a tented leaflet configuration due to an apical and posterior shift of the coaptation line. Anterior leaflet coapting forces increased due to mitral leaflet remodeling, which generated a nonuniform regurgitant orifice area. CONCLUSIONS: Altered chordal force distribution caused functional mitral regurgitation based on tented leaflet configuration as observed clinically. (+info)
Changes in porcine transmitral flow velocity pattern and its diastolic determinants during partial coronary occlusion. (2/2148)OBJECTIVES: To define the mechanical determinants of transmitral flow and the effect of heart rate during regional ischemia. BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia changes the transmitral flow velocity pattern due to disease-induced changes in the heart's diastolic properties. METHODS: Regional ischemia was produced in 12 pigs by partially occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery until segment-length shortening in the ischemic region fell by 20%. Transmitral flow velocity patterns and their determinants were measured under two conditions, baseline and ischemia, at two heart rates, 70 and 90 beats/min. RESULTS: Regional ischemia had a significant effect on two determinants of filling: relaxation, which was slower, and chamber stiffness, which increased. These changes were associated with reduced contractility and increased myocardial stiffness, resulting in an early transmitral flow pattern that was flatter and narrower, but no change in the late flow pattern. Moderate increases in heart rate accelerated relaxation and decreased atrioventricular pressure gradient but had no effect on contractility or myocardial or chamber stiffness, resulting in an early transmitral flow pattern that was flatter and narrower and an increased late flow velocity. CONCLUSIONS: This model of regional ischemia leads to a flatter and narrower early transmitral flow velocity pattern and no change in late flow due to a combination of slowed left ventricular relaxation and increased chamber stiffness. Reflex increases in heart rate that accompany ischemia tend to mask this effect. (+info)
Effects of permanent dual-chamber pacing on mitral regurgitation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. (3/2148)AIMS: To assess the effects of chronic dual-chamber pacing on mitral regurgitation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation. treated with DDD pacing for 16 +/- 14 months, were included in the study. Mitral regurgitation was assessed by Doppler-echocardiography using semi-quantitative analysis (grades I-IV) and by measuring the maximum regurgitant jet area/left atrial area ratio. At the end of follow-up, DDD pacing reduced the outflow gradient from 93 +/- 37 mmHg to 31 +/- 30 mmHg (P<0.0001). Nine of the 14 patients who initially had > or =grade II mitral regurgitation improved by at least one grade, two of them exhibiting dramatic improvement (from grade IV and III to grade I). The regurgitant jet area/left atrial area ratio was reduced with DDD pacing from 20 +/- 13% to 11 +/- 6% (P<0.0001). Patients who had significant mitral regurgitation despite pacing were those whose outflow gradient remained high or those with mitral valve organic abnormalities (mitral annulus calcification or mitral valve prolapse). In the absence of organic abnormalities other than leaflet elongation, there was a significant correlation between the gradient value achieved with DDD pacing and the extent of mitral regurgitation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In the absence of organic mitral valve abnormalities, DDD pacing reduces in parallel mitral regurgitation and left ventricular outflow gradient. In such patients therefore, significant mitral regurgitation is not a contraindication to pacing. (+info)
Perivalvular abscesses associated with endocarditis; clinical features and prognostic factors of overall survival in a series of 233 cases. Perivalvular Abscesses French Multicentre Study. (4/2148)AIMS: The purposes of this study were to determine the clinical features and to identify prognostic factors of abscesses associated with infective endocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: During a 5-year period from January 1989, 233 patients with perivalvular abscesses associated with infective endocarditis were enrolled in a retrospective multicentre study. Of the patients, 213 received medical surgical therapy and 20 medical therapy alone. No causative microorganism could be identified in 31% of cases. Sensitivity for the detection of abscesses was 36 and 80%, respectively using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography. Surgical treatment consisted of primary suture of the abscess (38%), insertion of a felt aortic or mitral ring using Teflon or pericardium (42%), or debridment of the abscess cavity (20%). The 1 month operative mortality was 16%. Actuarial rates for overall survival at 3 and 27 months in operated patients were 75 +/- 10% and 59 +/- 11%, respectively. Increasing patient age, staphylococcal infection, and fistulization of the abscess were found to be independent risk factors in both 1 month and overall operative mortality. Renal failure was a risk factor predictive of operative mortality at 1 month, whereas uncontrolled infection and circumferential abscess were regarded as risk factors predictive of overall operative mortality. CONCLUSION: The data determined prognostic factors of abscesses associated with infective endocarditis. (+info)
Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation. (5/2148)Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed. (+info)
Echocardiographic diagnosis of large fungal verruca attached to mitral valve. (6/2148)In a patient with endocarditis due to Candida tropicalis echocardiograms from mitral valve vegetations were found to mimic the typical pattern of a left atrial myxoma. A mass was shown occupying the mitral orifice posterior to the anterior mitral leaflet; densities also appeared in the left atrium. Though these echocardiographic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of a left atrial myxoma, there were other distinctive differential diagnostic features. Other diagnostic possibilities must, therefore, be considered in the interpretation of echocardiograms which suggest left atrial tumour. (+info)
Long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty with the Inoue balloon. (7/2148)BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the long-term clinical outcome and valvular changes (area and regurgitation) after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV). METHODS AND RESULTS: After PMV, 561 patients were followed up for 39 (+/-23) months and clinical/echocardiographic data obtained yearly. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to estimate event-free survival, its predictors, and the relative risks of several patient subgroups. There were several nonexclusive events: 19 (3.3%) cardiac deaths, 55 (9.8%) mitral replacements, 6 (1%) repeated PMVs, 56 (10%) cases of restenosis, and 108 (19%) cases of clinical impairment. Survival free of major events (cardiac death, mitral surgery, repeat PMV, or functional impairment) was 69% at 7 years, ranging from 88% to 40% in different subgroups of patients. Wilkins score was the best preprocedural predictor of mitral opening, but the procedural result (mitral area and regurgitation) was the only independent predictor of major event-free survival. Mitral area loss, though mild [0.13 (+/-0.21)cm2], increased with time and was >/=0.3 cm2 in 12%, 22%, and 27% of patients at 3, 5, and 7 years, respectively. Regurgitation did not progress in 81% of patients, and when it occurred it was usually by 1 grade. CONCLUSIONS: Seven years after PMV, more than two thirds of patients were in good clinical condition and free of any major event. The procedural result was the main determinant of long-term outcome, although a high score had also negative implications. Mitral area decreased progressively over time, whereas regurgitation did not tend to progress. (+info)
Mobile echoes on prosthetic valves are not reproducible. Results and clinical implications of a multicentre study. (8/2148)AIMS: To test the hypothesis that inter-observer variability accounts for the wide variation in reported prevalences of fibrin strands on prosthetic heart valves and to develop criteria for their identification and reporting. METHODS AND RESULTS: A videotape with 30 sequences of prosthetic heart valves imaged by transoesophageal echocardiography and showing abnormalities such as strands, microbubbles, and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, was assessed in 13 European and three American centres. There were three duplicated examples, unbeknown to the observers. Definitions and reported prevalence rates of the abnormalities were analysed, and inter- and intra-observer agreement estimated with the kappa statistic. Mobile echoes were identified in 40 to 80% of the sequences on the tape. The reported prevalence of mobile echoes correlated with the time spent reporting the tape. There was moderate inter-observer agreement for the identification of any mobile echoes (kappa = 0.38), but no agreement for their labelling (kappa = 0.22), in spite of similar definitions. Intra-observer reproducibility was good (agreement in 76% of the reduplicated sequences). CONCLUSIONS: The true prevalence and potential significance of mobile echoes on prosthetic heart valves cannot be assessed unless inter-observer consensus on echocardiographic criteria for identifying such echoes is reached. (+info)
There are several types of MVP, including:
1. Primary MVP: This is the most common type of MVP and occurs when the mitral valve leaflets are too long and prolapse into the left atrium.
