Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Mitochondrial Turnover: The cellular processes involved in adjustments to the MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME, content, and activity, that depend on the energy demands of the cell.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.MalatesCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1: A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitochondrial Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mersalyl: A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.NF-E2-Related Factor 1: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.MalonatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Nuclear Respiratory Factors: A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.PyruvatesGenome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Zellweger Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome: Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Protein PrecursorsGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
"Biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase". Mitochondrion. 5 (6): 363-88. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2005.08.002. PMID 16199211. Sedlák E, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.053. PMID 23260140. Kozjak-Pavlovic V; Prell F; Thiede B; Götz M; Wosiek D; Ott C; et al. (2014). " ... Cell Biol. 84 (6): 859-69. doi:10.1139/o06-201. PMID 17215873. Johar K, Priya A, Dhar S, Liu Q, Wong-Riley MT (November 2013 ... J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 291 (6): C1129-47. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00233.2006. PMID 16760263. Antony Crofts (1996). "Cytochrome ...
1979 v. 91 N 25 91:208561v.Deposited Doc., VINITI 2172-78, 1978, p. 48 Lobachev A.N.Biogenesis of mitochondria during cell ... Furthermore, a study using cultured smooth muscle cells displayed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells derived from ... Cell. 157: 897-909. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.055. PMC 4454526 . PMID 24813612. Brewer GJ (2010). "Epigenetic oxidative redox ... Trends In Cell Biology. 2011;21(10) 569-76. Erbas M, Sekerci H. IMPORTANCE OF FREE RADICALS AND OCCURRING DURING FOOD ...
"Role of Magmas in protein transport and human mitochondria biogenesis". Human Molecular Genetics. 19 (7): 1248-1262. doi: ... protects pituitary cells from apoptotic stimuli". Endocrinology. 151 (10): 4635-42. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0441. PMID 20719856. ... a novel mitochondria-associated protein involved in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signal transduction". ...
... within the mitochondria. Globally, this impairs cell growth and enhances cell apoptosis. Mutations in the DHTKD1 gene are ... Xu W, Zhu H, Gu M, Luo Q, Ding J, Yao Y, Chen F, Wang Z (Nov 2013). "DHTKD1 is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and ... Xu W, Zhu H, Gu M, Luo Q, Ding J, Yao Y, Chen F, Wang Z (Nov 2013). "DHTKD1 is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and ... Moreover, suppression of DHTKD1 results in decreased levels of biogenesis and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS ...
Nagao, A.; Suzuki, T.; Katoh, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Suzuki, T. (2009). "Biogenesis of glutaminyl-mt tRNAGln in human mitochondria ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ...
"Lysosomal biogenesis and function is critical for necrotic cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... to determine the number of mitochondria in cells, under stress and during ageing. Work from his lab implicated autophagy, ... "Lysosomal biogenesis and function is critical for necrotic cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans". J Cell Biol. 173 (2): 231-239 ... Samara C, Syntichaki P, Tavernarakis N (2008). "Autophagy is required for necrotic cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans". Cell ...
... appears to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis by regulating PGC1α which in turn promotes gene transcription in mitochondria. ... Loss of the AMPKα2 subunit in pancreatic beta cells and hypothalamic neurons decreases the sensitivity of these cells to ... and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 296 (4): C672 ... One of the effects of exercise is an increase in fatty acid metabolism, which provides more energy for the cell. One of the key ...
Vestweber studied the biogenesis of mitochondria and found the first membrane component (today known as TOM 40) of the ... Vestweber studies with his group the molecular basis for cell recognition, cell adhesion and cell migration, which mediate and ... of Rolf Kemler he investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell recognition and cell adhesion between epithelial cells and ... Dietmar Vestweber (born 16 March 1956) is a biochemist and cell biologist. He is the founding director of the Max Planck ...
Mitochondria and chloroplasts (e.g., biogenesis and evolution) B. Cell Surface and Communication Extracellular matrix ( ... including cell walls) Cell adhesion and junctions Signal transduction Receptor function Excitable membrane systems C. ... Cell Division, Differentiation and Development Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis Meiosis and gametogenesis Fertilization and ... GRE Subject Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology was a standardized exam provided by ETS (Educational Testing Service) that ...
