Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.ThymidineMorphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mitosis Modulators: Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Mitotic cells are arrested in late prometaphase. Cell entry into mitosis is unaffected. "Dimension - Turf and Ornamental - Dow ... Dithiopyr acts as a root growth inhibitor, causing cessation of root elongation and inhibition of mitotic cell division. It ... "Effects of the herbicide dithiopyr on cell division in wheat root tips". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 39 (2): 110-120 ...
Haploid cells may divide again (by mitosis) to form more haploid cells, as in many yeasts, but the haploid phase is not the ... These cells divide mitotically to form either larger, multicellular individuals, or more haploid cells. Two opposite types of ... In the whole cycle, zygotes are the only diploid cell; mitosis occurs only in the haploid phase. The individuals or cells as a ... Vegetative (non-reproductive) diploid cells undergo meiosis, generating vegetative haploid cells. These undergo many mitosis, ...
Mitosis and meiosis are types of cell division. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells, while meiosis occurs in gametes. Mitosis The ... resultant number of cells in mitosis is twice the number of original cells. The number of chromosomes in the offspring cells is ... This results in cells with half the number of chromosomes present in the parent cell. A diploid cell duplicates itself, then ... Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras (invertebrates ...
This process of cell division is called mitosis. In sexual reproduction, there are special kinds of cells that divide without ... Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides. ... The resulting cells are called gametes, and contain only half the genetic material of the parent cells. These gametes are the ... Egg cells are often associated with other cells which support the development of the embryo, forming an egg. In mammals, the ...
In normal cell division (mitosis) is possible when the double helix separates, and a complement of each separated half is made ... which happens when cells divide. There is a simple division of labor in cells-genes give instructions and proteins carry out ... and how a cell divides-mitosis or meiosis. Some phenotypic traits can be seen, such as eye color while others can only be ... Genes are copied each time a cell divides into two new cells. The process that copies DNA is called DNA replication. It is ...
Macronuclei are polyploid and undergo direct division without mitosis. It controls the non-reproductive cell functions, such as ... The macronucleus lacks a mechanism to precisely partition this complex genome equally during nuclear division; thus, how the ... cell manages to maintain a balanced genome after generations of divisions is unknown. Micronucleus .. ...
During mitosis chromosome segregation occurs routinely as a step in cell division (see mitosis diagram). As indicated in the ... Upon proper segregation, a complete set of chromatids ends up in each of two nuclei, and when cell division is completed, each ... Cell cycle Lu S, Zong C, Fan W, Yang M, Li J, Chapman AR, Zhu P, Hu X, Xu L, Yan L, Bai F, Qiao J, Tang F, Li R, Xie XS (2012 ... Cell. 149 (2): 334-47. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.023. PMC 3377385 . PMID 22500800. Ranjha L, Anand R, Cejka P (2014). "The ...
Replication: Mitosis is usually closed, with an intranuclear spindle; in some species, it is open at the poles. Cell division ... which divide to produce sporozoites that enter its cells. Eventually, the cells burst, releasing merozoites, which infect new ... This then divides into a number of merozoites by schizogony. The merozoites are released by lysing the host cell, which in turn ... The ookinete then transforms into an oocyst and divides initially by meiosis and then by mitosis (haplontic lifecycle) to give ...
Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells. It is the result of increased cell mitosis, or division. The two types of ... Pathologic hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in cell division. A common pathologic hyperplasia in women occurs in the ... In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse environmental ... Atrophy is a decrease in cell size. If enough cells in an organ atrophy the entire organ will decrease in size. Thymus atrophy ...
Like mitosis, meiosis is a form of eukaryotic cell division. Meiosis gives rise to four unique daughter cells, each of which ... Prior to cell division, the DNA material in the original cell must be duplicated so that after cell division, each new cell ... Meiosis involves two rounds of nuclear division, not just one. Prior to undergoing meiosis, a cell goes through an interphase ... It is found in almost every cell in the human body, with exceptions such as red blood cells. Everyone has a unique genetic ...
