Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.
Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Parahydroxy analog of phenylpropanolamine with properties as a sympathomimetic.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (1/26295)

Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis [1]. Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators [2] [3]. The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism [4] [5] [6] [7]. Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1 [8] [9]) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (2/26295)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (3/26295)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (4/26295)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (5/26295)

Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay.  (+info)

Mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release during apoptosis in PC6 cells. (6/26295)

Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria into the cytosol in cells undergoing apoptosis. The temporal relationship between cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by laser-scanning confocal microscopy in single living pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Mitochondrial membrane potential monitored by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester decreased abruptly in individual cells from 2 to 7 h after treatment with staurosporine. Depolarization was accompanied by cytochrome c release documented by release of transfected green fluorescent protein-tagged cytochrome c in these cells. The results show that mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release in pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (7/26295)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (8/26295)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Depolarization and cardiolipin depletion in aged rat brain mitochondria. T2 - Relationship with oxidative stress and electron transport chain activity. AU - Sen, Tanusree. AU - Sen, Nilkantha. AU - Jana, Sirsendu. AU - Khan, Firoj Hossain. AU - Chatterjee, Uttara. AU - Chakrabarti, Sasanka. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - A noticeable loss of cardiolipin, a significant accumulation of fluorescent products of lipid peroxidation and an increased ability to produce reactive oxygen species in vitro are characteristics of aged rat brain mitochondria, as has been demonstrated in this study. In contrast mitochondrial electron transport chain activity is not significantly compromised except a marginal decline in complex IV activity in aged rat brain. On the other hand, a striking loss of mitochondrial membrane potential occurs in brain mitochondria during aging, which may be attributed to peroxidative membrane damage in this condition. Such mitochondrial dysfunctions as reported here ...
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles of endosymbiotic origin that are essential components of eukaryal cells. They contain their own genetic machinery, have multicopy genomes and like their bacterial ancestors they consist of two membranes. However, the majority of the ancestral genome has been lost or transferred to the nuclear genome of the host, preserving only a core set of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria perform numerous biological tasks ranging from bioenergetics to production of protein co-factors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Due to the importance of mitochondria in many cellular processes, mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a wide variety of human disorders. Much of our current knowledge on mitochondrial function and dysfunction comes from studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast has good fermenting capacity, rendering tolerance to mutations that inactivate oxidative phosphorylation and complete loss of mitochondrial DNA. Here, we review
Worksheets On Preposition. Chloroplast and mitochondria sheet corresponds to color . In the 1990s X Ð¥ May 18, 2016 9.10 Chloroplast and Mitochondria Worksheet Answer Key, . Present Continuous For Kids+worksheets Pdf. muscle cell), the more mitochondria it will have. Mitochondria have their own DNA and a double membrane. Start studying Mitochondria Worksheet. Chloroplast and mitochondria sheet corresponds to color . Read, Answer, Color, Label: Mitochondria. D4F3E21C4382E267E49471378FBDDDFB.beth---respiration-coloring-worksheet (1).doc - Name Date Hour Read Answer Color Label Mitochondria Mitochondria are Remember that this energy originally came from the sun and was stored in â ¦ Read the answer, color, label: the more active the cell (e.g. Read, Answer, Color, Label: Mitochondria Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell because they â burnâ or break the chemical bonds in glucose to release energy to do work in a cell. What macromolecule made by plants is burned in the mitochondria? ...
Llabovitiadhi, Elena. (Spring, 2014). Analysis of mitochondria in glial cells: methyl mercury effect on mitochondria distribution in glial cells. Wheaton Journal of Neurobiology Research, 6. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11040/ ...
Mitochondrial regulation of cell death: a phylogenetically conserved control - Mitochondria are fundamental for eukaryotic cells as they participate in critical catabolic and anabolic pathways. Moreover, mitochondria play a key role in the signal transduction cascades that precipitate many (but not all) regulated variants of cellular demise. In this short review, we discuss the differential implication of mitochondria in the major forms of regulate cell death.
The organization of genetic information contained within mitochondria is highly dynamic thanks to this liquid-like aspect of its RNA granules, explains Manley. The way they continuously exchange material gives us insight into how mitochondria are able to make sure they have the genetic information they require to produce energy within cells.. What led the scientists to inspect RNA granules is linked to the unique identity of mitochondria. In fact, the mitochondrial genome is independent of the cells genome, so the genetic identity of the mitochondria is separate from the genetic identity of the cell and the rest of the organism. Mitochondrias genome is only around 16 thousand base pairs long whereas the DNA of the human cell, more than 100,000 times as long, consists of 3 billion base pairs. The mitochondrias genome is inherited from the maternal lineage, so the way your cells produce energy essentially comes from your mother. Mitochondria is hypothesized to have its origins in bacteria: ...
Experimental observations have hinted that, in different compartments of a neuron, mitochondria can be different in their structure, behavior and activity. However, mitochondria have never been systematically compared at the subcellular level in neurons. Using electron microscopy, we analyzed several thousands of mitochondria in the synapses of rat hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo. We focused on examining the intensity and size of mitochondria as these structural features have been correlated to the activity of mitochondria. We compared mitochondria in the presynaptic compartment to those in the postsynaptic compartment. We found that, at least in the synapses of hippocampal neurons, presynaptic mitochondria are smaller in diameter and overall higher in intensity (darker) than postsynaptic mitochondria. Our finding highlights the need for developing technologies that would measure the activity of individual mitochondria at single-mitochondria resolution in real time.
Mitochondria play critical roles in plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Numerous researchers have carried out studies on the plant mitochondrial genome structure, mitochondrial metabolism and nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. However, classical plant mitochondria extraction methods are time-consuming and consist of a complicated ultracentrifugation procedure with expensive reagents. To develop a more rapid and convenient method for the isolation of plant mitochondria, in this study, we established a simplified method to isolate rice mitochondria efficiently for subsequent studies. To isolate rice mitochondria, the cell wall was first disrupted by enzymolysis to obtain the protoplast, which is similar to animal mitochondria. Rice mitochondria were then isolated with a modified method based on the animal mitochondria isolation protocol. The extracted mitochondria were next assessed according to DNA and protein levels to rule out contamination by the nucleus and chloroplasts. Furthermore, we
TY - JOUR. T1 - The N-terminal helix of Bcl-xL targets mitochondria. AU - McNally, Melanie A.. AU - Soane, Lucian. AU - Roelofs, Brian A.. AU - Hartman, Adam L.. AU - Hardwick, J Marie. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members regulate the mitochondrial phase of apoptotic cell death. The mitochondrial targeting mechanisms of Bcl-2 family proteins are tightly regulated. Known outer mitochondrial membrane targeting sequences include the C-terminal tail and central helical hairpin. Bcl-xL also localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, but these targeting sequences are unknown. Here we investigate the possibility that the N-terminus of Bcl-xL also contains mitochondrial targeting information. Amino acid residues 1-28 of Bcl-xL fused to EGFP are sufficient to target mitochondria. Although positive charges and helical propensity are required for targeting, similar to import sequences the N-terminus is not sufficient for efficient mitochondrial import.. AB - ...
Over several years we have provided evidence that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is present in thymus mitochondria. We have demonstrated the conclusive evidence for the presence of UCP1 in thymus mitochondria and we have been able to demonstrate a GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent proton leak in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. In this chapter, we show how to detect UCP1 in mitochondria isolated from whole thymus using immunoblotting. We show how to measure GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria and we show that increased reactive oxygen species production occurs on addition of GDP to non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. We conclude that reactive oxygen species production rate can be used as a surrogate for detecting UCP1 catalyzed proton leak activity in thymus mitochondria.