2. Secondary MVP: This type of MVP occurs when another condition, such as a heart murmur or an enlarged heart, causes the mitral valve to prolapse.
3. Functional MVP: This type of MVP is caused by abnormal functioning of the mitral valve rather than any physical defect.
4. Rheumatic MVP: This type of MVP is caused by inflammation of the mitral valve due to rheumatic fever.
The symptoms of MVP can vary in severity and may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Palpitations or fluttering in the chest
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Coughing up pink, foamy fluid (in severe cases)
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. MVP can be diagnosed with an echocardiogram, which uses sound waves to create images of the heart. Treatment options for MVP include medications to control symptoms, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and a healthy diet, and in severe cases, surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.
In conclusion, mitral valve prolapse is a relatively common condition that can cause a range of symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms so that proper diagnosis and treatment can be provided. With appropriate treatment, most people with MVP can lead normal, active lives.
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, and it is responsible for regulating blood flow between these two chambers. When the mitral valve does not close properly, blood can leak back into the left atrium, causing a range of symptoms and complications.
There are several causes of mitral valve insufficiency, including:
* Degenerative changes: The mitral valve can wear out over time due to degenerative changes, such as calcium buildup or tearing of the valve flaps.
* Heart muscle disease: Diseases such as cardiomyopathy can cause the heart muscle to weaken and stretch, leading to mitral valve insufficiency.
* Endocarditis: Infections of the inner lining of the heart can damage the mitral valve and lead to insufficiency.
* Heart defects: Congenital heart defects, such as a bicuspid valve or a narrow valve opening, can lead to mitral valve insufficiency.
Treatment for mitral valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the condition and may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the damaged valve. In some cases, catheter-based procedures may be used to repair the valve without open-heart surgery.
Overall, mitral valve insufficiency is a common condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Mitral valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Calcification of the mitral valve due to aging or rheumatic fever
* Scarring of the mitral valve due to heart disease or injury
* Birth defects that affect the development of the mitral valve
* Rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause inflammation and scarring of the mitral valve
Symptoms of mitral valve stenosis may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
If you suspect you or someone else may have mitral valve stenosis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the condition. Treatment for mitral valve stenosis may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve. With timely and appropriate treatment, many people with mitral valve stenosis can lead active and fulfilling lives.
There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:
1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.
Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.
Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.
In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.
While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.
There are several causes of aortic valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart)
4. Aging and wear and tear on the valve
5. Trauma to the chest
6. Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency can include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), and chest X-ray.
Treatment options for aortic valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
2. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise
3. Repair or replacement of the aortic valve through surgery. This may involve replacing the valve with an artificial one, or repairing the existing valve through a procedure called valvuloplasty.
4. In some cases, catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement may be used.
It is important to note that aortic valve insufficiency can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocarditis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Treatment for rheumatic heart disease typically involves antibiotics to prevent further damage and medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, swelling, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged valves.
Prevention of rheumatic heart disease involves early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic fever, as well as maintaining good cardiovascular health through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking.
Some common symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Irregular heartbeat
Some common risk factors for developing rheumatic heart disease include:
* Previous exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause rheumatic fever
* Family history of rheumatic heart disease
* Poor living conditions or overcrowding, which can increase the risk of exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria
* Malnutrition or a diet low in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and iron.
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
There are several causes of tricuspid valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects: Tricuspid valve insufficiency can be present at birth due to abnormal development of the tricuspid valve.
2. Rheumatic fever: This is an inflammatory condition that can damage the tricuspid valve and lead to insufficiency.
3. Endocarditis: Bacterial infection of the inner lining of the heart, including the tricuspid valve, can cause damage and lead to insufficiency.
4. Heart failure: As the heart fails, the tricuspid valve may become less effective, leading to insufficiency.
5. Cardiac tumors: Tumors in the heart can put pressure on the tricuspid valve and cause insufficiency.
6. Congenital heart disease: Tricuspid valve insufficiency can be present at birth due to abnormal development of the tricuspid valve.
7. Chronic pulmonary disease: This can lead to increased pressure in the right side of the heart, causing tricuspid valve insufficiency.
Symptoms of tricuspid valve insufficiency may include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through echocardiography, electrocardiography, and cardiac catheterization.
Treatment options for tricuspid valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta blockers may be used to manage symptoms and slow progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In severe cases, surgical repair or replacement of the tricuspid valve may be necessary.
3. Transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a new tricuspid valve is inserted through a catheter in the femoral vein and placed in the heart.
4. Watchful waiting: In mild cases, doctors may choose to monitor the condition closely without immediate treatment.
Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.
Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.
Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.
There are several types of prolapse, including:
1. Pelvic organ prolapse: This occurs when the muscles and tissues in the pelvis weaken, causing an organ to slip out of place. It can affect the uterus, bladder, or rectum.
2. Hemorrhoidal prolapse: This occurs when the veins in the rectum become swollen and protrude outside the anus.
3. Small intestine prolapse: This occurs when a portion of the small intestine slides into another part of the digestive tract.
4. Uterine prolapse: This occurs when the uterus slips out of place, often due to childbirth or menopause.
5. Cervical prolapse: This occurs when the cervix slips down into the vagina.
Symptoms of prolapse can include:
* A bulge or lump in the vaginal area
* Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area
* Difficulty controlling bowel movements or urine leakage
* Difficulty having sex due to pain or discomfort
* Feeling of fullness or heaviness in the pelvic area
Treatment for prolapse depends on the type and severity of the condition, and can include:
1. Kegel exercises: These exercises can help strengthen the muscles in the pelvic floor.
2. Pelvic floor physical therapy: This can help improve bladder and bowel control, as well as reduce pain.
3. Medications: These can include hormones to support bone density, as well as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissue.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as losing weight, quitting smoking, and avoiding heavy lifting can help manage symptoms of prolapse.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of prolapse, as early treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Myxomas are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms until they reach a significant size. They can be painful and tender to the touch, and may be associated with swelling and redness in the affected area.
