Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Mitral Valve Prolapse: Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Mitral Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Myxoma: A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Heart Sounds: The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.Kinetocardiography: The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Endocardial Cushions: A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annuli of HEART VALVES. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Heart Valve Prolapse: Downward displacement of any one of the HEART VALVES from its normal position. This usually results in failed valve closure.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Acenocoumarol: A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Papio ursinus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Carcinoid Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of gastrointestinal CARCINOID TUMOR that metastasizes to the liver. Substances secreted by the tumor cells, including SEROTONIN, promote fibrous plaque formation in ENDOCARDIUM and its underlying layers. These deposits cause distortion of the TRICUSPID VALVE and the PULMONARY VALVE eventually leading to STENOSIS and valve regurgitation.Balloon Valvuloplasty: Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B: A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Bioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Aortic Valve Prolapse: The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial: ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Phenindione: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Endocardial Cushion Defects: A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.ElastinSubgingival Curettage: Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tricuspid Valve Prolapse: Abnormal protrusion of one or more of the leaflets of TRICUSPID VALVE into the RIGHT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into right atrium leading to TRICUSPID VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS. Its most common cause is not primary valve abnormality but rather the dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the tricuspid annulus.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Pergolide: A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The device fastens together the mitral valve leaflets to improve the heart's blood outflow. The mitral clip has not yet ... Since 2013, mitral clips have been implanted via catheter as a new strategy to correct the motion of the mitral valve in people ... In people with particularly large redundant mitral valves, anterior leaflet plication may be added to complete separation of ... of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. With this limited resection, the residual mid-septal bulge still redirects flow ...
Barlow JB, Bosman CK (February 1966). "Aneurysmal protrusion of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. An auscultatory- ... electrocardiographic syndrome". American Heart Journal. 71 (2): 166-78. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(66)90179-7. PMID 4159172.. ... Barlow's disease or Barlow's syndrome may also refer to mitral valve prolapse, first described by John Brereton Barlow in 1966. ... "Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies". International Journal of Molecular ...
... mitral valve disease* is a common cause of congestive heart failure in dogs, especially small, older dogs. The leaflets of the ... Heart valve dysplasia (including mitral and tricuspid valve dysplasia) is a congenital heart abnormality in dogs. Dysplasia of ... valve become thickened and nodular, leading to mitral valve regurgitation and volume overload of the left side of the heart. ... the mitral and tricuspid valves - also known as the atrioventricular (AV) valves - can appear as thickened, shortened, or ...
Chronic rheumatic heart disease mostly affects the mitral valve, which can become thickened with calcification of the leaflets ... Further endocarditis can develop with aseptic vegetations along the valve closure lines, in particular the mitral valve. ... One of the most serious complications is pancarditis, or inflammation of all three heart tissues. A fibrinous pericarditis can ... It is important to distinguish ARF from rheumatic heart disease. ARF is an acute inflammatory reaction with pathognomonic ...
As in the normal human heart, there exists two mitral valve leaflets, each with their own set of chordae. Unique to the ... The term parachute mitral valve stems from the morphological appearance of the valve; that is to say, the mitral valve leaflets ... The supramitral ring is a connective tissue ring at the base of the atrial surfaces of the mitral valve leaflets. They may ... In the complete form, four left-sided defects are present: Supravalvular mitral membrane (SVMM) Parachute mitral valve ...
... thus displacing the valve leaflets, which are anchored in the annulus. Mitral stenosis is caused largely by rheumatic heart ... Heart valve dysplasia is an error in the development of any of the heart valves, and a common cause of congenital heart defects ... Pulmonary and tricuspid valve diseases are right heart diseases. Pulmonary valve diseases are the least common heart valve ... Aortic and mitral valve disease are termed left heart diseases. Diseases of these valves are more prevalent than disease of the ...
The papillary muscles are attached to the cusps or leaflets of the tricuspid and mitral valves via chordae tendineae (heart ... Normal heart sounds are associated with heart valves closing: The first heart sound, or S1, forms the "lub" of "lub-dub" and is ... These are the first heart sound (S1) and second heart sound (S2), produced by the closing of the atrioventricular valves and ... It is caused by the closure of the semilunar valves (the aortic valve and pulmonary valve) at the end of ventricular systole ...
