Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Maf transcription factors are a family of basic-leucine zipper transcription factors that are closely related to V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. The C-MAF PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN was the first mammalian Maf transcription factor identified, and now the family is known to include a variety of other Maf proteins such as MAFB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFG TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; and MAFK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of mid-term (a few months) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (1/1585)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (2/1585)

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

Subcellular adaptation of the human diaphragm in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (3/1585)

Pulmonary hyperinflation impairs the function of the diaphragm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it has been recently demonstrated that the muscle can counterbalance this deleterious effect, remodelling its structure (i.e. changing the proportion of different types of fibres). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the functional impairment present in COPD patients can be associated with structural subcellular changes of the diaphragm. Twenty individuals (60+/-9 yrs, 11 COPD patients and 9 subjects with normal spirometry) undergoing thoracotomy were included. Nutritional status and respiratory function were evaluated prior to surgery. Then, small samples of the costal diaphragm were obtained and processed for electron microscopy analysis. COPD patients showed a mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60+/-9% predicted, a higher concentration of mitochondria (n(mit)) in their diaphragm than controls (0.62+/-0.16 versus 0.46+/-0.16 mitochondrial transections (mt) x microm(-2), p<0.05). On the other hand, subjects with air trapping (residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) >37%) disclosed not only a higher n(mit) (0.63+/-0.17 versus 0.43+/-0.07 mt x microm(-2), p<0.05) but shorter sarcomeres (L(sar)) than subjects without this functional abnormality (2.08+/-0.16 to 2.27+/-0.15 microm, p<0.05). Glycogen stores were similar in COPD and controls. The severity of airways obstruction (i.e. FEV1) was associated with n(mit) (r=-0.555, p=0.01), while the amount of air trapping (i.e. RV/TLC) was found to correlate with both n(mit) (r=0.631, p=0.005) and L(sar) (r=-0.526, p<0.05). Finally, maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max) inversely correlated with n(mit) (r=-0.547, p=0.01). In conclusion, impairment in lung function occurring in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with subcellular changes in their diaphragm, namely a shortening in the length of sarcomeres and an increase in the concentration of mitochondria. These changes form a part of muscle remodelling, probably contributing to a better functional muscle behaviour.  (+info)

Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increases mitochondrial [Ca2+] in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. (4/1585)

1. The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to measure mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) in single smooth muscle cells from the rat pulmonary artery, while simultaneously monitoring cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2. 2. Application of caffeine produced an increase in [Ca2+]i and also increased [Ca2+]m. The increase in [Ca2+]m occurred after the increase in [Ca2+]i, and remained elevated for a considerable time after [Ca2+]i had returned to resting values. 3. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which causes the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, markedly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]m following caffeine application and also increased the half-time for recovery of [Ca2+]i to resting values. 4. Activation of purinoceptors with ATP also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m in these smooth muscle cells. In some cells, oscillations in [Ca2+]i were observed during ATP application, which produced corresponding oscillations in [Ca2+]m and membrane currents. 5. This study provides direct evidence that Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, either through ryanodine or inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, increases both cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells. These results have potential implications both for the role of mitochondria in Ca2+ regulation in smooth muscle, and for understanding how cellular metabolism is regulated.  (+info)

Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ store in guinea-pig colonic smooth muscle. (5/1585)

1. Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in guinea-pig single colonic myocytes has been examined, using whole-cell recording, flash photolysis of caged InsP3 and microfluorimetry. 2. Depolarization increased [Ca2+]c and triggered contraction. Resting [Ca2+]c was virtually restored some 4 s after the end of depolarization, a time when the muscle had shortened to 50 % of its fully relaxed length. The muscle then slowly relaxed (t = 17 s). 3. The decline in the Ca2+ transient was monophasic but often undershot or overshot resting levels, depending on resting [Ca2+]c. The extent of the overshoot or undershoot increased with increasing peak [Ca2+]c. 4. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 5 microM), which dissipates the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient and therefore prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, slowed Ca2+ removal at high ( > 300 nM) but not at lower [Ca2+]c and abolished [Ca2+]c overshoots. Oligomycin B (5 microM), which prevents mitchondrial ATP production, affected neither the rate of decline nor the magnitude of the overshoot. 5. During depolarization, the global rhod-2 signal (which represents the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]m) rose slowly in a CCCP-sensitive manner during and for about 3 s after depolarization had ended. [Ca2+]m then slowly decreased over tens of seconds. 6. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake with thapsigargin (100 nM) reduced the undershoot and increased the overshoot. 7. Flash photolysis of caged InsP3 (20 microM) evoked reproducible increases in [Ca2+]c. CCCP (5 microM) reduced the magnitude of the [Ca2+]c transients evoked by flash photolysis of caged InsP3. Oligomycin B (5 microM) did not reduce the inhibition of the InsP3-induced Ca2+ transient by CCCP thus minimizing the possibility that CCCP lowered ATP levels by reversing the mitochondrial ATP synthase and so reducing SR Ca2+ refilling. 8. While CCCP reduced the magnitude of the InsP3-evoked Ca2+ signal, the internal Ca2+ store content, as assessed by the magnitude of ionomycin-evoked Ca2+ release, did not decrease significantly. 9. [Ca2+]c decline in smooth muscle, following depolarization, may involve mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Following InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release, mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ may regulate the local [Ca2+]c near the InsP3 receptor so maintaining the sensitivity of the InsP3 receptor to release Ca2+ from the SR.  (+info)

Contribution of mitochondrial proton leak to respiration rate in working skeletal muscle and liver and to SMR. (6/1585)

Proton pumping across the mitochondrial inner membrane and proton leak back through the natural proton conductance pathway make up a futile cycle that dissipates redox energy. We measured respiration and average mitochondrial membrane potential in perfused rat hindquarter with maximal tetanic contraction of the left gastrocnemius-soleus-plantaris muscle group, and we estimate that the mitochondrial proton cycle accounted for 34% of the respiration rate of the preparation. Similar measurements in rat hepatocytes given substrates to cause a high rate of gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis showed that the proton cycle accounted for 22% of the respiration rate of these cells. Combining these in vitro values with literature values for the contribution of skeletal muscle and liver to standard metabolic rate (SMR), we calculate that the proton cycle in working muscle and liver may account for 15% of SMR in vivo. Although this value is less than the 20% of SMR we calculated previously using data from resting skeletal muscle and hepatocytes, it is still large, and we conclude that the futile proton cycle is a major contributor to SMR.  (+info)

Calcium-dependent regulation of cytochrome c gene expression in skeletal muscle cells. Identification of a protein kinase c-dependent pathway. (7/1585)

Mitochondrial biogenesis can occur rapidly in mammalian skeletal muscle subjected to a variety of physiological conditions. However, the intracellular signal(s) involved in regulating this process remain unknown. Using nuclearly encoded cytochrome c, we show that its expression in muscle cells is increased by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ using the ionophore A23187. Treatment of myotubes with A23187 increased cytochrome c mRNA expression up to 1.7-fold. Transfection experiments using promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs revealed that this increase could be transcriptionally mediated since A23187 increased chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity by 2.5-fold. This increase was not changed by KN62, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases II and IV, and it was not modified by overexpression of protein kinase A and cAMP response element-binding protein, demonstrating that the A23187 effect was not mediated through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase- or protein kinase A-dependent pathways. However, treatment of myotubes with staurosporine or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate reduced the effect of A23187 on cytochrome c transactivation by 40-50%. Coexpression of the Ca2+-sensitive protein kinase C isoforms alpha and betaII, but not the Ca2+-insensitive delta isoform, exaggerated the A23187-mediated response. The short-term effect of A23187 was mediated in part by mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2) since its activation peaked 2 h after A23187 treatment, and cytochrome c transactivation was reduced by PD98089, a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor. These results demonstrate the existence of a Ca2+-sensitive, protein kinase C-dependent pathway involved in cytochrome c expression and implicate Ca2+ as a signal in the up-regulation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins.  (+info)

Sub maximal oxygen uptake related to fat free mass and lean leg volume in trained runners. (8/1585)

The sub maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) of 32 trained male middle and long distance runners aged 19.5-36.0 years was determined at five treadmill speeds. There was a significant linear relationship (p less than 0.01) between VO2 at each of the treadmill speeds and Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and Lean Leg Volume (LLV). To explain the relationship other factors are considered, the most important of which may be the mechanical configuration of muscle and mitochondrial function.  (+info)

Skeletal muscle metabolism is highly dependent on mitochondrial function, with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria display substantial plasticity in skeletal muscle, and are highly sensitive to levels of physical activity. It is thought that physical activity promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle through increased expression of genes encoded in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome; however, how this process is co-ordinated at the cellular level is poorly understood. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key signalling proteins capable of integrating environmental factors and mitochondrial function, thereby providing a potential link between exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the function of NRs in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of NRs for the management and treatment of chronic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity modifies the stoichiometry of mitochondrial proteins in a way that is distinct to the subcellular localization of the mitochondria in skeletal muscle. AU - Kras, Katon A.. AU - Langlais, Paul R.. AU - Hoffman, Nyssa. AU - Roust, Lori R.. AU - Benjamin, Tonya R.. AU - De Filippis, Elena A.. AU - Dinu, Valentin. AU - Katsanos, Christos S.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health/ National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grant R01DK094062 (CSK). PY - 2018/12. Y1 - 2018/12. N2 - Background: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function appear to be altered in obesity. Mitochondria in muscle are found in well-defined regions within cells, and they are arranged in a way that form distinct subpopulations of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. We sought to investigate differences in the proteomes of SS and IMF mitochondria between lean subjects and subjects with obesity. Methods: We ...
This study was designed to examine energetic behaviour of skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial populations. The data show tha
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One of the hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance is an imbalance in lipid metabolism favoring storage, rather than oxidation, of fatty acids. Lipid accumulation is known to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (27), and several investigations suggest this effect is secondary to impaired lipid disposal pathways (35, 51, 54, 56-58). Alternatively, endurance exercise training increases whole body fatty acid oxidation, which is linked, in part, to enhanced skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and hence elevated oxidative capacity, an adaptation believed to play a major role in the exercise training-mediated alleviation of insulin resistance (10, 18). Although these studies provide strong evidence indicating a positive relationship between oxidative capacity and improved insulin action, it is largely speculative, since most of the information has been collected from subjects with a preexisting insulin-resistant condition. Obscuring the issue further is the fact that ...
We used training response variation in muscle mitochondrial function in vivo (measured by PCr recovery rate) after 10 weeks of aerobic training to classify individuals with type 2 diabetes as nonresponders or responders. Individuals classified as nonresponders did not improve insulin sensitivity and worsened glycemic control with training, whereas responders improved insulin sensitivity. The training response variation in muscle mitochondrial function in vivo was marked by a distinct pretraining molecular pattern in muscle tissue and in myogenic progenitor cells (HSkMCs) of nonresponders compared with responders. DNA methylation and RNA expression patterns showed elevations in antioxidant defense, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial metabolism in nonresponders, which were reflected in vivo by higher pretraining muscle mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in these same individuals.. On average, exercise-training interventions improve muscle mitochondrial function (25,26) and even ...
Objective: We examined in insulin resistant muscle if, in contrast to long-standing dogma, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is increased, and whether this is attributed to an increased nuclear content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and the adaptations of specific mitochondrial sub-populations.. Research design and methods: Skeletal muscles from male control and ZDF rats were used to determine; 1) intramuscular lipid distribution, 2) subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial morphology, 3) rates of palmitate oxidation in SS and IMF mitochondria, and 4) the sub-cellular localization of PGC1α. Electotransfection of PGC1α-cDNA into lean animals tested the notion that increased nuclear PGC1α preferentially targeted SS mitochondria.. Results: TEM analysis revealed that in ZDF animals the number (+50%), width (+69%) and density (+57%) of SS mitochondria were increased (P,0.05). In contrast, IMF mitochondria remained largely unchanged. ...