There are several types of myxoma, including:
1. Cutaneous myxoma: This type of myxoma occurs in the skin and is usually seen on the arms, legs, or trunk. It is a small, firm nodule that may be painful to the touch.
2. Subcutaneous myxoma: This type of myxoma occurs just beneath the skin and can cause swelling and bruising in the affected area.
3. Soft tissue myxoma: This type of myxoma occurs in the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is usually painless and may not cause any symptoms until it reaches a significant size.
4. Intestinal myxoma: This type of myxoma occurs in the intestines and is rare. It can cause abdominal pain, bleeding, and other gastrointestinal symptoms.
Myxomas are usually diagnosed by a biopsy, which involves taking a sample of the tumor tissue and examining it under a microscope. Treatment for myxoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, and in some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended to prevent recurrence.
In summary, myxoma is a rare benign tumor that can occur anywhere in the body where there is connective tissue. It is usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms until it reaches a significant size. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor and, in some cases, radiation therapy to prevent recurrence.
Symptoms of Heart Rupture may include:
* Sudden severe chest pain
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up bloody fluid
* Pale skin
* Rapid heart rate
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
Diagnosis of Heart Rupture is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and echocardiograms.
Treatment for Heart Rupture usually involves emergency medical interventions to stabilize the patient's condition and address any life-threatening complications. This may include medications to manage pain, blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms, as well as surgical interventions to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary.
Prognosis for Heart Rupture depends on various factors such as the location and extent of the rupture, the promptness and effectiveness of treatment, and the overall health of the patient. However, the condition can be fatal if left untreated or if there are severe complications. Therefore, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention if symptoms suggestive of Heart Rupture are present.
Heart neoplasms, also known as cardiac tumors, are abnormal growths that occur within the heart muscle or on the surface of the heart. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant heart tumors are rare but can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening.
Types of Heart Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: These include fibromas, lipomas, and teratomas, which are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: These include sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas, which can be more aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of heart neoplasms is not fully understood, but several factors have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:
1. Genetic mutations: Some heart neoplasms may be caused by inherited genetic mutations.
2. Viral infections: Some viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), have been linked to an increased risk of developing heart tumors.
3. Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to the chest area can increase the risk of developing heart tumors.
4. Previous heart surgery: People who have had previous heart surgery may be at higher risk of developing heart neoplasms.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of heart neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. They may include:
1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and cardiac imaging studies. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment and Prognosis:
The treatment of heart neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
1. Watchful waiting: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary for larger or more aggressive tumors.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to treat any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
4. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to treat heart neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or that have returned after previous treatment.
The prognosis for heart neoplasms varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some heart neoplasms can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment.
Heart neoplasms can cause a variety of complications, including:
1. Heart failure: Tumors that obstruct the heart's pumping activity can lead to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: Tumors can disrupt the heart's electrical activity and cause arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms).
3. Thrombus formation: Tumors can increase the risk of blood clots forming within the heart.
4. Septicemia: Bacterial infections can occur within the tumor, leading to septicemia (blood poisoning).
5. Respiratory failure: Large tumors can compress the lungs and lead to respiratory failure.
Heart neoplasms are rare but potentially life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. While some heart neoplasms are benign, others can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:
1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.
Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.
There are two main types of heart murmurs:
1. Innocent murmurs: These are benign murmurs that are not caused by any underlying heart condition. They are often heard in healthy children and may disappear as the child grows.
2. Abnormal murmurs: These are murmurs that are caused by an underlying heart condition, such as a congenital heart defect or heart valve disease. These murmurs can be a sign of a serious heart problem and may require further evaluation and treatment.
Heart murmurs can be diagnosed by a pediatrician or cardiologist using a stethoscope to listen to the heart sounds. Additional tests, such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram (ECG), may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis and determine the cause of the murmur.
Treatment for heart murmurs depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be needed, while in other cases, medication or surgery may be required. It is important for individuals with heart murmurs to receive regular follow-up care from a pediatrician or cardiologist to monitor the condition and address any complications that may arise.
In summary, heart murmurs are abnormal sounds heard during a heartbeat that can be a sign of an underlying heart condition. They can be diagnosed by a pediatrician or cardiologist using a stethoscope and additional tests, and treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor the condition and address any complications that may arise.
It is important to identify and address prosthesis failure early to prevent further complications and restore the functionality of the device. This may involve repairing or replacing the device, modifying the design, or changing the materials used in its construction. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to correct issues related to the implantation of the prosthetic device.
Prosthesis failure can occur in various types of prosthetic devices, including joint replacements, dental implants, and orthotic devices. The causes of prosthesis failure can range from manufacturing defects to user error or improper maintenance. It is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to prosthesis failure to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.
In conclusion, prosthesis failure is a common issue that can significantly impact the quality of life of individuals who rely on prosthetic devices. Early identification and addressing of prosthesis failure are crucial to prevent further complications and restore functionality. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of prosthesis failure is necessary to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
There are several causes of PVS, including:
1. Congenital heart defects: PVS can be present at birth due to abnormal development of the pulmonary valve or other structures near the valve.
2. Rheumatic fever: This is an inflammatory disease that can damage the heart valves, including the pulmonary valve.
3. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause scarring and narrowing of the pulmonary valve.
4. Heart disease: PVS can be a complication of other heart conditions, such as hypertension or coronary artery disease.
5. Calcification: Over time, deposits of calcium can accumulate on the valve leaflets, causing them to become stiff and narrow.
Symptoms of PVS may include:
1. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
2. Fatigue or weakness
3. Chest pain (angina)
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet (edema)
5. Palpitations or irregular heartbeat
If PVS is suspected, a healthcare provider may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
1. Echocardiogram: This is an ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create images of the heart and its valves.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A thin tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels in the chambers.
3. Chest X-ray: This test can help identify any enlargement of the heart or lungs that may be indicative of PVS.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and can help identify irregular heart rhythms or other signs of PVS.
Treatment for PVS may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms, such as diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body, and ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to lower blood pressure.
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques.
3. Valve repair or replacement surgery: In severe cases of PVS, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected valve.
If you suspect you may have PVS, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With prompt and proper treatment, many people with PVS are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
The symptoms of VOO may include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and chest pain. If left untreated, VOO can lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and even death.
Diagnosis of VOO is typically made through a combination of physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for VOO depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical procedures such as coronary angioplasty or heart transplantation.
In summary, ventricular outflow obstruction is a serious medical condition that can lead to severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with VOO.
There are several risk factors for developing AF, including:
1. Age: The risk of developing AF increases with age, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.
2. Hypertension (high blood pressure): High blood pressure can damage the heart and increase the risk of developing AF.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk of developing AF.
4. Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing AF.
5. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can increase the risk of developing AF.
6. Certain medications: Certain medications, such as thyroid medications and asthma medications, can increase the risk of developing AF.
7. Alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of developing AF.
8. Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
9. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
Symptoms of AF can include:
1. Palpitations (rapid or irregular heartbeat)
2. Shortness of breath
4. Dizziness or lightheadedness
5. Chest pain or discomfort
AF can be diagnosed with the help of several tests, including:
1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.
2. Holter monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a 24-hour period.
3. Event monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a longer period of time, usually 1-2 weeks.
4. Echocardiogram: This is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart.
5. Cardiac MRI: This is an imaging test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the heart.
Treatment for AF depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, such as:
1. Beta blockers: These medications slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
2. Antiarrhythmics: These medications help regulate the heart's rhythm.
3. Blood thinners: These medications prevent blood clots from forming and can help reduce the risk of stroke.
4. Calcium channel blockers: These medications slow the entry of calcium into the heart muscle cells, which can help slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
In some cases, catheter ablation may be recommended to destroy the abnormal electrical pathway causing AF. This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter through a vein in the leg and guiding it to the heart using x-ray imaging. Once the catheter is in place, energy is applied to the abnormal electrical pathway to destroy it and restore a normal heart rhythm.
It's important to note that AF can increase the risk of stroke, so anticoagulation therapy may be recommended to reduce this risk. This can include medications such as warfarin or aspirin, or in some cases, implantable devices such as a left atrial appendage closure device.
In conclusion, atrial fibrillation is a common heart rhythm disorder that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or anticoagulation therapy. It's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for AF.
The symptoms of Marfan syndrome can vary widely among individuals with the condition, but typically include:
1. Tall stature (often over 6 feet 5 inches)
2. Long limbs and fingers
3. Curvature of the spine (scoliosis)
4. Flexible joints
5. Eye problems, such as nearsightedness, glaucoma, and detached retinas
6. Heart problems, such as mitral valve prolapse and aortic dilatation
7. Blood vessel problems, such as aneurysms and dissections
8. Lung problems, such as pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
9. Other skeletal problems, such as pectus excavatum (a depression in the chest wall) and clubfoot
Marfan syndrome is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, and genetic testing. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing its various symptoms and complications, such as with medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications. Individuals with Marfan syndrome may also need to avoid activities that could exacerbate their condition, such as contact sports or heavy lifting.
While there is currently no cure for Marfan syndrome, early diagnosis and appropriate management can help individuals with the condition live long and relatively healthy lives. With proper care and attention, many people with Marfan syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
The exact cause of HCM is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some people with HCM have a family history of the condition, and it is also more common in certain populations such as athletes and individuals with a history of hypertension or diabetes.
Symptoms of HCM can vary from person to person and may include shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and chest pain. In some cases, HCM may not cause any symptoms at all and may be detected only through a physical examination or diagnostic tests such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram (ECG).
Treatment for HCM typically focuses on managing symptoms and reducing the risk of complications. This may include medications to reduce blood pressure, control arrhythmias, or improve heart function, as well as lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and a healthy diet. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat HCM.
Prognosis for individuals with HCM varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any complications. With appropriate treatment and management, many people with HCM can lead active and fulfilling lives, but it is important to receive regular monitoring and care from a healthcare provider to manage the condition effectively.
There are several types of heart injuries that can occur, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle.
2. Cardiac tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
3. Myocarditis: This is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can be caused by a virus or bacteria.
4. Pericardial tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
5. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
6. Coronary artery disease: This occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to damage to the heart muscle.
7. Cardiac rupture: This is a rare and severe injury that occurs when the heart muscle tears or ruptures.
Symptoms of heart injuries can include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heartbeat. Treatment options for heart injuries depend on the severity of the injury and can range from medications to surgery. In some cases, heart injuries may be fatal if not properly treated.
In conclusion, heart injuries are a serious medical condition that can have long-term consequences if not properly treated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a heart injury are present.
Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, surgery, cancer, and certain medical conditions like atrial fibrillation. It can also be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.
The symptoms of thromboembolism depend on the location of the clot and the severity of the blockage. They may include:
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
* Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
Thromboembolism can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, thrombolysis or clot-busting drugs may be used to dissolve the clot. Filters can also be placed in the vena cava to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of thromboembolism includes:
* Moving around regularly to improve blood flow
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Compression stockings to improve blood flow
* Avoiding smoking and managing weight
* Taking anticoagulant medications if recommended by a healthcare provider.
Endocardial cushion defects can be classified into several types based on their location and severity. Some common types of endocardial cushion defects include:
1. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria.
2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, known as the ventricles.
3. Endocardial cushion defect (ECD): A defect that affects the endocardial cushions in one or more of the heart's chambers.
4. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV): A condition where two major blood vessels arise from the same ventricle, instead of one.
5. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects that include a VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary artery), a thickened muscle wall in the ventricles, and an enlarged aorta.
Endocardial cushion defects can cause a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth or development in children. In some cases, these defects may not cause any symptoms at all until later in life.
Diagnosis of endocardial cushion defects typically involves a combination of physical examination, echocardiography (ultrasound imaging of the heart), electrocardiography (ECG or heart rhythm testing), and other tests such as chest X-rays or cardiac catheterization.
Treatment for endocardial cushion defects depends on the severity of the defect and may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary if the defect is mild and not causing any symptoms. Surgical repair of endocardial cushion defects can involve patching or replacing the affected area with healthy tissue, and may also involve other procedures such as balloon dilation or stenting to widen narrowed blood vessels.
In some cases, endocardial cushion defects may be associated with other genetic or chromosomal disorders, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome. In these cases, treatment may also involve management of the underlying condition.
Overall, while endocardial cushion defects can be serious and require ongoing medical attention, many people with these conditions can lead active and fulfilling lives with proper treatment and monitoring.
There are many different types of heart diseases, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the legs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, which can cause palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves, which can lead to blood leaking back into the chambers or not being pumped effectively.
5. Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle, which can lead to weakened heart function and heart failure.
6. Heart murmurs: Abnormal sounds heard during a heartbeat, which can be caused by defects in the heart valves or abnormal blood flow.
7. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects present at birth, such as holes in the heart or abnormal blood vessels.
8. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of oxygen, often caused by a blockage in a coronary artery.
9. Cardiac tamponade: Fluid accumulation around the heart, which can cause compression of the heart and lead to cardiac arrest.
10. Endocarditis: Infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can cause fever, fatigue, and heart valve damage.
Heart diseases can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
There are different types of heart aneurysms, including:
1. Left ventricular aneurysm: This is the most common type and occurs in the left lower chamber of the heart (left ventricle).
2. Right ventricular aneurysm: This type occurs in the right lower chamber of the heart (right ventricle).
3. Mitral valve aneurysm: This type occurs near the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle.
4. Tricuspid valve aneurysm: This type occurs near the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and right ventricle.
Heart aneurysms can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms until they rupture, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or CT scans. Treatment options for heart aneurysms depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may involve medications to control blood pressure and prevent further enlargement of the aneurysm, or in some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected heart muscle or valve.