... which is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the ... The main type of prolapse of heart valves in humans is mitral valve prolapse (MVP), ... It is used for organs protruding through the vagina or the rectum or for the misalignment of the valves of the heart. A spinal ... Tricuspid valve prolapse can cause tricuspid regurgitation. Rectal prolapse is a condition in which part of the wall or the ...
... in area and sits in the left heart between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It has two leaflets (or "cusps"), an ... or the mitral valve may be narrowed (mitral stenosis). Rheumatic heart disease often affects the mitral valve; the valve may ... The mitral valve (/ˈmaɪtrəl/), also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in ... across the mitral valve. This early filling across the mitral valve is seen on doppler echocardiography of the mitral valve as ...
Heart valves. and septa. *Valve repair. *Valvulotomy. *Mitral valve repair. *Valvuloplasty *aortic ... and they use balloons whose inflation moves the valve leaflets. Thus, altogether, they are called by names such as percutaneous ... Heart valve repair. References[edit]. *^ TheFreeDictionary , valvotomy Citing: WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003- ... Commissurotomy of heart valves is called valvulotomy, valvotomy,[1] valvuloplasty, or valvoplasty and consists of making one or ...
A surgical treatment for AI is aortic valve replacement; this is currently an open-heart procedure. In the case of severe acute ... it appears when regurgitant jet from the severe aortic insufficiency renders partial closure of the anterior mitral leaflet. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes ... S1 is soft because the elevated filling pressures close the mitral valve in diastole.[medical citation needed] Chronic aortic ...
The mitral valve is also called the bicuspid valve because it contains two leaflets or cusps. The mitral valve gets its name ... The mitral valve and the aortic valve are in the left heart; the tricuspid valve and the pulmonary valve are in the right heart ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heart valves.. *Mitral Valve Repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital - "Mitral Valve Anatomy" ... The four valves in the mammalian heart are: *The two atrioventricular (AV) valves, the mitral valve (bicuspid valve), and the ...
... of the mitral valve. The mitral valve is the "inflow valve" for the left side of the heart. Blood flows from the lungs, where ... The techniques of mitral valve repair include inserting a cloth-covered ring around the valve to bring the leaflets into ... Cuba have performed beating heart mitral valve repair or replacement. The beating heart mitral valve replacement technique is ... Mitral valve repair. Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Mitral valve ...
The heart has four valves and the other two are the mitral and the tricuspid valves. The aortic valve normally has three cusps ... or leaflets, although in 1-2% of the population it is found to congenitally have two leaflets. The aortic valve normally has ... There are two basic types of artificial heart valve, mechanical valves and tissue valves. Tissue heart valves are usually made ... The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta. It is one of the two semilunar valves ...
... which pulls the leaflets together to facilitate coaptation and aids to re-establish mitral valve function. Mitral regurgitation ... Every year, 300,000 people worldwide undergo open heart surgery for mitral valve repair, 44,000 people in the US alone. Since ... Mitral valve annuloplasty is a surgical technique for the repair of leaking mitral valves. Due to various factors, the two ... The goal of mitral valve annuloplasty is to regain mitral valve competence by restoring the physiological form and function of ...
... floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click murmur syndrome or billowing mitral leaflet) is a valvular heart disease ... Thickening of the mitral leaflets >5 mm and leaflet displacement >2 mm indicates classic mitral valve prolapse. Prolapsed ... In rare instances when mitral valve prolapse is associated with severe mitral regurgitation, mitral valve repair or surgical ... Prolapse occurs when the mitral valve leaflets are displaced more than 2 mm above the mitral annulus high points. The condition ...
The human heart contains four valves: tricuspid valve, pulmonic valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. Their main purpose is to ... Bileaflet heart valves consist of two semicircular leaflets that rotate about struts attached to the valve housing. This design ... "Assessment of a novel stentless mitral valve using a pulsatile mitral valve simulator". The Journal of heart valve disease. 21 ... heart valves Allograft/isograft Xenograft Tissue-Engineered heart valves Mechanical heart valves (MHV) are prosthetics designed ...
... the mitral valve is the only bicuspid valve and this is situated between the heart's left atrium and left ventricle. Heart ... Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an inherited form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during ... bicuspid valve) instead of the normal three-leaflet valve (tricuspid). BAV is the most common cause of heart disease present at ... Fusion of aortic valve leaflets occurs most commonly (≈80%) between the right coronary and left coronary leaflets (RL), which ...
