Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A mixture of the enzymes (streptokinase and streptodornase) produced by hemolytic streptococci. It is used topically on surface lesions and by instillation in closed body cavities to remove clotted blood or fibrinous or purulent accumulations. It is also used as a skin test antigen in evaluating generalized cell-mediated immunodeficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.-.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Protein factor(s) released by sensitized lymphocytes (and possibly other cells) that inhibit the movement of LEUKOCYTES, especially polymorphonuclear cells, away from their site of release. Assays for these factors are used as tests for cellular immunity. Two of the common assays are the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION CAPILLARY TUBE TECHNIQUE (LMCT) and the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION AGAROSE TEST (LMAT).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.

Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (1/2831)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (2/2831)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (3/2831)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Activation of IkappaB kinase beta by protein kinase C isoforms. (4/2831)

The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (lambda/iotaPKC and zetaPKC) have been shown to be critically involved in important cell functions such as proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the atypical PKCs are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and are required for the activation of NF-kappaB by this cytokine through a mechanism that most probably involves the phosphorylation of IkappaB. The inability of these PKC isotypes to directly phosphorylate IkappaB led to the hypothesis that zetaPKC may use a putative IkappaB kinase to functionally inactivate IkappaB. Recently several groups have molecularly characterized and cloned two IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) which phosphorylate the residues in the IkappaB molecule that serve to target it for ubiquitination and degradation. In this study we have addressed the possibility that different PKCs may control NF-kappaB through the activation of the IKKs. We report here that alphaPKC as well as the atypical PKCs bind to the IKKs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of zetaPKC positively modulates IKKbeta activity but not that of IKKalpha, whereas the transfection of a zetaPKC dominant negative mutant severely impairs the activation of IKKbeta but not IKKalpha in TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. We also show that cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates IKKbeta, which is entirely dependent on the activity of alphaPKC but not that of the atypical isoforms. In contrast, the inhibition of alphaPKC does not affect the activation of IKKbeta by TNF-alpha. Interestingly, recombinant active zetaPKC and alphaPKC are able to stimulate in vitro the activity of IKKbeta but not that of IKKalpha. In addition, evidence is presented here that recombinant zetaPKC directly phosphorylates IKKbeta in vitro, involving Ser177 and Ser181. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for the PKC isoforms in the NF-kappaB pathway at the level of IKKbeta activation and IkappaB degradation.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (5/2831)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel angiopoietin family protein, angiopoietin-3. (6/2831)

Using homology-based PCR, we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel member (491 amino acids) of the angiopoietin (Ang) family from human adult heart cDNA and have designated it angiopoietin-3 (Ang3). The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal portions of Ang-3 contain the characteristic coiled-coil domain and fibrinogen-like domain that are conserved in other known Angs. Ang3 has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus (approximately 21 amino acids) that is typical of a signal sequence for protein secretion. Ang3 mRNA is most abundant in adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid gland, heart and small intestine in human adult tissues. Additionally, Ang3 is a secretory protein, but is not a mitogen in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 is a novel mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. (7/2831)

A mitogen for growth-arrested cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by heparin affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This mitogen was revealed to be tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), which is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. TFPI-2 was expressed in baby hamster kidney cells using a mammalian expression vector. Recombinant TFPI-2 (rTFPI-2) stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (1-500 nM). rTFPI-2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and stimulated early proto-oncogene c-fos mRNA expression in smooth muscle cells. MAPK, c-fos expression and the mitogenic activity were inhibited by a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase, PD098059. Thus, the mitogenic function of rTFPI-2 is considered to be mediated through MAPK pathway. TFPI has been reported to exhibit antiproliferative action after vascular smooth muscle injury in addition to the ability to inhibit activation of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. However, structurally similar TFPI-2 was found to have a mitogenic activity for the smooth muscle cell.  (+info)

Alternatively spliced EDA segment regulates fibronectin-dependent cell cycle progression and mitogenic signal transduction. (8/2831)

Fibronectin (FN) is comprised of multiple isoforms arising from alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. One of the alternatively spliced segments, EDA, is expressed prominently in embryonic development, malignant transformation, and wound healing. We showed previously that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in promoting cell spreading and cell migration because of its enhanced binding affinity to integrin alpha5beta1 (Manabe, R., Oh-e, N., Maeda, T., Fukuda, T., and Sekiguchi, K. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 295-307). In this study, we compared the cell cycle progression and its associated signal transduction events induced by FN isoforms with or without the EDA segment to examine whether the EDA segment modulates the cell proliferative potential of FN. We found that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in inducing G1-S phase transition. Inclusion of the EDA segment potentiated the ability of FN to induce expression of cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylation of pRb, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). EDA+ FN was also more potent than EDA- FN in promoting FN-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(Cas), but not focal adhesion kinase, which occurred in parallel with the activation of ERK2, suggesting that p130(Cas) may be involved in activation of ERK2. These results indicated that alternative splicing at the EDA region is a novel mechanism that promotes FN-induced cell cycle progression through up-regulation of integrin-mediated mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of the mitogenic property of pokeweed mitogen by erythrocytes. AU - Ohno, Ryuzo. AU - Kodera, Yoshihisa. AU - Ezaki, Kohji. AU - Tanimoto, Mitsune. AU - Iwamoto, Kohji. AU - Yamada, Kazumasa. PY - 1979/12/14. Y1 - 1979/12/14. N2 - In whole blood culture, pokeweed mitogen (PWM) is unable to stimulate human lymphocytes. This is because the mitogenic property of PWM is inactivated by erythrocytes, presumably due to absorption. The inactivation was observed with as few as 5 × 106/ml of human erythrocytes. Therefore, when PWM is used to study the functions of human lymphocytes, especially of suppressor T lymphocytes, erythrocytes should be removed from lymphocyte preparations for accurate analysis.. AB - In whole blood culture, pokeweed mitogen (PWM) is unable to stimulate human lymphocytes. This is because the mitogenic property of PWM is inactivated by erythrocytes, presumably due to absorption. The inactivation was observed with as few as 5 × 106/ml of human ...
OBJECTIVE In vivo, after subcutaneous injection, insulin glargine (21A-Gly-31B-Arg-32B-Arg-human insulin) is enzymatically processed into 21A-Gly-human insulin (metabolite 1 [M1]). 21A-Gly-des-30B-Thr-human insulin (metabolite 2 [M2]) is also found. In vitro, glargine exhibits slightly higher affinity, whereas M1 and M2 exhibit lower affinity for IGF-1 receptor, as well as mitogenic properties, versus human insulin. The aim of the study was to quantitate plasma concentrations of glargine, M1, and M2 after subcutaneous injection of glargine in male type 1 diabetic subjects. ...
Francois DT, Katona IM, June CH, et al. (1988). Examination of the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma on human B-cell proliferation induced by various B-cell mitogens. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 48 (3): 297-306. doi:10.1016/0090-1229(88)90023-2. PMID 3135963 ...