The present study showed that early life exposure to large, phospholipid-coated lipid droplets leads to altered expression of markers for mitochondrial oxidative capacity in RP WAT and m. tibialis. Although functional mitochondrial capacity was not measured, these markers suggest that adapted mitochondrial oxidative capacity may underlie the previously reported reduced body fat accumulation in adolescence and adulthood [18-20].. Programming of metabolic health is well established, but possible underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown although many have been suggested. Aberrant mitochondrial function has been suggested in a limited amount of studies as possible link between adverse fetal environment and the development of T2D [22, 34]. Yet, little is known on how nutritional programming may improve lifelong metabolic health and protect against obesity.. In the present study, markers for mitochondrial oxidative capacity appeared to be increased due to the supramolecular structure of milk ...
Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial function might be a contributing mechanism to the myopathy and activity based limitations that typically plague patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction, myofiber atrophy, and muscle contractile deficits are...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Robert A Jacobs, Anne-Kristine Meinild, Nikolai B Nordsborg, Carsten Lundby].
Regular exercise has proven benefits in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, but many patients find it tough to meet the American Diabetes Association guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise a week. A new study, conducted by researchers at McMaster University, suggests that there could be a better way. In a small proof-of-principle study in eight type 2 diabetes patients, the researchers found that exercising at a very high intensity, but for a mere 30 minutes a week within a 75 minute total time commitment, lowered overall blood sugar concentrations, reduced post-meal blood sugar spikes, and increased skeletal mitochondrial capacity, a marker of metabolic health. The findings suggest that exercising harder, but in a significantly shorter amount of time, could provide benefits similar to longer, but more moderate, activity.. The article is entitled Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Hyperglycemia and Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity in Patients ...
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(2009) Rönn et al. PLoS ONE. BACKGROUND: Impaired oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative phosp...
Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation (Ve), and the respiratory quotient (RER) were measured using an on-line system (Medical Graphics CPX, Saint Paul, Minneapolis, MN, USA) while the subjects breathed through a low-resistance breathing valve. Gases with known VO2 and carbon dioxide consumption concentrations were used for gas analyser calibration. The heart rate was obtained from a continuously recorded electrocardiogram signal. Blood samples were drawn without stasis from a venous catheter in the forearm. In the blood samples the following parameters were assessed: blood lactate, p-pyruvate, free fatty acids (FFA), p-glycerol, p-norepinephrine and p-epinephrine. The blood- lactate levels were immediately measured using an electrolyte metabolite analyser (EML 105; Radiometer, Copenhagen). The samples were immediately frozen for later analyses of FFA, glycerol, p-pyruvate and plasma lactate using Cobas Fara 2 (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), whereas ...
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and the underlying molecular mechanisms at the origin of decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle still remain to be elucidated. The present review focuses on recent data investigating these issues in the area of metabolic disorders and describes the potential causes, mechanisms and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle.
Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic ca …
Flight Muscle Mitochondria This image is of non-human tissue. Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with the aerobic demands of flying the balance of muscle fibres and mitochondria has to be optimal. Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. Mitochondria generate the energy that cells need to function. The energy made by the mitochondria is in the form of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The mitochondria are the pink/red structures in this image. Cellular level art, paint on silk, digitised.
Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α has been shown to play critical roles in regulating mitochondria biogenesis, respiration, and muscle oxidative phenotype. Furthermore, reductions in the expression of PGC-1α in muscle have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To determine the effect of increased muscle-specific PGC-1α expression on muscle mitochondrial function and…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin II reduces mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and affects glycemic control. AU - Mitsuishi, Masanori. AU - Miyashita, Kazutoshi. AU - Muraki, Ayako. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - OBJECTIVE-Blockade of angiotensin (Ang) II has been shown to prevent new-onset type 2 diabetes. We focused on the effects of AngII on muscle mitochondria, especially on their biogenesis, as an underlining mechanism of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-C2C12 cells and C57bl/6 mice were used to examine roles for AngII in the regulation of muscle mitochondria and to explore whether the effect was mediated by type 1 AngII receptor (AT1R) or type 2 receptor (AT2R). RESULTS-C2C12 cells treated with 10-8-10 -6 mol/l AngII reduced the mitochondrial content associated with downregula- tion of the genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The action of AngII was diminished by blockade of AT2R but not AT1R, whereas overexpression of AT2R augmented the effect. ...
Submitter supplied) Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation and altered mitochondrial function are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. We created mice with a muscle-specific knockout of p110α or p110β, the two major catalytic subunits of PI3K. We find that mice with muscle-specific knockout of p110α, but not p110β, display impaired muscle insulin signaling and reduced muscle size due to enhanced proteasomal and autophagic activity. more... ...
Previous studies examining the effect of different fatty acids on insulin action have reported improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in rodents fed high-fat diets rich in MCFAs compared with LCFAs (11,18,19). Our current study reveals the tissues responsible for the favorable effect of MCFAs on whole-body glucose metabolism, as well as a mechanistic basis for these effects. We have made the intriguing observation that insulin action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is preserved at the level of low-fat-fed controls when animals consume a high-fat diet rich in MCFAs. In muscle, the lack of induction of insulin resistance with MCFA high-fat feeding is associated with a substantial increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, which is sufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in this tissue. However, the liver of MCFA-fed animals accumulated greater amounts of triglycerides, likely due to upregulation of lipogenic pathways, and as such, hepatic insulin action was reduced after MCFA ...
1. L. E. Bakeeva, Chentsov YuS, and V. P. Skulachev, Mitochondrial framework (reticulum mitochondriale) in rat diaphragm muscle, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 501(3), 349-369 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed] 2. M. Picard, K. White, and D. M. Turnbull, Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study, J. Appl. Physiol. 114(2), 161-171 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed] 3. M. Picard, B. J. Gentil, M. J. McManus, K. White, K. St Louis, S. E. Gartside, D. C. Wallace, and D. M. Turnbull, Acute exercise remodels mitochondrial membrane interactions in mouse skeletal muscle, J. Appl. Physiol. 115(10), 1562-1571 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed] 4. B. Glancy, L. M. Hartnell, D. Malide, Z. X. Yu, C. A. Combs, P. S. Connelly, S. Subramaniam, and R. S. Balaban, Mitochondrial reticulum for cellular energy distribution in muscle, Nature 523(7562), 617-620 (2015). [CrossRef] [PubMed] 5. J. B. Gale, Mitochondrial swelling associated ...
Although there is no specific treatment for any of the mitochondrial myopathies, physical therapy along with vitamin treatment may extend the range of movement of muscles and improve dexterity.
The current study aims at assessing the impact of Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c on muscle oxygen delivery and on muscle mitochondrial capacity. Our hypothesis is that these both steps of the oxygen cascade might be involved in the aerobic fitness impairment usually observed in poor-controlled patients.. Adults with Type 1 diabetes, aged 18-40 years, without microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications, will be recruited among patients that regularly attend the unit of diabetology of the University Hospital of Lille and the regional hospital of Roubaix. They will be separated into 2 groups according to their glycaemic control at entrance in the study (HbA1c , 7%, HbA1c , 8%). Subsequently, two healthy control groups (checked by an OGTT) will be selected to strictly match the patients with Type 1 diabetes (age, sex, BMI, number of hours of physical activity per week, tobacco smoking). This is a cross-sectional study including 4 groups.. On their first visit, after the determination of HbA1c, ...
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PMID: 31838512 Open Access Bodis K, Jelenik T, Lundbom J, Markgraf DF, Strom A, Zaharia OP, Karusheva Y, Burkart V, Muessig K, Kupriyanova Y, Ouni M, Wolkersdorfer M, Hwang JH, Ziegler D, Schuermann A, Roden M, Szendroedi J (2019) J Clin Endocrinol Metab Abstract: Impaired adipose tissue (AT) function might induce recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Understanding AT energy metabolism could yield novel targets for the treatment of T2D. Recently diagnosed male T2D patients and healthy humans (controls, CON) of similar abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT)-thickness, fat mass and age (n=14 each), underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [6,6-2H2]glucose and indirect calorimetry. We assessed mitochondrial efficiency (coupling: state 3/4o; proton leak: state 4o/u) via high-resolution respirometry in superficial (SSAT) and deep (DSAT) SAT-biopsies, hepatocellular lipids (HCL) and fat mass by proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy and -imaging. T2D patients (known diabetes duration: 2.5 [0.1; 5.0] ...
? A In this study, the mitochondrial efficiency and metabolic activity regulation of cancer cells were discussed, which revealed that the reactive ox..
Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). Capillary volume density is higher in hummingbird flight muscles than in mammalian skeletal muscles. Mitochondria occupy approximately 35% of fiber volume in hummingbird flight muscles and cluster beneath the sarcolemmal membrane adjacent to capillaries to a greater extent than in mammalian muscles. Measurements of protein content, citrate synthase activity, and respiratory rates in vitro per unit mitochondrial volume reveal no significant differences between hummingbird and mammalian skeletal muscle mitochondria. However, inner membrane surface areas per unit mitochondrial volume [Sv(im,m)] are higher than those in mammalian muscle. We propose that both mitochondrial volume densities and Sv(im,m) are near their maximum ...
Compartmentalization of high-energy phosphate carriers between intracellular micro-compartments is a phenomenon that ensures efficient energy use. To connect these sites, creatine kinase (CK) and adenylate kinase (AK) energy-transfer networks, which are functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), could serve as important regulators of cellular energy fluxes. Here, we introduce how selective permeabilization of cellular outer membrane and high-resolution respirometry can be used to study functional coupling between CK or AK pathways and OXPHOS in different cells and tissues. Using the protocols presented here the ability of creatine or adenosine monophosphate to stimulate OXPHOS through CK and AK reactions, respectively, is easily observable and quantifiable. Additionally, functional coupling between hexokinase and mitochondria can be investigated by monitoring the effect of glucose on respiration. Taken together, high-resolution respirometry in combination with permeabilization is a
The investigators will determine whether people with high muscle mitochondrial capacity produce higher amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on consuming high fat /high glycemic diet and thus exhibit elevated cellular oxidative damage. The investigators previously found that Asian Indian immigrants have high mitochondrial capacity in spite of severe insulin resistance. Somalians are another new immigrant population with rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes. Both of these groups traditionally consume low caloric density diets, and the investigators hypothesize that when these groups are exposed to high-calorie Western diets, they exhibit increased oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and insulin resistance. The investigators will compare Somalians and NE Americans who are matched for age, BMI, and sex. The investigators will measure ROS production in skeletal muscle following high fat/high glycemic diet vs. healthy diet. The investigators will compare the oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, ...
Cachexia causes metabolic alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondria stimulated by inflammatory imbalance towards pro-inflammatory signaling. Previous work by our group has demonstrated that exercise significantly increases muscle mass in cases of advanced tumors in transgenic mice. Furthermore, we have discovered that the natural product Nexrutine® has anti-inflammatory properties which can be beneficial in protecting mitochondria. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of exercise and Nexrutine® on mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle taken from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) models. METHODS: This project is a continuation of a larger study investigating the effects of exercise and Nexrutine® on the attenuation of muscle wasting in TRAMP mice. For this analysis, gastrocnemius from 14 TRAMP mice from control (n=5), Nexrutine® (600 mg/kg; n=5), and voluntary wheel running (VWR) groups (n=4) that completed 20 weeks of intervention were used. Mitochondrial activity was
Metabolic reprogramming in skeletal muscles in the human and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be an important factor in the diseases progression. We hypothesized that swim training, a modulator of cellular metabolism via changes in muscle bioenergetics and oxidative stress, ameliorates the reduction in muscle strength in ALS mice. In this study, we used transgenic male mice with the G93A human SOD1 mutation B6SJL-Tg (SOD1,sup>G93A,/sup>) 1Gur/J and wild type B6SJL (WT) mice. Mice were subjected to a grip strength test and isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria were used to perform high-resolution respirometry. Moreover, the activities of enzymes involved in the oxidative energy metabolism and total sulfhydryl groups (as an oxidative stress marker) were evaluated in skeletal muscle. ALS reduces muscle strength (-70% between 11 and 15 weeks, p , 0.05), modulates muscle metabolism through lowering citrate synthase (CS) (-30% vs. WT, p = 0.0007) and increasing cytochrome c ...