Prognosis for heart aneurysms varies depending on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
A sudden and unexpected tearing or breaking open of a bodily structure, such as a blood vessel, muscle, or tendon, without any obvious external cause. This can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, aging, or other underlying medical conditions.
* Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon
* Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD)
* Spontaneous pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
Symptoms and Signs:
* Sudden, severe pain
* Swelling and bruising in the affected area
* Difficulty moving or using the affected limb
* Palpitations or shortness of breath (in cardiac cases)
* Physical examination and medical history
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, to confirm the rupture and assess the extent of damage
* Blood tests to check for underlying conditions that may have contributed to the rupture
* Rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce pain and swelling
* Immobilization of the affected limb with a cast or brace
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery may be required in some cases to repair the damaged tissue or organ
* The prognosis for spontaneous rupture depends on the location and severity of the rupture, as well as the underlying cause. In general, the sooner treatment is received, the better the outcome.
* Further damage to surrounding tissues or organs
* Chronic pain or limited mobility
* In some cases, long-term disability or death
The syndrome is named after the German physician Ernst Lutembacher, who first described it in 1902, and Austrian physician Theodor Langendorff, who later confirmed the description. It is estimated to affect less than 1% of the general population and is more common in males than females.
The symptoms of Lutembacher Syndrome can vary in severity and may include:
* Chest pain (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
In severe cases, the syndrome can lead to cardiac arrest or heart failure.
The exact cause of Lutembacher Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormal development of the coronary sinus during fetal life. It may also be associated with other cardiovascular conditions, such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or hypertension (high blood pressure).
Diagnosis of Lutembacher Syndrome typically involves a combination of physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and coronary angiography. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, such as beta blockers or calcium channel blockers, or surgical procedures, such as coronary artery bypass grafting or endovascular stenting, to improve blood flow to the heart muscle. In severe cases, implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be necessary to prevent sudden cardiac death.
Overall, Lutembacher Syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires careful monitoring and management by a healthcare provider experienced in treating cardiovascular disease.
The exact cause of endocardial fibroelastosis is not known, but it is believed to be due to genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development. The condition may be associated with other congenital heart defects, such as ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect.
Symptoms of endocardial fibroelastosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:
* Difficulty breathing
* Shortness of breath during exercise
* Swelling in the legs and feet
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Poor feeding or growth in infants
If endocardial fibroelastosis is suspected, a doctor may perform various diagnostic tests, such as:
* Echocardiogram (echo): This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can help identify thickening or scarring of the endocardium.
* Cardiac catheterization: This test involves inserting a thin tube into the heart through a blood vessel to measure pressure and oxygen levels within the heart.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart.
Treatment for endocardial fibroelastosis may include:
* Medications: To manage symptoms such as high blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms.
* Catheter ablation: A procedure that uses heat or cold to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart.
* Surgery: To repair or replace damaged heart valves or to correct other congenital heart defects.
The prognosis for endocardial fibroelastosis is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or sepsis. Regular follow-up with a cardiologist is important to monitor the condition and adjust treatment as needed. With appropriate treatment, many people with endocardial fibroelastosis can lead active, fulfilling lives.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and mitral valve defects. Ventricular septal defects are the most common type and occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles.
Symptoms of heart septal defects can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the defect may not cause any symptoms at all until later in life.
Diagnosis of heart septal defects is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication to manage symptoms, surgery to repair the defect, or catheter procedures to close the opening. In some cases, heart septal defects may be treated with a procedure called balloon atrial septostomy, in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the abnormal opening and inflated to close it.
Prognosis for patients with heart septal defects depends on the severity of the defect and the presence of any other congenital heart defects. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocardrial infection.
In summary, heart septal defects, ventricular type, are congenital heart defects that occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication, surgery, or catheter procedures. Prognosis is generally good for patients with heart septal defects if they receive early diagnosis and treatment.
Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with a fibroma in her uterus and underwent surgery to have it removed."
There are several potential causes of LVD, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack, which can damage the left ventricle and impair its ability to function properly.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, it can lead to LVD.
3. Cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened or enlarged, leading to impaired function of the left ventricle.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves can disrupt the normal flow of blood and cause LVD.
5. Hypertension: High blood pressure can cause damage to the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
6. Genetic factors: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing LVD.
7. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as myocarditis, can inflame and damage the heart muscle, leading to LVD.
8. Alcohol or drug abuse: Substance abuse can damage the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
9. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking essential nutrients can lead to damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of LVD.
Diagnosis of LVD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and stress tests. Treatment options for LVD depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve cardiac function, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, surgery or other procedures.
Preventing LVD involves taking steps to maintain a healthy heart and reducing risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, and obesity. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, stress management, and avoiding substance abuse. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions that increase the risk of LVD can also help prevent the condition from developing.
There are several types of embolism, including:
1. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot that forms in the lungs and blocks the flow of blood to the heart.
2. Cerebral embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the brain.
3. Coronary embolism: A blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle, causing a heart attack.
4. Intestinal embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the intestines.
5. Fat embolism: A condition where fat enters the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel, blocking the flow of blood.
The symptoms of embolism can vary depending on the location of the blockage, but may include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Chest pain or pressure
* Lightheadedness or fainting
* Rapid heart rate or palpitations
Treatment for embolism depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the blockage. In some cases, medication may be used to dissolve blood clots or break up the blockage. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the foreign substance or repair the affected blood vessel.
Prevention is key in avoiding embolism, and this can include:
* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Taking blood-thinning medication to prevent blood clots from forming
* Maintaining a healthy weight and diet to reduce the risk of fat embolism.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including:
1. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
3. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery that should close shortly after birth but fails to do so.
4. Atresia: The absence of an opening between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart, which can lead to a lack of oxygenation of the body.
Heart septal defects can be caused by genetic factors or environmental factors such as maternal viral infections during pregnancy. They are often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and treatment options may include medication, surgery, or catheter-based procedures to close the abnormal opening or hole.
Untreated heart septal defects can lead to complications such as heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and lung damage. However, with timely and appropriate treatment, many individuals with heart septal defects can lead normal, active lives with minimal long-term effects.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
The term "prolapse" refers to the abnormal descent of an organ or structure from its normal position. In this case, the tricuspid valve is unable to close completely due to a defect in the valve tissue or supporting structures, leading to regurgitation (leakage) of blood through the valve.
Tricuspid valve prolapse can be caused by a variety of factors, including congenital heart defects, connective tissue disorders, and age-related wear and tear on the valve. Diagnosis typically involves echocardiography or other imaging tests to assess the function and structure of the tricuspid valve. Treatment options may include medication to manage symptoms, lifestyle modifications, or surgical intervention in severe cases.
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.
Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
There are several types of prosthesis-related infections, including:
1. Bacterial infections: These are the most common type of prosthesis-related infection and can occur around any type of implanted device. They are caused by bacteria that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
2. Fungal infections: These types of infections are less common and typically occur in individuals who have a weakened immune system or who have been taking antibiotics for another infection.