The hr-EGF is a peptide that stimulates cell proliferation and tissue healing.. Manufacturer: Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The CIGB is in charge of the hr-EGF production, filling and packaging of the final product.. PHARMACOLOGY. PHARMACOKINETICS. The biological activity of the EGF as a healing agent has been widely studied and documented in the literature. The EGF is a 53 amino acids single protein with a molecular weight of 6045 Dalton, and isoelectric point of 4,60. This molecule stimulates fibroblast and epithelial cell proliferation with a potent in vivo mitogenic activity on ectodermic and mesoderm cell, smooth muscle cell of blood vessels, fibroblast, and cheratinocytes.. The first biological effects of the EGF found were early eye opening and dental eruption in newborn mouse, when administered through parenteral route. Later, the molecule was isolated from humans. The EGF concentration is not detectable in blood, but blood-plaque contain high levels (≈ 500 ...
Clinical investigations into the presence and extent of antigen-specific T cell immunity are becoming more relevant at present. Therefore the necessity for antigen-specific functional CD4 T cell assays in routine diagnostic clinical laboratories is real. Recently, a whole blood technique involving flow cytometry and detection CD25 and CD134 (OX40) expression on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells (OX40 assay) was demonstrated to be highly accurate. The results obtained were concordant with those obtained from more traditional methods of antigen-specific T cell detection. Several studies have validated the preclinical use of this method against virus (e.g., CMV, EBV, HCV, HIV) or bacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis), which can also be used to evaluate general immunocompentence against mitogens.. Act-T4 Cell™ kit is intended to be used after incubating whole blood during 44-48 hours in a culture medium with the antigens/mitogens of interest. The use of a positive control (mitogens such ...
Consistent with recent observations (22), we found that Caco-2 cells did not express HGF but its receptor alone. The highest levels of c-Met (mRNA and protein) occurred 8-15 days after plating. HGF is known to stimulate the proliferation of most epithelial cells in vitro. In this study, we found that 10 ng/ml HGF exerted only a moderate mitogenic effect on Caco-2 cells, consistent with the results of other studies in which Caco-2 cells were incubated with the same concentration of HGF (22). This led to a modest shortening of the time required to reach confluence. The differentiation process therefore began earlier in the presence of HGF, and this may partly account for the large increase in expression of E-cadherin and villin proteins noted on immunoblots 4 days after plating. However, at that time, the magnitude of increase observed in the amounts of these two proteins in cells incubated with HGF compared with controls was much greater than that observed between cells before and after ...
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent mitogen for some fibroblast cell lines. Here we have examined the TNF-mediated changes in protein phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 and human FS-4 fibroblasts, and compared them with changes observed after the treatment of cells with other mitogens, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bombesin. TNF stimulated the rapid phosphorylation of two 41,000-Mr and two 43,000-Mr cytosol proteins on tyrosine, threonine and/or serine, as did PDGF, epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor; the increased levels of this mitogen-induced protein-tyrosine phosphorylation correlated well with the extent of mitogen-induced DNA synthesis as determined by the percentage of labelled nuclei. In contrast, bombesin, which is an even better mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells than TNF, stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of 41,000-Mr and 43,000-Mr proteins only to a limited extent. On the other hand, bombesin and PDGF stimulated the rapid serine phosphorylation of ...
A fundamental feature in the action of most mitogenic agents when added to quiescent cells in serum-free medium is that they exhibit striking synergistic effects when applied in specific combinations. A tenable hypothesis of growth control must provide a cogent explanation for the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex pattern of synergistic effects. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these synergistic effects arise, we studied the initial cellular responses associated with the interaction of mitogenic factors and hormones with the cell, including changes in cation fluxes, cyclic nucleotides and cellular phosphoproteins. In this paper, some of our recent results on the early signals and responses elicited by multiple growth-promoting agents in quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells will be summarized. On the basis of the emerging information, we propose a framework that integrates early events and synergistic effects in a unified hypothesis of growth control. ...
Ching, L; Walker, K Z.; and Marbrook, J, Spontaneous clones of cytotoxic t cells in culture. Iii. Discriminatory lysis of pairs of syngeneic blasts induced by different mitogens. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 979 ...
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EGF is a bioactive protein intended for use in cell culture applications. EGF has a profound effect on the differentiation of specific cells in vivo and is a potent mitogenic factor for a variety of cultured cells of both ectodermal and mesodermal origin.Advantages of using our EGF: High purityno in
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We isolated a group of genes that are rapidly and transiently induced in 3T3 cells by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). These genes are called TIS genes (for TPA-inducible sequences). Epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and TPA activated TIS gene expression with similar induction kinetics. TPA pretreatment to deplete protein kinase C activity did not abolish the subsequent induction of TIS gene expression by epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor; both peptide mitogens can activate TIS genes through a protein kinase C-independent pathway(s). We also analyzed TIS gene expression in three TPA-nonproliferative variants (3T3-TNR2, 3T3-TNR9, and A31T6E12A). The results indicate that (i) modulation of a TPA-responsive sodium-potassium-chloride transport system is not necessary for TIS gene induction either by TPA or by other mitogens and (ii) TIS gene induction is not sufficient to guarantee a proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation. ...
In the adult brain, multipotent progenitor cells have been identified in three areas: the ventricular-subventricular zone (VZ-SVZ), adjacent to the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles, the subgranular zone (SGZ), located at the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between the corpus callosum and the CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus. The neural progenitor cells of these regions express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB-1 or HER1). EGF, the most important ligand for the EGFR, is a potent mitogenic agent that stimulates proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation into the oligodendrocyte lineage. Other ErbB receptors also activate several intracellular pathways for oligodendrocyte specification, migration and survival. However the specific downstream pathways related to oligodendrogenesis and the hierarchic interaction among intracellular signaling cascades is not well-known. We summarize the current data regarding the role of
Severe, or even marginal, deficiencies of zinc lead to reversible dysfunctions of human T lymphocytes.. Zinc deficiency is easily produced in laboratory animals, with a prompt development of numerous abnormalities in immune functions. Zinc deficiency consistently leads to atrophy of the thymus and other lymphoid organs, to reduced lymphocyte numbers in tissues (especially in the T cell areas) and to lymphopenia. Zinc deficiency is accompanied by anergy, manifested predominantly by dysfunctions of cellmediated immunity, along with some depression in the production of T cell-dependent antibodies and splenic plaque-forming cells.. Zinc deficiency initiates a selective decrease in CD4f helper cell numbers. In vitro testing reveals a markedly reduced proliferative response by these cells to phytohemagglutinin and other mitogens. Natural killer cells also show decreased activity and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is reduced. In zinc-deficiency, lymphocytes have a reduced ability to produce interleukin 2 ...
Draber, P and Viklicky, V, The effect of antigenic modulation on mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3118 ...
Learn more about Pokeroot at St. Marks Hospital Pokeweed Uses Principal Proposed Uses We recommend against using pokeroot at all. ...
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Background: Recent studies suggest that acute sleep deprivation disrupts cellular immune responses by shifting T helper (Th) cell activity towards a Th2 cytokine profile. Since little is known about more long-term effects, we investigated how five days of sleep restriction would affect pro-inflammatory, chemotactic, Th1- and Th2 cytokine secretion. Methods: Nine healthy males participated in an experimental sleep protocol with two baseline sleep-wake cycles (sleep 23.00 - 07.00 h) followed by 5 days with restricted sleep (03.00 - 07.00 h). On the second baseline day and on the fifth day with restricted sleep, samples were drawn every third hour for determination of cytokines/chemokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL) -1 beta, IL-2, IL-4 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)) after in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Also leukocyte numbers, mononuclear cells and cortisol were analysed. Results: 5-days of sleep ...