Mitochondrial myopathies: Diagnosis, exercise intolerance, and treatment options. Plasma malondialdehyde increases transiently after ischemic forearm exercise
We have developed a novel method to quantitatively analyze mitochondrial positioning in three dimensions. Using this method, we compared the relative positioning of mitochondria in adult rat and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ventricular myocytes. Energetic data suggest that trout, in contrast to the rat, have two subpopulations of mitochondria in their cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we speculated whether trout cardiomyocytes exhibit two types of mitochondrial patterns. Stacks of confocal images of mitochondria were acquired in live cardiomyocytes. The images were processed and mitochondrial centers were detected automatically. The mitochondrial arrangement was analyzed by calculating the three-dimensional probability density and distribution functions describing the distances between neighboring mitochondrial centers. In the rat (8 cells with a total of 7,546 mitochondrial centers), intermyofibrillar mitochondria are highly ordered and arranged in parallel strands. These strands are separated ...
Mitochondria play a key role in the pathogenesis of different diseases including the pathologies of the heart. According to the World Health Organization, chronic diseases are responsible for 63% of all deaths in the world, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death. New findings of the cardiac muscle mitochondria functions can be further used to develop new therapeutic strategies. The most important parameters of heart mitochondrial activity are oxidative phosphorylation capacity and mitochondrial membrane potential. With these two properties of mitochondria we can determine the coupling state of respiration and the impact of the mitochondrial substrate on the membrane potential [1]. The Fluorescence module for the Oxygraph-2k (Oroboros Instruments, Innsbruck) combines optical measurement with high-resolution respirometry and with this new technology it is possible to detect changes in both parameters simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in mouse heart homogenate. The ...
Proper function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for cellular homeostasis, and dysfunction at either site has been linked to pathophysiological states, including metabolic diseases. Although the ER and mitochondria play distinct cellular roles, these organelles also form physical interactions with each other at sites defined as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), which are essential for calcium, lipid and metabolite exchange. Here we show that in the liver, obesity leads to a marked reorganization of MAMs resulting in mitochondrial calcium overload, compromised mitochondrial oxidative capacity and augmented oxidative stress. Experimental induction of ER-mitochondria interactions results in oxidative stress and impaired metabolic homeostasis, whereas downregulation of PACS-2 or IP3R1, proteins important for ER-mitochondria tethering or calcium transport, respectively, improves mitochondrial oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism in obese animals. These findings
A brief reminder of the benefits of bicarbonate: Regulation of hydrogen ions (H + ) or pH within homeostatic concentrations is critical for proper physiological function. The factors contributing to the change in muscle pH seen during intense exercise are numerous and the role of each factor remains hotly debated. However, classically it is believed that a large contributor of H + is through the accumulation of lactate produced from glycolysis. Next to internal buffers, which are exhausted relatively quickly, the shuttling of H + and lactate across the sarcolemma is also believed to play an important role in the maintenance of pH during intense exercise. This is due to the extracellular buffering capacity HCO3 - which is believed to promote the efflux of H + from active muscles ( Hollidge-Horvat. 2000; Bishop. 2004 ...
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As noted above, the MTT assay is really a metabolic assay because the MTT molecule needs to enter a cell and get converted to Formazan using NADPH. While the exact mechanism of MTTs metabolism isnt clear, this means the mitochondria needs to be intact and functioning. So, if you add a cytotoxic material which reduces mitochondrial efficiency, you might get weird results. In this case, its useful to also know other live/dead assays. The other major cell viability assays that are used in research include:. Cell Titer Blue: Similar to the MTT Assay, this assay involves incubating cells with resazurin (blue) and forming resorfurin (pink) after the cells metabolize it. Generally the metabolism takes 1-4 hours but it is much more sensitive than the MTT assay because you can measure the product via fluorescence (Ex/Em 560 nm/590 nm). The main advantage of this assay is that you dont need to resolubilize the product in DMF/SDS so its much simpler. This is also a great high throughput assay!. Trypan ...
We are mostly interested in two WG: (1) Since we are working mostly with heart and muscles, we are interested in WG 2 - MitoEAGLE data repository in muscle and other tissues. (2) WG 1 - Standard operating procedures and user requirement document: Protocols, terminology, documentation. Since we have an expertise in fatty acid metabolism, we are specially interested in experimental protocols for the evaluation of mitochondrial capacities regarding fatty acid metabolism. Of course our parts of the WG are also in our interest. - Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Edgars Liepinsh (2016 ...
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Growth restriction impacts on offspring development and increases their risk of disease in adulthood which is exacerbated with second hits. The aim of this study was to investigate if blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis were altered in 12-month-old male and female offspring with prenatal or postnatal growth restriction. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation induced uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in offspring (Restricted). A sham surgery was also performed during pregnancy (Control) and some litters from sham mothers had their litter size reduced (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Growth-restricted females only developed hypertension at 12 months, which was not observed in males. In Restricted females only homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was decreased, indicating enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in males. Plasma leptin was increased only in the Reduced males at 12 ...
Mitochondria are small, energy-producing structures vital to the energy needs of the body. Genetic mutations cause mitochondria to fail to produce the energy needed by cells and organs which can cause severe disease and death. These genetic mutations are likely to be in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), or possibly in the nuclear DNA (nDNA). The goal of this review is to assess the current understanding of mitochondrial diseases. This review focuses on the pathology, causes, risk factors, symptoms, prevalence data, symptomatic treatments, and new research aimed at possible preventions and/or treatments of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial myopathies are mitochondrial diseases that cause prominent muscular symptoms such as muscle weakness and usually present with a multitude of symptoms and can affect virtually all organ systems. There is no cure for these diseases as of today. Treatment is generally supportive and emphasizes symptom management. Mitochondrial diseases occur infrequently and hence
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disruption of Snf3/Rgt2 glucose sensors decreases lifespan and caloric restriction effectiveness through Mth1/Std1 by adjusting mitochondrial efficiency in yeast. AU - Choi, Kyung Mi. AU - Kwon, Young Yon. AU - Lee, Cheol-Koo. PY - 2015/1/30. Y1 - 2015/1/30. N2 - Down-regulation of intracellular nutrient signal pathways was proposed to be a primary mechanism of caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the link between lifespan and glucose sensors in the plasma membrane was poorly understood in yeast. Herein, a mutant that lacked glucose sensors (snf3Δrgt2Δ) had impaired glucose fermentation, showed decreased chronological lifespan (CLS), and reduced CLS extension by CR. The mutant also had reduced mitochondrial efficiency, as inferred by increased mitochondrial superoxide and decreased ATP levels. Mth1 and Std1, which are downstream effectors of the Snf3/Rgt2 pathway, were required for viability through mitochondrial function but not fermentative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pgc-1α as a pivotal factor in lipid and metabolic regulation. AU - Cheng, Ching Feng. AU - Ku, Hui Chen. AU - Lin, Heng. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Traditionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a 91 kDa transcription factor, regulates lipid metabolism and long-chain fatty acid oxidation by upregulating the expression of several genes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, PGC-1α regulates the expression of mitochondrial genes to control mitochondria DNA replication and cellular oxidative metabolism. Recently, new insights showed that several myokines such as irisin and myostatin are epigenetically regulated by PGC-1α in skeletal muscles, thereby modulating systemic energy balance, with marked expansion of mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity in healthy or diseased myocardia. In addition, in our studies evaluating whether PGC-1α overexpression in ...
MCFAs reduce adiposity and preserve insulin action in muscle and adipose, despite inducing steatosis and insulin resistance in the liver. Dietary supplementation with MCFAs may therefore be beneficial for preventing obesity and peripheral insulin resistance.
Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print] Body and Liver Fat Mass Rather Than Muscle Mitochondrial Function Determines Glucose Metabolism in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes. Prikoszovich T, Winzer C, Schmid AI, Szendroedi J, Chmelik M, Pacini G, Krssák M, Moser E, Funahashi T, Waldhäusl W, Kautzky-Willer A, Roden M. Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria ...
Mitochondria - what are they & why are they so important? Mitochondria are the primary energy producers in the body. The typical cell contains an average of 1,000 mitochondria. Given that there are 10 to the 13th power cells in a healthy adult, healthy and productive mitochondria are critical to maintain the bodys
2. When the cell needs more energy, the mitochondria can reproduce by growing larger and then dividing. For example, say you want to get in shape. As you exercise more of the mitochondria in your muscles will increase in number and navigate to the edges of the cell, which allows these muscle cells to have more energy. ...
Learn about mitochondria and how to enhance them for better health. Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that ac...
This article from Science magazine explains some theories about why we have DNA in the mitochondria of our cells, as well as in the nucleus of the cell. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of our cells, providing the energy needed for functioning and replicating.. Why do our cells powerhouses have their own DNA?. ...
Metagenics MitoVive Mitochondria and Cell Function Support provides nutritional assistance for mitochondrial function and neuromuscular health.
Mitochondria are having their time in the spotlight after years of being ignored. Discover everything you need to know about these cellular powerhouses.
Have you heard mitochondria? Do you know there is a way to maximize mitochondira performance in your body to fight aging, check out at !
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit in all living organisms. Living forms vary in size but they are all made up of […]. ...
మైటోకాండ్రియాలు (Mitochondria) కణంలో పాక్షిక స్వతంత్ర ప్రతిపత్తిగల సూక్ష్మాంగాలు. ఇవి స్థూపాకారంలోగాని, గోళాకారంలోగాని ఉంటాయి. ఒక్కొక్కటిగా గాని సమూహాలుగా గాని ఉండవచ్చు. జీవనక్రియలు చురుకుగా సాగే కణాలలో ఇది చాలా అధికసంఖ్యలో ఉంటాయి. ఇవి రెండు పొరలతో ఏర్పడిన సూక్ష్మాంగాలు. ఈ పొరలు కణత్వచాన్ని పోలి ఉంటాయి. దీనివెలుపలి పొర చదునుగా ఉండగా, లోపలి పొర ముడతలుగా ఏర్పడి ఉంటుంది. ఈ ముడతలను ...
2019 8/15 リンク追記 リファレンスゲノムの構築とキュレーションに多大な努力が注がれている (ref.1-5)。これらのリファレンスアセンブリは結果を比較するための共通の表現を提供し、それらはシーケンスアラインメントとアノテーションを行う広範囲の下流ツ… ...
... mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. C. High resolution image illustrating in detail multiple mitochondria, ... Rat striated skeletal muscle (diaphargm). A typical TC (blue) with two convoluted Tp is shown, by transmission electron ... Mitochondria represent only 2% of cell body volume and the Golgi complex is small in TC. Fibroblasts Golgi complex is prominent ... A blue telopode of 14.2 µm in the section plane is illustrated around a nerve ending (green) between smooth muscle cells (brown ...
Well exercised muscles can not only add more size but can also develop more mitochondria, myoglobin, glycogen and a higher ... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Muscle fiber growth[edit]. Muscle fibers grow when exercised and shrink when not in use. This is due to the fact that exercise ...
Brooks GA, Brown MA, Butz CE, Sicurello JP, Dubouchaud H (Nov 1999). "Cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria have a ... Bonen A (Nov 2001). "The expression of lactate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4) in heart and muscle". European Journal of Applied ... Muscle & Nerve. 23 (1): 90-7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(200001)23:1. 3.0.CO;2-M. PMID 10590411. Kirk P, Wilson MC, Heddle C, ...
Quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants are quaternary ammonium salts used as drugs for muscle relaxation, most commonly in ... 5. Mitochondrion. For similar term named Cholinesterase-blocking drug, see Cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Muscle relaxants inhibit neuron transmission to muscle by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. What they have in ... Therefore, a normal neuron transmission to muscle cannot cause contraction of the muscle because the endplate is depolarized ...