... is a condition featuring the thickening of posterior part of left atrium's wall and its endocardial wall above the mitral valve ... It is one complication of chronic rheumatic heart disease. Other complications of chronic rheumatic heart disease are valvular ... effect (stenosis, insufficiency or can be both), valvular leaflets become thickened by fibrosis, frequent valvular ...
Mitral stenosis refers to mitral valve leaflets (or valve flaps) sticking to each other making the opening for blood to pass ... of rheumatic fever where damage is done to the heart valves such as the mitral valve and resultant in an opening of heart wall ... Edge-to-Edge Leaflet Repair)is being explored as a way to increase the opening of the mitral valve by clamping down mitral ... the test will help to determine if the blood flow through the mitral valve is normal or if the mitral valve is stiff, has a ...
Heart and valve function is monitored following the procedure. Banai S, Jolicoeur EM, Schwartz M, et al. (October 2012). "Tiara ... It is anchored behind the anterior and posterior leaflets of the native valve. Finally, the delivery system is removed and ... The complex, asymmetrical anatomical structure of the mitral valve poses a challenge for prosthetic mitral valve fabrication. ... transapical transcatheter approach used with the Tiara mitral valve may be a promising future alternative. The Tiara mitral ...
... are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart. Chordae ... "Mechanism of Function of the Mitral Valve Leaflets, Chordae Tendineae and Left Ventricular Papillary Muscles in Dogs". ... Chordae tendineae are relaxed because the atrioventricular valves are forced open. When the ventricles of the heart contract in ... Along with the opening of the coronary sinus and the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve, it makes up the triangle of Koch. The ...
Mitral valve repair. Repair, instead of replacement, of the mitral valve. Mitral valvuloplasty. Repair of the valve by using a ... Formation of two valve leaflets in the aortic valve instead of three leaflets.. हाइपोप्लास्तिक लेफ्त हार्त सिन्द्रम. Defect in ... 3D reconstruction of the heart as viewed from the apex towards the valves, image flipped 180° relative to illustration above. ... Mitral valve. Disorders and treatments of the mitral valve that separates the left atrium and left ventricle. Mitral valve ...
Complex hybrid procedures may arise where the various parts of the mitral valve apparatus (e.g. chordae, leaflet and ring) are ... which in the case of congenital heart disease surgery may detect residual structural lesions, thus reduce postoperative ... Further prostheses for mitral und tricuspid valve replacement are under development and certainly will be available within the ... The repair of a defected mitral valve is a potential future hybrid procedure, that is still dependent on approval of the ...
His clinical interests include heart valve repair and replacement, mitral valve repair, atrial fibrillation surgery, maze ... The IMR ETlogix annuloplasty ring is the first remodeling ring specifically designed to treat asymmetric leaflet tethering and ... Heart valve repair (annuloplasty) rings and bands were designed for symmetric dilatation of the heart valve. They are used to ... McCarthy co-founded a company called Cardiac Valve Innovations in 2015, directed to improving heart valve repair rings. ...
... a valve with two leaflets instead of three. Notch1 is also associated with calcification of the aortic valve, the third most ... Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). *Hypoplastic right heart syndrome (HRHS). *Mitral stenosis ... Congenital heart defects are known by a number of names including congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, heart ... A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the ...
My Echocardiogram results show: the aortic valve leaflets are mildly thickened; the mitral valve leaflet... ... I recently was told I had a heart murmur-possibly two; mitral valve and I think aortic valve. ... Mitral Valve leaflets appear myxomatous Irish22 I recently was told I had a heart murmur-possibly two; mitral valve and I think ... Mitral Valve leaflets appear myxomatous. I recently was told I had a heart murmur-possibly two; mitral valve and I think aortic ...
My most recent echo shows mild mitral valve leaflet thickening/calcification.. Im not ... HealthBoards , Heart & Vascular , Heart Disorders > mild mitral valve leaflet thickening/calcification mild mitral valve ... Heart Disorders. 1. 11-08-2005 08:26 AM. Antibiotics with mitral valve murmur? subway13. Heart Disorders. 5. 05-25-2004 12:18 ... Heart Disorders. 4. 12-16-2009 07:51 PM. mitral valve calcification? help, please. sbabayan. Heart Disorders. 5. 03-19-2007 10: ...
