A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (1/11754)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (2/11754)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis. (3/11754)

Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity.  (+info)

Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation. (4/11754)

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

The postnatal development of the alimentary canal in the opossum. I. Oesophagus. (5/11754)

The oesophageal epithelium of the newborn opossum generally is two to three cells in depth and in some regions appears pseudostratified. By the 9th postnatal day the epithelium shows two distinct strata. Ciliated cells and occasional goblet cells also are observed within the epithelium during this stage and in subsequent stages. Cilia persist in the oesophagus of the adult opossum, but are restricted to the depths of the transverse folds found in the distal part of the organ. The epithelium covering the transverse folds of the adult likewise has an immature appearance. By 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days), the epithelium has assumed a more mature appearance and is of greater depth. This and later stages show three basic strata: a germinal layer, a spinous layer and, adjacent to the lumen, a flattened layer of cells that retain their nuclei. The epithelium throughout the postnatal period and in the adult does not undergo complete keratinization. The oesophageal glands begin as outgrowths from the epithelium just prior to 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days). The glands continue their development throughout the remainder of the postnatal period. The secretory units of the oesophageal glands of the the major portion of the secretory elements, and a light, rounded cell type which is less numerous and which occupies the terminal portions of the secretory units. Secretory material of the former appears complex, consisting of both neutral and acid glycoproteins. The secretory product of the light cell type is unknown at present. Both cell types are encompassed by myoepithelial cells. The relationship of the mitotic sequences to the observations made by microscopic examination of the developing oesophagus is discussed.  (+info)

Changes in the total number of neuroglia, mitotic cells and necrotic cells in the anterior limb of the mouse anterior commissure following hypoxic stress. (6/11754)

The effects of hypoxic stress (390 mmHg) on the total number of glia, cell division, and cell death in the anterior limb of the anterior commissure were studied. There was a significant (P less than 0-01) fall in the total number of glia following exposure to hypoxia at 390 mmHg for two days. No significant change was observed in the total number of glia between the hypoxic and recovery group one week after return to sea level (ca. 760 mmHg). No change was observed in the number of mitotic figures in the control, hypoxic or recovery groups, but significant falls were observed in the mean number of necrotic cells between both the control and hypoxic groups (P less than 0-05) and the hypoxic and recovery groups (P less than 0-012). The decrease in necrotic cells may be due to a large number of elderly and effete cells, which would normally have undergone degeneration over a period of weeks, dying rapidly after the onset of hypoxia, thus temporarily reducing the daily cell death rate.  (+info)

The preprophase band: possible involvement in the formation of the cell wall. (7/11754)

Numerous vesicles were observed among the microtubules of the "preprophase" band in prophase cells from root tips of Allium cepa. The content of these vesicles looks similar to the matrix of adjacent cell walls, and these vesicles often appear to be involved in exocytosis. In addition, the cell walls perpendicular to the plane of (beneath) the preprophase band are often differentially thickened compared to the walls lying parallel to the plane of the band. Our interpretation of these observations is that the preprophase band may direct or channel vesicles containing precursors of the cell wall to localized regions of wall synthesis. The incorporation of constituents of the cell wall into a narrow region defined by the position of the preprophase band may be a mechanism that ensures unidirecitonal growth of meristematic cells.  (+info)

Arsenic targets tubulins to induce apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. (8/11754)

Arsenic exhibits a differential toxicity to cancer cells. At a high concentration (>5 microM), As2O3 causes acute necrosis in various cell lines. At a lower concentration (0.5-5 microm), it induces myeloid cell maturation and an arrest in metaphase, leading to apoptosis. As2O3-treated cells have features found with both tubulin-assembling enhancers (Taxol) and inhibitors (colchicine). Prior treatment of monomeric tubulin with As2O3 markedly inhibits GTP-induced polymerization and microtubule formation in vitro but does not destabilize GTP-induced tubulin polymers. Cross-inhibition experiments indicate that As2O3 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of GTP binding to tubulin. These observations correlate with the three-dimensional structure of beta-tubulin and suggest that the cross-linking of two vicinal cysteine residues (Cys-12 and Cys-213) by trivalent arsenic inactivates the GTP binding site. Furthermore, exogenous GTP can prevent As2O3-induced mitotic arrest.  (+info)

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

Causes of Chromosomal Instability:

1. Genetic mutations: Mutations in genes that regulate the cell cycle or chromosome segregation can lead to CIN.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental agents such as radiation and certain chemicals can increase the risk of developing CIN.
3. Errors during DNA replication: Mistakes during DNA replication can also lead to CIN.