During cell division the mitochondria segregate randomly between the two new cells. Those mitochondria make more copies, ... Most mitochondrial function and biogenesis is controlled by nuclear DNA. Human mitochondrial DNA encodes 13 proteins of the ... the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells ... Nunnari J, Suomalainen A (2012). "Mitochondria: in sickness and in health". Cell. 148 (6): 1145-59. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.02. ...
The mitochondrion is a key regulator of the metabolic activity of the cell, and is also an important organelle in both ... As mitochondria are known to be descendants from cells that formed endosymbiotic relationships with α-protobacteria, they have ... Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.013. Scarpulla, Richard C. (2011-07-01). "Metabolic control of mitochondrial biogenesis through the ...
... occurs in the cell nucleus and cytosol, as well as within mitochondria and plastids. In vertebrates, editing is ... SI: Chloroplast Biogenesis. 1847 (9): 779-785. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.12.010. Danecek, P.; et al. (2012). "High levels of ... Mitochondrion. Plant Mitochondria in Mitochondrion. 19, Part B: 191-197. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2014.04.005. Shikanai, Toshiharu ( ... There have been a number of discoveries of PPR proteins in both plastids and mitochondria. A-to-I editing is the main form of ...
The mitochondria's energetic and metabolic functions have been established to be non-essential for yeast cell viability. The ... "Biogenesis of cytosolic ribosomes requires the essential iron-sulphur protein Rli1p and mitochondria". The EMBO Journal. 24 (3 ... RLI and its homologues are also thought to play a role in ribosome biogenesis, nuclear export, or both. They have been found in ... It has also been implicated to have an effect in tumor cell proliferation and antiapoptosis. ABCE1 is an essential and highly ...
Cell. 133 (1): 103-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.045. PMC 2693193 . PMID 18394993. Cho KI, Yi H, Yeh A, Tserentsoodol N, ... "Association of the kinesin-binding domain of RanBP2 to KIF5B and KIF5C determines mitochondria localization and function". ... domain of Ran-binding protein-2 modulates selectively the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and protein biogenesis". ... Murawala P, Tripathi MM, Vyas P, Salunke A, Joseph J (Sep 2009). "Nup358 interacts with APC and plays a role in cell ...
The N-terminal domain of Tob55 has a receptor-like function in the biogenesis of mitochondrial beta-barrel proteins. J Cell ... 13, 8038-8050 (2012) Tommassen, J. Assembly of outer-membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria. Microbiology 156, 2587- ... Identification of a multicomponent complex required for outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli. Cell 121, 235-245 (2005 ... Cell 138, 628-644 (2009) Webb, C. T., Heinz, E. & Lithgow, T. Evolution of the β-barrel assembly machinery. Trends Microbiol. ...
... an cell daith, as weel as mainteenin control o the cell cycle an cell growthe.[6] Mitochondrial biogenesis is turn aboot ... The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane boond organelle foond in maist eukaryotic cells (the cells that mak up ... The nummer o mitochondria in a cell can vairy widely bi organism, tishie, an cell teep. For instance, reid bluid cells hae na ... Mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is the essential mechanism by which cells control the number of mitochondria.. ...
Ackerman SH (2002). "Atp11p and Atp12p are chaperones for F(1)-ATPase biogenesis in mitochondria". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1555 ... cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport". Exp. Cell Res. 289 (2): 211-21. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00261- ... Wang ZG, White PS, Ackerman SH (2001). "Atp11p and Atp12p are assembly factors for the F(1)-ATPase in human mitochondria". J. ... "Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (6): 2811-6. doi: ...
Unlike the other cell type in endothelium eNOS induced mTORC1 and this pathway is required for mitochondrial biogenesis. ... Reactive oxygen species can damage the DNA and proteins in cells. A majority of them arise in the mitochondria. Deletion of the ... Codogno P, Meijer AJ (Nov 2005). "Autophagy and signaling: their role in cell survival and cell death". Cell Death and ... In order for cells to grow and proliferate by manufacturing more proteins, the cells must ensure that they have the resources ...
"The Emerging Network of Mitochondria-Organelle Contacts". Molecular Cell. 61 (5): 648-653. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2016.01.031 ... Morre DJ (1975). "Membrane Biogenesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 26 (1): 441-481. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.26.060175. ... In plant cells, vacuoles cover anywhere from 30% to 90% of the total cell volume.[31] Most mature plant cells contain one large ... Liver cells are another example of specialized cells that contain an abundance of smooth ER. These cells provide an example of ...