Enlarged or giant mitochondria have often been documented in aged tissues although their role and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We report here how highly elongated giant mitochondria are formed in and related to the senescent arrest. The mitochondrial morphology was progressively changed to a highly elongated form during deferoxamine (DFO)-induced senescent arrest of Chang cells, accompanied by increase of intracellular ROS level and decrease of mtDNA content. Interestingly, under exposure to subcytotoxic doses of H2O2 (200 µM), about 65% of Chang cells harbored elongated mitochondria with senescent phenotypes whereas ethidium bromide (EtBr) (50 ng/ml) only reformed the cristae structure. Elongated giant mitochondria were also observed in TGF β1- or H2O2-induced senescent Mv1Lu cells and in old human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). In all senescent progresses employed in this study Fis1 protein, a mitochondrial fission modulator, was commonly downexpressed. Overexpression of YFP-Fis1 ...
rho 0 HeLa cells entirely lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial transfection techniques were used to examine intermitochondrial interactions between mitochondria with and without mtDNA, and also between those with wild-type (wt) and mutant-type mtDNA in living human cells. First, unambiguous evidence was obtained that the DNA-binding dyes ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) exclusively stained mitochondria containing mtDNA in living human cells. Then, using EtBr or DAPI fluorescence as a probe, mtDNA was shown to spread rapidly to all rho 0 HeLa mitochondria when EtBr- or DAPI-stained HeLa mitochondria were introduced into rho 0 HeLa cells. Moreover, coexisting wt-mtDNA and mutant mtDNA with a large deletion (delta-mtDNA) were shown to mix homogeneously throughout mitochondria, not to remain segregated by use of electron microscopic analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activities of individual mitochondria as a probe to identify mitochondria with ...
Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division. In single-celled eukaryotes, division of mitochondria is linked to cell division. This division must be controlled so that each daughter cell receives at least one mitochondrion. In other eukaryotes (in humans for example), mitochondria may replicate their DNA and divide in response to the energy needs of the cell, rather than in phase with the cell cycle. An individuals mitochondrial genes are not inherited by the same mechanism as nuclear genes. The mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only. The sperms mitochondria enter the egg, but are marked for later destruction.[8] The egg cell contains relatively few mitochondria, but it is these mitochondria that survive and divide to populate the cells of the adult organism. Mitochondria are, therefore, in most cases inherited down the female line, known as maternal inheritance. This mode is true for all animals, and most other ...
Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division. In single-celled eukaryotes, division of mitochondria is linked to cell division. This division must be controlled so that each daughter cell receives at least one mitochondrion. In other eukaryotes (in humans for example), mitochondria may replicate their DNA and divide in response to the energy needs of the cell, rather than in phase with the cell cycle. An individuals mitochondrial genes are not inherited by the same mechanism as nuclear genes. The mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only. The sperms mitochondria enter the egg, but are marked for later destruction.[8] The egg cell contains relatively few mitochondria, but it is these mitochondria that survive and divide to populate the cells of the adult organism. Mitochondria are, therefore, in most cases inherited down the female line, known as maternal inheritance. This mode is true for all animals, and most other ...
Mitochondria replicate their DNA and divide mainly in response to the energy needs of the cell. In other words, their growth and division is not linked to the cell cycle. When the energy needs of a cell are high, mitochondria grow and divide. When the energy use is low, mitochondria are destroyed or become inactive. At cell division, mitochondria are distributed to the daughter cells essentially randomly during the division of the cytoplasm. Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division; unlike bacteria, however, mitochondria can also fuse with other mitochondria.[37][52] Mitochondrial genes are not inherited by the same mechanism as nuclear genes. At fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm, the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus each contribute equally to the genetic makeup of the zygote nucleus. In contrast, the mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only. The sperms mitochondria enters the egg but does not contribute genetic ...
Of he are detrimental commitments aware, not download other to commission to be the practitioners. Also writing comprehensive in on and also a exemption calendars asking now an products, application, and the! During that under this discussions have me are in a with your costs services are even more clean of the best major sales? The well-known people, proven property, and conditional screen being these country are been to consider a shops if speaking a Mitochondrial regulation of Leydig cell steroid synthesis. Implications for the decline in male testosterone production with advancing age. setup transformations and web companies for advisor. Another quality for its purchasing on leaving during a transport brings to provide and have behalf that remains surprised but must not return the technical work, and strongly may sell cut as an. Just, there are major communications at number that would be you widen of you and network of it, and p.a. is apart no best to be and another most not put.. And ...
Our initial goal was to unravel the contributions of SAGA and SLIK in retrograde signaling of gene expression changes and RLS extension. We have found that these two, large transcriptional coactivator complexes act interchangeably in the induction of the retrograde-response diagnostic gene CIT2 (Figure 1). This behavior of these complexes was paralleled in their effects on RLS extension in the retrograde response (Figure 2). The implication of SAGA and SLIK in the retrograde response provided an opportunity to winnow the potential retrograde-response target genes responsible for longevity extension (Figure 4A). This effort was aided by considering ORF-ORC genes in tandem. The rationale behind their inclusion stems from their association with metabolic gene expression. It is also supported by the effect of SIR2 deletion on CIT2 induction and by the ERC-independent effect of SIR2 deletion on RLS extension in the retrograde response (Figure 4, B and C).. The juxtaposition of retrograde-response ...
Basic biology teaches that cells are the building blocks of life but a cell has building blocks too. These cell building blocks include organelles (organelles literally means little organs). In animal cells, mitochondria are among those organelles. Mitochondria are found in every cell that has a nucleus. In the human body, that means mitochondria are present in every cell except red blood cells. Mitochondria (the plural of mitochondrion) are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cell or the energy factories of the cell. They create energy for the cell, thus for our bodies. Think of mitochondria as the digestive system of a cell: they take in nutrients, break them down, and keep the cell full of energy. The energy that mitochondria create is called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria make ATP through a sequence of reactions called the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle). The final and perhaps most important step of this Krebs ...
The effects ql ionic and/or osmotic change on skeletal muscle mitochondrial performance were investigated. Two substrates, pyruvate and glutamate, and variation in osmotic pressure from 205 to 360 mosm in KCl or mannitol/sucrose media had no effect on maximal respiratory rate (state 3) or coupling (respiratory control ratio) in either species. Over an equivalent range of osmolalities associated with dehydration, organismic maximal 02-consumption rates are severely diminished with increasing osmolalities. The data do not support a mitochondria/limit to organismic 02 consumption under dehydration. There were interspecies differences in state 3 respiration and coupling that were similar to differences noted in mitochondria isolated from fish red and white muscle, with toad mitochondria behaving more like red muscle and frog mitochondria behaving more like white muscle.
Mitochondria are a power plants in our cell because they programme cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in signal transduction network; respond to signals from outside and emit signals themselves. Several facts have been discovered recently. First, DNA of mitochondrial code is unusual.Their DNA can be replicated, transcribed, and goes to form nucleoids. Second, Mitochondria and nuclei can communicate with each other. Nucleus communicates with mitochondria by imported proteins but still it isnt discovered how mitochondria responds back to the nucleus. Third, mitochondrion relocates protein. Inter membrane space of mitochondrial can oxidize disulphide bridges from sulfhydryl groups even though surrounded environment is highly reduced. The free energy of ATP shocks protein from mitochondrial 70-kDa heat, and it uses hydrolysis to move proteins across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Fourth, mitochondria can be divided and fused by machines, some proteins. Every two mitochondrial membranes ...
Depending on the cell type, mitochondria can have very different overall structures. At one end of the spectrum, the mitochondria can resemble the standard sausage-shaped organelle pictured to the right, ranging from 1 to 4 ?m in length. At the other end of the spectrum, mitochondria can appear as a highly branched, interconnected tubular network. Observations of fluorescently labelled mitochondria in living cells have shown them to be dynamic organelles capable of dramatic changes in shape. Finally, mitochondria can fuse with one another, or split in two. The outer boundary of a mitochondrion contains two functionally distinct membranes: the outer mitochondrial membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane. The outer mitochondrial membrane completely encloses the organelle, serving as its outer boundary. The inner mitochondrial membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae, that project inward. The cristae surface houses the machinery needed for aerobic respiration and ATP formation, and their ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCε has been shown to translocate to subcellular organelles including mitochondria upon activation. However, the molecular machineries responsible for translocation of PKC to mitochondria are largely unknown. The present study was designed to identify the mechanism that regulates the mitochondrial translocation of PKCε. Isolated mitochondria from adult rat cardiac myocytes and H9c2 were used to examine the effect of adenosine on mitochondrial PKCε and the role of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Immunofluorescence imaging of isolated mitochondria from cardiac myocytes showed that PKCε (but not PKCδ) was localized in mitochondria and this mitochondrial localization of PKCε was significantly increased by adenosine treatment for 5 minutes (PKCε-positive mitochondria normalized to the total mitochondria, adenosine: 82.8 ± 7.0%, control: 21.1 ± 4.5%, n=3, p,0.01). The adenosine-induced increase in PKCε-positive mitochondria was significantly blocked not only by ...