Types of Chromosomal Instability:

1. Aneuploidy: Cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes, either more or fewer than the normal diploid number (46 in humans).
2. Structural changes: Deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and other structural changes can occur in the chromosomes.
3. Unstable chromosome structures: Chromosomes with abnormal shapes or structures, such as telomere shortening, centromere instability, or chromosome breaks, can also lead to CIN.

Effects of Chromosomal Instability:

1. Cancer: CIN can increase the risk of developing cancer by disrupting normal cellular processes and leading to genetic mutations.
2. Aging: CIN can contribute to aging by shortening telomeres, which are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that help maintain their stability.
3. Neurodegenerative diseases: CIN has been implicated in the development of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
4. Infertility: CIN can lead to infertility by disrupting normal meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation during gametogenesis.

Detection and Diagnosis of Chromosomal Instability:

1. Karyotyping: This is a technique used to visualize the entire set of chromosomes in a cell. It can help identify structural abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations.
2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): This technique uses fluorescent probes to detect specific DNA sequences or proteins on chromosomes. It can help identify changes in chromosome structure or number.
3. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): This technique compares the genetic material of a sample to a reference genome to identify copy number changes.
4. Next-generation sequencing (NGS): This technique can identify point mutations and other genetic changes in DNA.

Treatment and Management of Chromosomal Instability:

1. Cancer treatment: Depending on the type and stage of cancer, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery may be used to eliminate cancer cells with CIN.
2. Prenatal testing: Pregnant women with a family history of CIN can undergo prenatal testing to detect chromosomal abnormalities in their fetuses.
3. Genetic counseling: Individuals with a family history of CIN can consult with a genetic counselor to discuss risk factors and potential testing options.
4. Lifestyle modifications: Making healthy lifestyle choices such as maintaining a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and not smoking can help reduce the risk of developing cancer and other diseases associated with CIN.

In conclusion, chromosomal instability is a common feature of many human diseases, including cancer, and can be caused by a variety of factors. The diagnosis and management of CIN require a multidisciplinary approach that includes cytogenetic analysis, molecular diagnostics, and clinical evaluation. Understanding the causes and consequences of CIN is crucial for developing effective therapies and improving patient outcomes.

There are several types of aneuploidy, including:

1. Trisomy: This is the presence of an extra copy of a chromosome. For example, Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).
2. Monosomy: This is the absence of a chromosome.
3. Mosaicism: This is the presence of both normal and abnormal cells in the body.
4. Uniparental disomy: This is the presence of two copies of a chromosome from one parent, rather than one copy each from both parents.

Aneuploidy can occur due to various factors such as errors during cell division, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or inheritance of an abnormal number of chromosomes from one's parents. The risk of aneuploidy increases with age, especially for women over the age of 35, as their eggs are more prone to errors during meiosis (the process by which egg cells are produced).

Aneuploidy can be diagnosed through various methods such as karyotyping (examining chromosomes under a microscope), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or quantitative PCR. Treatment for aneuploidy depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused. In some cases, treatment may involve managing symptoms, while in others, it may involve correcting the genetic abnormality itself.

In summary, aneuploidy is a condition where there is an abnormal number of chromosomes present in a cell, which can lead to various developmental and health problems. It can occur due to various factors and can be diagnosed through different methods. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and the specific health problems it has caused.