The heart valve includes a support frame that may be non-circular, for example elliptical or ... A prosthetic mitral heart valve having four separate flexible leaflets. ... US7455689B2 - Four-leaflet stented mitral heart valve - Google Patents. Four-leaflet stented mitral heart valve Download PDF ... Four-leaflet stented mitral heart valve CA 2619080 CA2619080C (en) 2005-08-25. 2006-08-18. Four-leaflet stented mitral heart ...
Fortunately the heart tolerates chronic mitral regurgitation quite well. ... If the perforation is 4 mm in diameter there could be enough mitral regurgitation to explain the dilated atrium. ... It is unusual to have a perforation of the mitral valve anterior leaflet without a history of endocarditis. ... Mitral valve appears normal. Small perforation of the anterior mitral valve leaflet measuring 38 mm in diameter. No vegetation ...
Cost-effectiveness of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Leaflet Repair for the Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation in Heart Failure. ... is a common valvular heart disorder requiring intervention once it becomes severe. Transcatheter mitral valve leaflet repair ... réparation de la valve mitrale * Health Sciences - Medicine and Surgery / Sciences de la santé - Médecine et chirurgie (UMI : ... Methods: The study was comprised of two phases; an observational study of patients with heart failure and MR treated with ...
COAPT Three-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Trial of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Leaflet Approximation in Patients with Heart ... "Evaluación Imagenológica en otras Intervenciones Estructurales" Válvulas Mitral y Tricúspide Presenter: Fabián Salmo ...
Thickening of the Mitral Valve Leaflets Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Mitral Valve Prolapse. Check the full list of ... Systolic anterior movement of mitral valve Systolic anterior movement of mitral valve (disorder) Thickened mitral leaflet ... Note the thickened, narrowed, and calcified mitral valve apparatus and doming of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. [ ... c Section through the mitral valve apparatus demonstrating mild mitral valve leaflet thickening and ballooning of the anterior ...
Thickening of the Mitral Valve Leaflets Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Mitral Valve Stenosis. Check the full list of ... four features of the mitral valve are identified, as follows 7 : valve leaflet mobility valve leaflet thickening valve leaflet ... Note the thickened, narrowed, and calcified mitral valve apparatus and doming of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. [ ... torn chordae or possible vegetation on the posterior mitral valve leaflet.Moderate MR. Thickened mitral and aortic leaflets. [ ...
A plastic stent for a prosthetic trileaflet heart valve consisting of a cylindrical body section terminating at one end in ... modified porcine heart valves as where the leaflet with the septal shelf is replaced with a leaflet from another valve, and ... Heart valve stent. 1976-10-05. Angell et al.. 3/15. 3839741. HEART VALVE AND RETAINING MEANS THEREFOR. 1974-10-08. Haller. 3/15 ... Heart valve stent and process for preparing a stented heart valve prosthesis. 1977-07-19. Angell et al.. 3/15. ...
Mitral valve prolapse and mitral regurgitation can be treating by implanting in the mitral annulus a transvalvular intraannular ... 7 and 8 illustrate a heart 10 in systole where the anterior leaflet 24 of the mitral valve 18 is in prolapse. Anterior leaflet ... The mitral valve is comprised of an anterior leaflet and a posterior leaflet. The bases of the leaflets are fixed to a ... 5. The implant of claim 1, wherein the heart valve annulus is a mitral valve annulus or an aortic valve annulus. 6. The implant ...
... the baffle directing fluid flowing in the no-flow direction of the valve against the disc so as to close the valve. The disc ... Vanes project from one face of the disc in a direction opposite the flow direction through the valve, fluid flow against the ... vanes causing the valve to open. A baffle extends across the body adjacent the face of the disc opposite the face from which ... A heart valve including a generally annular body and a disc within the body pivotable about a centerline of the disc. ...
... valve including the steps of securing a first anchor to cardiac tissue located below the prolapsed mitral valve leaflet, ... located below a prolapsed valve leaflet and the second anchor may be configured to secure into the prolapsed valve leaflet. ... securing a second anchor to the prolapsed mitral valve leaflet, tensioning a cord connecting the two anchors and securing the ... and kits for treating a prolapsed valve leaflet. The devices generally comprise a flexible cord, a first anchor attached to the ...
The epidemiology of valvular heart disease has significantly changed in the past few decades with aging as one of the main ... Finite element analysis of the mitral valve. J. Heart Valve Dis. 2:326-340, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Optimal elastomeric scaffold leaflet shape for pulmonary heart valve leaflet replacement. J. Biomech. 46:662-669, 2013.CrossRef ... Tissue engineering heart valves: valve leaflet replacement study in a lamb model. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 60:S513-S516, 1995. ...