... levels are highest in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and erythrocytes. NMNAT3 is localized in mitochondria or cytoplasm ...
"Mitochondria control functional CaV1.2 expression in smooth muscle cells of cerebral arteries". Circulation Research. 107 (5): ... In the arteries of the brain, high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle. The protein encoded by ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons. However, it is particularly ...
Meanwhile, the first 12 amino acids of the highly hydrophobic N-terminal serve to bind the enzyme to the mitochondria, while ... In particular, HK2 is ubiquitously expressed in tissues, though it is majorly found in muscle and adipose tissue. In cardiac ... It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest ... Shulga N, Wilson-Smith R, Pastorino JG (Oct 2009). "Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin ...
Acid fuchsine may be used to stain collagen, smooth muscle, or mitochondria. Acid fuchsin is used as the nuclear and ... Most recipes produce red keratin and muscle fibers, blue or green staining of collagen and bone, light red or pink staining of ... In a skillfully made H&E preparation the red blood cells are almost orange, and collagen and cytoplasm (especially muscle) ... Acid fuchsin is also a traditional stain for mitochondria (Altmann's method). Haematoxylin (hematoxylin in North America) is a ...
"Association of mitochondria with plectin and desmin intermediate filaments in striated muscle". Experimental Cell Research. 252 ... In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, plectin is localized to specialized entities known as Z-discs. Plectin binds several ... In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral ... Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues were also significantly affected. Cardiac intercalated discs were disintegrated and ...
Due to weakness of the muscles of facial expression and muscles of mastication, facial weakness may manifest as the inability ... Mitochondrion A juvenile thymus shrinks with age. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor For women who are pregnant and already ... Weakness of the muscles that move the jaw (muscles of mastication) may cause difficulty chewing. In individuals with MG, ... and interval-based muscle therapy may improve respiratory muscle strength, chest wall mobility, respiratory pattern, and ...
This in turn reduces lysosomal degradative ability and blocks autophagy.[citation needed] The muscle fibers are rarely necrotic ... The vacuoles may contain remains of mitochondria, membrane whorls and calcium apatite crystals.[citation needed] The diagnosis ... is a rare childhood onset disease characterized by slow progressive vacuolation and atrophy of skeletal muscle. There is no ... can be established by muscle biopsy.[citation needed] The serum creatinine is raised.[vague] Acid maltase deficiency Danon ...
Additionally, he examined the function of mitochondria (Link) in muscle and liver tissue. With his research group, he is ... Dynamic changes of muscle insulin senstivity after metabolic surgery. Nat. Commun., Bd. 10, S. 4179. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019- ... Role of diacylglycerol activation of PKCθ in lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in humans. Proceedings of the National ... Rapid impairment of skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation by free fatty acids in humans. Diabetes. 48, Nr. 2, ISSN ...
"Investigation of glycosylation processes in mitochondria and microsomal membranes from human skeletal muscle". Clinica Chimica ...
... destroying the sarcomere connections in the muscle fibers and reducing the mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticular. The ant is ... In fact, they infiltrate between the muscle fibers and it is a common hypothesis of researchers that they cause the muscles' ... A deficit in leucine results in the prevention of muscle regeneration because the amino acid is a nutrient regulator of muscle ... A decrease in mitochondria ultimately results in a reduction of energy and calcium levels due to the lack of ATP and ...
UCP2 in hippocampus cells and UCP3 in muscle cells stimulate production of mitochondria. The larger number of mitochondria ... Mitochondria respiration is coupled to ATP synthesis (ADP phosphorylation) but is regulated by UCPs. UCPs belong to the ... Mitochondria are a major site of calcium storage in neurons, and the storage capacity increases with potential across ... Thus, cancer cells may increase the production of UCP2 in mitochondria. This theory is supported by independent studies which ...
PTAH is ideal for demonstrating striated muscle fibers and mitochondria, often without a counterstain. As such, it is used to ... It is used to show gliosis in the central nervous system, tumours of skeletal muscles, and fibrin deposits in lesions. Muscle ... This lake stains the muscle cross striations, fibrin, nuclei, and other tissue elements blue. The rest of the phosphotungstic ...
Massage therapy appears to increase the amount of PGC-1α which leads to the production of new mitochondria. PGC-1α and beta has ... Endurance exercise has been shown to activate the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced PGC-1α in skeletal ... PGC-1α has been recently proposed to be responsible for β-aminoisobutyric acid secretion by exercising muscles. The effect of β ... Olesen J, Larsson S, Iversen N, Yousafzai S, Hellsten Y, Pilegaard H (2012). Calbet JA (ed.). "Skeletal muscle PGC-1α is ...
... while mutant SOD1 has been observed to promote apoptosis in spinal cord mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria, though it ... Mice lacking SOD1 have increased age-related muscle mass loss (sarcopenia), early development of cataracts, macular ... Although a large burst of ROS is known to lead to cell damage, a moderate release of ROS from the mitochondria, which occurs ... 8-OHdG accumulates in the mitochondria of spinal motor neurons of persons with ALS. In transgenic ALS mice harboring a mutant ...
It is believed low levels of citrate in the cytosol and high levels of citrate in the mitochondria caused by the impaired ... Lower or no levels are present in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle, placenta and lung. The tricarboxylate transport protein is ... located within the inner mitochondria membrane. It provides a link between the mitochondrial matrix and cytosol by transporting ...
The properties of mitochondria from the phasic adductor muscle of Euvola ziczac varied significantly during their annual ... Boadas, M.A.; Nusetti, O.; Mundarain, F. (1997). "Seasonal variation in the properties of muscle mitochondria from the tropical ... marking the point of attachment for this muscle. The adductor muscle of scallops is larger and more developed than those of ... The word "scallop" is also applied to the meat of these bivalves, the adductor muscle, that is sold as seafood. The brightly ...
Males have been shown to have higher levels of glycogen and mitochondria in muscle cells. Because B. giganteus is so large, it ... Metabolism of Muscle of Cockroach Blaberus giganteus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 66: 1209-1212. Banks, W.M ... Oxygen consumption in the mixed red and white muscles of mature male B. giganteus was higher when compared to mature females. ... of sex hormones causing increased accumulation of oxidized substrates or increased concentration of enzymes in muscles in males ...
Along with muscle strength weakness associated with the muscles involved from loss of filament interaction.[citation needed] ... Calcium ions build up in the mitochondria, impairing cellular respiration. The mitochondria are unable to produce enough ATP to ... A high concentration of calcium activates muscle cells, causing the muscle to contract while inhibiting its ability to relax. ... The increase of sustained muscle contraction leads to oxygen and ATP depletion with prolonged exposure to calcium. The muscle ...
A unique symptom of lathyrism is the atrophy of gluteal muscles (buttocks). ODAP is a poison of mitochondria, leading to excess ...
... during muscle contraction. Some products of these transcriptions release H2 into the muscles. This can cause calcium ions to ... and can diffuse out of the mitochondria and out of the cell. In prokaryotes, which have no mitochondria, this reaction is ... Calcium ions have a role in regulation of PDC in muscle tissue, because it activates PDP, stimulating glycolysis on its release ... This irreversible reaction traps the acetyl-CoA within the mitochondria (the acetyl-CoA can only be transported out of the ...
... is commonly used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Maximal activity of ... "Superior mitochondrial adaptations in human skeletal muscle after interval compared to continuous single-leg cycling matched ... citrate synthase indicates the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle. The maximal activity can be increased by endurance ...
The muscle cell that makes up animal skeletal muscle is a classic example of a syncytium cell. The term may also refer to cells ... The proximal cytoplasm contains nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, glycogen deposits, and ... Large skeletal muscle fibers form by the fusion of thousands of individual muscle cells. The multinucleated arrangement is ... The syncytium of cardiac muscle is important because it allows rapid coordinated contraction of muscles along their entire ...
The proximal cytoplasm contains nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, glycogen deposits, and ... The basal lamina is followed by a thick layer of muscle. A large number of important enzymes has been detected in the tegument ... to absorb exogenous materials is proportional to the number and extent of pits or microtriches and the number of mitochondria ...
In the cell, action in the cytosol, the mitochondria, and the glycosome are all completing the function of energy metabolism. ... This accounts for why desmoglycosomes are found in muscle cells. These glycosomes are not affected by acid. These glycosomes ... Other glycosomes have been found to be attached to myofibrils and mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, ... These structures relate to the other organelles mentioned such as the myofibrils, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. ...
This is the case in human erythrocytes, which have no mitochondria, and in oxygen-depleted muscle. Adenosine triphosphate is a ... In working skeletal muscles and the brain, Phosphocreatine is stored as a readily available high-energy phosphate supply, and ... ATP can be generated by substrate-level phosphorylation in mitochondria in a pathway that is independent from the proton motive ... Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells during glycolysis and in mitochondria either during the Krebs ...
mitochondrion. Processo biológico. •blood vessel remodeling. •skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange ...
Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... Dark small circles in the network are mitochondria. ... which it releases when the muscle cell is stimulated.[1] ...
mitochondrion. • mitochondrial matrix. • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Biological process. • metabolism. • tricarboxylic acid ... Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and ... As such, the absolute amounts of site-specific kinases and phosphates expressed in the mitochondria directly affect PDH ... it is recommended to perform a detailed biochemical analysis on a muscle biopsy in females with a suspected pyruvate ...
mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • extracellular. • synaptic vesicle. • axon. • ... motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva.[13][14] ... "Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain". Frontiers in Neurology. 9: 698. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00698. ISSN ...
SOD1 is located in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria, and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists of two ... an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,[28] an earlier incidence of cataracts, and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking ... Iron or manganese - used by prokaryotes and protists, and in mitochondria and chloroplasts *Iron - Many bacteria contain a form ... Manganese - Nearly all mitochondria, and many bacteria, contain a form with manganese (Mn-SOD): For example, the Mn-SOD found ...
... respiratory muscles) ଦୁର୍ବଳ ହୋଇଯାଆନ୍ତି । [୩] କେତେକ ରୋଗୀଙ୍କର ପେଶୀ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ (coordination (ataxia)) ସମସ୍ୟା ହୋଇପାରେ । [୪] ... bulbar muscles) ଆକ୍ରାନ୍ତ ହୁଅନ୍ତି । [୩] ଆଖିର ମାଂସପେଶୀ ଦୌର୍ବଲ୍ୟ କ୍ୱଚିତ ଦେଖାଯାଏ । କାହାରି କାହାରି ଦୈତ ଦୃଷ୍ଟି(double vision), ଉପର ...
ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size.[2] ... "Disruption of ER-mitochondria signalling in fronto-temporal dementia and related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Cell Death & ... Stiff muscles, muscle twitching, gradually worsening weakness[2]. Complications. Difficulty in speaking, swallowing, breathing[ ... The disorder causes muscle weakness, atrophy, and muscle spasms throughout the body due to the degeneration of the upper motor ...
Similarly, pentamidine inhibits type II topoisomerase in the mitochondria of the Trypanosoma parasite, resulting in a broken ... Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] ... Pentamidine is brought into the mitochondria through carrier proteins, and the absence of these carriers prevents the drug from ... The drug also inhibits topoisomerase enzymes in the mitochondria of Pneumocystis jirovecii. ...
"The Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Papers: Szeged, 1931-1947: Vitamin C, Muscles, and WWII". Profiles in Science. United States National ... Carnitine is essential for the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria for ATP generation. ... For example, the ascorbic acid content of pituitary and adrenal glands can exceed 2,000 µmol/L, and muscle is at 200-300 µmol/L ...
Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. It often occurs to defective mitochondria following damage ... is induced in contracting muscles and is required for maintaining the muscle sarcomere under mechanical tension.[74] The CASA ... Mitophagy promotes turnover of mitochondria and prevents accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria which can lead to cellular ... "Physical exercise stimulates autophagy in normal skeletal muscles but is detrimental for collagen VI-deficient muscles". ...
PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, of mesenchymal cells. ... it is also produced by other cells including smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells[5] ...
Lack of dystrofin is associated with altered integration of the mitochondria and ATPases in slow-twitch muscle cells of MDX ... Structure-function relationship in regulation of the energy transfere between mitochondria and ATPases in cardiac cell ( ...
ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and progressive muscle weakness from muscle wasting. The parts of the ... SOD1 protein is responsible for destroying naturally occurring, but harmful superoxide radicals produced by the mitochondria. ... General symptoms include overall muscle weakness and poor muscle tone including extremities and respiratory muscles leading to ... In general, proximal muscle are always affected more than distal muscle. Genetic cause[edit]. Spinal muscular atrophy is linked ...
mitochondrion. • integral component of membrane. • cytoplasm. • Golgi apparatus. • plasma membrane. • cell surface. • ... Muscles, liver, and pituitaryEdit. PrP-null mice provide clues to a role in muscular physiology when subjected to a forced ... Aging mice with an overexpression of PRNP showed significant degradation of muscle tissue. ... and an isoform located in mitochondria. The misfolded version PrPSc is associated with a variety of cognitive disorders and ...
In skeletal muscles, the waste product is lactic acid. This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. In ... Once acetyl-CoA is formed, aerobic or anaerobic respiration can occur.[6] When oxygen is present, the mitochondria will undergo ... The post-glycolytic reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells. ... This would imply that in human mitochondria the 10 protons from oxidizing NADH would produce 2.72 ATP (instead of 2.5) and the ...
... muscle proteins get broken down into free amino acids and then undergo the process of oxidizing in mitochondria to produce ... The primary usage of whey protein supplements is for muscle growth and development. During exercise, ... For muscle growth, whey protein has been shown to be slightly better compared to other types of protein, such as casein or soy. ... effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men". Journal of Applied ...
They possess an organelle known as the kinetoplast which is a large mitochondrion with a network of interlocking circular dsDNA ...
Hypotonia (low muscle tone and strength), dystonia (involuntary, sustained muscle contraction), and ataxia (lack of control ... Mitochondrion pii: S1567-7249(18)30175-2 *^ "SURF1". Genetics Home Reference. NIH. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013 ... Mitochondria are essential organelles in eukaryotic cells. Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino ... Mitochondria carry their own DNA, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The information stored in the mtDNA is used to produce ...
Type I, slow twitch, or "red" muscle, is dense with capillaries and is rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle ... Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of the face and internal muscles all correspond with dedicated regions in the ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... Mackenzie, Colin (1918). The Action of Muscles: Including Muscle Rest and Muscle Re-education. England: Paul B. Hoeber. p. 1. ...
V Smerdu (Rhagfyr 1994). Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle. URL ... Math I, cyhyr araf sy'n ocsideiddio, plwc araf, neugyhyr "coch" sy'n dwys gyda chapilarïau ac yn gyfoethog mewn mitochondria a ... Math IIx (adnabyddir hefyd fel math IId, neu yn anaml iawn IIB), sydd llai dwys mewn mitochondria a myoglobin. hwn yw'r cyhyr ... Math IIa, sydd, yn debyd i gyhur araf, yn aerobig, sy'n gyfoethog mewn mitochondria a chapilarïau ac yn edrych yn goch. ...
... s also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... mitochondria, chloroplasts, plasma membrane, etc. With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of ... They also generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles[42] and play essential roles in intracellular transport. ... a component of the muscle sarcomere, with a molecular mass of almost 3,000 kDa and a total length of almost 27,000 amino acids. ...
This arrangement limited the size of the braincase, because it forced the jaw muscles to run round and over it. Hadrocodium's ... The mother feeds the baby by contracting muscles over her mammary glands, as the baby is too weak to suck. The newborn ... Having attachment points further away from the jaw made it possible for the muscles to be longer and therefore to exert a ... well-developed attachment points for muscles that are used a lot in climbing; and a tail that is twice as long as the rest of ...
Found in the muscle tissue of many vertebrates, including humans, it gives muscle tissue a distinct red or dark gray color. It ... The heme part is synthesized in a series of steps in the mitochondria and the cytosol of immature red blood cells, while the ... McCully, K. K.; Hamaoka, T. (2000). "Near-infrared spectroscopy: What can it tell us about oxygen saturation in skeletal muscle ... NIRS can be used both on the head and on muscles. This technique is often used for research in e.g. elite sports training, ...
As a result of not containing mitochondria, red blood cells use none of the oxygen they transport; instead they produce the ... Myoglobin, a compound related to hemoglobin, acts to store oxygen in muscle cells.[10] ... subsequently lose all other cellular organelles such as their mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. ...
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. ...
Oxygen is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle ...
Abrahams J, Leslie A, Lutter R, Walker J (1994). "Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria". ... 1995). "Adenosine 5'-(gamma-thiotriphosphate): an ATP analog that should be used with caution in muscle contraction studies". ... phosphagens and some glycolytic intermediates in resting muscles from vertebrates and invertebrates". Biochem J 152 (1): 23-32 ...
The outermost portion of the photoreceptor inner segment (IS) packed with mitochondria Very Hyper-reflective No [22][27][25][23 ... RPE mitochondria zone + Junction between the RPE & Bruch's membrane Very Hyper-reflective ...
... is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle ...
The mechanism by which a 30% decrease in muscle mitochondria has been proposed to cause muscle insulin resistance is an ... This finding argues against the concept that muscle insulin resistance is mediated by a deficiency of muscle mitochondria. We ... decrease in muscle mitochondria is irrelevant in terms of the ability of resting muscle to oxidize fat. ... has been shown to result in increases in skeletal muscle mitochondria (17, 18). In these studies, an increase in muscle ...
Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.. [Robert A Jacobs, Anne-Kristine Meinild, Nikolai B Nordsborg, Carsten ... Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically permeabilized ... The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the ... Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves ...
... and in-depth analysis of orexins action on avian muscle mitochondria. ... are expressed in avian muscle tissue and cell line, and appears to be a secretory protein. Functional in vitro studies showed ... Kentu Lassiter and Sami Dridi (April 11th 2019). Orexin System and Avian Muscle Mitochondria, Muscle Cells - Recent Advances ... Kentu Lassiter and Sami Dridi (April 11th 2019). Orexin System and Avian Muscle Mitochondria, Muscle Cells - Recent Advances ...
Now, a study published March 13 in the journal Cell Reports provides new clues about the cellular mechanisms of aging muscles, ... highlighting the importance of how mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, process ADP, which provides energy to cells. ... Most adults reach their peak levels of muscle mass in their late 30s or early 40s. Even for those who exercise regularly, ... Mitochondria may metabolize ADP differently in aging muscle, despite exercise resistance. Cell Press ...
"Disruption of this link prevents the proper communication between mitochondria and the rest of the muscle, making the muscle ... Master Regulator in Mitochondria is Critical for Muscle Function & Repair New study identifies how loss of mitochondrial ... "Control of calcium transport by MICU1 helps to coordinate muscle fibers and their mitochondria," says György Hajnóczky, MD, PhD ... Over time our muscles are able to repair themselves through a complex set of cellular processes within each muscle fiber. New ...
Zidovudine induces molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural changes in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.. W Lewis, B ... After 35 d of AZT treatment, selective changes in rat striated muscle were localized ultrastructurally to mitochondria, and ... Decreased muscle mitochondrial (mt) DNA, mtRNA, and decreased mitochondrial polypeptide synthesis in vitro were found in ... and ultrastructural toxic events in skeletal muscle and supported clinical and in vitro findings. ...
Flight muscle is the most powerful type of muscle, to cope with the aerobic demands of flying the balance of muscle fibres and ... Here we see flight muscle from a bird in a transverse cut. Mitochondria generate the energy that cells need to function. The ... The mitochondria are the pink/red structures in this image. Cellular level art, paint on silk, digitised. ... energy made by the mitochondria is in the form of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ...
This includes for instance the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function [2-9], disuse-induced muscle atrophy [10], ... Given these multifaceted roles of mitochondria in fundamental aspects of skeletal muscle cell physiology, it is not surprising ... Indeed, they play central roles in muscle cell metabolism, energy supply, the regulation of energy-sensitive signaling pathways ... While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of ...
Mitochondria can also vary in relation to muscle fiber type (40). It can be difficult to assess muscle fiber type at the ... Mitochondria were smaller in skeletal muscle from obese volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients than in muscle from lean ... Mitochondria morphology.. The mitochondria examined by electron microscopy in this study were central mitochondria, mostly ... skeletal muscle mitochondria were smaller in type 2 diabetic and obese subjects than in muscle from lean volunteers (P , 0.01 ...
Skeletal muscle and heart mitochondria were isolated as described previously (10). Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated ... Mitochondria contamination estimate in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver mitochondria through five independent experiments. ... Enzymes related to the regulation of the skeletal muscle energy metabolism are highly expressed in skeletal muscle mitochondria ... The lower band corresponding to mitochondria was recovered (11). Preparations of skeletal muscle mitochondria presented a ...
Elongated Mitochondria Constrictions and fission in muscle fatigue Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Elongated Mitochondria Constrictions and fission in muscle fatigue. Manuela Lavorato, Emanuele Loro, Valentina Debattisti, ... Elongated Mitochondria Constrictions and fission in muscle fatigue. Manuela Lavorato, Emanuele Loro, Valentina Debattisti, ... Elongated Mitochondria Constrictions and fission in muscle fatigue. Manuela Lavorato, Emanuele Loro, Valentina Debattisti, ...
Mitochondria isolated from PLIN5 overexpressing muscles did not possess increased fatty acid respiration. Interestingly though ... This prompted us to examine PLIN5 protein expression in skeletal muscle mitochondria by means of immunogold electron microscopy ... Here, we investigated the role of PLIN5 in fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. In human skeletal muscle, we observed that PLIN5 ( ... The lipid droplet coat protein perilipin 5 also localizes to muscle mitochondria. ...
"Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are ... A Review of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria in Aging. Permalink No Comments Yet Add a Comment Posted by Reason ... Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations ... Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched ...
Mitochondria were isolated from biopsies taken from m. vastus lateralis. Maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption (QO2) and ATP ... Muscle oxidative function has been investigated in subjects with various training status (VO2 max, 41-72 mL O2 kg-1 body wt min ... Rate of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria from human skeletal muscle: effect of training status Acta Physiol ... It is concluded that muscle oxidative function can be quantitatively assessed from the respiration of mitochondria isolated ...
Lack of dystrophin is associated with altered integration of the mitochondria and ATPases in slow-twitch muscle cells of MDX ... The potential role of dystrophin-mediated control of systems integrating mitochondria with ATPases was assessed in muscle cells ... whereas the other muscles appeared normal in this group. Irrespective of muscle type, the absence of dystrophin had no effect ... In conclusion, our data indicate that in slow-twitch muscle cells, the absence of dystrophin is associated with the ...
... work was to study the regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in permeabilized oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle ... Role of mitochondria-cytoskeleton interactions in respiration regulation and mitochondrial organization in striated muscles ... We found that in oxidative soleus skeletal muscle the high apparent Km for ADP is associated with low MOM permeability and high ... Very low expression of non-polymerized form of βII tubulin in glycolytic muscles is associated with high MOM permeability for ...
Mitochondria - The Powerhouse Of The Body & Mind. Articles , Genetics , Mind + Muscle 101 Series ... The amount of energy and alertness that we have is decided by how well the mitochondria function. Mitochondria are known ... The mitochondria are used to create the energy that we use on a daily basis. When energy is used, and the need for new energy ... Mind and Muscle is dedicated to one single idea. That it is possible to completely recast the genetic expression of ones body. ...
Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human ... Muscle, 81%) 24 (M) Complex V MT-ATP6 (Muscle, 77%) T8993G; (muscle, ,95%) 25 (F) Complex V MT-ATP6 (Muscle, 50%) T8993G; ( ... Muscle, 2%) 18 (F) PDHc PDHA1 (Muscle, 68%; fibroblast, 82%) del926 AAGTAAG PDHc-E1 (Muscle, 64%) 19 (F) PDHc PDHA1 (Muscle, 89 ... muscle, 81%) (Muscle, 18%) Complex III (Muscle, 84%) 13 (F) Complex II Genetic defect unknown (Muscle, 42%; fibroblast, 38%) 14 ...