We used a dominant inhibitory mutation of c-Ha-ras which changes Ser-17 to Asn-17 in the gene product p21 [p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras] to investigate ras function in mitogenic signal transduction. An NIH 3T3 cell line [NIH(M17)] was isolated that displayed inducible expression of the mutant Ha-ras gene (Ha-ras Asn-17) via the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat and was growth inhibited by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone induction on response of quiescent NIH(M17) cells to mitogens was then analyzed. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was completely blocked by p21(Asn-17) expression, and stimulation by serum, fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor was partially inhibited. However, the induction of fos, jun, and myc by EGF and TPA was not significantly inhibited in this cell line. An effect of p21(Asn-17) on fos induction was, however, demonstrated in transient expression assays in which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolism of phosphonium choline by Rat-2 fibroblasts. T2 - Effects of mitogenic stimulation studied using 31P NMR spectroscopy. AU - Aiken, Nanci R.. AU - Szwergold, Enjamin S.. AU - Kappler, Francis. AU - Stoyanova, Radka. AU - Kuesel, Annette C.. AU - Shaller, Calvin. AU - Brown, Truman R.. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. N2 - Phospholipid turnover increases with both mitogenic stimulation and oncogenic transformation. Recent 31P nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of human tumors, animal tumor models and cell systems have reported elevated phosphomonesters with growth and oncogenic transformation, as well as changes in these levels associated with treatment. In order to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying these changes, we used a phosphonium analog of choline and 31P NMR spectroscopy to study choline metabolism in quiescent and mitogenically stimulated Rat-2 fibroblasts. Cell growth status of these cells has a significant effect on choline ...
Studies carried out in many laboratories have demonstrated the activation of phospholipase D (PLD) by a variety of receptor agonists and in many cell types. The signal-dependent formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), by PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), may represent a novel and ubiquitous signal transduction pathway in mammalian cells. The mode(s) of coupling between agonist receptors and PLD activation are not well understood. Studies utilizing NIH-3T3 fibroblasts indicated that PLD activation by different mitogens involves distinct mechanisms. Protein kinase C (PKC) seems to play a role both as a mediator and as a modulator of PLD activation. The role of PKC was further examined in Swiss/3T3-derived fibroblasts which stably overexpress PKC-alpha. In these cells, both basal and agonist-stimulated PLD activity are higher than in control cells. In vitro analysis of PLD activity in detergent-solubilized cell membranes, utilizing exogenous C6-NBD-PC as fluorescent substrate, ...
Streptococcus mitogenic factor: distinct from previously described Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins; 271 aa residues, MW about 25 kDa; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank D13428
Colchicine, vinblastine, and vincristine inhibit the mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes by concanavalin A as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and the appearance of blast cells. The inhibitory effect of colchicine could not be accounted for by diminution in cell viability or by metaphase arrest of mitosis in the stimulated cells. Moreover, the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation was not due to blockage of thymidine transport or inhibition of DNA synthesis inasmuch as addition of colchicine had no effect on cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. The time of inhibition was correlated with the kinetics of cellular commitment to lectin activation and the kinetic data indicated that colchicine blocks stimulation early in the sequence of events following addition of the mitogen. These findings support the hypothesis that cytoplasmic microtubular function plays a role in the commitment of resting cells to undergo mitotic division. ...
The CD23 antigen (also called B6) is a 45 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein associated with MHC Class II antigen, which belongs to the C-type lectin family. CD23 is the low affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRII). CD23 antigen is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Expression of CD23 by B lymphocytes is up-regulated following mitogen or antigen activation. Soluble forms of CD23 are generated by proteolytic cleavage of the membrane molecule ...
The IGFs are mitogenic, polypeptide growth factors that stimulate the proliferation and survival of various cell types, including muscle, bone,
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In addition to mediating a number of metabolic functions, insulin also uses mitogenic pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. Many of these mitogenic responses are mediated by signals through the s
Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Pokeweed. List of various diseases cured by Pokeweed. How Pokeweed is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Names of Pokeweed in various languages of the world are also given.
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2) Ukrainian Anti-Cancer Institute, Margaretenstrasse 7, 1040 Vienna, Austria.. * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Summary: Using a cell-proliferation assay, the authors examined and compared the mitogenic effects of Ukrain and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as their synergic effects. It was found that even a short period of pretreatment of the cell with Ukrain had a potent synergic effect on PHA mitogenesis resulting in significantly higher cell stimulation indices than those of PHA alone. Moreover, it was found that a short period of PHA treatment of the cells is almost imperative for Ukrain to exert its mitogenic effects. The mitogenic effect of Ukrain on human PBMCs is consistent with a previous clinical report which found that circulating lymphocytes were significantly increased in cancer patients treated with Ukrain. Thus the in vitro assay used in these studies may serve as a prognostic assay for potential patient ...
Although liver regeneration occurring after partial hepatectomy (PH) is greatly reduced in aged mice, liver hyperplasia induced by xenobiotic mitogens was found to be age independent. Here, we investigated the potential utility of mitogens in stimulating liver regeneration in old mice subjected to two-third PH. Although virtually no hepatocytes entered S phase 48 h after PH, pretreatment (2 h prior to surgery) with 1,4-bis(2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)benzene (TCPOBOP), a ligand of constitutive androstane receptor, induced an increase of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and enhanced the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin A and proliferating cell nuclear antigen . Next, we investigated the potential utility of mitogens in the context of donor conditioning prior to living-related transplantation. Three days after TCPOBOP administration to intact young mice, an almost doubling of the liver mass and DNA content occurred; the regenerative response to two-third resection of the TCPOBOP-induced hyperplastic ...
Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo cell division only during embryonic development. This process can be disturbed by many gene mutations, resulting in myocardial hypoplasia Retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, is an important morphogen during development. Deficiency in vitamin A by dietary deprivation and mutation in Rxra, a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid, will lead to embryonic myocardial hypoplasia. It has been demonstrated that Rxra acts in the epicardium, a thin layer of cells enveloping the myocardium, to influence myocardium proliferation. Previous studies suggested that RXRA induces the secretion of mitogenic factors from the epicardium. In this study, we found that AGN193109, an RA antagonist, and retinoic acid have no effect on the production of mitogenic activity from a rat epicardial cell line, EMC, a mouse epicardial cell line, MEC1, or primary epicardial cells from chick embryos. Rxra knockdown via adenovirus-mediated RNAi does not reduce the ...