ImagingSession Title: Emerging Concepts in Imaging Heart Valve Disease. Abstract 18319: Virtual Mitral Valve Repair for ... Background: Neochordoplasty and/or leaflet resection are reliable and reproducible mitral valve (MV) repair techniques for the ... Virtual Mitral Valve Repair for Improved Pre-surgical Planning: Quantitative Evaluation of Neochordoplasty versus Leaflet ... Virtual Mitral Valve Repair for Improved Pre-surgical Planning: Quantitative Evaluation of Neochordoplasty versus Leaflet ...
If you have been diagnosed with mitral valve regurgitation, it is because your hearts mitral valve is not closing tightly ... Transcatheter Mitral Valve Leaflet Repair. What is Mitral Valve Regurgitation?. The mitral valve has two leaflets that open and ... Repair of the Mitral Valve with the MitraClip®. If the heart team thinks you are prohibitive risk and cannot undergo open heart ... surgery for your mitral valve repair, a transcatheter mitral valve leaflet clip may be an option to treat your mitral ...
1) Mitral valve leaflets appears normal. Mobility appears normal. No stenosis present. THEREIS TRACE MITRAL REGURATATION ... 1) Mitral valve leaflets appears normal. Mobility appears normal. No stenosis present. THEREIS TRACE MITRAL REGURATATION ... Hypertrophy can be caused by high blood pressure , a previous heart attack, but also from diabetes or other. The mitral valve ... From the findings you state, it does not sound like any of these three heart valves (mitral, aortic, or tricuspid) is the cause ...
A stent comprised of a valve and a scaffolding structure having components configured to allow at least a portion of the stent ... Four-leaflet stented mitral heart valve. US20070239273 *. 6 Abr 2006. 11 Oct 2007. Medtronic Vascular. Riveted Stent Valve For ... In the illustrated embodiment, the valve opening 455 comprises three intersecting slits in the valve body. The valve opening ... valve 450. The shape and design of the valve 450 may be such that the force required to open the valve 450 by acting on the ...
... in area and sits in the left heart between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It has two leaflets (or "cusps"), an ... or the mitral valve may be narrowed (mitral stenosis). Rheumatic heart disease often affects the mitral valve; the valve may ... The mitral valve (/ˈmaɪtrəl/), also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in ... across the mitral valve. This early filling across the mitral valve is seen on doppler echocardiography of the mitral valve as ...
Learn about mitral valve replacement devices that fail due to leaflet issues with Dr. Marc Gerdisch, heart surgeon. ... Adam Pick is a heart valve patient and author of The Patients Guide To Heart Valve Surgery. In 2006, Adam founded ... Home , Adams Blog , Mitral Valve Repair , "Are Mitral Leaflets Repaired During A Valve Replacement Re-Operation?" Asks Brian ... Home , Adams Blog , Mitral Valve Repair , "Are Mitral Leaflets Repaired During A Valve Replacement Re-Operation?" Asks Brian ...
"Mitral valve posterior leaflet reconstruction using extracellular matrix: an acute porcine study, European Journal of Cardio- ... Remodeling mitral annuloplasty ring concept with preserved dynamics of annular height . J Heart Valve Dis 2017 ; 26 : 295 - 303 ... Mitral valve, Mitral valve posterior leaflet, Mitral valve patch repair, Mitral valve posterior leaflet reconstruction, 2-ply ... Mitral valve, Mitral valve posterior leaflet, Mitral valve patch repair, Mitral valve posterior leaflet reconstruction, 2-ply ...
Multi-resolution geometric modeling of the mitral heart valve leaflets.. Khalighi AH, Drach A, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Sacks ... On the in vivo function of the mitral heart valve leaflet: insights into tissue-interstitial cell biomechanical coupling. ... A noninvasive method for the determination of in vivo mitral valve leaflet strains. ... Semi-automated Image Segmentation of the Midsystolic Left Ventricular Mitral Valve Complex in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. ...
The mitral valve is also called the bicuspid valve because it contains two leaflets or cusps. The mitral valve gets its name ... The mitral valve and the aortic valve are in the left heart; the tricuspid valve and the pulmonary valve are in the right heart ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heart valves.. *Mitral Valve Repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital - "Mitral Valve Anatomy" ... The four valves in the mammalian heart are: *The two atrioventricular (AV) valves, the mitral valve (bicuspid valve), and the ...