PubMed journal article Ketogenic diet increases mitochondria volume in the liver and skeletal muscle without altering oxidative ... Ketogenic diet increases mitochondria volume in the liver and skeletal muscle without altering oxidative stress markers in rats ... "Ketogenic Diet Increases Mitochondria Volume in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle Without Altering Oxidative Stress Markers in Rats ... Ketogenic diet increases mitochondria volume in the liver and skeletal muscle without altering oxidative stress markers in rats ...
Morphometric analysis of mitochondria in skeletal muscles and heart of 6- and 60-month-old naked mole rats ( Heterocephalus ... Morphometric analysis of mitochondria in skeletal muscles and heart of 6- and 60-month-old naked mole rats (Heterocephalus ... Del Campo, A., Jaimovich, E., and Tevy, M. F. (2016) Mitochondria in the aging muscles of flies and mice: new perspectives for ... Carter, H. N., Chen, C. C. W., and Hood, D. A. (2015) Mitochondria, muscle health, and exercise with advancing age, Physiology ...
... the model is able to simulate dynamic responses to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria associated with muscle ... cytosol and mitochondria) domains. The reaction fluxes in cytosol and mitochondria are expressed in terms of a general ... For the purpose, a physiologically-based, multi-scale computational model of skeletal muscle cellular metabolism and energetics ... that may become evident in response to physiological stresses such as reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria ...
The time course of changes in the properties of mitochondria from oxidative muscle of rainbow trout was examined during warm ( ... Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus ... Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus ... Time course of the response of mitochondria from oxidative muscle during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus ...
Effect of long-term exercise on human muscle mitochondria. In: Pernow B, Saltin B (eds) Muscle metabolism during exercise. ... Mitochondria changes in human muscle after prolonged exercise, endurance training and selenium supplementation. *A. J. Zamora2 ... The number of mitochondria per area (QA) and the relative surface occupied by the total mitochondria profile area (A A) were ... Zamora, A.J., Tessier, F., Marconnet, P. et al. Mitochondria changes in human muscle after prolonged exercise, endurance ...
Mitochondria provide the energy to power contraction of the muscle. ... Cardiac muscle stained for mitochondria. Mitochondria provide the energy to power contraction of the muscle.. NIMR, Francis ... Credit: Cardiac muscle stained for mitochondria. Mitochondria provide the energy to power contraction of the muscle. Credit: ...
... present a modification of a previously reported method that allows for the isolation of high quality and purified mitochondria ... The isolation of skeletal muscle mitochondria often requires harsh methods to liberate mitochondria from surrounding connective ... Given that skeletal muscle mitochondria are involved in many pathological conditions, the measurement of O2 consumption in ... Dysfunctional skeletal muscle mitochondria play a role in altered metabolism observed with aging, obesity and Type II diabetes ...
Relative changes in the function of muscle ribosomes and mitochondria during the early phase of steroid-induced catabolism ... 6. Mitochondria, isolated from the muscle of animals that had received triamcinolone acetonide (20mg/kg) 12h previously, were ... Relative changes in the function of muscle ribosomes and mitochondria during the early phase of steroid-induced catabolism. ... The observed decrease in the incorporating ability of muscle ribosomes in vitro appears to be much more closely linked to the ...
adenosine triphosphate, anaemia, erythropoietin, haemodialysis, mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation, skeletal muscle, ... 1. The ATP production rate in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria was measured with a bioluminescence method, before and ... Peter Bárány, Rolf Wibom, Eric Hultman, Jonas Bergström; ATP production in isolated muscle mitochondria from haemodialysis ... ATP production in isolated muscle mitochondria from haemodialysis patients: effects of correction of anaemia with ...
Abnormal Mitochondria Organization and Oxidative Activity in the Palate Muscles of Long-Term Snorers with Obstructive Sleep ... Palate muscle, Mitochondria, Capillaries, Snoring, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome National Category Medical and ... a low capillary supply and signs of impaired oxidative activity suggest that muscle dysfunction of the palate muscles in long- ... The cause of these abnormalities remains unclear, but local muscle and nerve trauma due to vibration and stretch is a possible ...
Both calcium signalling and neurotransmitter release are affected by mitochondria function but the effect of mitochondria on ... Dysfunction of mitochondria is known to impact on the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, often in the pre-symptomatic ... The differentiation of hiPSCs into muscle cells will lead to further replacement of ~200 chicks or ~100 mice per year in Dr ... in hIPSC differentiation protocols to generate motor neuron-muscle cultures to replace rat models in study of mitochondria on ...
Age‐related endothelial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of free radicals derived from mitochondria ...
  • L-carnitine controls fat use because it transports fatty acids into the mitochondria of the muscle cells to be burned as fuel. (
  • Carnitine plays a crucial role in energy production, helping fatty acids reach the mitochondria, the cell's power producers, where they are converted into energy (see figure 1). (
  • Carnitine ensures that fatty acids are transported to the mitochondria and converted into energy. (
  • It does so by improving the free fatty acids' transportation into the cells' core, also known as mitochondria. (
  • LUXXE Slim helps transport fatty acids into energy-producing units of the cells, turning fat into energy, resulting in improved muscle strength and the greatest vitality. (
  • Mitochondria are powerhouses that generate the majority of cellular ATP via fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain (ETC), and ATP synthase. (
  • L-carnitine works by shutting fatty acids into the mitochondria to be used as energy instead of stored as body fat. (
  • Once fully adapted your cells mitochondria can now use fatty acids to power muscles, organs, and other activities of daily life. (
  • L-Carnitine is a naturally occurring amino acid that promotes healthy body composition by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production. (
  • When focusing on its key roles, ALCAR transports lipids, as well as fatty acids into the mitochondria. (
  • This leads to boosted energy levels and increased fat metabolism.It also encourages fatty acids and other fats to enter the mitochondria. (
  • L-carnitine transfers long-chain fatty acids, such as triglycerides into mitochondria (energy-producing structures inside every cell), where they are oxidized to produce energy. (
  • The changes in adipose tissue, but not muscle tissue, were associated with adverse health effects, including fatty liver disease and insulin resistance, conditions that have been linked to the development of diabetes. (
  • It functions primarily to support fat utilization, and also acts as a carrier of fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they are oxidized and converted to energy. (
  • l-carnitine also facilitates the removal of short and medium chain fatty acids from the mitochondria that accumulate during normal metabolic processes. (
  • It transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria - the 'furnaces' of the body's cells - where they are broken down and transformed into energy. (
  • The heart obtains about 70% of its energy from fatty acids, which explains why the heart has a high concentration of L-carnitine and is dependent on a continuous supply of fatty acids to the mitochondria and their subsequent transformation into energy. (
  • title=Hanley PJ, Dröse S, Brandt U, Lareau RA, Banerjee AL, Srivastava DK, Banaszak LJ, Barycki JJ, Van Veldhoven PP, Daut J (2005) 5-Hydroxydecanoate is metabolised in mitochondria and creates a rate-limiting bottleneck for beta-oxidation of fatty acids. (
  • The mitochondria are the cells' energy powerhouses, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential component of healthy mitochondrial function. (
  • Now your muscle cells have more brains telling it what to do, and more powerhouses performing the work. (
  • Being sedentary causes muscles to lose their mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, where fat is burned. (
  • Using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , the scientists show that when the germline accumulates damaged protein aggregates, it releases specific signals (Wnt singaling) which in turn induce changes in mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cells, leading to protein aggregation in other tissues such as muscle or neurons. (
  • Each cell is like a tiny city, said Van Remmen, and structures called mitochondria function as the city's power plants. (
  • Cardiac (heart) cells, muscle, and cells of the liver have a significant amount of mitochondria and a very large energy requirement. (
  • The heart contains the largest amount of mitochondria of any muscle in the body, so it is not surprising that CoQ10 has been proven effective for treatment of heart disease. (
  • Investigators in our center have focused on a common biological pathway that influences both age-related changes in mitochondria energy production and on skeletal muscle decline," Walston says. (
  • Another theory suggests that vitamin D may trigger PGC1-alpha, a key regulator of energy metabolism that spurs the development of new mitochondria. (
  • Gynecomastia want to look effects measure changes of metabolism in the mitochondria. (
  • Mitochondria play a crucial role in energy metabolism. (
  • A study has investigated the effects of obesity on metabolism and gene expression in muscle and fat tissue. (
  • We have now analysed the complete β-oxidation of 5-HD-CoA using specially synthesised (and purified) substrates and enzymes, as well as isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria, and compared it with the metabolism of the physiological substrate decanoyl-CoA. (
  • Consistent with the kinetic data, 5-hydroxydecanoyl-CoA alone acted as a weak substrate in isolated mitochondria, whereas addition of 100 μm 5-HD-CoA inhibited the metabolism of decanoyl-CoA or lauryl-carnitine. (
  • Daily supplementation with whey protein not only aids muscle growth but also leads to an increase in metabolism and therefore an increase in calorie and fat burn . (
  • Research indicates this may double the amount of CoQ10 in the mitochondria. (
  • 31 With an ample amount of CoQ10, mitochondria can work most efficiently throughout the entire body - including the most densely populated area, the heart. (
  • 32 CoQ10 is also a potent antioxidant, helping protect proteins, and DNA of mitochondria from oxidation and supporting mitochondrial function. (
  • This formulation contains an ingredient called PrimaVie shilajit that research shows doubles levels of CoQ10 in mitochondria. (
  • In muscle there was a 144% increase, or 27% better than CoQ10 alone. (
  • Facilitating more efficient delivery of CoQ10 into the mitochondria, resulting in greater cellular energy output. (
  • Within the mitochondria, CoQ10 plays a major role as part of the electron transport chain, the major metabolic pathway for making energy in every cell. (
  • CoQ10, as an antioxidant helps neutralize these free radicals helping to support continued function of the mitochondria and other important cellular components. (
  • CoQ10 is vital to the energy-producing processes that help maintain normal, healthy heart, muscle, and liver function. (
  • As a fat-soluble antioxidant, CoQ10 helps protect the cell membrane, LDL cholesterol, mitochondria, and DNA from free radical damage. (
  • CoQ10 has been shown to support normal, healthy cardiovascular function including healthy blood pressure, efficient heart muscle contraction as well as protection against free radical damage. (
  • CoQ10 is found inside the cell organelle known as powerhouse of cells, the mitochondrion. (
  • CoQ10 functions as obligatory cofactor for uncoupling proteins & modulates transition pores at inner membrane of the mitochondria. (
  • CoQ10 is produced in multiple intracellular organelles in animal cells like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes from tyrosine (or phenylalanine) and mevalonate. (
  • When the steroid skeletal muscles, resulting cooking is that your diet, wallet and how sensitive your cells are. (
  • To account for the conversion of glucose to lactate by cancer cells in the presence of oxygen, Warburg ( 1 ) speculated that tumor mitochondria are decreased or functionally impaired. (
  • When you train your muscle cells grow by taking in nutrients and converting them to energy, protein, & amino acids to fuel and repair the muscle fibers. (
  • What also happens during training is that muscle cells create more nuclei and mitochondria . (
  • Converts nutrients to energy/regulates protein synthesis in muscle cells. (
  • As you train your muscle cells create more and more nuclei and more and more mitochondria. (
  • The size of your muscle cells may get smaller, but the number of nuclei and mitochondria are still the same and much greater than they were before you started training. (
  • Scientists were able to dye the nuclei of muscle cells in 4 different subjects so you can clearly see the increase compared to non-trained subjects. (
  • A recent study shows that a healthy reproductive system can prevent disease-related protein accumulation in distant tissues, such as neurons, and alteration of mitochondria - the power plants of cells. (
  • As cells process oxygen for power, the mitochondria emit free radicals, harmful by-products of oxygen. (
  • By lowering insulin sensitivity, sugar is more effectively absorbed by muscle and liver cells in the blood, rather than being converted into fat. (
  • Glucose can then be utilized as energy by muscle cells and released into circulation by the liver cells. (
  • Mitochondrial disorders generally demonstrate multisystem involvement because of the presence of mitochondria in all cells. (