... like most diatoms, can reproduce by simple cell division. Nuclear division occurs by mitosis and cell divides into ... Each daughter receives one of the parent cell's thecae, which becomes that cell's epitheca. The cell then synthesizes a new ... Their cell walls are composed chiefly of pectic substances on a rigid silica framework. Their walls are composed of two halves ... The cell is covered by a mucilaginous layer. The cytoplasm is arranged approximately in layers conforming to the shape of the ...
In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells. In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds ... The cells of plants, fungi, and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer outside the cell membrane, providing the cell ... Cell division generally takes place asexually by mitosis, a process that allows each daughter nucleus to receive one copy of ... of cell division to produce four haploid daughter cells. These act as sex cells (gametes). Each gamete has just one set of ...
This interrupts cell division, usually during the mitosis (M) phase of the cell cycle when two sets of fully formed chromosomes ... through continuous mitotic division. Thus, cancer cells are more sensitive to inhibition of mitosis than normal cells. Mitotic ... or cell division. These drugs disrupt microtubules, which are structures that pull the chromosomes apart when a cell divides. ... This stops the cells during mitosis, while the chromosomes are still visible. Once the cells are centrifuged and placed in a ...
There the sperm perform mitosis without cell division, turning into a spermatium. Fertilisation then proceeds through a ...
... preventing cells from entering anaphase to proceed with cell division. Agents that disrupt microtubules therefore inhibit ... Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). "Microtubule dynamics and motor proteins during mitosis". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ... The proper alignment and separation of chromosomes is critical to ensure that cells divide their genetic material equally ... "G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest following microtubule depolymerization in human breast cancer cells". J Clin Invest. 110: 91-99. ...
During cell division, severing at the spindle pole produces free microtubule ends and allows poleward flux of tubulin and ... Katanin-mediated microtubule severing is an important step in mitosis and meiosis. It has been shown that katanin is ... During cell elongation, microtubules must adjust their orientation constantly to keep up with the increasing cell length. This ... The form and structure of a plant cell is determined by the rigid cell wall, which contains highly organized cellulose, the ...
During cell division, demecolcine inhibits mitosis at metaphase by inhibiting spindle formation. Medically, demecolcine has ... Yang, Hailing; Ganguly, Anutosh; Cabral, Fernando (2010). "Inhibition of cell migration and cell division correlate with ... thus arresting cells in metaphase and allowing cell harvest and karyotyping to be performed. ... Cytotoxicity of the cells seems to correlate better with microtubule detachment. Lower concentration affects microtubule ...
... chromosomes resulting from the replication of the chromosomes and the synapsis of homologs without cell division is a process ... It is visible on a chromosome during the prophase of meiosis and mitosis. Giant banded (Polytene) ... Cell Biology International. 26: 579-91. doi:10.1006/cbir.2002.0879. PMID 12127937. Gaginskaya, E. (2009). "Avian lampbrush ...
Flemming concluded that cells replicate through cell division, to be more specific mitosis. Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl ... Flemming began his research of cell division starting in 1868. The study of cells was an increasingly popular topic in this ... These sickle-shaped cells cannot carry nearly as much oxygen as normal red blood cells and they get caught more easily in the ... By 1873, Schneider had already begun to describe the steps of cell division. Flemming furthered this description in 1874 and ...
Cell. 81 (2): 261-8. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90336-4. PMID 7736578. "Entrez Gene: CDC16 cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. ... The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis. Each component protein of the APC complex is ... Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC16 gene. This gene encodes a component ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ...
As the sporogenous cells undergo mitosis, the nuclei of tapetal cells also divide. Sometimes, this mitosis is not normal due to ... The cells are usually bigger and normally have more than one nucleus per cell. ... In the secretory type a layer of tapetal cells remains around the anther locule, while in the plasmodial type the tapetal cell ... A third, less common type, the invasive non-syncytial tapetum has been described in Canna, where the tapetal cell walls break ...