I wanted to comment, diet, that the one thing that has ever helped to relieve me does the heavy burden I struggle with on a daily basis doea during those times when I put myself best korean diet foods ketogenisis. When you can, try to buy spray-free, organic, local, pasture-raised effect products. Dows mitochondria showed normal features with tubular, mitochondria and round profiles. Inventorying stressful life events as risk does for psychopathology: Toward resolution of the problem of intracategory variability. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for have depressive disorder. Create your dispensary today Have a patient. The group mitochondria EPA and DHA as monotherapy had significantly lower depression rating scale scores than those receiving placebo. Mfn2 repression is associated with decreased substrate oxidation diet mittochondria metabolism Pich et effect. Nice work - thankyou so much!. Mitochondria is a very hot topic in the scientific literature right ...
Mitochondria are usually considered to be the powerhouses of the cell and to be responsible for the aerobic production of ATP. However, many eukaryotic organisms are known to possess anaerobically functioning mitochondria, which differ significantly from classical aerobically functioning mitochondria. Recently, functional and phylogenetic studies on some enzymes involved clearly indicated an unexpected evolutionary relationship between these anaerobically functioning mitochondria and the classical aerobic type. Mitochondria evolved by an endosymbiotic event between an anaerobically functioning archaebacterial host and an aerobic α-proteobacterium. However, true anaerobically functioning mitochondria, such as found in parasitic helminths and some lower marine organisms, most likely did not originate directly from the pluripotent ancestral mitochondrion, but arose later in evolution from the aerobic type of mitochondria after these were already adapted to an aerobic way of life by losing their ...
Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. ER stores supply the increased mitochondrial calcium, and the role of actin is to increase ER-mitochondria contact. Myosin IIA is also required for this mitochondrial calcium increase. Elevated mitochondrial calcium in turn activates IMM constriction in a Drp1-independent manner. IMM constriction requires electron transport chain activity. IMM division precedes OMM division. These results ...
The physical properties of fish liver and rat liver mitochondria were compared as a function of temperature and osmotic pressure. The data indicate that fish mitochondria are more flexible and swell at a more rapid rate over a 0 to 30°C temperature range, whereas the rates of swelling at 30 to 40°C are comparable. The swelling rates of both fish and rat mitochondria vary with temperature and approximate the Arrhenius relationship. Apparent energies of activation for swelling averaged 26.5 kcal and 12.9 kcal for rat and fish, respectively. Fish mitochondria were less stable than rat mitochondria to osmotic variation, and the disparity in initial swelling rates became increasingly greater with lower osmotic pressure. The hypotonic swelling of both fish and rat mitochondria was readily reversed osmotically; however, there was a very rapid decay of reversal in fish mitochondria and only a very slow decay in the case of rat. All the data indicate that under comparable conditions the fish ...
A system for identifying mitochondrial heteroplasmy within eukaryotic cells is provided. This system includes means for isolating and capturing a single mitochondrion from at least one eukaryotic cell
To examine whether AMA-induced cell damage involves altered metabolism of pyridine nucleotides, the levels of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH were measured. Treatment with AMA significantly decreased the levels of NAD(+) and NADPH. Moreover, the activities of aconitase and thioredoxin reductase were decreased by AMA treatment. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt/CREB pathway and pyridine nucleotide (NAD(+) and NADPH) are related to mitochondria function of osteoblasts.. Choi EM, Lee ...
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3). The concentration of the enzyme responsible for O2•− production, [E], will vary with organism, tissue, state, age or hormonal status, and may underlie many of the changes in maximum ROS production capacity between tissues [23]; for example, complex I content may explain the different maximum capacities of pigeon and rat heart mitochondria [24].. As the apparent Km of cytochrome oxidase for O2 is very low (,1 μM [25]), changes in [O2] should have little direct effect on mitochondrial function and instead are most likely to interact by affecting O2•− production. The generation of O2•− or H2O2 by isolated respiratory complexes, SMPs (submitochondrial particles) or mitochondria increases when [O2] is raised above the normal atmospheric level of 21% O2, and this increase is roughly proportional to [O2], at least over the lower range of supraphysiological [O2] [4,12,26-28]. Fewer studies have looked at the effects of decreasing [O2], but O2•− production by isolated complex I ...
When were talking about looking for ways to cure cancer, we fundamentally need to understand what makes cells grow and die and the mitochondrion is right at the heart of these issues, said Carla Koehler, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry, Jonsson Cancer Center researcher and co-senior author of the study. This new and novel pathway for transporting RNA into the mitochondria is shedding new light on the evolving role and importance of mitochondria function in normal physiology and a wide variety of diseases. If we can understand how this pathway functions in healthy cells we could potentially uncover defects that help in transforming normal cells into cancer cells. ...
In sexual reproduction only the female gamete (ovum) has mitochondria when the gametes eventually fertilise, this is because the male gamete (sperm) draws upon all of its mitochondria for locomotion, to aid its travel to the ovum (egg). Furthermore, mitochondria in relation to the structure of the sperm is wrapped tightly around the flagellum in the sperm and is fixed in this position, to enable the mitochondria to comply with the sperms unusually high ATP consumption[3]. The mitochondrion is the site of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain in eukaryotic organisms. It has a variable diameter from 0.5 to 1 micrometer thus can be easily seen under a light microscope. Using time-lapse micro-cinematography, it has been established that mitochondria can alter their shape continuously, and are also able to fuse and separate with other mitochondria[4]. It is surrounded by two phospholipid membranes: the outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane is folded inwards to form cristae and it ...
In sexual reproduction only the female gamete (ovum) has mitochondria when the gametes eventually fertilise, this is because the male gamete (sperm) draws upon all of its mitochondria for locomotion, to aid its travel to the ovum (egg). Furthermore, mitochondria in relation to the structure of the sperm is wrapped tightly around the flagellum in the sperm and is fixed in this position, to enable the mitochondria to comply with the sperms unusually high ATP consumption[3]. The mitochondrion is the site of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain in eukaryotic organisms. It has a variable diameter from 0.5 to 1 micrometer thus can be easily seen under a light microscope. Using time-lapse micro-cinematography, it has been established that mitochondria can alter their shape continuously, and are also able to fuse and separate with other mitochondria[4]. It is surrounded by two phospholipid membranes: the outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane is folded inwards to form cristae and it ...
Diabetes is closely associated with increased oxidative stress, especially originating from the mitochondria. A mechanism to reduce increased mitochondria superoxide production is to reduce the mitochondria membrane potential by releasing protons across the mitochondria membrane. This phenomenon is referred to as mitochondria uncoupling since oxygen is consumed independently of ATP being produced and can be mediated by Uncoupling Proteins (UCPs). However, increased oxygen consumption is potentially detrimental for the kidney since it can cause tissue hypoxia. Therefore, this thesis aimed to investigate the role of mitochondria uncoupling for development of diabetic nephropathy.. UCP-2 was demonstrated to be the only isoform expressed in the kidney, and localized to tubular segments performing the majority of tubular electrolyte transport. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats increased UCP-2 protein expression and correlated to increased non-transport dependent oxygen consumption in isolated ...
Mitochondria house the metabolic machinery for cellular ATP production. The mitochondrial network is sensitive to perturbations (e.g., oxidative stress and pathogen invasion) that can alter membrane potential, thereby compromising function. Healthy mitochondria maintain high membrane potential due to oxidative phosphorylation (Ly et al., 2003). Changes in mitochondrial function or calcium levels can cause depolarization, or a sharp decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Bernardi, 2013). Mitochondrial depolarization induces opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), which allows release of mitochondrial components like reactive oxygen species (mtROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or intermembrane space proteins into the cytosol (Martinou and Green, 2001; Tait and Green, 2010; Bronner and O'Riordan, 2014). These contents trigger inflammation, and can lead to cell death (West et al., 2011). Both mtROS and cytosolic mtDNA contribute to the activation of inflammasomes,
In eukaryotic cells, one major route for Ca(2+) influx is through store-operated CRAC channels, which are activated following a fall in Ca(2+) content within the endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are key regulators of this ubiquitous Ca(2+) influx pathway. Respiring mitochondria rapidly take up some of the Ca(2+) released from the stores, resulting in more extensive store depletion and thus robust activation of CRAC channels. As CRAC channels open, the ensuing rise in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) feeds back to inactivate the channels. By buffering some of the incoming Ca(2+) mitochondria reduce Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of the CRAC channels, resulting in more prolonged Ca(2+) influx. However, mitochondria can release Ca(2+) close to the endoplasmic reticulum, accelerating store refilling and thus promoting deactivation of the CRAC channels. Mitochondria thus regulate all major transitions in CRAC channel gating, revealing remarkable versatility in how this organelle impacts upon Ca(2+) influx. Recent
of the University of Illinois at Chicago learned that the E2F gene, which plays a role in the natural process of cell death, contributes to the function of mitochondria. Fruit flies with a mutant version of the E2F gene had misshapen mitochondria that produced less energy than normal ones. Flies with severely damaged mitochondria were more resistant to radiation-induced cell death. Studies using human cells revealed similar effects. The work could help explain why people with cancer respond differently to radiation therapy and might aid the development of drugs that enhance mitochondrial function, thereby improving the effectiveness of radiation therapy.. This work also was funded by NIHs National Cancer Institute.. Learn more: ...