Genetic defects in the IFN-γ response pathway cause unique susceptibility to intracellular pathogens, particularly mycobacteria, but are rare and do not explain mycobacterial disease in the majority of affected patients. We postulated that acquired defects in macrophage activation by IFN-γ may cause a similar immunological phenotype and thus explain the occurrence of disseminated intracellular infections in some patients without identifiable immune deficiency. Macrophage activation in response to IFN-γ and IFN-γ production were studied in whole blood and PBMCs of 3 patients with severe, unexplained nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. In all 3 patients, IFN-γ was undetectable following mitogen stimulation of whole blood, but significant quantities were detectable in the supernatants of PBMCs when stimulated in the absence of the patients own plasma. The patients plasma inhibited the ability of IFN-γ to increase production of TNF-α by both autologous and normal donor PBMCs, and ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
PAH is a high mortality disease with no medical cure resulting in increased PAP culminating in RV failure and premature death.The vasculopathy of PAH is characterized by medial hypertrophy coupled with obliterative intimal and plexiform lesions.Current therapies do not reverse the vasculopathy.There is a need to identify additional therapeutic targets.The vasculopathy of PAH is typified by increased rates of proliferation thus raising interest in identification of novel anti-proliferative therapeutic targets. Objective: To elucidate the role of MEK/ERK/RSK90 on mitogen-induced proliferation in human PASMC. Methods: PASMC were exposed to select mitogens such as ET-1, serotonin (5-HT) and PDGF for 24h and assessed for proliferative responses using the MTT assay.To assess the role of the MEK/ERK/RSK90 signaling pathway, cultures were preincubated with select MAP Kinase inhibitors including MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059), p90 Ribosomal S6 ...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US each year. The vast majority of these fatalities are not caused by primary tumor burden but rather by metastases to vital organs. The clinical shift from localized to metastatic breast cancer entails a requirement that cancer cells activate an invasive program and be able to adapt to changing extracellular stimuli. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway represents a potential signaling switch for the transition from primary to metastatic cancer. p38 is a member of the MAPK family of stress and mitogen-responsive protein kinases and consists of four closely related isoforms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. p38 serves as a major signaling hub in the cell, integrating signals from a variety of signaling pathways and channeling these stimuli into cellular responses through an array of effector proteins. The four isoforms show unique expression patterns in normal tissue: alpha, beta, and delta are ...
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Polyclonal antibody for NAK/TBK1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. NAK/TBK1 information: Molecular Weight: 83642 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm . Upon mitogen stimulation or triggering
Attaining proper organ size during development and regeneration hinges on the activity of mitogenic factors. Here, we performed a large-scale chemical screen in embryonic zebrafish to identify cardiomyocyte mitogens. Although commonly considered anti-proliferative, vitamin D analogs like alfacalcidol had rapid, potent mitogenic effects on embryonic and adult cardiomyocytes in vivo. Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic manipulation of vitamin D signaling controlled proliferation in multiple adult cell types and dictated growth rates in embryonic and juvenile zebrafish. Tissue-specific modulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling had organ-restricted effects, with cardiac VDR activation causing cardiomegaly. Alfacalcidol enhanced the regenerative response of injured zebrafish hearts, whereas VDR blockade inhibited regeneration. Alfacalcidol activated cardiac expression of genes associated with ErbB2 signaling, while ErbB2 inhibition blunted its effects on cell proliferation. Our findings ...
In quiescent cultures of 3T3 cells, plasminogen activator (PA) is found predominantly as a 75,000 dalton species. When quiescent cells are exposed to mitogenic agents such as phorbol myristate acetate, Ca++, or 25% serum, the absolute levels of PA in cell lysates may either increase or decrease. However, a consistent observation is that in the stimulated cultures PA is found predominantly as a 49,000 dalton species. This also is the predominant form of PA in growing and transformed cells. Concomitant with the mitogen-induced stimulation of the 49,000 dalton PA in quiescent cultures is a change in morphology to one that is characteristic of growing and transformed cells. The data suggest that PA is not operative in causing the morphological change that occurs with activation; however, the 49,000 dalton PA in particular is closely related to the pleiotypic response accompanying growth stimulation and transformation. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Synergistic effects on DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mitogens and dental plaque sonicates in man and macaque monkeys. by May J. Reed et al.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Upregulation of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor in compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed ...
Polyclonal activation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in vitro by preparations of Streptococcus pyogenesSu strain (OK-432) and other heat-killed strains was investigated. The...
Mechanism of human lymphocyte stimulation by concanavalin A: role of valence and surface binding sites.: A monovalent form of concanavalin A (m-Con A) has been
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating and Tissue Endothelin Immunoreactivity in Advanced Atherosclerosis. AU - Lerman, Amir. AU - Edwards, Brooks S.. AU - Hallett, John W.. AU - Heublein, Denise M.. AU - Sandberg, Sharon M.. AU - Burnett, John C.. PY - 1991/10/3. Y1 - 1991/10/3. N2 - Background. Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial injury and the proliferation of arterial smooth-muscle cells. The latter may be a result of the release of growth factors from the vessel wall; such growth factors may include an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide with mitogenic properties. We tested the hypothesis that plasma endothelin concentrations are elevated in persons with symptomatic atherosclerosis, independently of age. Methods. We measured plasma endothelin levels in 100 normal subjects and in 40 patients with atherosclerosis predominantly of the following types: aortic and peripheral vascular disease (14 patients), renovascular disease (9 patients), coronary artery disease (9 patients), and ...
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) [ (PUBMED:2546599) (PUBMED:1425569) (PUBMED:7640655) ] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In both mouse and human, the PDGF signalling network consists of four ligands, PDGFA-D, and two receptors, PDGFRalpha and PDGFRbeta. All PDGFs function as secreted, disulphide-linked homodimers, but only PDGFA and B can form functional heterodimers. PDGFRs also function as homo- and heterodimers. All known PDGFs have characteristic PDGF domains, which include eight conserved cysteines that are involved in inter- and intramolecular bonds. Alternate splicing of the A chain transcript can give rise to two different forms that differ only in their C-terminal extremity. The transforming protein of Woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV) (Simian sarcoma virus), encoded by the v-sis oncogene, is derived from the B chain of PDGF. PDGFs are mitogenic during early developmental stages, driving the proliferation of ...
0115]With respect to the 2-NMS series, it is observed that compound C-8 inhibits aFGF-induced mitogenic activity at lower concentrations than compound C-1; however, it is also toxic for quiescent fibroblasts within the concentration range in which it inhibits aFGF-induced mitogenic activity. Compounds C-12 and C-13 are also effective aFGF-induced mitogenesis activity inhibitors, although they have a high mitogenesis inductor activity even in the absence of aFGF. However, this last effect does not occur in compound C-9 which had the second best IC50 value, nor was the toxic effect described for compounds C-1 and C-8 on the quiescent fibroblasts observed, at least in the concentration range in which it inhibits aFGF-induced mitogenic activity. Two other compounds with an inhibitory activity that is slightly less than that of C-9 have further been found, specifically compounds C-10 and C-17 which, like C-9, were innocuous for the quiescent fibroblasts. Compounds C-15 and C-16 are aFGF-induced ...
Methods of Increasing Myotube Formation or Survival or Muscle Cell Mitogenesis Differentiation or Survival Using Neuregulin GGF ...
Smits, J.E., Bortolotti, G.R. and Tella, J.L. (1999) Simplifying the Phytohaemagglutinin Skin-Testing Technique in Studies of Avian Immunocompetence. Functional Ecology, 13, 567-572.