A, normal mitosis; B, chromatin bridge; C, multipolar mitosis; D, ring mitosis; E, dispersed mitosis; F, asymmetrical mitosis; ... The cells at the surface of hydra undergo mitosis and form a mass called a bud. Mitosis continues in the cells of the bud and ... Therefore, mitosis is also known as equational division. In general, mitosis is preceded by S phase of interphase (during which ... Mitosis varies between organisms. For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down ...
... of the total cell length before the cell enters mitosis. When the cell enters mitosis, Cdr2 is distributed diffusely through ... Cdr2 is a member of the GIN4 family of kinases, which prevent progression of mitosis if there is a problem with septin. The N- ... Thus, Cdr2 is non-essential to the decision to enter mitosis. Pom1 is distributed in a gradient from the cell tips, with the ... However, the cells still enter mitosis, presumably because Cdr2 is the link in only one pathway that couples cell length to ...
Stegmeier F, Amon A (2004). "Closing mitosis: the functions of the Cdc14 phosphatase and its regulation". Annu. Rev. Genet. 38 ... Visintin, R; Hwang, ES; Amon, A (1999). "Cfi1 prevents premature exit from mitosis by anchoring Cdc14 phosphatase in the ... April 1999). "Exit from mitosis is triggered by Tem1-dependent release of the protein phosphatase Cdc14 from nucleolar RENT ... This "simple" mitotic exit model became complicated as additional roles in mitosis were attributed to ScCdc14. These included ...
In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA replication occurs ... In cell biology, mitosis (/maɪˈtoʊsɪs/) is a part of the cell cycle, in which, replicated chromosomes are separated into two ... The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology (Gall JG, McIntosh JR, eds.) contains ... In this stage there is a cytoplasmic division that occurs at the end of either mitosis or meiosis. At this stage there is a ...
The unstable form of a microtubule is often found in cells that are undergoing rapid changes such as mitosis. The unstable form ... Microtubule-associated protein Kinesin Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (January 2002). "Mitosis". ... dissection of the regulatory role of multisite phosphorylation during mitosis". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (9): 5530- ...
... and mitosis: a terminological criticism. Ann Bot (Rome) 43: 101-140. link. Carter JS (2012-10-27). "Mitosis". ... Unlike in mitosis, only the cohesin from the chromosome arms is degraded while the cohesin surrounding the centromere remains ... These cells undergo mitosis to create the organism. Many fungi and many protozoa utilize the haplontic life cycle.[citation ... Meiosis uses many of the same mechanisms as mitosis, the type of cell division used by eukaryotes to divide one cell into two ...
"Mitosis". www.ck12.org. Retrieved 2020-05-29. "Principles of Epidemiology , Lesson 1 - Section 10". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-18. ...
Most of McIntosh's work focuses on the process of mitosis in the cell. Mitosis is the process of cell division that includes ... In mitosis, there are multiple phases. In prophase, the DNA starts to package itself for division and microtubules reorganize ... Here, McIntosh explored the possibility of kinesin as an important part of mitosis, as it can be found in the mitotic spindle. ... Here, McIntosh explored the possibility of kinesin as an important part of mitosis, as it can be found in the mitotic spindle. ...
"Blue Mitosis". Journal of European Molecular Biology Organization. 31: Cover. 16 May 2012. "Orange Electrophoresis". Genetics. ...
Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J. (2019). "Urolophus mitosis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e. ... The mitotic stingaree (Urolophus mitosis) or blotched stingaree, is a little-known species of stingray in the family ... in which they gave it the specific epithet mitosis (derived from the Greek mitos, meaning "thread") in reference to its unique ... such as that they resemble cells during mitosis. The blotches are variable in shape but evenly spaced. The underside and caudal ...
Soule, Alexander (2008-03-17). "Financial Mitosis". Fairfield County Business Journal. Retrieved 2011-02-03. Farber, Dan. "SAP ...
"Mitosis". Chapter 10 in the Textbook "Cells", B. Lewin, L. Cassimeris, V.R. Lingappa, and G. Plopper, Eds. Jones and Bartlett, ... Mitosis through the microscope: advances in seeing inside live dividing cells. Science 300:91-96. Maiato, H., A. Khodjakov and ... Mitosis and Meiosis, Volume 61 (Methods in Cell Biology) [Paperback] Conly L. Rieder (Editor), Leslie Wilson (Series Editor), ... "Mitosis". In "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 10th edition". Pp. 273-278 Kirschner, Marc W.; Mitchison, Tim ...