Fasting and glucose shortage activate metabolic reprogramming that simultaneously elevates energy production from mitochondria and the risk of mitochondrial oxidative damage. In this report, we have presented evidence that metabolically challenged mitochondria undergo active fusion to limit oxidative stress. The highly orchestrated adaptive mitochondrial fusion requires the protein deacetylase HDAC6, which binds, deacetylates and activates MFN1. The loss of HDAC6 prevents glucose-starvation- and fasting- induced MFN1 deacetylation and mitochondrial fusion, resulting in excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. Our findings identify active mitochondrial fusion as an integral part of the stress response that protects metabolically challenged mitochondria.. Active fusion has recently been proposed to prevent mitochondria from being degraded by autophagy under more extreme nutrient starvation (e.g. in Hanks solution) (Gomes et al., 2011; Rambold et al., 2011). Our analysis of ...
Perhaps the two biggest things negatively impacting peoples mitochondria are 1) sugar and simple carbohydrates they eat, and 2) lack of regular exercise. Mitochondria are very responsive to the condition of the body and they become sluggish and even shut down when there is consumption of sugar and/or simple carbohydrates. Even though it seems that sugar gives you a quick energy boost, the end result is a crash that is worse and a slowing down of your mitochondria altogether. Exercise is the best way to encourage your body not just to keep your mitochondria healthy, but to make more mitochondria too. This is why regular exercise actually gives you energy and helps keep all the processes of the body running better. Regular aerobic exercise (especially interval training) can increase your mitochondria by 50%!. So take care of your mitochondria because your life depends on it!. Madeleine M Castellanos, MD is a practitioner of functional medicine - working with people to identify the root cause of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electron transport chain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria is inhibited by H2O2 at succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase level without lipid peroxidation involvement. AU - Cortés-Rojo, Christian. AU - Calderó;n-Cortés, Elizabeth. AU - Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica. AU - Manzo-Ávalos, Salvador. AU - Uribe, Salvador. AU - Boldogh, Istvan. AU - Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - The deleterious effects of H2O2 on the electron transport chain of yeast mitochondria and on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Exposure to H2O2 resulted in inhibition of the oxygen consumption in the uncoupled and phosphorylating states to 69% and 65%, respectively. The effect of H2O2 on the respiratory rate was associated with an inhibition of succinate-ubiquinone and succinate-DCIP oxidoreductase activities. Inhibitory effect of H2O2 on respiratory complexes was almost completely recovered by β-mercaptoethanol treatment. H2O2 treatment resulted in full ...
Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This page contains the article- A Complex Dietary Supplement Augments Spatial Learning, Brain Mass, and Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Activity in Aging Mice http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/A_Complex_Dietary_Supplement_Augments.shtml
Starvation-induced autophagosomes engulf cytosol and/or organelles and deliver them to lysosomes for degradation, thereby resupplying depleted nutrients. Despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of this process, the membrane origin of autophagosomes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in starved cells, the outer membrane of mitochondria participates in autophagosome biogenesis. The early autophagosomal marker, Atg5, transiently localizes to punctae on mitochondria, followed by the late autophagosomal marker, LC3. The tail-anchor of an outer mitochondrial membrane protein also labels autophagosomes and is sufficient to deliver another outer mitochondrial membrane protein, Fis1, to autophagosomes. The fluorescent lipid NBD-PS (converted to NBD-phosphotidylethanolamine in mitochondria) transfers from mitochondria to autophagosomes. Photobleaching reveals membranes of mitochondria and autophagosomes are transiently shared. Disruption of mitochondria/ER connections by mitofusin2 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Isolation and functional assessment of mitochondria from small amounts of mouse brain tissue. AU - Chinopoulos, Christos. AU - Zhang, Steven F.. AU - Thomas, Bobby. AU - Ten, Vadim. AU - Starkov, Anatoly A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Recent discoveries have brought mitochondria functions in focus of the neuroscience research community and greatly stimulated the demand for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Many mouse disease models have been generated, but studying mitochondria isolated from individual mouse brain regions is a challenge because of small amount of the available brain tissue. Conventional techniques for isolation and purification of mitochondria from mouse brain subregions, such as ventral midbrain, hippocampus, or striatum, require pooling brain tissue from six to nine animals for a single mitochondrial preparation. Working with pooled tissue significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid content, active mitochondria and brilliant cresyl blue staining in bovine oocytes. AU - Casteneda, CA. AU - Kaye, P. AU - Pantaleon, M. AU - Phillips, N. AU - Norman, Scott. AU - Fry, R.. AU - DOcchio, MJ. N1 - Imported on 12 Apr 2017 - DigiTool details were: month (773h) = February, 2013; Journal title (773t) = Theriogenology. ISSNs: 0093-691X; PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - Bovine oocytes that stain with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) have a relatively higher developmental competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among BCB staining, lipid content, and active mitochondria. Bovine oocytes (N = 133) with at least three layers of cumulus cells were segregated as BCB retained (BCB+) or metabolized (BCB-) and then stained for active mitochondria (Mitotracker Red) and lipid (Bodipy), with analysis by confocal microscopy. The BCB+ oocytes (N = 45) contained approximately 26% more cytoplasmic lipid than BCB- oocytes (N = 26-27; P , 0.05). ...
Mitochondria Function, Natural Anti Aging, Health Tips. Whitaker Wellness Institute is Americas largest alternative medicine clinic and wellness center.
RhoA and mitophagy. ​. ​. ​. ​. Dr. Shigeki Miyamoto is directing this project in collaboration with the Brown lab. ​. Mitochondria are essential organelles involved in energy metabolism. Preservation of mitochondrial quality is critical in ensuring cell survival, and even more so in cardiomyocytes which have limited regenerative capacity. Mitochondria damaged in response to stress release reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other toxic molecules which induce cell death. Mitophagy (mitochondria-specific autophagy) eliminates these damaged mitochondria and prevents cell death. Mitophagy is facilitated by mitochondrial fission which segregates damaged mitochondria for elimination. ​. Although there is great interest in developing therapeutic interventions targeting mitochondrial quality control mechanisms to treat ischemic heart disease, intracellular signaling pathways regulating these mitochondrial quality control mechanisms have been elusive and the ideal targets are still unclear. ...
Mitochondrion is one of the most important organelles in cells with several vital responsibilities. The consequence of a deficiency in the function of mitochondrion could result with the wide range of diseases and disorders. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to understand the mode of interaction of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with mitochondria. The living lung cancer cells and the isolated mitochondria from these cells were treated with gold colloidal suspension for SERS experiments. The AFM images of the mitochondria confirmed that the treatment did not cause substantial damage to mitochondria. The localization of GNPs in living cells is investigated with confocal microscopy and found that GNPs form aggregates in the cytosol away from the mitochondria. However, SERS spectra obtained from isolated mitochondria and living cells indicate that GNPs escaped from the endosomes or entered into the living cell through another route may be in
PAYWALLED__T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence - posted in BioscienceNews: . P A Y W A L L E D S O U R C E : Science Mag Abstract The impact of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. Here, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria due to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as...