... spindle give rise to the phragmoplast and are oriented perpendicular to the plane of cell division and the forming cell plate. ... Typically, these algae undergo "closed" mitosis where the nuclear envelope persists throughout mitosis. P.H. Raven, R.F. Evert ... the most common form of cell division occurs via a phycoplast. In these algae, the spindle collapses and a new system of ... The phycoplast may play a role in assuring that the plane of cell division will pass between the two daughter nuclei. ...
... crosslinks DNA in several different ways, interfering with cell division by mitosis. The damaged DNA elicits DNA ... Although bacterial cell growth continued, cell division was arrested, the bacteria growing as filaments up to 300 times their ... Rosenberg, B.; Van Camp, L.; Grimley, E. B.; Thomson, A. J. (March 1967). "The inhibition of growth or cell division in ... Rosenberg, B.; Vancamp, L.; Krigas, T. (1965). "Inhibition of cell division in Escherichia coli by electrolysis products from a ...
The connections between cells allow development to be synchronised. When repeated division ceases, the cells differentiate into ... Type B spermatogonia undergo mitosis to produce diploid intermediate cells called primary spermatocytes. CLERMONT, Yves (March ... The stem cells involved are called spermatogonia and are a specific type of stem cell known as gametogonia. Three functionally ... These cells do not directly participate in producing sperm, instead serving to maintain the supply of stem cells for ...
The plate's chondrocytes are under constant division by mitosis. These daughter cells stack facing the epiphysis while the ... Defects in the development and continued division of epiphyseal plates can lead to growth disorders. The most common defect is ... older cells are pushed towards the diaphysis. As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) ...
Upon division, each daughter cell receives one centrosome. Centrosomes are not needed for the mitosis to happen. When the ... With centrosomes the cell division is much more accurate and efficient. Some cell types arrest in the following cell cycle when ... Also, it regulates the cell division cycle, the stages which lead up to one cell dividing in two. ... Although centrosomes are not needed for mitosis or the survival of the cell, they are needed for survival of the organism. ...
... without affecting growth and nuclear division. The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which ... shift and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments strongly suggest that sepA function requires a preceding mitosis and that ... without affecting growth and nuclear division. The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which ... without affecting growth and nuclear division. The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which ...
The Amoeba Sisters walk you through the reason for mitosis with mnemonics for prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. ... "a type of cell division." To be specific, its a division happening within the cell - in the nucleus. But we do not introduce ... Why is Mitosis Important? 0:44. Why Dont You Want Cells Dividing all the Time? 2:00. Interphase (occurs before mitosis) 2:23. ... PMAT Mitosis Stages 5:30. Cytokinesis (actual splitting of cell) 7:30. We appreciate the feedback we get for what we need to ...
Cell Division/Mitosis. Cell Division. Big Questions:. Make Sure You Can:. Why Divide?. The Cell Cycle. Mitosis. The continuity ... Compare the events of mitosis in plant-like and animal-like cells. Why do cells need to divide?. How does cell division provide ... Eukaryotic Cell Division. Describe the roles that mitosis plays in eukaryotic organisms.. Explain how mitosis produces two ... Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis.. Explain why many cells never divide.. Explain the function of each stage ...
Along with cytokinesis (the division of the rest of a cell), mitosis results in a parent cell dividing into two daughter cells ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. Page 1 of 15 , Next. Mitosis. Meiosis. ... Welcome to Mitosis vs. Meiosis.. This half of the screen illustrates mitosis-the division of a cells nucleus. ... The cell shown here will divide twice, resulting in four cells. Each of these cells will have only half the number of ...
High-resolution 3-D imaging of a cells nucleus undergoing cell division is now possible, thanks to a combination of plunge- ... Mitosis: New techniques reveal cell division surprise. BioPhotonics. Nov 2011 Ashley N. Paddock, [email protected] ... High-resolution 3-D imaging of a cells nucleus undergoing cell division is now possible, thanks to a combination of plunge- ... AmericasBiophotonicsBioScanCaliforniaCalifornia Institute of TechnologyCaltechcell divisioncell nucleuschromosomes ...