Mitosis is the final part of the cell cycle and follows interphase. It is composed of four phases - prophase, metaphase, ... Mitosis was found to be the most temperature-sensitive part of the cell cycle. Pre-cytokinesis mitotic arrest was visible ... As mitosis concludes, the spindle fibers disappear and the nuclear membrane reforms around each of the two sets of chromosomes ... After successful mitosis, the cell physically splits into two identical daughter cells in a process called cytokinesis, and ...
mitosis The normal division of a nucleus. Results in two child nuclei with the same number of chromosomes as the parent. ... Contrast with mitosis. merosporangium A sporangium that is a cylindrical outgrowth from the swollen tip of a sporangiophore. A ... mitosporic fungi Purely asexual fungi that reproduce by mitosis. mold A fungus of very small size, usually with microscopic ... by mitosis. mitospore A zoospore from a mitosporangium. From Gr. mitos, thread. ...
The fourth undergoes mitosis. The two cells exchange a micronucleus. The cells then separate. The micronuclei in each cell fuse ... Mitosis occurs three times, giving rise to eight micronuclei. Four of the new micronuclei transform into macronuclei, and the ... The presence of alveoli, the structure of the cilia, the form of mitosis and various other details indicate a close ... During fission, the micronucleus undergoes mitosis and the macronucleus elongates and undergoes amitosis (except among the ...
"Disruption of Mitosis" (PDF). The United States Environmental Protection Agency. "Regulatory Determination 2 for Contaminants ...
Wolniak, S. M., P. K. Hepler, and W. T. Jackson (1980). "Detection of the membrane-calcium distribution during mitosis in ... Wick, S. M.; P. K. Hepler (1980). "Localization of Ca++-containing antimonate precipitates during mitosis". Journal of Cell ... Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1982). "Calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates cytokinin-like mitosis in Funaria". Science. 217 ( ... Hepler, P. K. (1989). "Calcium transients during mitosis: Observations in flux". Journal of Cell Biology. 109 (6): 2567-2573. ...
Auxospores divide by mitosis. The term sporogenesis can also refer to endospore formation in bacteria, which allows the cells ... In some cases, sporogenesis occurs via mitosis (e.g. in some fungi and algae). Mitotic sporogenesis is a form of asexual ... The germinating oospore undergoes mitosis and gives rise to diploid hyphae which reproduce asexually via mitotic zoospores as ...
Entry into the S phase causes DNA replication and ultimately mitosis, which are responsible for cell proliferation. This ... Kaldis P, Pagano M (December 2009). "Wnt signaling in mitosis". Developmental Cell. 17 (6): 749-50. doi:10.1016/j.devcel. ...
The first cycle in an equal mitosis by which a mother cell produces two similar daughter epimastigotes. They remain attach to ... The nucleus undergoes mitosis. Cytokinesis progresses from the anterior to posterior. Division completes with abscission. In ... The nuclear membrane remains intact and the chromosomes do not condense during mitosis. The basal body, unlike the centrosome ... The second cycle, which usually occurs in late-stage infection, involves unequal mitosis that produces two different daughter ...
Heald, Rebecca (2007). "Brinkley-Fest of Mitosis". Developmental Cell. 13 (2): 168-76. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2007.07.010. PMID ... "Brinkley-Fest of Mitosis" in 2007. Brinkley passed away on 10 November 2020, at the age of 84. Brinkley is attempting to ... a complex protein structure that guides chromosomes to split evenly between daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis. He ...
Molecular Motors in Mitosis. 21 (3): 325-332. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2010.01.022. ISSN 1084-9521. PMID 20144910. Lavini, Corrado ...
Mitosis in heterobasidiomycetous yeasts. I. Leucosporidium scottii (Candida scottii). Journal of Cell Science 10: 857-881. ...
"Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance , Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021. Jay Phelan (30 April ... Plants use meiosis to produce spores that develop into multicellular haploid gametophytes which produce gametes by mitosis. The ... The pollen then produces sperm by mitosis and releases them for fertilization.[clarification needed] Coenogamete "gamete , ...
The fourth undergoes mitosis. The two cells exchange a micronucleus. The cells then separate. The micronuclei in each cell fuse ... Mitosis occurs three times, giving rise to eight micronuclei. Four of the new micronuclei transform into macronuclei, and the ... In the asexual fission phase of growth, during which cell divisions occur by mitosis rather than meiosis, clonal aging occurs ... and the micronuclei undergo mitosis. The cell then divides transversally, and each new cell obtains a copy of the micronucleus ...
Accordingly, one of the main problems of counting mitosis has been the reproducibility. Thus, the need for standardized ... Baak, J. P. (July 1990). "Mitosis counting in tumors". Human Pathology. 21 (7): 683-685. doi:10.1016/0046-8177(90)90026-2. ISSN ... cells undergoing mitosis) through a light microscope on H&E stained sections. It is usually expressed as the number of cells ... such as 10 mitoses in 10 high power fields. Since the field of vision area can vary considerably between different microscopes ...