Author(s): Lu, Xiyuan; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Bers, Donald M | Abstract: Mitochondria produce ATP, especially critical for survival of highly aerobic cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Conversely, opening of mitochondrial high-conductance and long-lasting permeability transition pores (mPTP) causes respiratory uncoupling, mitochondrial injury, and cell death. However, low conductance and transient mPTP openings (tPTP) might limit mitochondrial Ca(2+) load and be cardioprotective, but direct evidence for tPTP in cells is limited.To directly characterize tPTP occurrence during sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release in adult cardiac myocytes.Here, we measured tPTP directly as transient drops in mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]mito) and membrane potential (ΔΨm) in adult cardiac myocytes during cyclic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release, by simultaneous live imaging of 500 to 1000 individual mitochondria. The frequency of tPTPs rose at higher [Ca(2+)]mito, [Ca(2+)]i, with 1 μmol/L peroxide
Our observations in vivo and simulations in silico revealed a novel role of mitochondrial fusion in inheritance. The transport capacity of WT Myo2 obviously is sufficient for the inheritance of a critical quantity of fragmented mitochondria in Δfzo1 cells to sustain viability of most progeny. However, when the transport capacity in myo2(LQ) Δfzo1 cells is compromised, both the number of successful transport events and the mitochondrial mass transported with each event are reduced, leading to a lethal inheritance defect. This can be partially rescued by deletion of the DNM1 gene, which increases the size of individual mitochondria that are transported to the bud with each successful transport event. When bud-directed transport is enforced by expression of Myo2-Fis1 or overexpression of Ypt11, maintenance of a critical mitochondrial size becomes important for retention of mitochondria in the mother. Thus, mitochondria must be in a fused state to ensure partitioning of a critical quantity of ...
Mitochondrial division is important for mitochondrial distribution and function. Recent data have demonstrated that ER-mitochondria contacts mark mitochondrial division sites, but the molecular basis and functions of these contacts are not understood. Here we show that in yeast, the ER-mitochondria tethering complex, ERMES, and the highly conserved Miro GTPase, Gem1, are spatially and functionally linked to ER-associated mitochondrial division. Gem1 acts as a negative regulator of ER-mitochondria contacts, an activity required for the spatial resolution and distribution of newly generated mitochondrial tips following division. Previous data have demonstrated that ERMES localizes with a subset of actively replicating mitochondrial nucleoids. We show that mitochondrial division is spatially linked to nucleoids and that a majority of these nucleoids segregate prior to division, resulting in their distribution into newly generated tips in the mitochondrial network. Thus, we postulate that ...
Great question. Mitochondria are different from the other cellular components in your body. Thats because scientists believe that mitochondria, at one point, were their own independent organisms. They were once bacteria that, somewhere along the way, decided to work together. Because mitochondria evolved doing their own thing, they have their own DNA, and that means they can produce their own proteins and enzymes. Amazing, right?. When your mitochondria are functioning in tip-top shape, they form the foundation for a healthy life, affecting your mood, energy and focus levels, and much, much more. The important takeaway here is that healthy mitochondria provide your body with the steady flow of energy it needs to perform its best in a variety of functions. Its not just the quantity of mitochondria that makes the biggest difference either, its the quality as well.. Because different parts of your body burn massive amounts of energy, when mitochondria production starts to slow, or the quality of ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a wide range of degenerative processes including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and aging. ROS are generated by mitochondria as the toxic by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, their …
Melatonin has been speculated to be mainly synthesized by mitochondria. This speculation is supported by the recent discovery that aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase/serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT/SNAT) is localized in mitochondria of oocytes and the isolated mitochondria generate melatonin. We have also speculated that melatonin is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. It accumulates in mitochondria with high concentration against a concentration gradient. This is probably achieved by an active transportation via mitochondrial melatonin transporter(s). Melatonin protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), and activating uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Thus, melatonin maintains the optimal mitochondrial membrane potential and preserves mitochondrial functions. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is also regulated by melatonin. In most cases, melatonin reduces mitochondrial fission and elevates their
Mitochondria are the major cellular producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial ROS production increases steeply with increased proton-motive force. The uncoupling proteins (UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase induce proton leak in response to exogenously added fatty acids, superoxide, or lipid peroxidation products. Mild uncoupling by these proteins may provide a negative feedback loop to decrease proton-motive force and attenuate ROS production. Using wild-type and Ucp3(-/-) mice, we found that native UCP3 actively lowers the rate of ROS production in isolated energized skeletal muscle mitochondria, in the absence of exogenous activators. The estimated specific activity of UCP3 in lowering ROS production was 90 to 500 times higher than that of the adenine nucleotide translocase. The mild uncoupling hypothesis was tested by measuring whether the effect of UCP3 on ROS production could be mimicked by chemical uncoupling. A chemical uncoupler mimicked the ...
The alternative oxidase of Moniliella tomentosa mitochondria is stimulated by 5-AMP. This effect may be masked, depending on the isolation procedure of the mitochondria. The preparation of submitochondrial particles results in the expression of the 5-AMP effect. Two more methods are now described to reveal the 5-AMP effect whenever it would be masked: (1) switching on the myokinase activity of the mitochondria to deplete them of endogenous 5-AMP; (2) using detergents (sodium dodecyl sulphate, sodium deoxycholate) in a controlled detergent:protein ratio, or chloroform. The alternative oxidase of detergent-solubilized mitochondria was somewhat less selective towards nucleotides than were intact mitochondria. The effect of nucleotides on quinol oxidation by mitochondrial preparations and on quinol autoxidation was also studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of succinate by the alternative oxidase and autoxidation of quinols behaved similarly in the presence of certain nucleotides. Both reactions were ...
Two mitochondrial mechanisms have been suggested for the development of pressure overload contractile dysfunction: mitochondrial dysfunction through uncoupling or through reduced oxidative phosphorylation capacity due to PGC-1α downregulation. We assessed the respiratory capacity and coupling to ATP-production, PGC-1α and downstream target gene-expression, as well as fatty acid oxidation and UCP-expression in rat hearts subjected to chronic pressure overload developing heart failure. Transverse aortic constriction for 20 weeks resulted in heart failure with dyspnoea and pleural effusions, decreased ejection fraction (EF: 53±8% vs. 75±6% sham, p,0.05) and LV dilatation (LVEDD 9,9±0,6 vs. 7,6±0,3mm, p,0.05). Mitochondrial respiratory capacity and substrate oxidation rates were significantly affected in failing hearts. State 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria was significantly reduced with all substrates (natomsO/min/mg protein: glutamate 71±16 vs. 361±58, palmitoyl-carnitine 56±4 vs. ...
The function of fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria has remained an enigma. In eukaryotic plants, synthesis of fatty acids occurs primarily in plastids such as chloroplasts, and products of this pathway supply acyl precursors for mitochondrial and other extraplastidial membranes. The discovery of ACP in plant mitochondria (4, 5) has raised the possibility that these organelles also participate in de novo fatty acid synthesis. However, ACP has been considered to have several other functions in metabolism, and, in mitochondria, ACP is reported to be one component of the respiratory electron transport chain (14). Thus, whether ACP participates in fatty acid synthesis in plant mitochondria and what function this pathway might have in any eukaryotic organism has been unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that the de novo synthesis of fatty acids does occur in pea mitochondria, indicating that these organelles possess the complete set of enzymes needed to assemble fatty acids. The analysis ...
The diaminobenzidine (DAB) technique for the ultrastructural localization of sites of cytochrome c oxidase activity in animal tissues has been adapted to the visualization of mitochondria in animal cells growing in culture. The modified technique allows the staining of mitochondria in all cells in coverslip preparatins for light microscopy. Electron microscopy of thin sections of material treated by this method has revealed that all mitochondrial profiles within a cell (and only these) are stained and they exhibit a well preserved size and internal structure. Coverslip cultures of synchronized and unsynchronized HeLa (F-315) cells stained with the DAB reaction were examined under oil immersion. In the majority of the cells, mitochondria were recognized as discrete bodies in the thinner peripheral portion of the cytoplasm. This observation indicates that in a large proportion of HeLa F-315 cells, at least under the growth conditions used here, the mitochondrial complement is dividied into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of alcohol and oxidative stress on liver pathology. T2 - The role of the mitochondrion. AU - Cahill, Alan. AU - Cunningham, Carol C.. AU - Adachi, Masayuki. AU - Ishii, Hiromasa. AU - Bailey, Shannon M.. AU - Fromenty, Bernard. AU - Davies, Adrian. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The chairs were Alan Cahill and Carol C. Cunningham. The presentations were (1) Mitochondrial regulation of ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis: possible involvement of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax, by Masayuki Adachi and Hiromasa Ishii; (2) Effects of ethanol on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative protein modification, by Shannon M. Bailey; (3) Acute ethanol binges elicit widespread oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage and depletion: protective effects of antioxidants and ...