Mitogens, such as insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1), can activate the MAPK/ERK pathway, which can inhibit the TSC1/TSC2 ... Peterson RT, Schreiber SL (Mar 1998). "Translation control: connecting mitogens and the ribosome". Current Biology. 8 (7): R248 ...
... also known as epithelial mitogen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPGN gene. The protein encoded by this ... Epithelial mitogen". Schneider MR, Yarden Y (2014). "Structure and function of epigen, the last EGFR ligand". Semin. Cell Dev. ...
He named it lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF) because it was a lymphocyte mitogen. It was not until 1985 that interleukin 1 ... Gery I, Gershon RK, Waksman BH (Jul 1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. I. The responding cell". The ... Gery I, Waksman BH (Jul 1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. II. The cellular source of potentiating ... Gery I, Handschumacher RE (Mar 1974). "Potentiation of the T lymphocyte response to mitogens. III. Properties of the mediator(s ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). "Entrez Gene: MAPK14 mitogen- ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, also called p38-α, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK14 gene. MAPK14 ... Rose BA, Force T, Wang Y (Oct 2010). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart: angels versus demons in a heart- ... Marber MS, Rose B, Wang Y (Oct 2011). "The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway--a potential target for intervention in ...
ConA is a lymphocyte mitogen. Similar to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), it is a selective T cell mitogen relative to its effects on ... ConA is a plant mitogen, and is known for its ability to stimulate mouse T-cell subsets giving rise to four functionally ... Krauss S, Buttgereit F, Brand MD (Jun 1999). "Effects of the mitogen concanavalin A on pathways of thymocyte energy metabolism ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK4 gene. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 ... "Genomic loci of human mitogen-activated protein kinases". Oncogene. 9 (2): 647-9. PMID 8290275. "Entrez Gene: MAPK4 mitogen- ... Robinson MJ, Cobb MH (1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 9 (2): 180-6. doi:10.1016/ ... Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which then translocate into the nucleus ...
Carpenter G (1987). "Receptors for epidermal growth factor and other polypeptide mitogens". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 56 ( ... "Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T(84) cells is ... "Transgenic MUC1 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor and correlates with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAP2K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4". Marti, A; Luo Z; Cunningham C; Ohta Y; Hartwig J; Stossel T P; ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... 1997). "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 as a candidate tumor suppressor". Cancer Res. 57 (19): 4177-82. PMID ...
Linking to mitogen-activated protein kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (48): 30455-62. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.48.30455. PMID 9374537. ... Corbalan-Garcia S, Yang SS, Degenhardt KR, Bar-Sagi D (1996). "Identification of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Transgenic MUC1 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor and correlates with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
RAF/MEK/Mitogen-activated protein kinases; PKC/Ca2+/Calcineurin/Nuclear factor of activated T-cells; and the EGF cellular ... Gβγ G proteins to activate the Rho family of GTPases signaling proteins and Gi-Gβγ G proteins to activateRaf/MEK/mitogen- ... regulation of proliferation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
"Entrez Gene: MAP3K8 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8". Arthur JS, Ley SC (Sep 2013). "Mitogen-activated protein ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K8 gene. This gene was ... Chiariello M, Marinissen MJ, Gutkind JS (Mar 2000). "Multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways connect the ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), also known as stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4), is an enzyme that in ... 2008). "Implication of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in CD4+ T-cell infection ... Efimova T (2010). "p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates skin homeostasis and tumorigenesis". Cell Cycle. 9 (3): ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 13". Efimova T, Broome AM, Eckert RL (2004). "Protein kinase Cdelta regulates keratinocyte ...
4), These small GTPases are incorporated in the cell cycle that regulates signals via mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases ... Zhang Y, Dong C (November 2007). "Regulatory mechanisms of mitogen-activated kinase signaling". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6 (ERK6) or stress- ... 2008). "Implication of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in CD4+ T-cell infection ... Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family is a major mechanism for transduction of extracellular ... 2004). "Active mutants of the human p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (45): 47040-9. doi:10.1074/ ...
Viral infection and mitogens affect the expression of the Sp100 autoantigen. Cells grown in the presence of interferons (α, β, ...
Jensen LE, Whitehead AS (2003). "Pellino2 activates the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway". FEBS Lett. 545 (2-3): 199- ...
Schwager, J.; Hadji-Azlmi, I. (1984). "Mitogen-induced B-cell differentiation in Xenopus laevis". Differentiation. 27 (3): 182- ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK6 mitogen-activated protein kinase 6". MAP Kinase Resource . Boulton TG, Nye SH, Robbins DJ, et al. (1991). " ... Robinson MJ, Xu Be BE, Stippec S, Cobb MH (2002). "Different domains of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK3 and ERK2 ... is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and is most closely related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15, also known as MAPK15, ERK7, or ERK8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK15 ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK15 mitogen-activated protein kinase 15". Chia J, Tham KM, Gill DJ, Bard-Chapeau EA, Bard FA (2014). "ERK8 is a ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase family. MAP kinases are also known ... Qian Z, Okuhara D, Abe MK, Rosner MR (Jan 1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase- ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 3". Buggele WA, Johnson KE, Horvath CM (2012). "Influenza A virus infection ... Meloche S, Pouysségur J (2007). "The ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway as a master regulator of the G1- to S- ... Saxena M, Williams S, Brockdorff J, Gilman J, Mustelin T (April 1999). "Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK10 mitogen-activated protein kinase 10". Ito M, Yoshioka K, Akechi M, Yamashita S, Takamatsu N, Sugiyama K, ... Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis RJ (2000). "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the ... Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis RJ (February 2000). "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK11 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK11 mitogen-activated protein kinase 11". Mahlknecht U, Will J, Varin A, Hoelzer D, Herbein G (Sep 2004). " ... Stein B, Yang MX, Young DB, Janknecht R, Hunter T, Murray BW, Barbosa MS (1997). "p38-2, a novel mitogen-activated protein ... p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185386 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ...
Huang CY, Ferrell JE (Sep 1996). "Ultrasensitivity in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade". Proceedings of the ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (also known as JNK1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK8 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8". Raingeaud J, Gupta S, Rogers JS, Dickens M, Han J, Ulevitch RJ, Davis ... Meyer CF, Wang X, Chang C, Templeton D, Tan TH (April 1996). "Interaction between c-Rel and the mitogen-activated protein ... Chen Z, Cobb MH (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. Biol ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as MAPK1, p42MAPK, and ERK2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK1 ... Meloche S, Pouysségur J (2007). "The ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway as a master regulator of the G1- to S- ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1". "Dysmorphology data for Mapk1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Saxena M, Williams S, Brockdorff J, Gilman J, Mustelin T (April 1999). "Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 also known as MAP kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK7 gene. MAPK7 ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK7 mitogen-activated protein kinase 7". Hayashi M, Lee JD (Oct 2004). "Role of the BMK1/ERK5 signaling pathway ... Zheng Q, Yin G, Yan C, Cavet M, Berk BC (Mar 2004). "14-3-3beta binds to big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1/ERK5) and ... Warn-Cramer BJ, Lampe PD, Kurata WE, Kanemitsu MY, Loo LW, Eckhart W, Lau AF (1996). "Characterization of the mitogen-activated ...