  • The mitochondria are the power houses of cells. (
  • Skeletal muscle is especially affected, as the mitochondria in muscle cells are less efficient that those in organs. (
  • The electrical impulses stimulate the mitochondria of the cells to generate energy for muscle healing, growth and movements. (
  • Because the Erchonia cold laser works with the mitochondria of the cells, it helps to improve cell regeneration which shortens healing time. (
  • It will take innovative thinking and yet-to-be technology to transform these rudimentary cells into a three-dimensional brain with neurons that can connect to other neurons and finally, muscle cells. (
  • Features new content on cancer immunotherapy, satellite cells and muscle repair, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in relation to cancer treatment, and mitochondria replacement therapies. (
  • Manganese is a component of the cancer antioxidant enzyme that is produced in the mitochondria of cells to protect the body from cancer. (
  • The availability of D-Ribose in cells is therefore essential for energy production and muscle recovery following cellular stress. (
  • A key finding was that the activity of mitochondria, the power plants of cells, was reduced in the muscle and adipose tissue of people with obesity. (
  • Brown fat gets its name from its darker color (compared to white fat), which is due to the mitochondria packed inside its cells. (
  • Mitochondria are the body's energy factories, turning glucose from the food we eat into the energy that cells need to perform their functions. (
  • The study, conducted on mice showed that coffee promotes movement of a regulatory protein into mitochondria - cell powerhouse - which then enhances their function to protect cardiovascular cells from damage. (
  • In these cells, mitochondrial p27 promoted migration of endothelial cells, protected heart muscle cells from cell death and triggered the conversion of fibroblasts into cells containing contractile fibres - all crucial for repair of heart muscle after myocardial infarction or heart attack, and did so at a concentration that is reached in humans by drinking four cups of coffee, the researchers said. (
  • L-Carnitine helps to supply energy to many organs in the body, such as the heart, muscles, liver and immune cells. (
  • Muscle tissue is comprised of long slim muscle cells called myocytes . (
  • Photonic stimulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase, a chromophore found on the mitochondria of cells, plays a major role in this rapid increase in production and synthesis of ATP. (
  • Researchers also hypothesize that there might be other neuromuscular diseases caused by mutations in structural proteins that directly interact with the mitochondria. (
  • Bottom: fragmented mitochondria in the muscle after induction of aggregation of proteins in the germline. (
  • What mitochondria do is they take fuel from the bloodstream derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (in the form of acetate groups) and burn them in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP. (
  • Cardiostrong also includes multiple proteins to enhance long-term energy generation and combat muscle, ligament and tendon breakdown. (
  • A 10-minute massage upped mitochondria production, and reduced proteins associated with inflammation in muscles that had been exercised to exhaustion, a small study last month found. (
  • Rev-ErbA is a protein that is highly present in our liver, fat, muscles and skeletal muscles. (
  • Instead, the body starts to split glycogen stored in muscles and liver into glucose and use it to produce energy. (
  • 3 The ketones are then transported from the liver to the heart, brain, muscles, and other organs to be used for energy. (
  • L-Arginine (Healthy Heart) - amino acid that is needed to help keep the liver, skin, joints, and muscles healthy. (
  • Substantial energy increases in the brain and muscle have been found as well. (
  • In our muscles, Stenabolic increases our mitochondria count. (
  • As the intensity of the exercise increases, mitochondria can no longer produce energy fast enough. (
  • This increases the amount of fat that's available for energy.When supplementing with enough ALCAR, your muscles utilize the burning of fat for energy instead of only glucose. (
  • If mitochondria […] are compared to the engine of a car, you could say that the power output decreases as weight increases," explains senior author Prof. Kirsi Pietiläinen, also of the university's Obesity Research Unit. (
  • Incoming carbohydrate, as we discussed above, is not allowed to enter the muscle tissue, so it gets converted to fat at an increased rate, pushing up triglyceride levels. (
  • In addition to burning glycogen stores, HIT creates bigger micro traumas in the muscle tissue that take a while to heal. (
  • Another study showed that LCLT enhanced the oxygenation of post-workout muscle tissue, which improved it during sprint work. (
  • For athletes and other people suffering from tissue injuries, electric muscle stimulation therapy can also be used to regain tissue healing faster than physical therapy. (
  • Stimulating the muscles with small currents is a new, yet effective way to manage tissue injuries as well as for overall comfort and well-being. (
  • And what we did was we took autopsy materials and we actually took live tissue materials, muscle and connective tissue before the infant died. (
  • Deep tissue massage is one form of the massage were pressure is applied to the deeper muscles to help speed up the blood circulation, break down lactic acid and so much more. (
  • Interestingly, it has been observed that deep tissue massages help to increase the number of mitochondria even more than exercising. (
  • The adverse health effects of obesity appear to be associated with the changes in fat tissue, rather than those in muscle. (
  • First, the researchers took blood samples and biopsies of fat, or adipose, tissue and skeletal muscle tissue from the volunteers. (
  • The change was more marked in adipose than in muscle tissue. (
  • Another notable finding was that mitochondria in the adipose and muscle tissue of individuals with obesity were less efficient at breaking down a type of amino acid. (
  • We argue that, because of a high nutrition load, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle tissue no longer sufficiently shift between catabolic and anabolic reactions in acquired obesity. (
  • Compared to various types of cardio, weight lifting burns more calories, releases more catecholamines (naturally occuring fat-burning chemicals), and builds more mitochondria-dense muscle tissue. (
  • Part of shilajit's beneficial effects derive from its ability to help the mitochondria convert fats and sugars into adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the main source of cellular energy. (
  • Studies have demonstrated that it may reduce muscle damage and improve ATP (cellular energy) storage. (
  • New findings from OMRF's Holly Van Remmen, Ph.D., and Bumsoo Ahn, Ph.D., show that specific cellular processes once thought to cause muscle loss in the elderly actually do not. (
  • Mitochondria contain the majority of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which an essential cofactor that regulates metabolic function. (
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is an essential cofactor that regulates metabolic function, and it is an electron carrier and signaling molecule involved in response to alterations in the cellular metabolic redox state, including muscle contraction, high-fat diet (HFD), insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [ 4 ] . (
  • Each stick pack provides essential electrolytes including Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium for proper fluid balance and cellular function required to prevent dehydration and fight muscle cramping. (
  • They also strengthen tendons, bones, and slow-twitch fibers-the type of muscle that carries you beyond short sprints. (
  • Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed many ragged-red fibers, cytochrome c oxidase-deficient fibers, and excess lipid. (
  • The mechanisms by which chronic AAS exposure offer an inexpensive like steroids or hormone deca maximal stimulation of all muscle fibers. (
  • Avian ciliary muscles also are fast muscle fibers, including a high concentration of mitochondria. (
  • When a muscle is stressed while training for improvement, the muscle fibers get damaged. (
  • After all it is during this recovery time that your muscle fibers are repaired and growth occurs. (
  • Muscles are composed of two types of fibers: white, or "fast twitch," and dark, or "slow twitch. (
  • In turkeys, chickens, grouse, and pheasants, the breast muscles are made up of mostly white muscle fibers, giving the wings extraordinary power to take off in a hurry when a predator approaches. (
  • White muscle fibers may be superior for power and speed, but fall short in endurance. (
  • White muscle fibers have fewer mitochondria, and the muscles themselves have a much smaller blood supply, so lactic acid building up in them during activity isn't flushed away very fast. (
  • Most songbirds, and ducks and geese, power their wings with a preponderance of red muscle fibers. (
  • For as rapid as their wing beats are, hummingbird wings are powered entirely with red muscle fibers, belying their "slow twitch" reputation. (
  • Human marathoners and mile runners have a higher ratio of red muscle fibers. (
  • Birds that use their legs for long-distance swimming, walking, or running have a preponderance of red muscle fibers to power them without tiring. (
  • In isolated muscle mitochondria, impaired oxygen consumption was corrected by the addition of decylubiquinone. (
  • Gatterer H, Menz V, Salazar-Martinez E, Sumbalova Z, Garcia-Souza LF, Cizmarova B, Gnaiger E, Burtscher M (2018) Exercise performance, muscle oxygen extraction and blood cell mitochondrial respiration after repeated-sprint and sprint interval training in hypoxia: a pilot study. (
  • Poole's discoveries have helped define how oxygen is transported from the lungs to be used by mitochondria to power muscles. (
  • Enhances oxygen uptake within the muscles thus athletes have experienced faster recovery time. (
  • An increase in the number of mitochondria can help improve your performance as an athlete as it helps increase the rate of oxygen utilized by muscles. (
  • Their specialized high-oxygen-content with a large number of mitochondria contributes to the major role of cardiac muscles in the heart's rhythmic pumping. (
  • Taurine supplementation has also been shown in studies to increase the secretion of nitric oxide, which dilates blood vessels and improves blood flow and delivery of oxygen to your muscles. (
  • The researchers believe that these underperforming mitochondria produce more of the harmful reactive oxygen species , or free radicals, that stoke inflammation. (
  • Restoration of muscle mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes by exercise training is paralleled by increased myocellular fat storage and improved insulin sensitivity. (
  • Plus, relaxed-pace efforts build mitochondria, tiny organelles in your muscles that process fat and glucose into the energy you need to run, Hamilton says. (
  • Nucleus - The brain of the cell that communicates with the other organelles (i.e. mitochondria) and tells them when and what to do. (
  • Mitochondria are the little organelles in the body that produce the energy we need to do the work with. (
  • Supplementing with oral carnitine will increase muscle carnitine levels and insure maximum fat burning potential. (
  • Some other ergogenic benefits: Carnitine inhibits lactic acid buildup in muscle, it aids in the oxidation of pyruvate and branched chain amino acids in the energy cycle(3), thus increasing endurance and delaying fatigue, and it prevents the buildup of complexes that destabilize muscle membranes. (
  • Athletes often use a Carnitine supplement because of its role in supplying muscles with energy. (
  • Stimulant-Free Fat Metabolizer: L-Carnitine is essential for transporting long-chain fats into the cell (mitochondria). (
  • L-Carnitine L-Tartrate (LCLT): Best for muscle recovery and improved function of your androgen receptors. (
  • id":177447043116,"title":"ULTRA PURE CARNITINE","handle":"ultra-pure-carnitine","description":"\u003cp\u003eUltra Pure Carnitine a highly stabilized form of the amino acid L-carnitine, supports cardiovascular health, pulmonary function, and muscle recovery from exercise. (
  • L-carnitine supports fat utilization and energy production in the mitochondria and is found in abundance in heart and skeletal muscle. (
  • L-Carnitine has also been shown to reduce muscle fatigue and helps improve athletic endurance. (
  • L-Ornithine (Muscle Builder) - helps build muscle and reduce body fat, especially when combined with the amino acids arginine and carnitine. (
  • Carnitine also helps boost immunity and muscle mass. (
  • l-Carnitine is an amino acid found abundantly in skeletal and heart muscle. (
  • Lonza has embarked on a research path that examines the potential of enhancing L-carnitine storage in the endothelial layers of the smooth muscle, within the capillary sphincter beds. (
  • Coenzymes help enzymes work to digest food and perform various body processes, including helping the heart and skeletal muscles. (
  • During endurance activities and under stress, critical body tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscles cannot produce ATP quickly enough to perform optimally. (
  • Research studies support that D-Ribose helps increase the power productivity in athletes and improves the capacity of skeletal muscles to recover more quickly after high intensity workouts. (
  • ROS could, in turn, cause mtDNA mutations that render mitochondria dysfunctional. (
  • The results are relevant because mutations in the DES gene have not been previously identified as a cause of multi-systemic mitochondrial disease, and symptoms like neuropathy and depletion of both mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA have not been previously associated with desmin-related myopathy. (
  • Researchers had believed that oxidative stress generated by mitochondria contributes to muscle loss. (
  • This potentially contributes to the development of muscle atrophy or shrinking of the muscles. (