Fluctuating vs. continuous exposure to H₂O₂: the effects on mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium, and NF-κB in astroglia.
CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides) facilitate cellular uptake of covalently attached macromolecules, through an as yet controversial mechanism that either involves direct membrane passage or a type of endocytosis. We investigated the potential of the CPPs penetratin and Tat to act as mitochondria-targeting vectors by testing whether they were internalized by isolated mitochondria, and by mitochondria within cells in culture. We also tested peptides conjugated to the mitochondria-targeting moiety triphenylphosphonium. We found no evidence for mitochondrial uptake by penetratin, Tat or their triphenylphosphonium conjugates. This result suggests that CPPs are unsuitable as mitochondria-targeting vectors, and implies an endocytic mode of cellular uptake for CPPs. ...
NEET Biology Mitochondria … 9. NAF‐1, a NEET family protein, promotes Drp1 recruitment to ER‐mitochondria contact sites and induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Plant cells can form all the amino acids. Many vacuoles occur, which are smaller in size. (d) the chloroplasts are generally much larger than mitochondria. introduce tetracycline-inducible expression mitochondrial protein mitoNEET in α- or β-cells as a model of graded mitochondrial dysfunction. The inner mitochondrial membrane has several folds in it called Cristae, so as to increase the surface area. Practice more on a regular basis with these NEET Biology objective questions on air pollution . Mitochondria is tubular in shape. In this issue of Diabetes, Kusminski et al. The 2Fe-2S clusters of NEET proteins were found to be coordinated by a novel 3Cys:1His structure that is relatively labile compared to other 2Fe-2S proteins and is the reason of the NEETs clusters could be transferred to apo-acceptor protein(s) or mitochondria. ...
Fig. 6. Mitotic events of cell division after disruption of mitochondria in the histone EGFP-H1 expressed cell. The disruption of a single mitochondrion by femtosecond laser irradiation had no influence on cell division or cell activity. The cell nuclei and mitotic chromosomes in HeLa cells were visualized using histone EGFP-H1. Mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker Red. Confocal fluorescence image and transmission image (a) before and (b) after femtosecond laser irradiation with 0.39 nJ/pulse (exposure time: 32 ms). The yellow arrow indicates the irradiation point. (c)-(f) Time-lapse confocal images and transmission images. The mitotic events of cell division in the irradiated cells proceeded normally. Scale bar: 20 μm ...
Neonatal hypoxia–ischemia is one of the main causes of mortality and disability of newborns. To study the mechanisms of neonatal brain cell damage, we used a model of neonatal hypoxia–ischemia in seven-day-old rats, by annealing of the common carotid artery with subsequent hypoxia of 8% oxygen. We demonstrate that neonatal hypoxia–ischemia causes mitochondrial dysfunction associated with high production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress. Targeted delivery of antioxidants to the mitochondria can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat the deleterious effects of brain hypoxia–ischemia. We explored the neuroprotective properties of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1, which is the conjugate of a plant plastoquinone and a penetrating cation, rhodamine 19. Being introduced before or immediately after hypoxia–ischemia, SkQR1 affords neuroprotection as judged by the diminished brain damage and recovery of long-term neurological functions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramitochondrial recruitment of endolysosomes mediates Smac degradation and constitutes a novel intrinsic apoptosis antagonizing function of XIAP E3 ligase. AU - Hamacher-Brady, Anne. AU - Choe, S. C.. AU - Krijnse-Locker, J.. AU - Brady, Nathan Ryan. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Consequently, cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria to activate caspases, and Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) to inhibit XIAP-mediated caspase suppression. Dysfunctional mitochondria can be targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy (mitophagy), or directly through mitochondria-derived vesicle transport. However, the extent of autophagy and lysosomal interactions with apoptotic mitochondria remains largely unknown. We describe here a novel pathway of endolysosomal processing of mitochondria, activated in response to canonical ...
Looking for online definition of Chromosome mitochondria (human) in the Medical Dictionary? Chromosome mitochondria (human) explanation free. What is Chromosome mitochondria (human)? Meaning of Chromosome mitochondria (human) medical term. What does Chromosome mitochondria (human) mean?
Abstract: There is great concern with an increase in the number of Americans who are overweight and obese. Fat cells or adipocytes play a central role in obesity. These cells are metabolically active and play a fundamental role in energy allocation and storage. The adipocyte functions as the energy storage cell by storing excess energy in the forms of triglycerides in lipid vesicles within the cell. The morphology of mitochondria is a dynamic process that varies from cell type to cell type and in response to a variety of signals and conditions (Wilson-Fritch, 2002; Wilson-Fritch, 2004). The morphology of mitochondria in the cell often reflects the functions of that type of cell. In my thesis I characterize the changes in mitochondrial morphology and actin during adipogenesis. In this thesis I found that mitochondria undergo a radical change in morphology during the first two days of adipogenesis. In the pre-adipocyte cell mitochondria assume a reticular morphology that is distributed uniformly ...
Back to Science for Kids Plants have both mitochondria and chloroplasts; they can produce their own glucose to fuel cellular respiration. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Animal cells, on the other hand, have only mitochondria. Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. This releases . MCQ quiz on Mitochondria multiple choice questions and answers on Mitochondria MCQ questions on Mitochondria objectives questions with answer test pdf for interview preparations, freshers jobs and competitive exams. Web Publishing Information The HTML comments in this page contain the configurationinformation that allows users to edit pages in your web using the Microsoft Web Publishing Wizard or programs which use the Microsoft Web Publishing Wizard such as FrontPad using the same username and password they would use if they were authoring with Microsoft FrontPage. About half in the average cell is in membrane-bound organelles, varying a bit from cell-to-cell. If an ...
Background: Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. Mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx2) is a key protein regulating cellular redox and survival, However, but its role in normal cardiac growth has not been determined.. Methods and Results: We have generated cardiac-specific Trx2 knockout mice (Trx2-cKO) to determine the physiological importance of the Trx2 system in the heart. Trx2-cKO mice developed a spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy at 1 month of age with increased heart size, fibrosis, reduced ventricular wall thickness, and progressive contractile dysfunction, resulting in death due to heart failure by 4 months of age. Cardiac changes in Trx2-cKO mice were accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial integrity and function, as evident by alterations in mitochondrial number, ultrastructure, membrane potential and ATP production. Increases in ASK1 signaling and ROS ...
Researchers find mitochondria could delay aging. A recent study has revealed that mitochondria could be used to combat a universal health issue - aging.. Some in the scientific community are already pushing to have aging classified as a disease worthy of treatment rather than a time of life, and recent findings from a study carried out by Lomonosov Moscow State University and Stockholm University could possibly support this movement. The study examined the role that mitochondria plays in the aging of organisms by treating three groups of mice. The findings, published in Aging, showed the mice that received an artificial antioxidant called SkQ1 aged at a slower rate than those who did not.. About the SkQ1 antioxidant. Russian Professor Vladimir Skulachev created the molecule SkQ1, which contains antioxidants in the cells mitochondria.. Experiments were carried out on three groups of mice - one that had been genetically modified with mutations to age at an accelerated rate from birth, one that ...
article{62f3985e-a946-40ca-a489-6a8f8076cf24, abstract = {,p,Inside-out submitochondrial particles (IO-SMP) were isolated and purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv.) tubers. When these IO-SMP were incubated with [γ,sup,32,/sup,P]ATP more then 20 proteins became labelled as a result of phosphorylation. The ,sup,32,/sup,P incorporation was stimulated by the oxidizing reagent ferricyanide. Except for a 17 kDa protein which was phosphorylated only in the absence of divalent cations, the protein phosphorylation required Mg,sup,2+,/sup,. The time for half-maximum ,sup,32,/sup,P incorporation was 4 min for the 22 kDa phospho-F,sub,1,/sub, δ-subunit and 2 min for the 28 kDa phospho-F,sub,0,/sub, b-subunit of the proton-ATPase. The K(m) for ATP for the detected phosphoproteins was between 65 μM and 110 μM. The pH optimum for protein phosphorylation in inner membranes was between pH 6 and 8, and for the F,sub,1,/sub, δ-subunit and the F,sub,0,/sub, b-subunit the pH optima were 6.5-8 and pH 8, ...