... is a potent mitogen for colorectal cancer. Neurotensin has been implicated in the modulation of dopamine signaling ...
Chamond N, Cosson A, Coatnoan N, Minoprio P (June 2009). "Proline racemases are conserved mitogens: characterization of a ...
In culture, both molecules act as mitogens, prompting the proliferation of astrocytes. Moreover, addition of IFN-γ to brain ...
Chamond N, Cosson A, Coatnoan N, Minoprio P (June 2009). "Proline racemases are conserved mitogens: characterization of a ... "A B-cell mitogen from a pathogenic trypanosome is a eukaryotic proline racemase". Nature Medicine. 6 (8): 890-7. doi:10.1038/ ...
Ohno R, Kodera Y, Ezaki K, Tanimoto M, Iwamoto K, Yamada K. Inactivation of the mitogenic property of pokeweed mitogen by ... Inactivation of the mitogenic property of pokeweed mitogen by erythrocytes. In: Journal of Immunological Methods. 1979 ; Vol. ... Inactivation of the mitogenic property of pokeweed mitogen by erythrocytes. Ryuzo Ohno, Yoshihisa Kodera, Kohji Ezaki, Mitsune ... N2 - In whole blood culture, pokeweed mitogen (PWM) is unable to stimulate human lymphocytes. This is because the mitogenic ...
... gamma on human B-cell proliferation induced by various B-cell mitogens". Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 48 (3): 297-306. doi: ...
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis. A mitogen is usually ... Mitogens can be either endogenous or exogenous factors. Endogenous mitogens are used as controlled cell division is a normal ... Mitogens are often used to stimulate lymphocytes and thereby assess immune function. The most commonly used mitogens in ... Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved, leading to mitosis ...
Pokeweed mitogen is a mitogen derived from Phytolacca americana. It functions as a lectin. Pokeweed mitogens at the US National ...
Retrieved from "" ...
Mitogens. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsProteinsLectinsPlant Lectins ... Pokeweed Mitogens. Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, ... and ProteinsProteinsPlant ProteinsPlant LectinsPokeweed Mitogens ... Pokeweed Mitogens. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs ...
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ... The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 (MAPK3) in mammals. Since ERK1 and its close relative ERK2 ... MAPK Group (Jul 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in plants: a new nomenclature". Trends in Plant Science. 7 (7 ... Mitogen-activated protein kinases are catalytically inactive in their base form. In order to become active, they require ( ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1. X. laevis. 98.6. 360. NP_878308.2 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 1. C. lupus familiaris. 99.7. 356. NP_001185851.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * ... mitogen-activated kinase-2. N. crassa. 64.4. 353. XP_001700291.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 8. C. reinhardtii. 59.6. 343. NP_011554.3 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * ...
We show that the effects of junD inactivation are not cell autonomous and involve upregulation of the paracrine mitogen, TGF-α ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase;. VLCMR,. very low Ca2+, Mg2+ Ringer;. MKP-1,. MAP kinase phosphatase-1;. ΔP-MKP-1,. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, and ...
Lymphocyte IFN g Response to Antigens and/or Mitogens,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide ... Lymphocyte Antigen & Mitogen Proliferation Panel. 5. Lymphocyte Cytokine Responses to Antigens and/or Mitogens. 6. Lymphocyte ... Lymphocyte IL-4 Response to Antigens and/or Mitogens. 10. Lymphocyte IL-2 Response to Antigens and/or Mitogens. 11. Lymphocyte ... Antigen & Mitogen Proliferation Panel, Lymphocytes. 3. Human T-Lymphocyte Virus Type III Antibody. 4. ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinaseSAAS annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,Q6GWG4,Q6GWG4_9CHLO Mitogen-activated protein kinase (Fragment) OS=Dunaliella viridis OX=140095 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Mitogen-activated kinase R Loch Macdonald. [email protected] I was interested to read your work on MAPK and ...
A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. D T Dudley, L Pang, S J Decker, A J Bridges, A R Saltiel ... A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. D T Dudley, L Pang, S J Decker, A J Bridges, A R Saltiel ... A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. D T Dudley, L Pang, S J Decker, A J Bridges, and A R ... A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Hadden, J.W., and Coffey, R.G., 1982, Cyclic nucleotides in mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, Immunol. Today 3:299. ... The two most commonly employed plant lectin mitogens are phytohem-agglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). The initiation ... Hadden J.W., Hadden E.M., Coffey R.G. (1985) Membrane Events and Guanylate Cyclase Activation in Mitogen-Stimulated Lymphocytes ... Evidence for cyclic GMP and calcium mediation of lymphocyte activation by mitogens, J. Immunol. 119:1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
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Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997 Apr;9(2):180-6. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(97)80061-0. ... Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
This entry represents mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7), which is a component of a protein kinase ... Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase 7 (IPR017421). Short name: MAPKKK7 ...
Keywords: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; endometriosis; extracellular signal-regulated kinase; mitogen-activated protein kinase; p38 ... We examined the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK ... Possible pathophysiological roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in endometriosis. AJRI 2004; 52:306-311 © ...
A mitogen gradient of dorsal midline Wnts organizes growth in the CNS.. *Megason S ... Here we present evidence that dorsal-ventral growth of the developing spinal cord is regulated by a Wnt mitogen gradient. Wnt ... These data are rationalized in a mitogen gradient model that explains how proliferation and differentiation can be patterned ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Powell, A.E., and M.A. Leon (1970) Reversible interaction of human lymphocytes with the mitogen concanavalin A. Exp. Cell Res. ... Deknudt G. (1984) Importance of the Mitogen in Sister Chromatid Exchange Studies. In: Tice R.R., Hollaender A., Lambert B., ... Deknudt, Gh., and O. Kamra (1983) Influence of various mitogens on the yield of sister-chromatid exchanges, induced by ... Deknudt, Gh., and A. Leonard (1980) Stimulation of irradiated human lymphocytes by different mitogens. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 38 ...
... anti-tumor mitogen termed B. cerifora mitogen (BCM). Salt water extracts of the seed were shown to contain B cell mitogenic, ... Pa-2 and Pa-4 are the predominant mitogens in the roots. Pa-1 is mitogenic for both B and T cells, while the other four lectins ... Many mitogens are lectins only if we enlarge the category to include monovalent molecules with high carbohydrate affinity. ... How mitogens work is still imperfectly understood. Con-A has been shown to induce microtubule assembly in polymorphonuclear ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen- ... Mitogen-Activated+Protein+Kinase+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "" ...
derived mitogen typeBImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... tr,P74990,P74990_YERPU -derived mitogen typeB OS=Yersinia pseudotuberculosis GN=ypmB PE=4 SV=1 ...
Members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade are important for the establishment of a Leishmania mexicana ... LmxPK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase homologue of Leishmania mexicana with a potential role in parasite ...
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such ... The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such ... "Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Scaffolding Proteins: A Recount." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 4854-4884. ... Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Scaffolding Proteins: A Recount. Melanie Meister 1. ...