  • However, this approach is not effective in all individuals and the development of drugs that could be used as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of muscle weakness is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the muscle dysfunction. (
  • In addition, there may be redundancy in the system so that multiple pathways have to be disrupted before skeletal muscle dysfunction arises. (
  • Dysfunction of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes. (
  • You will find it difficult to digest your food (the production of stomach acid requires an enormous amount of ATP), your heart will suffer from diastolic dysfunction, which also requires a large amount of ATP, you will be unable to think clearly, you will experience muscle weakness, particularly in the legs, and you will be exhausted after the slightest effort. (
  • Animal studies have identified an array of pathways that could be involved in the development of muscle atrophy or loss of oxidative capacity. (
  • DES is a key scaffolding protein in muscles that anchors mitochondria. (
  • The article 'Systemic regulation of mitochondria by germline proteostasis prevents protein aggregation in the soma of C. elegans' has now been published in Science Advances . (
  • Systemic regulation of mitochondria by germline proteostasis prevents protein aggregation in the soma of C. elegans . (
  • This gene encodes a motor protein that transports mitochondria and synaptic vesicle precursors. (
  • How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? (
  • The protein called p27, an inhibitor of the cell cycle, was present in mitochondria in the major cell types of the heart. (
  • Protein is essential for muscle growth and along with being extremely high in BCAA's, whey protein is digested very quickly by the body and quickly used for the repair and building of muscle fibres . (
  • Whey protein cannot be found in food and therefore the only way for you to incorporate it into your muscle building diet is through supplementation. (
  • The second best supplement for building muscle mass after whey protein is creatine monohydrate, often simply referred to as creatine, and is also used widely by muscle building professionals. (
  • Branch-chained amino acids are made up of the 3 most essential amino acids required for the synthesis of protein and muscle growth. (
  • Alcohol ingestion decreases postexercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, but the mechanism(s) (e.g., increased protein breakdown) underlying this observation is unknown. (
  • In addition, loss of muscle oxidative capacity arises from the depletion of aerobic type-I fibres and a reduction in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes within both type-I and -IIa fibres, resulting in decreased muscle endurance. (
  • Instead, it helps in muscle any and more muscular than endurance deliver similar results enanthate, Androgel cost without insurance followed by dianabol. (
  • SR9009 doesn't only affect our endurance in our muscles, it also promotes fat loss. (
  • In electrical muscle stimulation therapy, the electrical impulses stimulate the muscles and help them to relax and contract efficiently significantly improving the muscle tone, mass and strength. (
  • Therefore, when applied as treatment, lasers have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation as well as stimulate nerve regeneration, muscle relaxation, and immune system response. (
  • The body continues to burn glucose, store more fat and decrease the amount of muscle it has. (
  • A nutritionally well balanced ketogenic diet can help you alleviate chronic pain, lose fat while maintaining muscle, and even stabilize blood glucose for diabetics and pre-diabetics: #1. (
  • These ROS's modulate intracellular Ca++ concentrations and laser therapy improves Ca++ uptake in the mitochondria. (
  • For joint pains, electric muscle stimulation therapy also may improve joint symptoms as relaxation of the smooth muscles around a painful joint can help foster healing from joint inflammation. (
  • Now the general inflammation involves the brain so they get into neurocognitive deficites, it involves the lungs so they get into respiratory distress, it involves the muscles so they lose muscle tone, a whole variety so it just infects the whole organ. (
  • This muscle building supplement is also known to help with the prevention of inflammation , cancer and heart disease providing additional benefits to its use. (
  • Biochemical analysis of muscle extracts revealed decreased activities of complexes I+II and I+III, while CoQ 10 concentration was less than 25% of normal. (
  • The other is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) or Krebs cycle, which uses pyruvate formed from glycolysis in a series of reactions that donate electrons via NADH and FADH 2 to the respiratory chain complexes in mitochondria. (
  • Granted, a good lifter could gain a pound from carrying a crate of John Grisham novels to the Goodwill store, but you have to remember that these people gained muscle just by being alive - no resistance training or exercise was involved. (
  • Current treatment options for muscle weakness are limited to exercise and supplemental feeding for cachectic patients. (
  • When exercise intensity is low or moderate, energy is generated by oxidizing fat in mitochondria of the muscle. (
  • It can also help you with muscle recovery, especially after strenuous exercise. (
  • During exercise, the animals' muscles released a newly discovered enzyme called irisin, which triggered the conversion. (
  • The first thing people notice when they start to exercise or return to a regular gym routine is muscle soreness. (
  • Training at low and moderate intensity improves mitochondrial density of muscles and builds cardiovascular pathways . (
  • Research studies support that Taurine helps increase the force and effectiveness of heart-muscle contractions, helps lower blood pressure, may decrease blood sugar and improves mental performance. (
  • This fuel (or energy) is generated from the food we eat by mitochondria, a tiny part of every cell in our body. (
  • Here too, in different parts of the city of the cell, are energy converters called mitochondria. (
  • In a muscle cell the energy is required to make it contract and operate. (
  • Mitochondria - The powerhouse of the cell. (
  • ATP is manufactured via a complex process in a tiny part of the cell known as the mitochondria. (
  • By using the Erchonia laser, we can encourage cell regeneration (or in simple terms muscle repair), helping the athlete's muscles get stronger, faster. (
  • Visible red light and near infrared (NIR) are absorbed within the mitochondria and the cell membrane. (
  • A full body massage can induce a relaxing effect on the muscles thereby putting into effect a sedative effect on the nervous system. (
  • In conclusion, 5-HD is activated, transported into mitochondria and metabolised via β-oxidation, albeit with rate-limiting kinetics at the penultimate step. (
  • The p.S13F mutation is known to be associated with desmin-related myopathy, a condition characterized by muscle weakness, arrhythmias and right ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (disorder in which the heart muscle function becomes compromised). (
  • Skeletal muscle can never achieve a level of heart fitness. (
  • The higher the training intensity the faster the heart beats, moving the blood to muscles. (
  • It is important for heart and brain function, muscle movement, and many other body processes. (
  • His observations have driven a paradigm shift in the understanding of how muscle capillaries function, and advanced novel therapeutics for heart failure. (
  • It has been shown to help support the heart muscle, normal, healthy blood pressure as well as provide benefit to individual's taking cholesterol lowering medications. (
  • Our results indicate a new mode of action for caffeine, one that promotes protection and repair of heart muscle through the action of mitochondrial p27," said Judith Haendeler from Heinrich-Heine-University's Medical Faculty in Germany. (
  • These results should lead to better strategies for protecting heart muscle from damage, including consideration of coffee consumption or caffeine as an additional dietary factor in the elderly population," Haendeler said. (
  • Peripheral muscle weakness is a common and serious complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which precedes loss of fat-free mass and is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with Global Initiative for COPD grade III or IV disease 1 . (
  • Heterozygotes exhibit impaired synaptic vesicle precursor transport and progressive muscle weakness. (
  • The study is entitled " Desmin common mutation is associated with multi-systemic disease manifestations and depletion of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA " and was conducted by researchers at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Philadelphia . (
  • Aside from its direct effects on the soft tissues, electric muscle stimulation therapy also has the benefit of generating available energy for the recovery of muscles for a more effective healing. (
  • Some athletes make the mistake of being overzealous and over training which exerts further pressure on their muscles and the underlying connective tissues. (
  • To date, few candidate molecules have been studied in humans and there has been little focus on mediators that could potentially link the processes of muscle atrophy and loss of oxidative capacity, given that they frequently co-occur in disease. (
  • Muscles that are resistant to the ravages of ALS are known, extra ocular, pelvic sphincter, and slow twitch limb muscles. (
  • Mitochondrial disease is a devastating disorder that occurs when mitochondria can't make energy properly. (
  • The electrical currents allow the muscles to release tension and stress relieving muscle soreness, tightness and body aches. (
  • This naturally occurring amino acid promotes lean muscle growth and fat loss contributing to building a lean, toned and feminine physique. (
  • Our whole body needs energy to function-for example, our brains need energy to think, our muscles need energy to move and our hearts need energy to pump. (
  • It seems that the systems of the body are geared up (muscles pliable with large delivery of blood, energy-delivery systems running efficiently) to the point where the pace seems to get a little easier. (
  • If your mitochondria are impaired in any way, even a tiny bit, your body will find it difficult to perform even the most basic functions. (
  • Moreover, direct injury to the muscles can also lead to atrophy contributing to reduced functioning of the affected body part. (
  • Mr. Kevin, renowned Spa Therapist and a qualified Physiotherapist at one of the leading Spas in South India , talking about the effectiveness of Sports Massage quotes, "Sports massage helps you build muscle mass and gain flexibility by improving blood circulation to different parts of the body. (
  • Cbl-knockout (KO) mice display an increase in whole-body energy expenditure along with mitochondrial hypertrophy in skeletal muscle mass19. (
  • Supplements to build muscle mass have long been thought of for use by pro body-builders, personal trainers, and pro athletes only. (
  • Signs and symptoms referable to the skeletal and cardiac muscle systems should always be suspect. (
  • A decrease in both mitochondria biogenesis and NAD+ is a characteristic of metabolic diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) orchestrates mitochondrial biogenesis and is involved in mitochondrial NAD+ pool. (
  • Atrophy occurs, particularly of the anaerobic type-IIx fibres, and is manifest as a loss of muscle strength. (
  • its dysregulation may provoke apoptosis and lead to muscle atrophy. (
  • When electrical stimulation is employed, the muscles regain their mass, tone and functioning easier, which enhances the rehabilitation efforts for various types of injuries. (
  • When the mitochondria are inhibited from doing their job, less ATP is produced, and, as a consequence, your ability to maintain physical and mental function is reduced. (
  • He studies cardiovascular function as it relates to aging, muscle disuse and cancer, and applies novel interventions to increase the efficacy of clinical treatments like radiation or chemotherapy. (
  • I hate interval training but these data are very compelling on the advantage of interval training in improving mitochondria function. (
  • The mechanism of the muscle stimulation is it delivers small pulsating currents directly on the muscles, which in turn promotes muscle stimulation, blood circulation and muscle healing. (
  • Electric Muscle Stimulation Therapy is a new approach in treating various pain issues utilizing electrical muscle stimulation to reach deeper layers of the muscles. (
  • It's been identified as a great way to aid in faster healing, immune boosting, anti aging, mood enhancement, muscle recovery, and much more. (
  • Age-related muscle loss, called sarcopenia, happens to all of us as we age and is a major cause of disability and loss of independence in the elderly. (
  • Biking or cycling athletes need to take extra care of the muscles in their thighs and calves and prevent the buildup of lactic acid in order to perform successfully at major events. (
  • Experts recommend that cycling athletes go for massage sessions at least once a week to dislodge the knots and tension in their muscles. (
  • The second benefit of Micronized Creatine is that it helps your muscles recover faster after an intense dumbbell workouts for arms. (
  • These supplements male brain develops and results in terms of building muscle and improving performance inappropriate use who have testosterone deficiency. (
  • In fact, muscle mass supplements are now available in most all major grocery chains and super stores like Walmart, Target, and Amazon. (
  • That is, when you do your home work, and choose the best supplements for building muscle mass. (
  • Below are the 6 best supplements to build muscle mass. (
  • However, it's worth reminding you that supplements alone will not build muscle or mass. (
  • Gold Standard Whey is sold in powder form and is not very expensive compared to other supplements to build muscle mass. (
  • All of these nuclei and mitochondria cross-communicate with each other to efficiently keep the muscles energized and repaired after training. (
  • High intensity training builds power in the muscles , making them stronger and more resilient to the build up of lactic acid. (
  • Those muscles power the wings. (