3. Viral infections: These infections can occur around implanted devices, such as pacemakers, and are caused by viruses that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
4. Parasitic infections: These types of infections are rare and occur when parasites, such as tapeworms, infect the implanted device or the surrounding tissue.
Prosthesis-related infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and fever. In severe cases, these infections can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream.
Prosthesis-related infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the type of microorganism causing the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to eliminate the infection, and may also involve surgical removal of the infected implant.
Prevention is key in avoiding prosthesis-related infections. This includes proper wound care after surgery, keeping the surgical site clean and dry, and taking antibiotics as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent infection. Additionally, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for caring for your prosthesis, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting the device and avoiding certain activities that may put excessive stress on the implant.
Overall, while prosthesis-related infections can be serious, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to effectively manage these complications and prevent long-term damage or loss of function. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to monitor for signs of infection and take steps to prevent and manage any potential complications associated with your prosthesis.
Mitral valve annuloplasty
Mitral valve replacement
Mitral valve repair
Mitral valve prolapse
Alden S. Gooch
King Charles Spaniel
Gerald M. Lawrie
Cardiovascular disease in women
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery
Artificial heart valve
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Nina Starr Braunwald
Ariel David Soffer
List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system
List of cardiology mnemonics
List of circulatory system conditions
Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect
Dahlberg Borer Newcomer syndrome
List of University of Sydney people
Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci
Peter Allen (physician)
Alpha Omega Alpha
Charles P. Bailey (surgeon)
Pericardial heart valves
Management of atrial fibrillation
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
Mitral Valve Prolapse | MVP | MedlinePlus
Mitral valve prolapse: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Mitral Valve Repair | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Analyze This Image: Remote History of Mitral Valve Replacement
Mechanical Haemolytic Anaemia after Mitral-valve Replacement | The BMJ
Research in the Treatment of Mitral Valve Prolapse | NHLBI, NIH
Mitral Valve Repair Surgery | Cigna
Mitral valve repair | Philips
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Left Ventricular Myomectomy and Mitral Valve...
Top 5 Things You Should Know (But Don't) about Mitral Valve Prol | HowStuffWorks
Accurate assessment of the true mitral valve area in rheumatic mitral stenosis | Heart
Comparison of effects of manual versus ventilator hyperinflation on respiratory compliance and arterial blood gases in patients...
A rare cause of myocardial infarction: coronary embolism in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis
What happens when the Mitral Valve isn't working correctly? - Northeast Georgia Health System
Alberta Medical Association: Fee Navigator™ | Health Service Code 47.23B: Mitral valve replacement through mini thoracotomy
2013 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 396.1 : Mitral valve stenosis and aortic valve insufficiency
My Action Plan For Stopping the Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome Dysautonomia von Joan Anderson - eBook | Thalia
Can mitral valve prolapse cause sudden death? - Idsemergencymanagement.com
WHO EMRO | A rare cause of myocardial infarction: coronary embolism in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis |...
Reverse Myocardial Remodeling Following Valve Repair in Patients With Chronic Severe Primary Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation ...
Predicting LVOT obstruction in transcatheter mitral valve implantation: concept of the neo-LVOT<...
Bronchomalacia in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration.
News for Medical Independent Sales Representatives and Medical Distributors: Abbott's MitraClip Approved as First Transcatheter...
Mitral Valve Stenosis | Colorado PROFILES
Effect of altered haemodynamics on the developing mitral valve in chick embryonic heart - Nottingham ePrints
Medical Arts - Mitral valve laceration
1-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Mitral Annular Calcification<...
Rational Dispersion for the Introduction of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair into Clinical Practice: Lessons Learned from TAVR...
Calling all Mitral Valve Replacement Patients: Share your tips | Page 2 | Mayo Clinic Connect
- This is called mitral regurgitation. (medlineplus.gov)
- When mitral regurgitation occurs, symptoms may be related to the leaking, particularly when severe. (medlineplus.gov)
- You may need surgery to repair or replace your mitral valve if it becomes very leaky (regurgitation), and if the leakiness also causes symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- If the valve leakage becomes severe, your outlook may be similar to that of people who have mitral regurgitation from any other cause. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mitral Regurgitation. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, up to 25% of individuals with MVP will develop significant degenerative mitral regurgitation, which can lead to heart failure. (nih.gov)
- Degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) due to MVP is a disease of the valve. (nih.gov)
- Operator experience is key, though, as an inadequate repair can lead to recurrent mitral regurgitation, heart failure, and death. (nih.gov)
- Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 58.6 ± 11.2%, mean mitral valve area was 1.9 ± 0.5 cm 2 , mean mitral gradient was 5.8 ± 2.2 mm Hg, and 75% had zero or trace mitral regurgitation. (elsevier.com)
- This is known as mitral valve insufficiency or mitral regurgitation and is often associated with a heart murmur. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- Concomitant tricuspid regurgitation severity and its secondary reduction determine long-term prognosis after transcatheter mitral valve edge-to-edge repair. (bvsalud.org)
- Concomitant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common finding in mitral regurgitation (MR). Transcatheter repair (TMVR) is a favorable treatment option in patients at elevated surgical risk . (bvsalud.org)
- There was a significant correlation between severity of mitral regurgitation and severity of mitral valve prolapse or ISACHC class, and between severity of mitral valve prolapse and ISACHC class. (unimi.it)
- There was no relationship between the particular affected leaflet(s) and severity of mitral regurgitation, severity of mitral valve prolapse, or ISACHC class. (unimi.it)
- Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is frequently found in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (mamcjms.in)
-  A large area of coaptation between anterior and posterior mitral leaflets (AML and PML) provide a significant reserve against regurgitation. (mamcjms.in)
- Catheter-based mitral valve regurgitation treatments that use a coronary sinus trajectory or coronary sinus implant can have unwanted effects because the coronary sinus and its branches have been found to cross the outer diameter of major coronary arteries in a majority of humans. (nih.gov)
- A 64 year old woman with partial atrioventricular canal and double orifice valve presented with severe mitral regurgitation secondary to a torn leaflet. (elsevierpure.com)
- Past medical details: - Diabetic and hypertensive , 2008,2013 NSTEMI PCI mid LAD - 2017: worsening of dyspnoea , Moderate mitral regurgitation with mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction. (ismics.org)
- Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve opening. (stroke.org)
- Mitral stenosis restricts blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. (stroke.org)
- What problems can result from untreated or advanced mitral valve stenosis? (stroke.org)
- Mitral stenosis causes reduced blood flow through the narrowed valve opening from the left atrium to the left ventricle. (stroke.org)
- What causes mitral valve stenosis? (stroke.org)
- Mitral stenosis can be caused by congenital heart defects, mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic fever, lupus and other conditions. (stroke.org)
- Mitral stenosis resulting from RHD is called rheumatic mitral stenosis. (stroke.org)