Abe MK, Saelzler MP, Espinosa R 3rd, Kahle KT, Hershenson MB, Le Beau MM, Rosner MR: ERK8, a new member of the mitogen- ... lcl,BSEQ0051829,Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (MAPK15) ATGTGCACCGTAGTGGACCCTCGCATTGTCCGGAGATACCTACTCAGGCGGCAGCTCGGG ... Activation of the Erk8 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by RET/PTC3, a constitutively active form of the RET proto- ... lcl,BSEQ0051828,Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 MCTVVDPRIVRRYLLRRQLGQGAYGIVWKAVDRRTGEVVAIKKIFDAFRDKTDAQRTFRE ...
We characterize the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase-3 and c-Jun-NH2- ... Mitogen-activated protein kinases have been implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury though their functional significance ... during mechanical ventilation.Methodology and Principle FindingsC57/BL6 wild-type mice and mice genetically deleted for mitogen ... sensitized to ventilator-induced lung injury with increased lung vascular permeability.ConclusionsWe demonstrate that mitogen- ...
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from ...
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK or MAP kinase ) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase ). (
  • Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved, leading to mitosis. (
  • One system particularly important in the proliferation of cancers is the mitogen-activated protein kinase, or MAPK, system. (
  • We have investigated the activity and function of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during neural specification in Xenopus . (
  • Because FGF signaling is mediated largely by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway ( 26 , 27 ), these studies suggest that MAPK may play a critical role in the specification of neural fate and anteroposterior pattern. (
  • We examined the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), i.e. extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK (p38) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in endometriotic stromal cells, and their possible pathophysiological roles in endometriosis in relation to proinflammatory substances. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K , MEK , MAPKK ) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). (
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. (
  • Recent research has focused on intracellular signaling pathways involved in the development of VILI, among which include the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, key regulators of inflammation [7] - [9] . (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are a family of evolutionarily conserved molecules that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses, by changing transcription as well as inducing posttranslational modifications of target proteins. (
  • We show here that stimulation of presynaptic AMPA receptors induces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) through a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase-dependent and Na + /Ca 2+ -independent mechanism. (
  • This Ser 118 is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in vitro and in cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in vivo. (
  • ERK5, also known as MAPK7 or "Big MAP-Kinase 1" (BMK1) belongs to the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) family, and therefore to the CGMC kinases in the human kinome (Manning et al. (
  • Here, we show that repeated swim stress caused activation of both κ-opioid receptor (KOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) coexpressed in GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, cortex, and hippocampus. (
  • It will look,in particular, at a protein enzyme called p38 mitogen−activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK for short)which controls the activation of several important pathways in the cell. (
  • Furthermore, STS stimulation induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). (
  • Mitochondrial contents, expression, and activation status of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) were compared between skeletal muscle samples from adiponectin gene knockout, adiponectin-reconstituted, and control mice. (
  • p38 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and has been identified as a downstream molecule in the adiponectin-signaling pathway ( 15 , 18 , 19 ). (
  • Prior UO results in reduced postischemic phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 4 (MKK4), and MKK3/6. (
  • Several reports have shown that bicyclic imidazoles, specific inhibitors of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), block cytokine synthesis at the translational level. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in the mitogenic signal transduction pathway and are essential components of the MAPK cascade, which includes MEK (also known as MAP kinase kinase), Raf-1, and Ras. (
  • Using virus-induced gene silencing, one or more mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades required for Mi-1- mediated aphid resistance were identified. (
  • Accordingly, we next examined downstream IL-6 signaling via the STAT3, STAT1, and Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. (
  • A new independent 41 page research with title 'Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 {Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 or MAPK/ERK Kinase Kinase 5 or MAP3K5 or EC} - Pipeline Review, H2 2017' guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. (
  • Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 (Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 or MAPK/ERK Kinase Kinase 5 or MAP3K5 or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (
  • The latest report Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 (Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 or MAPK/ERK Kinase Kinase 5 or MAP3K5 or EC targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 (Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 or MAPK/ERK Kinase Kinase 5 or MAP3K5 or EC - Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is a member of MAP kinase kinase kinase family encoded by MAP3K5 gene. (
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5 (Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase 1 or MAPK/ERK Kinase Kinase 5 or MAP3K5 or EC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • 8 Ras has emerged as a convergent molecular switch that integrates and propagates extracellular signals to downstream cascades, the best characterized of which are the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) mediate cellular signal transduction during stress responses, as well as diverse growth and developmental processes in eukaryotes. (
  • To understand how X. laevis survives under such stress, we studied the regulation pattern of key mitogen-activated protein kinases ( MAPK ) and their downstream transcription factors, along with several heat shock proteins in the oxygen sensitive brain and heart tissue of X. laevis under dehydration stress. (
  • A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. (
  • Activation of RAS leads to activation of several effector pathways, the best characterized of which are the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway ["the classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway"], the PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathway, and the Ral-GEFs ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • VdHog1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), controls microsclerotia formation, virulence, and stress response in V. dahliae . (
  • Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines can activate several inflammatory transduction pathways, including mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). (
  • This effect was possibly mediated by irisin-induced phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. (
  • Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway results in the transcriptional induction of cyclin D1 with activation of CDK4, phosphorylation of pRb, and continued cell cycle progression from G 1 to S ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Here, using gene knockout and knockdown techniques along with gene profiling, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), a poorly characterized atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulates the epithelial architecture in vertebrates. (
  • Growing evidence suggests that the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade represents a pivotal molecular circuitry participating directly or indirectly in prostate cancer evolution. (
  • The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has long been identified as a convergence point for numerous (normal and pathologic) signaling inputs, rendering it an appealing target for therapeutic intervention ( 4 ). (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases are catalytically inactive in their base form. (
  • Treatment of cells with a variety of growth factors triggers a phosphorylation cascade that leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, also called extracellular signal-regulated kinases, or ERKs). (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases have been implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury though their functional significance remains incomplete. (
  • What does p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases stand for? (
  • Couldn't find the full form or full meaning of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases? (
  • Got another good explanation for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ? (
  • Evidence from exercise studies in nondiabetics suggests that the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk1/2), p38, and c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase (Jnk) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important regulators of muscle adaptation. (
  • Differences between alveolar macrophages and cell lines in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) stimulated by lipo-polyscccharide (LPS). (
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators involved in the intracellular network of interacting proteins that transduce extracellular cues to intracellular responses. (
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. (
  • Integrin-mediated cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix leads to intracellular signaling, including activation of focal adhesion kinase with subsequent activation of downstream effector molecules including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 1 kinases ERK1 and ERK2 (Q. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. (
  • Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are cytoplasmic protein-Ser/Thr kinases that participate in signal transduction by catalysing the transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to a hydroxyl group of the protein substrate. (
  • A family of serine/threonine protein kinases, known as the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, is involved in extracellular signal perception during growth and differentiation processes in eukaryotic organisms. (