This free online biology course about cell division will explain the complex processes of cell division and cell replication in ... This course about cell division will explain the complex processes of cell division in detail. You will learn about mitosis and ... You will also look at how cells divide and replicate allowing us grow and repair body tissues, and if damage occurs, how some ... Cell division and replication are fundamental biological processes that occur in all organisms. ...
Mitosis & Cytokinesis DVD, SB40646 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, Healthcare ... Provides general information about the three types of cell division - mitosis, meiosis, and binary fission. Details the four ... This well-organized DVD teaches the basics and the terminology of cell division. ... phases of mitosis and cytokinesis. Live action footage shows an actual cell dividing. Ideal for beginning biology classes. 26 ...
Cell Growth & Division Flip Chart Set is perfect for the classroom as well as group and independent learning. The set features ... 5. Mitosis Overview 6. Mitosis in Animal Cells 7. Mitosis in Plant Cells 8. Comparing Mitosis & Cytokinesis 9. Mitosis & ... Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division-NewPath Science Flip Chart Set. Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division-NewPath Science Flip Chart Set ... The Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division Flip Chart Set includes the following charts: 1. Comparing Plant & Animal Cells 2. Cell ...
It has requirements, a rubric and all the options.Edible mitosis model, create a song/rap, make a flip book, make a comic book ... It has requirements, a rubric and all the options.Edible mitosis model, create a song/rap, make a flip book, make a comic book ... especially mitosis) project for middle and/or high school students.There are 7 different options for this project. ... especially mitosis) project for middle and/or high school students.There are 7 different options for this project. ...
Its a pretty decent tool for studying cell division/mitosis, Check It Out! ... Music Video on Cell Division/Mitosis - posted in General Biology Discussion: ... Music Video on Cell Division/Mitosis. Started by PAIR360, Feb 20 2013 11:52 AM ... Its a pretty decent tool for studying cell division/mitosis, Check It Out! ...
Cell Division: First embryonic mitosis (Caenorhabditis elegans). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 19:58, 1 March 2011 by ... Mol Biol Cell, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC*Cockell MM, Baumer K, GÂ nczy P; lis-1 is required for dynein-dependent cell division ... J Cell Sci, 1998 PubMed Europe PMC*; , PubMed Europe PMC*Karen Oegema, Anthony Hyman; Cell Division; WormBook, 2006 ... For more on the mechanisms that generate this asymmetry see Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo). " From ...
In mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated and divided evenly between two cells. ... This guide to the phases of mitosis explores how cells reproduce. ... These cancer cells are undergoing cytokinesis (cell division). Cytokinesis occurs after nuclear division (mitosis), which ... Mitosis is the phase of the cell cycle where chromosomes in the nucleus are evenly divided between two cells. When the cell ...
3D image of a mouse cell in the final stages of cell division (telophase). (Image by Lothar Schermelleh) Sometimes you ... When cells divide, they make new cells. A single cell divides to make two cells and these two cells then divide to make four ... "cell division" and "cell reproduction," because new cells are formed when old cells divide. The ability of cells to divide is ... Mitosis Cell Division. Mitosis is how somatic-or non-reproductive cells-divide. Somatic cells make up most of your bodys ...
When cells divide, they make new cells. A single cell divides to make two cells and these two cells then divide to make four ... "cell division" and "cell reproduction," because new cells are formed when old cells divide. The ability of cells to divide is ... Mitosis Cell Division. Mitosis is how somatic-or non-reproductive cells-divide. Somatic cells make up most of your bodys ... How Do Cells Know When to Divide?. In cell division, the cell that is dividing is called the "parent" cell. The parent cell ...
10.1 The Cycle of Cell Growth and Division: An Overview. The products of mitosis are genetic duplicates of the dividing cell ... Chromosomes are the genetic units divided by mitosis. Mitotic Cell Division. DNA replication Slideshow 804966 by borna ... Cell Division and Mitosis. Chapter 10. 10.1 The Cycle of Cell Growth and Division: An Overview. The products of mitosis are ... The Cell Cycle -. every cell is the product of a cell cycle. the cell cycle comprises two alternating events: cell division & ...