He discovered mitosis in plants. Eduard Strasburger was born in Warsaw, Congress Poland, the son of Krystyna Anna (von Schütz) ... On Cell Formation and Cell Division, 1876 - a book in which he set forth the basic principles of mitosis. Ueber das Verhalten ...
It is known that survivin associates with microtubules of the mitotic spindle at the start of mitosis. It has been shown in the ... Mita AC, Mita MM, Nawrocki ST, Giles FJ (August 2008). "Survivin: key regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and novel target for ... It is known that Survivin localizes to the mitotic spindle by interaction with tubulin during mitosis and may play a ... While the mechanism by which survivin may regulate cell mitosis and cytokinesis is not known, the observations made on its ...
A common misconception is that interphase is the first stage of mitosis, but since mitosis is the division of the nucleus, ... Mitosis and cytokinesis, however, are separate from interphase. DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired during interphase by ... "The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial". The Biology Project - Cell Biology. University of Arizona. Cummings MR (2014). Human ... During interphase, the cell grows (G1), replicates its DNA (S) and prepares for mitosis (G2). A cell in interphase is not ...
After mitosis occurs within the daughter cells, they have the correct number of genes which are a mix of the two parents' genes ... Homologous chromosomes do not function the same in mitosis as they do in meiosis. Prior to every single mitotic division a cell ... If any crossing over does occur between sister chromatids during mitosis, it does not produce any new recombinant genotypes. ... ISBN 978-0-87893-978-7. "The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial". The Biology Project. University of Arizona. Oct 2004. Lewis, E. B ...
Mitosis quizzes about important details and events in every section of the book. ... The next two major events that take place in mitosis are the alignment of chromosomes at the center of the cell and the ... Metaphase can occupy a large portion of the total time of mitosis because chromosome alignment at the center of the cell on the ...
FREE online interactive quizzes on mitosis, Biology quizzes & activities on cells, human organ systems, botany, zoology and ... The interphase and mitosis together constitute the cell cycle.. True. False Answer: Answer: True. The interphase and mitosis ... Which stage of mitosis is depicted in the diagram below? Telophase. Metaphase Anaphase Prophase ... Which stage of mitosis is depicted in the diagram below? Anaphase Prophase. Metaphase Telophase ...
PART II Mitosis Skit Have students write and perform a skit to show the process of mitosis, using the loose guidelines that ... How the skit represented the process of mitosis; a review of the players of mitosis (e.g., cell membranes, chromosomes); and ... www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm See each phase of mitosis as it happens by clicking the forward arrow button in this animation. ... SCIENCE: Mitosis. NOTE: This lesson plan can be adapted to use with 6 through 8 graders with or without disabilities. Lesson ...
... mitosis fonts Search like Mitosis - free and commercial fonts ... We indexed 1 fonts with title similar to mitosis. ALL FONTS ...
... seanmtracey/image-mitosis: Use the power of the cloudz to generate map tiles super-quick (hopefully...) ... seanmtracey/image-mitosis. This commit does not belong to any branch on this repository, and may belong to a fork outside of ... Image Mitosis Purpose Installation and Running (locally) Building dependencies for OpenWhisk (w. Node 8.9.1), and packaging + ... Image Mitosis. An experiment in measuring the efficiency and performance of various serverless cloud platforms (starting with ...
The SnapShot begins in late G2 phase, with the activation of the central driver of mitosis, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) at ... we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis. These events have been mapped using Minardo (Ma et al ... A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise temporal addition and removal of over 32,000 phosphorylation events by a ... while clicking on a phosphosite opens a popup detailing the role of this site in regulating mitosis. ...
The rate of loop extrusion is smaller at the start of mitosis and increases as the cells approach the metaphase. The mean loop ... Abstract: S08.00001 : Structural changes in chromosomes driven by multiple condensin motors during mitosis*. 8:00 AM-8:36 AM ... by multiple condensin I and II motors in order to investigate the changes in chromosome organization during mitosis. The theory ...
Home » Chromator is required for proper microtubule spindle formation and mitosis in Drosophila ... Chromator is required for proper microtubule spindle formation and mitosis in Drosophila ... Chromator is required for proper microtubule spindle formation and mitosis in Drosophila. ...