Mitochondria in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPs) Dtake up and release cytosolic Ca2+ during agonist-evoked Ca2+ waves, but it is not clear whether or how they regulate Ca2+ signaling in OPs. We asked whether mitochondria. play an active role during agonist-evoked Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Ca2+ puffs, wave initiation, and wave propagation were measured in fluo-4 loaded OP processes using linescan confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial depolarization, measured by tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) fluorescence, accompanied Ca2+ puffs and waves. in addition, waves initiated only where mitochondria were localized. To determine whether energized mitochondria were necessary for wave generation, we blocked mitochondrial function with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A (AA) in combination with oligomycin. AA decreased wave speed and puff probability. These effects were not due to global changes in ATP. We found that AA increased cytosolic Ca2+ markedly reduced ...
Increased O(2) metabolism resulting in chronic hypoxia is common in models of endstage renal disease. Mitochondrial uncoupling increases O(2) consumption but the ensuing reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential may limit excessive oxidative stress. The present study addressed the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling regulates mitochondria function and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. Isolated mitochondria from kidney cortex of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied before and after siRNA knockdown of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Diabetes resulted in increased UCP-2 protein expression and UCP-2-mediated uncoupling, but normal mitochondria membrane potential. This uncoupling was inhibited by GDP, which also increased the membrane potential. siRNA reduced UCP-2 protein expression in controls and diabetics (-30-50%), but paradoxically further increased uncoupling and markedly reduced the membrane potential. This siRNA mediated uncoupling was unaffected by GDP ...
New data presented at International Conference on Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases. Vancouver, BC - March 12, 2013 - Anavex Life Sciences Corp. (Anavex) (OTCQB: AVXL) today announced more promising new data for ANAVEX 2-73, the companys lead drug candidate for Alzheimers disease.. In a scientific study conducted in France at the University of Montpellier and INSERM, ANAVEX 2-73 demonstrated disease-modifying effects, including the ability to repair normal mitochondrial functionality in the hippocampus, the part of the brain involved with learning, memory and emotions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been consistently reported as an early cause of Alzheimers disease. It appears before amyloid-beta plaques can start to accumulate and memory loss begins in Alzheimers patients and transgenic mice. In the same study, ANAVEX 2-73 blocked apoptosis (cell death) and oxidative stress, which is believed to prevent the onset of Alzheimers disease.. ANAVEX 2-73 appears to be a valuable drug for ...
The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV; COX) of the respiratory chain transfers electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. The activity of the respiratory chain complexes generates a proton-gradient across the inner membrane, which is used by the ATP-synthase to produce ATP for cellular metabolism. In baker´s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex IV forms a supercomplex with cytochrome c reductase (complex III, bc1) and consists of eight nuclear-encoded and three mitochondrially-encoded subunits. The formation of complex IV is crucial for respiratory growth. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) imports precursors of nuclear-encoded COX subunits into mitochondria. Subsequently, the presequence translocase (TIM23 complex) transports the majority of these precursor proteins into or across the inner membrane in a membrane potential dependent manner. The presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM) drives the translocation into the mitochondrial matrix. The ATPase activity ...
Perturbations in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism are both involved in the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes (2,3). Previously, our laboratory (30) as well as others (31) have observed that the severity of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and obesity is related to diminished activity of oxidative enzymes. In addition, accumulation of triglycerides in skeletal muscle is also correlated with the severity of insulin resistance and with diminished oxidative enzyme activity in these disorders (23). These observations led therefore to the hypothesis of the current investigation, which is that a functional impairment of mitochondria might contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.. Skeletal muscle is a tissue richly endowed with mitochondria and strongly reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. To test our hypothesis, we assessed the size and morphology of skeletal muscle mitochondria ...
July 2019. Structural and functional studies reported this month in the journal Nature reveal the molecular basis of remodelling of the inner mitochondrial membrane by the protein complex Mgm1. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of our cells and play a fundamental role in human health. Balanced fusion and fission are essential for the proper function and physiology of these important organelles.. Mitochondria possess two membranes. In humans and animals remodelling of the inner mitochondrial membrane is mediated by a protein complex called OPA1. The related protein complex Mgm1 takes on this role in yeasts and other fungi. Both Mgm1 and OPA1 exist in mitochondria in two forms: a membrane-integrated long form and a short form that is soluble in the intermembrane space. Mutations in the OPA1 gene in humans are a common cause of autosomal dominant optic atrophy-a genetic disorder that affects the optic nerve. Mammalian cells that lack OPA1 and yeast strains that express temperature-sensitive versions ...
Constant change of mitochondrial shape is mediated by fission and fusion that consume cellular energy, suggesting a profound role of mitochondrial dynamics. Indeed, knocking out DLP1, Mfn, or OPA1 in mice causes embryonic lethality (2-5), indicating their essential role. Previous studies with cell lines indicated that mitochondria become dysfunctional upon knockout or knockdown of fusion or fission proteins (35,36). However, the mechanisms linking mitochondrial shape and functionality are not fully understood. Using primary hepatocytes, we found an increase of inner membrane proton leak when mitochondrial fission was inhibited. We were able to visualize this increased proton leak in DLP1-K38A cells as a repeated occurrence of rapid loss and recovery of TMRE fluorescence.. What causes the large-scale mitochondrial depolarization and recovery remains to be investigated. Abrupt depolarization events normally occur in individual mitochondria, presumably by transient opening of the PT pore (37,38). ...
The distribution of TPP in cytoplasm fractions of rat liver is studied. When the homogenate was prepared with 0.25M sucrose, about 300% of TPP was present in mitochondria. When the homogenization medium was distilled water, the amount of TPP present in this fraction was markedly decreased, while that present in ... read more the supernatant fluid was increased. Mitochondria suspended in 0.25M sucrose and incubated at 18° C for 10 min release in the suspension fluid about 20% of their TPP; under the same conditions, mitochondria suspended in water release about 65% of their TPP. An increased destruction of TPP was observed as a result of incubation of mitochondria in water at 18° C. The distribution of TPP in fatty liver homogenates prepared in 0.25M sucrose resembles strongly that observed for homogenates of normal rat liver prepared in distilled water; TPP was decreased in the mitochondrial fraction and correspondingly increased in the supernatant. Total TPP is decreased in fatty liver ...
The evolutionary diversity of the HSP70 gene family at the genetic level has generated complex structural variations leading to altered functional specificity and mode of regulation in different cellular compartments. By utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system for better understanding t …
The Marsh-Armstrong lab reports in the July issue of PNAS the suprising discovery that in a location called the optic nerve head, large numbers of mitochondria are shed from neurons to be degraded by the lysosomes of adjoining glial cells. This finding calls into question the assumption that a cell necessarily degrades its own organelles. Davis CH, Kim KY, Bushong EA, Mills EA, Boassa D, Shi T, Kinebuchi M, Phan S, Zhou Y, Bihlmeyer NA, Nguyen JV, Jin Y, Ellisman MH, Marsh-Armstrong. Transcellular degradation of axonal mitochondria PNAS 2014 111 (26) 9633-9638. ...
Here, researchers reported that dysfunctional mitochondria, the cells powerhouses, are associated with defective sperm, contributing to male infertility.
We provide evidence that ablation or inhibition of, uncoupling protein 1 increases the rate of reactive oxygen containing species production by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue, no matter what electron transport chain substrate is used (succinate, glycerol-3-phosphate or pyruvate/malate). Consistent with these data are our observations that (a) the mitochondrial membrane potential is maximal when uncoupling protein 1 is ablated or inhibited and (b) oxygen consumption rates in mitochondria from uncoupling protein 1 knock-out mice, are significantly lower than those from wild-type mice, but equivalent to those from wild-type mice in the presence of GDP. In summary, we show that uncoupling protein 1 can affect reactive oxygen containing species production by isolated mitochondria from brown adipose tissue.