... lab stations will ensure that your students have mastered the concepts of cell division. Students will work together to solve a ... lab stations will ensure that your students have mastered the concepts of cell division. Students will work together to solve a ... determine the result of each type of cell division, and think about why mitosis and meiosis occur in different cells. Students ... These 9 "Mitosis Chat!" lab stations will ensure that your students have mastered the concepts of cell division. Students will ...
The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. G 0. Binary fission. Cell division in bacteria cells is ... Chapter 8 Cell division Mitosis/Meiosis Review. This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a ... 10: cell growth- why do cells divide instead of continue to grow? cell division - cell cycle and when a cell divides, mitosis ... Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis -. types of cell division. mitosis occurs in all body cells (somatic cells) in animals, ...
... chemiluminescent and colorimetric Mitotic Assay Kits are an easy way to test the effect of various treatments on mitosis, cell ... Cell division is a complex, tightly regulated process that is marked by mitosis. Thus, accurate measurement of cells undergoing ... Cell division is a complex, tightly regulated process that is marked by mitosis. Thus, accurate measurement of cells undergoing ... Figure 1: Fold induction of mitosis in HeLa cells.. HeLa cells were seeded at 20,000 cells per well and assayed using the ...
These cells grow, and then divide to form a total of four cells. Those four cells grow and divide to form eight cells, etc. B) ... In meiosis, one cell divides twice in a row to form four daughter cells from one cell (Figure 1B). Those cells are then ... This single cell then divided by mitosis into two cells (daughter cells) which then grew and divided into four cells (Figure 1A ... a single cell divides twice, resulting in four daughter cells that do not grow and divide again. Instead, these cells are ...
Cell Growth & Division - Site License, SB48538 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education ... NewPath Learning® Multimedia Science Lessons for Interactive Whiteboard - Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division - Site License. ... NewPath Learning® Multimedia Science Lessons for Interactive Whiteboard - Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division - Site License. ...
... and the M phase represents cell division. Cell division includes division of the nucleus, called mitosis, and division of the ... cell division occurs through two processes: mitosis, when the nucleus divides, and cytokinesis, when the cytoplasm divides. ... The cell plate grows until it joins with the existing cell membrane, separating the two halves of the cell into daughter cells ... In contrast, plant cells cant pinch in two because they have a rigid cell wall surrounding their cell membrane. Instead, cell ...
It covers topics including The Cell Cycle, Animal Cell Mitosis, Plant Cell Mitosis, and Cytokinesis. ... Cell Growth & Division Multimedia Lesson - CD Version consists of a series of narrated, visual presentations featuring highly- ... Youre reviewing:Mitosis: Cell Growth & Division Multimedia Lesson - CD Version. Your Rating. Value. 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 ... Cells - Animal & Plant Cell Structure Multimedia Lesson - CD Version As low as $19.95 ...
Regulation of major events of the cell cycle-DNA synthesis, mitosis, and cell division-involves steps which are crucial to the ... mitosis and cell cycle research. Cell division analysis and control represents one of the most dynamic segments of biomedical ... cell, including detecting and repairing genetic damage and providing various checks to prevent uncontrolled cell division. ... Our cutting-edge tools can help simplify your cell division, ... mitosis and cell cycle research.. Cell division analysis and ...
Mitosis with clear explanations and tons of step-by-step examples. Start learning today! ... In this lesson our instructor talks about cell division and mitosis. First, she discusses cell division, cell cycle, ... Life Science Cell Division & Mitosis IV. Cell Biology: Lecture 4 , 22:45 min ... Cell Division & Mitosis. Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download ...
  • Cytokinesis (septation) in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans occurs through the formation of a transient actin ring at the incipient division site. (elsevier.com)
  • Temperature-sensitive mutations in the sepA gene prevent septation and cause defects in the maintenance of cellular polarity, without affecting growth and nuclear division. (elsevier.com)
  • Results from temperature shift and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments strongly suggest that sepA function requires a preceding mitosis and that sepA acts prior to actin ring formation. (elsevier.com)
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