... is supported by the observation that the ability of muscle cells to oxidize lactate was related to the density of mitochondria ... suggesting that lactate stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. In addition to the role of the lactate shuttle in supplying NAD+ ... Investigation into how MCT-mediated lactate exchange in targeted tumor cells can be inhibited, therefore depriving cells of key ... This is of particular importance during tumor cell development when cells often undergo anaerobic metabolism, as described by ...
Mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is the essential mechanism by which cells control the number of mitochondria. Dorn GW, Vega RB, ... Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3 ... "Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1". Cell. 98 (1): 115- ... Cell. 12 (5): 1137-49. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00391-5. PMID 14636573. Wu Z, Puigserver P, Andersson U, Zhang C, Adelmant G, ...
... within the mitochondria. Consequently, unlike exogenously administered antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E or Coenzyme Q10), which ... in addition to pathways that may directly increase mitochondrial biogenesis (such as PGC1α) and bioenergetics. There appears to ... and prevention of corneal endothelial cell loss following cataract surgery. The effects of omaveloxolone and related synthetic ...
This ratio is variable and mitochondria from cells that have a greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain even more ... "Dual role of mitofilin in mitochondrial membrane organization and protein biogenesis". Developmental Cell. 21 (4): 694-707. doi ... "Formation of cristae and crista junctions in mitochondria depends on antagonism between Fcj1 and Su e/g". The Journal of Cell ... For typical liver mitochondria, the area of the inner membrane is about 5x as large as the outer membrane due to cristae. ...
... which function to maintain iron homeostasis within the mitochondria and in the cell. GLRX5 is required for the steps in haem ... It is involved in the biogenesis of iron- sulfur clusters, which are required for normal iron homeostasis. Mutations in this ... The protein is highly expressed in erythroid cells. Crystal structure of the GLRX5 protein reveals that the protein likely ... Cells with mutations in GLRX5 activity show deficiency in Fe-S cluster synthesis, which is likely causative of the observed ...
August 2014). "Folliculin regulates cell-cell adhesion, AMPK, and mTORC1 in a cell-type-specific manner in lung-derived cells ... FLCN expression was inversely correlated with PGC-1α activation, which drives mitochondrial biogenesis. In support of these ... contain large numbers of mitochondria. Comparative gene expression profiling of BHD-associated renal tumors and sporadic ... Loss of FLCN function leads to a disruptive effect on cell-cell adhesions and cell polarity, and dysregulation of RhoA ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... Curran SP, Koehler CM (2004). Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis. Springer. p. 59. ISBN 9783540214892. .. ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
Cell death regulation by the Bcl-2 protein family in the mitochondria. J. Cell. Physiol. ... Cell death regulation by the Bcl-2 protein family in the mitochondria. J. Cell. Physiol. ... The Omp85 family of proteins is essential for outer membrane biogenesis in mitochondria and bacteria . J Cell Biol 5 January ... The Omp85 family of proteins is essential for outer membrane biogenesis in mitochondria and bacteria Ian Gentle, Ian Gentle ...
... providing some new perspectives on the potential contribution of the mitochondria to peroxisomal biogenesis. ... Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre- ... However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing ... However, recent work has focused primarily on the role of the ER in the biogenesis of peroxisomes, potentially overshadowing ...
Plant Cell. 2017 Jan;29(1):109-128. doi: 10.1105/tpc.16.00700. Epub 2017 Jan 6. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... B) Images generated using Imaris to track mitochondria in cotyledon cells over a period of 5 min. Detected mitochondria were ... Membrane biogenesis is initiated. At the late second phase of germination, mitochondria are preferentially located around the ... A) Images generated using Imaris to track mitochondria in cotyledon cells, maintained throughout the time course in 100 µM , GA ...
Biogenesis. Cell Respiration. Elderly. Enzymes. Mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA. Muscle Fatigue. Physical Function. Resveratrol ... Resveratrol, a compound found in red wine and dark-skinned grapes, will improve the function of mitochondria (energy producing ...
Attardi, G, Schatz, G. Biogenesis of mitochondria. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1988. 4:289-333. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... higher relative to control virus-infected cells (0.36 ± 0.04, n = 15 cells, vs. 0.23 ± 0.04, n = 13 cells, μm3 per μm3 of cell ... The metabolic phenotype of mitochondria is cell and tissue specific. Mitochondria of the brown adipocyte are specialized for ... uninfected cells (U), cells infected with control adenovirus expressing GFP alone (C), and cells infected with adenovirus ...