DNA replication and spindle checkpoints cooperate during S phase to delay mitosis and preserve genome integrity. Magiera, M. M ... DNA replication and spindle checkpoints cooperate during S phase to delay mitosis and preserve genome integrity. ...
Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processe. mitosis, ... Keywords: mitosis, meiosis, cell division, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, somatic cells, gametes, haploid cells, ...
Mitosis 2018. Drawing series. Ink, paper. 40 x 26 in ...
Cell division: cleaning the nucleus without detergents (Austrian Institute of Molecular Biotechnology). Mitosis, or cell ...
This is the phase of mitosis where the cell performs its normal activities for life. (MRS. GONE without the R) ...
Images of Hela cells expressing a live cell fluorescent mitosis biosensor as they go through cell division. The images start ... The pulse of mitosis A new fluorescent biosensor allows mitosis to be monitored simultaneously in a large number of cells. ... Images of Hela cells expressing a live cell fluorescent mitosis biosensor as they go through cell division. The images start ...
Focus on Mitosis. Ethan Hu •October 12, 2017Grade 9, News This week, the grade 9 science class began their biology unit on ... Through the use of microslide viewers, students studied the phases of mitosis in both plant and animal cell division. The class ...
Puzzle Round 10 - MitosisReply 10 posts • Page 1 of 1 • 1 ...
... mitosis (which does not change the ploidy level) to produce an adult organism (still 2n) of the next generation.. In sexual ... This diagram shows a diploid nucleus (2n=8) in which chromosome replication has occurred in preparation for mitosis (top) and ... meiosis (bottom). The nucleus at top right is now in prophase of mitosis; the nucleus at bottom right is now in prophase I of ...
Two specimens are commonly used by biologists to study mitosis: the blastula of a whitefish and the root tip of an onion. The ... Home / 2. Microscope Slides & Accessories / Slides & Accessories / MR002 - Mitosis, Onion Root Tip. ... whitefish embryo is a good place to look at mitosis because these cells are rapidly dividing as the fish embryo is growing ...
How are mitosis and meiosis similar. What role do DNA polymerase have in DNA replication ...
title = "Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix",. abstract = "The mechanical events of mitosis depend on the action of ... Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix. / Scholey, Jonathan M.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Sharp, David J. In: Journal of Cell Biology ... Scholey, J. M., Rogers, G. C., & Sharp, D. J. (2001). Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix. Journal of Cell Biology, 154(2), ... Scholey, JM, Rogers, GC & Sharp, DJ 2001, Mitosis, microtubules, and the matrix, Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 154, no. 2, pp ...
In anaphase 1 of mitosis the sister chromatids do separate.. Is interphase part of mitosis?. Interphase is not part of mitosis ... Is meiosis the same as mitosis?. Cells divide and reproduce in two ways, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis results in two identical ... How is chromosome number maintained in mitosis?. Mitosis. Thus, in the Mitosis cell division, the two resulting daughter cells ... Does meiosis involve mitosis?. Mitosis involves the division of body cells, while meiosis involves the division of sex cells. ...
... Item Number: PS0035 ... This slide is a lateral section showing all stages of mitosis in an onion. ...
Mitosis includes one division , while meiosis includes two.. What are three ways mitosis and meiosis are different?. Mitosis ... Mitosis includes one division , while meiosis includes two.. What are 4 differences between mitosis and meiosis?. 4. Mitosis ... What are 3 differences between mitosis and meiosis?. Describe 3 differences between mitosis and meiosis. … Mitosis produces ... Mitosis gives two nuclei, and hence two cells, while meiosis gives four. Mitosis gives identical cells to each other and to the ...
24 posts related to Mitosis Worksheet & Diagram Identification Answer Key. Mitosis Worksheet And Diagram Identification Answer ...
The process of mitosis and its stages have been discussed in detail. ... Mitosis can be defined as "the type of cell division by which a single cell divides in such a way as to produce two genetically ... Mitosis occurs in all somatic cells, i.e., pertaining to cells of the body except those of the reproductive parts, namely, ... The Process of Mitosis. Interphase. Interphase, also referred to as interkinesis, generally is not regarded as a segment of ...
Dose-Dependent Transmissibility of Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes at First Mitosis. II. Biological Effectiveness ...