... or transcatheter heart valve dysfunction from long/redundant anterior mitral valve leaflet, as determined by the ... Mitral Valve Failure. Intervention ICMJE *Device: Edwards SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve Used to relieve aortic stenosis in ... Doctors will use a wire to split the diseased mitral valve and move it out of the way. They will replace a heart valve. ... Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is an option to treat mitral valve failure when no surgical options exist. In as ...
Journal of Heart Valve Disease On the subject. Medical and Health Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... Increases in mitral leaflet radii of curvature with chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation. Tibayan, Frederick A. ... 2004 (English)In: Journal of Heart Valve Disease, ISSN 0966-8519, E-ISSN 2053-2644, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 772-778Article in journal ...
Includes how blood travels through the heart, where the heart is located, how blood flows through the heart and lungs, coronary ... Explains the purpose of the heart and how the heart works. ... arteries, and how the heart beats on MedicineNet.com ... Each valve has a set of flaps, called leaflets or cusps. The mitral valve has two leaflets; the others have three. The leaflets ... As blood leaves each chamber of the heart, it passes through a valve. There are four heart valves within the heart:. *Mitral ...
  • Une réparation percutanée de la valve mitrale avec le dispositif MitraClip est un traitement sécuritaire et efficace pour les patients à haut risque chirurgical. (umontreal.ca)
  • Nous voulons évaluer les résultats cliniques et l'impact économique de cette thérapie par rapport à la gestion médicale des patients en insuffisance cardiaque avec insuffisance mitrale symptomatique. (umontreal.ca)
  • an observational study of patients with heart failure and MR treated with either medical therapy or the MitraClip, and an economic model. (umontreal.ca)
  • Results: The cohort of patients treated with the MitraClip was propensity matched to a population of heart failure patients, and their outcomes compared. (umontreal.ca)
  • Effective reduction in mitral gradient was initially achieved in 7 patients. (symptoma.com)
  • However, patients with extensive mitral leaflet damage might be inappropriate for repair and should instead receive mitral valve replacement . (deepdyve.com)
  • Lars Søndergaard, MD, DMSc (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark), speaking at TVT 2017, gave an overview of the recent research in this area, noting that despite the growing consensus that anticoagulation may help prevent and resolve leaflet thrombosis, other emerging data hint the problem may resolve on its own in many patients. (tctmd.com)
  • In all, 53 out of 105 patients who had no evidence of HALT or HAM on the initial CT scan remained free of the problem at follow-up, but seven patients with no leaflet thrombosis on the first scan were found to have it on the second. (tctmd.com)
  • However, on the flip side, five patients who had leaflet thrombosis on the first CT had no evidence of this on the second scan and an additional four patients with both HAM and HALT on the first CT actually had their motion abnormalities resolve, although leaflet thrombosis remained in two of the four. (tctmd.com)
  • That advice is based on studies documenting valve thrombosis, found on CT scanning, that developed in patients antiplatelet therapy alone but not in patients who were treated with VKA. (tctmd.com)
  • An innovative minimally invasive procedure to repair a heart valve has been approved for use in the NHS for patients who would otherwise be unable to have conventional open heart surgery. (nice.org.uk)
  • Until now the only option for patients needing a mitral valve repair was open heart surgery which for some older and frail patients would be considered too risky. (nice.org.uk)
  • Unfortunately many patients are not fit enough to undergo open-heart surgery, and until now these patients have had no effective alternative treatment. (nice.org.uk)
  • A rash called erythema marginatum develops (especially in those patients who will develop heart problems from their illness), which takes the form of pink splotches that may eventually spread into each other. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today expanded the approval of a heart valve to include a size small enough to be used in newborn pediatric patients to treat heart defects. (news-medical.net)
  • While larger replacement heart valves have been approved for years, there is an unmet need in young pediatric patients, especially newborns and infants, with congenital valve defects who may be too small to use currently-marketed heart valves,' said Jeff Shuren, M.D., J.D., director of the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health. (news-medical.net)
  • In pediatric patients, a malfunctioning heart valve is often the result of a congenital heart defect at birth. (news-medical.net)
  • However, prior to today's approval, there have been limited replacement heart valve options available because of the patients' small size. (news-medical.net)
  • The Masters Series 15-mm HP valve represents an important treatment option for these patients. (news-medical.net)
  • The Masters Series Mechanical Heart Valve was first approved in 1995 for patients with a diseased, damaged or malfunctioning aortic or mitral heart valve. (news-medical.net)