... and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) play a vital role in replenishment of blood cells. In addition to growth factors, ... Oxidative phosphorylation that occurs in the mitochondria is the major sour … ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) play a vital role in replenishment of blood cells. In ... Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Jun 1;22(11):1678-92. doi: 10.1089/scd.2012.0466. Epub 2013 Feb 13. ...
Mitochondria biogenesis is not a simple task for the cell. These tiny organelles (the size of a bacterium) are made from about ... Humans have hundreds of mitochondria in every cell of their body that make up about 20% of the cell volume. Defects in ... Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that function as the powerhouses of all cells producing more than 90% of the total ... Therefore the protein import process is crucial for mitochondria biogenesis. The new research identified a novel mechanism ...
Mitochondria supply membranes for autophagosome biogenesis during starvation.. Hailey DW, Rambold AS, Satpute-Krishnan P, Mitra ... Not just a marker: CD34 on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells dominates vascular selectin binding along with CD44. ... Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Apr;13(4):371-81. doi: 10.1038/ncb2205. Epub 2011 Mar 20. ... Cancer Cell. 2011 Sep 13;20(3):315-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.07.018. ...
Biogenesis of protein complexes in mitochondria Last update: 21.07.2020 , Impress , Responsible: content & tech , Layout: ... The group is particularly interested in effector proteins that target host cells and accumulate in mitochondria. Current ... Apoptosis after expression of p34-subunit of Helicobacter pylori VacA-toxin in HeLa-cells. Photo: A. Galmiche ... Interactions of bacterial and viral proteins with mitochondria. • Bacterial toxins and apoptosis. • Molecular mechanisms of ...
Title: Redox regulation of mitochondria biogenesis. Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology ...
... molecular and systems-level analysis of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms and cell organelles. All articles are peer- ... Robert Jensen (mitochondrial biogenesis). Dept. of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA ... Carla Koehler (mitochondria in yeast, C. elegans, diseases). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UCLA, USA ... Mohan Balasubramanian (cytoskeleton, cell cycle, fission yeast, cytokinesis). Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology and ...
Attardi, G., and Schatz, G., 1988, Biogenesis of mitochondria, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 4: 289-333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Fries, W., Keizer, K., and Kuypers, H. G. J. M., 1985, Larger layer VI cells in macaque striate cortex (Meynert cells) project ... Hubel, D. H., and Livingstone, M. S., 1985, Complex-unoriented cells in a subregion of primate area 18, Nature 315: 325-327. ... Zeki, S. M., 1974, Cells respond to changing image size and disparity in the cortex of the rhesus monkey, J. Physiol. (London) ...
Attardi G, Shatz G (1988) Biogenesis of mitochondria. Ann Rev Cell Biol 4:289-333PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Wiseman A, Attardi G (1978) Reversible tenfold reduction in mitochondria DNA content of human cells treated with ethidium ... King MP, Attardi G (1989) Human cells lacking mtDNA: repopulation with exogenous mitochondria by complementation. Science 246: ... Thus, our findings suggest that interventions to elevate MnSOD, GPx, NADP+-ICDH, and GSH levels may protect brain cells from ...
Attardi, G. and S. G, Biogenesis of mitochondria. Ann Rev Cell Biol, 1988. 4: p. 289-333. Robinson, B., Human complex I ... PP cells and D1 cells.. By "isolated cell" is meant that the cell is removed from the tissue or organ in which it (or its ... β-cells (which make insulin), α-cells (which produce glucagons), γ-cells (which make somatostatin), F cells (which produce ... To show that the TAT protein can effectively target proteins to mitochondria in beta cells, the β cell line INS-1E was exposed ...
Because mitochondria evolved from bacteria, many classes of FDA-approved antibiotics, including doxycycline, actually target ... Because mitochondria evolved from bacteria, many classes of FDA-approved antibiotics, including doxycycline, actually target ... mitochondria. Our study aimed to determine whether short-term pre-operative treatment with oral doxycycline results in ... mitochondria. Our study aimed to determine whether short-term pre-operative treatment with oral doxycycline results in ...
Mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion and fission have roles in aspects of immune-cell activation. Most important, Krebs cycle ... in innate and adaptive immune cells. Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria lie at the heart of immunity. Mitochondrial ... in both innate and adaptive immune cells. These discoveries are revealing mitochondrial targets that could potentially be ... ONeill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, ...