Yang Y, Yu H. Partner switching for Ran during the mitosis dance. Journal of molecular cell biology. 2018 Feb 1;10(1):89-90. ... Yang, Y & Yu, H 2018, Partner switching for Ran during the mitosis dance, Journal of molecular cell biology, vol. 10, no. 1, ... Yang, Y., & Yu, H. (2018). Partner switching for Ran during the mitosis dance. Journal of molecular cell biology, 10(1), 89-90 ... Partner switching for Ran during the mitosis dance. / Yang, Yang; Yu, Hongtao. In: Journal of molecular cell biology, Vol. 10, ...
Mitosis. The process of cell division.. Motor dysfunction. Difficulty moving.. Mucosa. The lining of certain body passages, ...
1980) Effect of plumbagin on cell growth and mitosis. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository. Item Type:. ...
Dunaliella salina; Red light; Mitosis inhibitor; Phytoene desaturase inhibitor; Phytoene; Phytofluene. Subjects:. Q Science , ... Phytoene and phytofluene overproduction by Dunaliella salina using the mitosis inhibitor chlorpropham Phytoene and phytofluene ... Chlorpropham is a well-known carbamate herbicide and plant growth regulator that inhibits mitosis and cell division. ... ORCID: 0000-0001-7193-4570 (2020) Phytoene and phytofluene overproduction by Dunaliella salina using the mitosis inhibitor ...
  • 16. During mitosis, loosely arranged strands of chromosomes become coiled, shortened and distinct during the metaphase. (syvum.com)
  • The rate of loop extrusion is smaller at the start of mitosis and increases as the cells approach the metaphase. (aps.org)
  • A liver biopsy performed showed changes consistent with chronic hepatitis C along with many scattered mitoses arrested in metaphase in the hepatocytes that have been referred to as "ring" mitoses. (nih.gov)
  • Prophase is the first phase of mitosis. (syvum.com)
  • Students should divide the poster board into five sections (one for each phase of mitosis) and use what they have learned to depict each phase. (digitalwish.com)
  • This is the phase of mitosis where the cell performs its normal activities for life. (sliderbase.com)
  • Benchmark Number: SC.7.L.16.3 Benchmark Description: Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis. (digitalwish.com)
  • Students will also develop and perform a skit about the phases of mitosis. (digitalwish.com)
  • This lesson will introduce students to the step-by-step phases of mitosis in an effort to imprint on the young mind the idea that each cell is highly organized. (digitalwish.com)
  • Through the use of microslide viewers, students studied the phases of mitosis in both plant and animal cell division. (topsprogram.ca)
  • We found Sgt1 to be required for proper centrosome maturation and mitotic spindle assembly in mitosis. (wixsite.com)
  • After establishing my lab, we discovered the role of RanGTPase in regulating spindle assembly in mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • This diagram shows a diploid nucleus (2n=8) in which chromosome replication has occurred in preparation for mitosis (top) and meiosis (bottom). (researchpaper123.com)
  • Mitosis and meiosis are two important processes of cell division. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • The importance of mitosis and meiosis to an organism is apparent to living organisms considering that chromosomes contain genes and proper distribution of genes is vital for viable daughter cells. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • 14. The interphase and mitosis together constitute the cell cycle. (syvum.com)
  • The prophase is the longest stage of mitosis. (syvum.com)
  • During mitosis, a cell divides its duplicated genome into two identical daughter cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • 7. During which stage of mitosis do chromatids separate to form two sets of daughter chromosomes? (syvum.com)
  • 13. During which stage of mitosis does longitudinal splitting of the chromosomes occur? (syvum.com)
  • In this part of the lesson, students will create physical representations of mitosis on poster board, using a variety of the materials listed in the Planning Ahead section (e.g., yarn to represent chromosomes, lifesavers to represent centromeres). (digitalwish.com)
  • Before a cell divides, it undergoes a process called mitosis that copies its chromosomes and produces two identical nuclei. (nih.gov)
  • Mitosis represents that part of the cell cycle where the replicated chromosomes are separated into two identical nuclei. (byui.edu)
  • In this example, the high frequency of mitosis (arrows) is a repair response following hepatocyte loss secondary to treatment with a hepatotoxicant. (nih.gov)
  • However, the extent to which plant mitosis differs from that of animals at the level of the protein repertoire is uncertain, largely because of the difficulty in the identification and in vivo characterization of mitotic genes of plants . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we discuss protocols for mitosis imaging that can be combined with endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging or conditional RNA interference ( RNAi ) in the moss Physcomitrella patens, which is an emergent model plant for cell and developmental biology . (bvsalud.org)
  • Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS. (nih.gov)