  • Today's approval expands the range of valve sizes available, providing smaller patients another treatment option. (news-medical.net)
  • The Master Series Mechanical Heart Valve should not be used by patients unable to tolerate anticoagulation therapy. (news-medical.net)
  • If valve replacement is successful and uncomplicated, most patients experience an improvement in their symptomatic state, and therefore in their quality of life. (openwetware.org)
  • Both hypo‐attenuated leaflet thickening and reduced leaflet motion were found in patients with ongoing anticoagulation treatment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some patients may have both valvular stenosis and valvular insufficiency in one or more valves. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Some patients are born with defective heart valves that affect blood flow through the heart. (gwhospital.com)
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is catheter-delivered aortic heart valve replacement for high-risk patients who have aortic stenosis and are not candidates for traditional aortic valve surgery. (gwhospital.com)
  • The advantage of a mechanical valve is that, typically, these valves last for the patients' life time. (gwhospital.com)
  • The disadvantage of these valves is that they have a tendency to form clots and patients need to stay on life-long anticoagulation medication (blood thinners). (gwhospital.com)
  • Potentially such a study would be of interest to physicians and to patients considering getting an ICD because it looked at all shocks the defibrillators gave the heart in patients who took part in the clinical trial, including those sent for life-threatening rhythms and in error. (getbetterhealth.com)
  • CARDIAWAVE, a French start-up founded in 2014, aims to develop a new non-invasive therapy to treat patients suffering from Aortic Valve Stenosis (AS) who are not candidates to validated tr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If proven efficacious, this may be an option for patients with diseased, damaged or malfunctioning mitral valves who are not deemed candidates for conventional surgery. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are collaborating to clinically investigate the Tendyne TMVR device in patients that are not suitable candidates for mitral valve surgery. (eurekalert.org)
  • Such patients could either have re-repair or valve replacement before ever leaving the operating room, or could be subjected to closer post-operative clinical follow-up. (upenn.edu)
  • He was released after two days in recovery and ordered to rest or risk contracting pneumonia, a common affliction of heart surgery patients. (theledger.com)
  • An innovative device that acts like a belt to reshape an enlarged, leaky heart valve is providing a minimally invasive treatment option for patients who are too sick for open-heart surgery. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Siminiak is continuing to follow-up patients to determine whether the improvements in mitral valve function are long-lasting. (innovations-report.com)
  • MitraClip® therapy is a minimally invasive, catheter-based procedure through the femoral vein in the groin for patients who are not good candidates for open-heart surgery because of their age, frailty or other complicating factors. (prweb.com)
  • Dr. Satpathy performed at Baptist Medical Center Jacksonville the MitraClip® therapy, a minimally invasive, catheter-based procedure through the femoral vein in the groin for patients who are not good candidates for open-heart surgery because of their age, frailty or other complicating factors. (prweb.com)
  • There is no incision, the recovery time is less and patients stay in the hospital one or two days and have very good results,' said Dr. Satpathy, who prior to coming to Baptist Heart Specialists was director of the Valve Clinic and Structural Heart Program at CHI Alegent Creighton Heart and Vascular Institute in Omaha, Neb. (prweb.com)
  • MitraClip is one of a growing number of recently approved devices which are now available to us for use in selected patients who are not strong candidates for conventional open heart surgery. (prweb.com)
  • Patients participating in the EVEREST II trial experienced improvements in heart function, quality of life and the ability to engage in normal physical activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In Phase I of the trial, started in 2003, 107 patients had their mitral valves repaired with the MitraClip, a 4 mm-wide, polyester-covered device developed by Abbott Vascular, Inc. Under general anesthesia, the clip (or sometimes two) is inserted via catheter through an artery in the groin, threaded up to the heart and clamped to the mitral valve's two edges to hold them together. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A one-year follow-up showed that only 9.6 percent of the 279 MitraClip patients had safety issues associated with the procedure vs. 57 percent of open-heart patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In another published clinical series of 18 patients with double orifice mitral valve and intact AV septum, Das et al found that double orifice mitral valve was most commonly associated with left sided obstructed lesions in 39% of the cases and with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in 17% of the cases. (medscape.com)