Hamster Mitochondrion Organization and Biogenesis Hamster Mitochondrion Organization and Biogenesis: Monoclonal Antibody - ... Hamster Fat Cell Differentiation Hamster Fat Cell Differentiation: Polyclonal Antibody - Akt Antibody, UniProt ID P31749, ... Guinea Pig Positive Regulation of Cell Growth Guinea Pig Positive Regulation of Cell Growth: Polyclonal Antibody - Akt Antibody ... Human Regulation of Memory t Cell Differentiation Human Regulation of Memory t Cell Differentiation: Monoclonal Antibody - BCL6 ...
Our bodies are home to trillions of mitochondria, but science is just beginning to understand the role they may play in a ... Exercise: When were active, we help mitochondria multiply through a process called biogenesis. Its important to tailor your ... Mitochondria even have a part in the aging process.. Antioxidants, which inhibit oxidation, may hold some promise. These ... Our bodies are home to trillions of mitochondria, but science is just beginning to understand the role they may play in a ...
The mitochondrion is a key regulator of the metabolic activity of the cell, and is also an important organelle in both ... As mitochondria are known to be descendants from cells that formed endosymbiotic relationships with α-protobacteria, they have ... Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.013. Scarpulla, Richard C. (2011-07-01). "Metabolic control of mitochondrial biogenesis through the ...
The Role of Nicotinamide Riboside in Mitochondrial Biogenesis. Brief Summary Mitochondria are important parts of the cell that ... Mitochondria are the primary source of energy within the cell, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial ATP ... Some scientists think that increasing the number of mitochondria in the body (mitochondrial biogenesis) might be an effective ... Nicotinamide Riboside and Mitochondrial Biogenesis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ...
Mitochondria are important parts of the cell that are responsible for producing energy. The amount of energy they produce ... Mitochondria are the primary source of energy within the cell, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial ATP ... Some scientists think that increasing the number of mitochondria in the body (mitochondrial biogenesis) might be an effective ... Mitochondria. Mitochondrial disease. Nicotinamide Riboside. Niagen. PEO. Single deletion. mtDNA deletion. MELAS. m.3243A,G. ...
Kallergi, E., Kalef-Ezra, E., Karagouni-Dalakoura, K. and Tokatlidis, K. (2013) Common players in mitochondria biogenesis and ... Tokatlidis, K. (2005) A disulfide relay system in mitochondria. Cell, 121(7), pp. 965-967. (doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.019) ... Tokatlidis, K. (2005) A disulfide relay system in mitochondria. Cell, 121(7), pp. 965-967. (doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.019) ... Kallergi, E., Kalef-Ezra, E., Karagouni-Dalakoura, K. and Tokatlidis, K. (2013) Common players in mitochondria biogenesis and ...
Structural biogenesis of mitochondria and carbon concentrating mechanisms. Abby Dernburg. Howard Hughes Medical Institute ... Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. CDB. Kunxin Luo. Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. CDB. Year 1 Advisor ... Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. CDB. Equity Advisor. Developmental biology. Matthew Welch. Professor of Cell and ... Assistant Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. CDB. GAC Member & Year 2 Advisor. Telomere biology of human stem cells. ...
Chapter Twelve: Oxidation of H2S in Mammalian Cells and Mitochondria *Abstract. *1 Introduction ... Chapter Eleven: Assay Methods for H2S Biogenesis and Catabolism Enzymes *Abstract. *1 Introduction ... the mechanisms inherent in hydrogen sulfide cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, and cell signaling in specific systems ... In 1961, he joined the University of California at Berkeley serving as Professor of Cell and Molecular Biology until 2000, and ...
... including but not limited to studies on cell cycle, cell polarity and fate, nuclear and chromosome organization and segregation ... We aim to publish significant research in all areas of cell biology, ... Cell Biology. Research focus. biogenesis. organelles. mitochondria. protein transport. proteasome. protein degradation. protein ... Cell Biology. Research focus. plant cell biology. plant cell walls. cell wall signalling. protein trafficking. secretion. live ...