  • Images of Hela cells expressing a live cell fluorescent mitosis biosensor as they go through cell division. (nature.com)
  • A new fluorescent biosensor allows mitosis to be monitored simultaneously in a large number of cells. (nature.com)
  • Finally, we have identified the human homologues for some of the new genes and downregulation of these in HeLa cells also resulted in severely defective chromosome congression and segregation during mitosis. (wixsite.com)
  • The cells of the zygote then divide by mitosis (which does not change the ploidy level) to produce an adult organism (still 2n) of the next generation. (researchpaper123.com)
  • A cell divides during mitosis to produce two identical daughter cells. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • Mitosis is responsible for regeneration, healing of the wound, and replacement of older cells. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • While during wound healing mitosis adds new cells to the damaged tissue site. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • Mitosis adds new cells to the growing body and different cells are specialized to perform different functions. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • A single cutting of a plant is transformed into a whole new plant due to the addition of new cells produced by mitosis. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • Similarly, during the process of cloning a single cell is divided into multiple identical cells by the mitosis process. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • Any malfunctioning in mitosis leads to unwanted tumors or cancer in which cells divide uncontrollably and form clusters of cells. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • The whitefish embryo is a good place to look at mitosis because these cells are rapidly dividing as the fish embryo is growing. (valleymicroscope.com)
  • The authors interpret the mechanism of multinucleation to be due to failure of cells to divide following mitosis. (cdc.gov)
  • While occasional mitoses can be seen in a normal liver, finding more than one or two mitoses per 10 high-power fields is not typical for adult rodents. (nih.gov)
  • The current liver biopsy was compared with the biopsy from 7 years ago, which appeared similar, however, ring mitoses were absent. (nih.gov)
  • Ring mitosis have been associated with colchicine-mediated tissue injury in various other sites, and their presence is felt to represent colchicine-induced liver injury in this case. (nih.gov)
  • Mitosis, or cell division, is a messy process. (crev.info)
  • The proper execution of each step of mitosis is important for normal cell division. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • An agent that prevents or interferes with cell division (mitosis). (cdc.gov)
  • The SnapShot begins in late G2 phase, with the activation of the central driver of mitosis, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) at the centrosome. (garvan.org.au)
  • We created a theoretical framework that describes the loop extrusion (LE) by multiple condensin I and II motors in order to investigate the changes in chromosome organization during mitosis. (aps.org)
  • Access it online or download it at https://books.byui.edu/bio_180/122_mitosis . (byui.edu)
  • If mitosis doesn't occur, then healing of the wound would be impossible. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • In this lesson, students will make physical representations of mitosis. (digitalwish.com)
  • This system has potential for use in the high-throughput study of mitosis and other intracellular processes, as is being done with various animal cell lines . (bvsalud.org)
  • Figure 1 Increased mitosis (arrows) in a male F344/N rat from an acute repeated-dose study. (nih.gov)
  • Two specimens are commonly used by biologists to study mitosis: the blastula of a whitefish and the root tip of an onion. (valleymicroscope.com)
  • The mitosis process is significant for multicellular organisms. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • During the process of mitosis, no crossing over takes place. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • Some living organisms reproduce asexually by the process called mitosis. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • In the online version, hovering the mouse over a track highlights all related events, while clicking on a phosphosite opens a popup detailing the role of this site in regulating mitosis. (garvan.org.au)
  • A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise temporal addition and removal of over 32,000 phosphorylation events by a network of kinases and counterbalancing phosphatases. (garvan.org.au)
  • The growth and development of a multicellular organism are courtesy of mitosis. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • The development and growth of multicellular organisms require mitosis. (ahmadcoaching.com)
  • 2015). Here, we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis. (garvan.org.au)
  • 1. During which stage of mitosis is the nuclear membrane broken into fragments? (syvum.com)