  • In fact, recent evidence has implicated various mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK) in cell survival in vivo. (
  • In this context, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a family of stress-activated MAPKs, 2 3 have been examined as the candidate kinases during preconditioning. (
  • It is well known from mammalian cells that anoxia has a major impact on the mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs. (
  • They are the final components of the cascades , activated by phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). (
  • MAPKs are subdivided in extracellular signal-regulated kinases ( ERKs ), c-Jun N-terminal kinases ( JNKs ), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases . (
  • Mitogen-activated kinases (MAPKs), consisting of three major categories of enzymes, ERK, p38, and JNK, couple cell-surface receptors to critical regulatory targets and gene transcription within cells. (
  • P53, combined with the Ras pathway, downregulate cyclin D1, a cyclin-dependent kinase if they are not stimulated by the presence of mitogens. (
  • Staurosporine Induces Platelet Apoptosis Through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway. (
  • With regard to its effect on upper-stream signal transduction, we found that fisetin reduced the expression of ultraviolet (UV)-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway. (
  • AZD6244 ( ARRY-142886 ) is an investigational anticancer drug that is designed to block a critical component (MEK (methyl ethyl ketone)) of a pathway (MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase pathway) that causes some lung cancer cells to grow. (
  • One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (
  • Cell signal transduction through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (
  • Presents a series of articles about cell signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. (
  • Mitogen activated kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) is a selective upstream regulator of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. (
  • In view of this, MPNST may be susceptible to inhibition of the activated Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by the B-Raf inhibitor sorafenib. (
  • With growth inhibition at the low nanomolar range, sorafenib, by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, may prove to be a novel therapy for patients with MPNST. (
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array of stimuli, such as mitogens , osmotic stress , heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines . (
  • Mitogens act primarily by influencing a set of proteins which are involved in the restriction of progression through the cell cycle. (
  • These proteins have functions that are not related to mitogenesis, but can be triggered by mitogens and do control the cell cycle. (
  • Meister M, Tomasovic A, Banning A, Tikkanen R. Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Scaffolding Proteins: A Recount. (
  • Cell interaction with adhesive proteins or growth factors in the extracellular matrix initiates Ras/ mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling. (
  • We offer LOC407835 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene Peptides and LOC407835 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (
  • Our LOC407835 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene Peptides and LOC407835 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Choose from our LOC407835 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene Peptides and Proteins. (
  • We demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate inflammatory lung injury during ventilator-induced lung injury. (
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a model eukaryotic cell system, some of these pathways involve members of the MAP kinase family (from mitogen-activated protein kinase), a set of enzymes performing essential functions in cell physiology first discovered in mammalian cells but later shown to be also present in lower eukaryotes ( 3 , 12 ). (
  • Liver cancer cells with inactivation of Plxnb1, Flrt2, and B9d1 formed more tumors in mice and had increased levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. (
  • Iavarone C, Acunzo M, Carlomagno F, Catania A, Melillo RM, Carlomagno SM, Santoro M, Chiariello M: Activation of the Erk8 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by RET/PTC3, a constitutively active form of the RET proto-oncogene. (
  • Differential activation of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. (
  • Addgene: Megakaryocytic differentiation induced by constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (
  • However, EPO-dependent mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation was observed in T-JJER and BF-ER cells but not in T-JER cells. (
  • Protein phosphatase 2A acts as a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) phosphatase to inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-induced IkappaB kinase beta/nuclear factor-kappaB activation. (
  • Abstract -Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are major signaling systems by which cells transduce extracellular cues into intracellular responses. (
  • Resting lymphocytes (G 0 or restricted G 1 phase), as obtained from human peripheral blood, can be induced in large numbers to undergo clonal proliferation using a variety of mitogens. (
  • These data are rationalized in a 'mitogen gradient model' that explains how proliferation and differentiation can be patterned across a growing field of cells. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase plays an essential role in the erythropoietin-dependent proliferation of CTLL-2 cells. (
  • Schaeffer and Weber, 1999 ) respond to mitogens and survival signals and stimulate cell proliferation, growth and survival. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK9 gene . (
  • This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. (
  • The relevance of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p in Candida albicans was addressed through the characterization of C. albicans strains without a functional HOG1 gene. (
  • Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of. (
  • Randomized Phase II Study of AZD6244 (Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor) MEK-Inhibitor With Erlotinib in KRAS Wild Type Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and a Randomized Phase II Study of AZD6244 With Erlotinib in Mutant KRAS Adva. (
  • Nearly all cell surface receptors utilize one or more of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in their repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms. (
  • Introduction Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase signalling cascades play significant roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to external stresses. (
  • Some growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, are also capable of directly acting as mitogens, causing growth by directly inducing cell replication. (
  • Bovine retina and hypothalamus contain anionic endothelial cell mitogens that display unusual affinities for the negatively charged glycosaminoglycan heparin. (
  • Upon initiation of angiogenesis with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), endothelial cell mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK) activity was detected as early as 5 min yet was sustained for at least 20 h. (
  • Members of this family of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mitogens adopt a sandwich structure consisting of nine strands in two beta sheets, in a jelly-roll topology. (
  • B cells, on the other hand, divide to produce plasma cells when stimulated by mitogens, which then produce immunoglobulins, or antibodies. (
  • 2020), Dehydration stress alters the mitogen-activated. (
  • Receptors, Mitogen" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Mitogen" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Mitogen" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Mitogen" by people in Profiles. (
  • Pokeweed mitogen is a mitogen derived from Phytolacca americana. (
  • In particular, most patients showed higher IP-10 production to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens than to mitogen at the individual level, and the ratio for IP-10 was the strongest indicator of active infection versus LTBI with 93.9% sensitivity and 90% specificity. (
  • The atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK3 is essential for establishment of epithelial architecture. (
  • 2017. (
  • C57/BL6 wild-type mice and mice genetically deleted for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-3 ( mkk-3 −/− ) or c-Jun-NH 2 -terminal kinase-1 ( jnk1 −/− ) were ventilated, and lung injury parameters were assessed. (
  • We will not only review the well-known members of the family, such as kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), but also put a special focus on the function of the recently identified or less studied scaffolders, such as fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2, flotillin-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase organizer 1. (
  • The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 ( MAPK3 ) in mammals. (
  • We validated the observation that RAS signaling, via mitogen-activated protein kinase, contributes to formation of liver tumors in mice. (
  • For example, in zebrafish, an endogenous mitogen Nrg1 is produced in response to indications of heart damage. (
  • Growth factors and various cellular stresses are known to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which plays a role in conveying signals from the cytosol to the nucleus. (
  • Members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade are important for the establishment of a Leishmania mexicana infection and are involved in flagellar length control, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. (
  • IL-6 triggers cell growth via the Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (
  • The mitogen-induced responses were lower in the active TB than in the LTBI group. (
  • When the ratio of TB-specific to mitogen-induced responses was calculated, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIG, and IP-10 were more useful in discriminating active TB from LTBI. (
  • In conclusion, the ratio of the TB-specific to the mitogen-induced IP-10 responses showed the most promising accuracy for discriminating active TB versus LTBI and should be further studied to determine whether it can serve as a biomarker that might help clinicians administer appropriate treatments. (
  • This is not true for all growth factors, as some growth factors instead appear to cause mitogenic effects like growth indirectly by triggering other mitogens to be released, as evidenced by their lack of mitogenic activity in vitro, which VEGF has. (
  • While animals produce internal signals that can drive the cell cycle forward, external mitogens can cause it to progress without these signals. (