- Although most mitral stenosis is caused by RHD, it can also result from a calcium build up on the heart valves. (stroke.org)
- This is more common in older patients and is called calcific mitral stenosis. (stroke.org)
- The choice of procedure is based on many factors including the cause of the mitral stenosis (rheumatic or calcific), condition of the valve, risk of surgery, severity of symptoms, heart function, and availability of procedures. (stroke.org)
- For rheumatic mitral stenosis, a commissurotomy may be performed. (stroke.org)
- In more advanced rheumatic mitral valve stenosis, surgical repair or replacement of the mitral valve may be required. (stroke.org)
- Mitral Valve Stenosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Mitral Valve Stenosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Mitral Valve Stenosis" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Mitral Valve Stenosis" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
- Disha K, Dubslaff G, Rouman M, Fey B, Borger MA, Barker AJ, Kuntze T, Girdauskas E. Evidence of subannular and left ventricular morphological differences in patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve stenosis: magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis. (ucdenver.edu)
- Outcomes of reparative and transplantation strategies for multilevel left heart obstructions with mitral stenosis. (ucdenver.edu)
- Left ventricular dysfunction and mitral stenosis. (ucdenver.edu)
- Some degree of MR almost invariably coexists in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. (mamcjms.in)
- Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is a common problem in the Sudanese community, usually affecting the younger population. (who.int)
- Mitral Stenosis (MS) is usually due to strongly associated with LAA thrombus rheumatic heart disease1, 2. (who.int)
- Other causes of mitral valve insufficiency include ruptured chordae tendinae, a condition in which the fibrous cords that hold the valve position break, and heart valve infections known as endocarditis. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- Mitral valve insufficiency and disease will cause turbulent blood flow through the heart that results in a heart murmur. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
People with mitral valve pr3
Prevent mitral valve pr2
- Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome (MVPS) took medical journalist Joan Anderson on the most frightening ride of her life. (thalia.de)
- In My Personal Action Plan for Stopping the Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome-Dysautonomia, Anderson shares the methods that changed her life. (thalia.de)
- The author has what is called Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome-Dysautonomia, a problem with the autonomic nervous system. (thalia.de)
- Introduction: Arrhythmogenic bileaflet mitral valve prolapse syndrome (ABiMVPS) is a sudden death-predisposing disorder characterized clinically by bileaflet mitral valve prolapse (MVP), inferolateral T-wave inversions, and complex ventricular ectopy. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- This can be done using a balloon (percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy or PMBC) or surgery. (stroke.org)
- 3D TEE for evaluation of commissural opening before and during percutaneous mitral commissurotomy. (ucdenver.edu)
- The percutaneous mitral valve repair market is valued at $3.3 billion in the U.S. and Europe, with an annual projected growth rate of 21 percent. (gra.org)
- During this procedure the valve leaflets that have become fused together are separated. (stroke.org)
- In both cases, once the leaflets have been separated, the valve opening is increased and blood flow through the valve is improved. (stroke.org)
- Next, a small clip is used to seal the leak by bringing the two leaflets of the mitral valve together, thereby reducing the amount of blood regurgitating. (barnesjewish.org)
- Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. (ucdenver.edu)
- In addition, dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibrillin-2, type III collagen and tenascin were further demonstrated in more mature primordial mitral valve leaflets at HH35, with a concomitant decrease of ECM cross-linking enzyme, transglutaminase-2. (nottingham.ac.uk)
Dogs with mitral2
- Many dogs with mitral valve disease are asymptomatic with the only clinical sign being a heart murmur that would be heard by your veterinarian. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- Echocardiographic assessment of 537 dogs with mitral valve prolapse and leaflet involvement / E. Terzo, M. Di Marcello, H. McAllister, B. Glazier, D. Lo Coco, C. Locatelli, V. Palermo, P.G. Brambilla. (unimi.it)
- In this work we investigated which mitral valve leaflet was most often involved in mitral valve prolapse with degenerative mitral valve disease and whether there was an association with breed, age, gender, or weight. (unimi.it)
- Our findings suggest that the susceptibility to the mitral valve prolapse-degenerative mitral valve disease is not confined to a specific breeds and that the specific leaflet prolapsing is different in dogs compared with humans. (unimi.it)
- Long-term survival data of patients undergoing isolated edge-to-edge repair from June 2010 to March 2018 (combinations with other forms of TMVR or tricuspid valve therapy excluded) were analyzed in a retrospective monocentric study. (bvsalud.org)
- 18. Echocardiographic diagnosis of papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral and tricuspid valve apparatus. (nih.gov)
- What are the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse (MVP)? (nih.gov)
- The exact relationship is between these symptoms and the valve problem is not clear. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most of the time, mitral valve prolapse is harmless and does not cause symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although medications can't fix a valve defect, they can help with symptoms. (stroke.org)
- When do you have symptoms of mitral valve prolapse? (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- Although mitral valve prolapse is usually a lifelong disorder, many people with this condition never have symptoms. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- When signs and symptoms do occur, it may be because blood is leaking backward through the valve. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- The routine use of antibiotics before having a dental procedure is no longer recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with mitral valve prolapse regardless of whether or not they have any associated symptoms. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- Most patients who survive the 30-day post-procedural period are alive at 1 year and have sustained improvement of symptoms and transcatheter valve performance. (elsevier.com)
- Importance Malignant arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) phenotype poses a substantial risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and an estimated 26 000 individuals in the United States are at risk of SCD per year. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- The estimated incidence of sudden cardiac death in mitral valve prolapse is 217 events per 100 000 person‐years from previous studies. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- 2. [Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve. (nih.gov)
- 3. Cardiac Papillary Fibroelastoma Originating from the Mitral Valve Chordae. (nih.gov)
- 6. Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma of a mitral valve chordae revealed by stroke. (nih.gov)
- Uniquely, the device is securely positioned and maintained in the LV by inflating a soft positioning balloon against the mitral annulus/valve. (kappsurgical.com)
- Conclusions: TMVR with balloon-expandable aortic valves in extreme surgical risk patients with severe MAC is feasible but associated with high 30-day and 1-year mortality. (elsevier.com)
- Heart surgery to repair or replace a very abnormal mitral valve with backflow. (nih.gov)
- In mitral valve prolapse, the valve slips backward due to the abnormal size of or damage to the mitral valve tissues. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
- Conversely, how abnormal haemodynamics impacts mitral valve development is still poorly understood. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- These data provide compelling evidence that normal haemodynamics are a prerequisite for normal mitral valve morphogenesis, and abnormal blood flow could be a contributing factor in mitral valve defects, with differentiation as a possible underlying mechanism. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Basically, MVP involves an abnormal heart valve that "prolapses" or flops backward, allowing blood to leak back through the valve opening. (verywellmind.com)