  • Buy a copy of Molecular Biology of the Cell and start at page 1. (bio.net)
  • The Department of Molecular and Cell Biology (MCB) at the University of California at Berkeley offers outstanding opportunities for scientific training in a highly interactive environment that enables doctoral students to pursue any of a wide range of modern fields of biological research. (berkeley.edu)
  • The Department of Molecular and Cell Biology is organized into five divisions and includes over 90 faculty. (berkeley.edu)
  • The divisional organization offers the advantages of mid-sized, thematically focused, scientific groupings within the larger, more diverse academic environment in molecular and cell biology. (berkeley.edu)
  • John Kuriyan is Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology and also of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fluorescent imaging and mitochondrial isolation showed that both mitochondrial accumulation and alteration in CL composition of mitochondria occurred in oncocytic tumors cells, thus contributing the aberrant molecular signatures detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We employ a large variety of biochemical, cell and molecular biology methods to gain mechanistic insights into this fundamental process. (su.se)
  • Emerging areas relevant to this research include understanding the molecular link between body homeostasis and cancer cell biology, including obesity, the role of circadian rhythm in cancer biology, and molecular mechanisms that lead to cancer cachexia. (cancer.gov)
  • This Review discusses molecular, translational, and clinical concepts centered on the mitochondria and highlights promising, controversial, and challenging areas of investigation. (jci.org)
  • The genetics of chloro-plasts and mitochondrial inheritance have only fairly recently come to represent a major preoccupation of both molecular and cell biologists, who have been prompted to probe deeply into the energy-producing centers of the cell. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • This book was written for collegiate Cell and Molecular Biology courses and may be appropriate at both an introductory level and also as a resource for more advanced courses. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • This free GRE practice book contains one actual, full-length GRE Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Test and test-taking strategies. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • The protein composition of these domains, their dynamics, and their biogenesis and maintenance are poorly understood at the molecular level. (rupress.org)
  • A full understanding of cell responses to external stimuli includes both transcription and translation regulation ( 6 , 9 , 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Mitochondria in neurons, in addition to their primary role in bioenergetics, also contribute to specialized functions, including regulation of synaptic transmission, Ca 2+ homeostasis, neuronal excitability, and stress adaptation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we investigate the regulation of the members of the miRNA biogenesis pathw. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- C2C12 cells and C57bl/6 mice were used to examine roles for AngII in the regulation of muscle mitochondria and to explore whether the effect was mediated by type 1 AngII receptor (AT1R) or type 2 receptor (AT2R). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Research into the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria-mitophagy-has intensified in recent years, yielding significant insights into the function, mechanism, and regulation of this process in the eukaryotic cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Consideration and understanding of these differences may help place the mechanism and regulation of mitophagy in context, and further indicate the intricate role that this essential process plays in the life and death of eukaryotic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Research in this area focuses on altered cell cycle regulation and its contribution to oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance. (cancer.gov)
  • Although it has been studied since the 1930s, CR was shown only recently to paradoxically increase the number of mitochondria in many tissues. (upenn.edu)
  • However, depending on the energy substrates available and the REDOX state of the cell, the cell may increase or decrease the number and size of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resveratrol, a compound found in red wine and dark-skinned grapes, will improve the function of mitochondria (energy producing components) within the leg muscles of moderate functioning older adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It's already well known that the function of mitochondria declines with age, while aging is a known risk factor for a number of common age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • As we learn more about these kinds of diseases and how mitochondria work, it's becoming clear these tiny structures play important roles in a variety of other conditions like heart disease, cancer and mental illnesses like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. (thestar.com)
  • Further studies on this pathway revealed the importance of ubiquitination and degradation for terminating signaling, and led in recent years to detailed investigation of the roles of Cullin-RING ligases in regulating signal transduction events in vivo and in cultured cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Lipidomic and proteomic analyses revealed defective biogenesis and concomitant loss of the TMD-containing ER-resident enzymes sterol-O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) and squalene synthase (SQS, also known as FDFT1), which serve strategic roles in the adaptation of cells to changes in cholesterol availability. (biologists.org)
  • Mitochondria therefore play key roles in the fat cells that form white adipose tissue, an excess of which characterizes obesity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Earlier research has shown that mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid breakdown is regulated by hormone receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). (eurekalert.org)
  • Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Treating cancer like an infectious disease. (salford.ac.uk)
  • The AngII-induced reduction in muscle mitochondria in mice was partially, but significantly, reversed by blockade of either AT1R or AT2R, associated with increased fat oxidation, decreased muscle triglyceride, and improved glucose tolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If you want to improve your exercise performance by increasing the effectiveness of your muscle mitochondria, this post is for you. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Slow twitch muscle fibers, the ones employed in endurance training, contain the most mitochondria, so it's natural that training that targets slow twitch fibers will also target more muscle mitochondria . (marksdailyapple.com)