- A device approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) on Oct. 25 to treat leaky mitral valves was first used in this region as part of a clinical trial at the Washington University and Barnes-Jewish Heart & Vascular Center . (barnesjewish.org)
- This new non-surgical alternative for mitral valve repair, which involves using a small clip, offers hope to the more than four million Americans with leaky mitral valves-nearly one in 10 people aged 75 and above. (barnesjewish.org)
- But this new procedure is a breakthrough because we can essentially stop the backward flow of the blood through the leaky valve and decrease the patient's risk of heart failure without any stitching involved. (barnesjewish.org)
- A leaky heart valve can be replaced surgically in people. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- Nyra Medical (formerly MitraPlug) has created a catheter-plug technology for repairing a leaky mitral valve in the heart. (gra.org)
- Recent advances in transcatheter techniques and surgery have enabled the implantation of balloon-expandable valves in the mitral position when surgical rings and valves are present. (henryford.com)
- When possible, valve repair is generally preferred over replacement. (nih.gov)
- This mostly applies to people who have had valve repair or replacement surgery. (nih.gov)
- This new less-invasive option is one more tool we have to treat patients who are not candidates for open heart surgery, and a complement to our already comprehensive treatment options for valve repair or replacement," says Dr. Lasala. (barnesjewish.org)
- Background: The risk of surgical mitral valve replacement in patients with severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) is high. (elsevier.com)
- Several patients worldwide with severe MAC have been treated successfully with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter valves. (elsevier.com)
- It provides exceptional and consistent exposure of the right and left atrium, tricuspid and mitral valve for surgical repair or replacement, while reducing the need for surgical assistance. (kappsurgical.com)
- 11. Tumor excision versus valve replacement for papillary fibroelastoma involving the mitral valve. (nih.gov)
- Mitral valve prolapse is also seen with some connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome and other rare genetic disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a virtual Workshop on Research Priorities in the Treatment of Mitral Valve Prolapse on November 30 - December 2, 2021. (nih.gov)
- The double orifice regurgitant mitral valve is an unusual finding at operation. (elsevierpure.com)
- However, altered haemodynamics have been suggested as a pathogenic contributor to bicuspid aortic valve disease. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Only a third of individuals with severe DMR receive any mitral valve intervention during their lifetime. (nih.gov)
- It went well but the leak was never fully sealed and I found out a few months ago through an echo-stress test that the valve is coming undone, and that the leak is now labeled as "severe. (mendedhearts.org)
- I had a robotic MVR in 2017 and at my one-year echo, they discovered that one of the chords holding the valve had broken and that I had severe leakage again. (mendedhearts.org)
- Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common heritable valve disease that affects 2-3% of the population, which translates to over 7 million individuals in the United States and over 170 million worldwide. (nih.gov)
- Find out more about your heart valves and how to manage heart valve disease. (stroke.org)
- According to John Lasala, MD, PhD , a Washington University interventional cardiologist and director of the Washington University and Barnes-Jewish structural heart disease program, the procedure is ideal for treating patients with a leaking mitral valve who are not good candidates for surgery and who meet appropriate anatomical criteria. (barnesjewish.org)
- Mitral valve disease : diagnosis and treatment / edited by Marian I. Ionescu, Lawrence H. Cohn. (who.int)
- What Is Mitral Valve Disease In Dogs? (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- It is actually very common for dogs to suffer from heart conditions such as mitral valve disease. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- In this post, our Suwanee vets talk about mitral valve disease in dogs, how to spot it and what treatment is available. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- How is Mitral Valve Disease in Dogs Diagnosed? (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- A heart murmur in a specific location is indicative of mitral valve disease. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- The left atrial appendage (LAA) the degree of trans-mitral gradient 20, 21. (who.int)
- 4. Papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve in a 3-year-old child: case report. (nih.gov)
- 5. Papillary fibroelastoma of a mitral valve chorda. (nih.gov)
- 8. Papillary fibroelastoma of the pulmonary valve. (nih.gov)
- 12. A case report of papillary fibroelastoma attached to chorda tendineae of mitral valve. (nih.gov)
- 13. Case of the month #174: papillary fibroelastoma of the aortic valve. (nih.gov)
- 14. Case report: fibroelastoma of the papillary muscle of the mitral valve: diagnostic implications and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 16. Papillary fibroelastoma of the pulmonary valve: a case report. (nih.gov)
- 19. Branch retinal artery occlusion caused by a mitral valve papillary fibroelastoma. (nih.gov)
- 20. [Mitral papillary fibroelastoma in a HIV infected patient]. (nih.gov)
- It can be inserted through the open left atrium during mitral valve surgery or through the right superior pulmonary vein on the beating heart and across the mitral valve into the left ventricle. (kappsurgical.com)
- Myocarditis, Cardiomyopathy and Mitral Valve Incompetence: Can be fatal. (nih.gov)
- 0.016), had more frequent atrial fibrillation (P = 0.017), smaller mitral valve area (P = 0.021) and higher pulmonary artery pressure (P = 0.012) compared to patients without thromboembolism. (who.int)
- Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) happens when the flaps of the mitral valve become floppy and don't close tightly. (nih.gov)
- In some cases, blood may leak backwards through the valve to the chamber it came from. (nih.gov)
- Post-surgical deterioration of mitral valve repairs or replacements may present a clinical dilemma due to the high-risk nature of repeat surgery. (henryford.com)
- The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle is called the mitral valve. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- The soft balloon will inflate in the left ventricle, keeping the catheter tip below the mitral valve to ensure drainage of air, blood, and debris from the left atrium and left ventricle. (kappsurgical.com)
- When the lower left chamber contracts (squeezes) to pump blood to your body, the mitral valve closes tightly to keep any blood from flowing backwards. (nih.gov)
- Because of the high pressure created when the left ventricle contracts and pumps blood out to the body, the mitral valve may begin to 'wear out' and leak over time. (heartofsuwaneeanimalhosp.com)
- The mitral valve can usually be repaired or replaced with surgery, or a minimally invasive procedure. (stroke.org)
- These devices and methods protect coronary artery branches from constriction during trans-sinus mitral annuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- The device protects a coronary vessel from compression during mitral annuloplasty in which an annuloplasty element, such as a tensioning device, extends at least partially through the coronary sinus over a coronary artery. (nih.gov)
- The device is a surgically sterile bridge configured for placement within the coronary sinus at a location where the coronary sinus passes over a coronary artery, so that the protection device provides a support for a mitral annuloplasty element, such as a compressive prosthesis, including a tension element when it is placed under tension. (nih.gov)
- The protection device has an arch of sufficient rigidity and dimensions to support the tensioning element over the coronary artery, redistribute tension away from an underlying coronary artery, and inhibit application of pressure to the underlying artery, for example when an annuloplasty tension element is placed under tension during mitral annuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- Mitral valve prolapse often affects thin women who may have minor chest wall deformities, scoliosis, or other disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- What are the treatments for mitral valve prolapse (MVP)? (nih.gov)
- Traditionally, surgeons repair a leaking mitral valve by making a large incision to open the chest cavity and access the heart, which is an excellent option," says Dr. Lasala. (barnesjewish.org)