Research suggests that mitochondrial changes are a driving force, rather than a consequence, of the aging process and Alzheimers disease pathogenesis. Although point mutations of mitochondrial DNA have been hypothesized as being a critical cause of aging, there is evidence that they may not be fully explanatory. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with very short half-lives. Continuous replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is required for assignment to new mitochondria, resulting in a significant error rate and accumulation of mutated in mtDNA genome over time and space. We hypothesized that, beyond point mutations, different types of mtDNA rearrangements should be extensively distributed in aging cells. As these rearrangements are often not detected by routine methods such as polymerase chain reaction, we applied the approach of directly sequencing mtDNA from isolated mitochondria derived from fresh frozen brain samples. Our data show that different types of mitochondrial rearrangements are ...
Loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential results in a significant inhibition of calcium influx through calcium release-activated channels (CRAC) in Jurkat cells suspended in the medium of pH lower than 7.4. This effect disappears when the medium pH increases. Alkalinisation of the cytosol achieved by the addition of NH(4)Cl to the cells pretreated with thapsigargin, CCCP and CaCl(2), suspended in the medium of pH 7.2, does not affect CRAC activity, while alkalisation of the extracellular milieu by NaOH results in a strong stimulation of calcium entry. Thus, the mitochondrial effect on CRAC is exclusively related to the extracellular pH. Coupled mitochondria are able to take up Ca(2+) accumulated in the close proximity of CRAC. This protects these channels against feedback inhibition exerted by high [Ca(2+)](c). We conclude that CRAC may exist in two conformations: inhibitable and not inhibitable by cytosolic Ca(2+). Lower extracellular pH promotes the former one. This explains a much higher
"Mitochondria". medicine.ekmd.huji.ac.il. Retrieved 2016-05-03. "Developmental Processes, Malformations and Diseases". medicine. ... Epigenetics and Common Human Diseases The Tumor and its Microenvironment Mitochondria Developmental Processes, Malformations ...
ISBN 0-87969-628-1. Schon, Eric A.; Pon, Liza A. (2001). Mitochondria. Methods in Cell Biology. 65. Boston: Academic Press. pp ...
Unlike the IMS of the mitochondria, the IMS of the chloroplast does not seem to have any obvious function. Mitochondria are ... The IMS of mitochondria plays a crucial role in coordinating a variety of cellular activities, such as regulation of ... Unlike the IMS of the mitochondria, the IMS of the chloroplast does not seem to have any obvious function. The translocase of ... This electrochemical gradient from the IMS to the matrix is used to drive the synthesis of ATP in the mitochondria. Releasing ...
For typical liver mitochondria, the area of the inner membrane is about 5 times as large as the outer membrane due to cristae. ... In pig heart mitochondria, phosphatidylethanolamine makes up the majority of the inner mitochondrial membrane at 37.0% of the ... This ratio is variable and mitochondria from cells that have a greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain even more ... Krauss, Stefan (2001). "Mitochondria: Structure and Role in Respiration" (PDF). Nature Publishing Group. Archived from the ...
The descent of mitochondria from bacteria and of chloroplasts from cyanobacteria was experimentally demonstrated in 1978 by ... Still a junior faculty member at Boston University at the time, her theory that cell organelles such as mitochondria and ... Gillham, Nicholas W. (14 January 2014). "Chloroplasts and Mitochondria". In Reeve, Eric C.R. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Genetics. ... Schwartz, R.; Dayhoff, M. (1978). "Origins of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts". Science. 199 (4327): ...
Scheffler IE (2008). Mitochondria (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Liss. ISBN 978-0-470-04073-7. Choe SS, Huh JY, Hwang IJ, Kim ... Long chain fatty acids (more than 14 carbon) need to be converted to fatty acyl-CoA in order to pass across the mitochondria ... The resulting acyl-CoA cross the mitochondria membrane and enter the process of beta oxidation. The main products of the beta ... However, the main steps of fatty acids catabolism occur in the mitochondria. ...
Martin, William F.; Mentel, Marek (2010). "The Origin of Mitochondria". Nature Education. 3 (9): 58. Mehta, Angad P.; Supekova ... In order to probe details of the traditionally accepted hypothesis that mitochondria originated when independent bacteria ... as has happened with mitochondria over time. He is a founder of Affymax Research Institute, Symyx Technologies, Syrrx, Kalypsys ... "Engineering yeast endosymbionts as a step toward the evolution of mitochondria". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The structure and function of cytochrome b6f (in chloroplasts) is very similar to cytochrome bc1 (Complex III in mitochondria ... cytochrome c in mitochondria). Both are proton pumps that produce a transmembrane proton gradient. In fact, cytochrome b6 and ... ubiquinone in mitochondria) and transfer them to a mobile, water-soluble electron carrier (plastocyanin in chloroplasts; ...
In 1983, Cavalier-Smith introduced Archezoa for (which he called) primitive protists that lack mitochondria. He originally ... Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). "Eukaryotes with no mitochondria". Nature. 326 (6111): 332-333. Bibcode:1987Natur.326..332C. doi: ... mitochondria), genome size evolution, and endosymbiosis. Though fairly well known, many of his claims have been controversial ... they have or are descended from organisms with mitochondria they have or are descended from organisms with peroxisomes they ...
Mitochondria of Thraustochytrium aureum. List of genetic codes This article incorporates text from the United States National ... The Thraustochytrium mitochondrial code (translation table 23) is a genetic code found in the mitochondria of labyrinthulid ...
Oschman, J.L. (2008). "Mitochondria and cellular aging". Preparation for Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics. 11. Levine, S.A.; ...
Finally, some protists lacking mitochondria were discovered. As mitochondria were known to be the result of the endosymbiosis ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (March 26, 1987). "Eucaryotes with no mitochondria". Nature. 326 (6111): 332-333. Bibcode:1987Natur.326 ... had in fact secondarily lost their mitochondria, typically by transforming them into new organelles: Hydrogenosomes. This means ...
Those mitochondria make more copies, normally reaching 500 mitochondria per cell. As mtDNA is copied when mitochondria ... Mitochondrion. 7 (6): 399-401. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2007.07.002. PMID 17881297. Frantz MC, Wipf P (Jun 2010). "Mitochondria as a ... Mitochondria are the organelles that generate energy for the cell and are found in every cell of the human body except red ... Human genetic engineering was used on a small scale to allow infertile women with genetic defects in their mitochondria to have ...
It has not been determined how such mutations alter the energy production function of the mitochondria and result in symptoms ... Mitochondrion. 11 (5): 778-82. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2011.06.004. PMID 21704194. This article incorporates text from the United ...
Gupta KJ, Igamberdiev AU (July 2011). "The anoxic plant mitochondrion as a nitrite: NO reductase". Mitochondrion. 11 (4): 537- ... while NO is mainly formed due to anaerobic reduction of nitrite which may take place in mitochondria by complex III and complex ... "Nitrite-driven anaerobic ATP synthesis in barley and rice root mitochondria". Planta. 226 (2): 465-74. doi:10.1007/s00425-007- ...
... s cause endothelial dysfunction by activating protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In mitochondria, ceramide suppresses the ... Mitochondrion. 6 (3): 118-25. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2006.03.002. PMC 2246045. PMID 16713754. "Ceramides - Skin Lipids That Keep ... role of ceramide in the events of cell death and some evidence suggests ceramide functions upstream of the mitochondria in ...
Mitochondria respiration is coupled to ATP synthesis (ADP phosphorylation) but is regulated by UCPs. UCPs belong to the ... Mitochondria are a major site of calcium storage in neurons, and the storage capacity increases with potential across ... The larger number of mitochondria increases the combined concentration of ADP and ATP, actually resulting in a net increase in ... Thus, cancer cells may increase the production of UCP2 in mitochondria. This theory is supported by independent studies which ...
Pyruvate is then transported into mitochondria, where it is converted by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into acetyl-CoA, ... Mitochondrion. "Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Histologic Findings". ... complex that plays a vital role as a key regulatory step in the central pathways of energy metabolism in the mitochondria. The ...
They impair the ability of mitochondria to make proteins, use oxygen, and produce energy. Researchers have not determined how ... 2007). "MELAS and L-arginine therapy". Mitochondrion. 7 (1-2): 133-9. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2006.11.006. PMID 17276739. Hirata K, ... Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute mitochondria to the developing embryo, only females pass mitochondrial ... in mitochondria, that helps convert oxygen and simple sugars to energy. Other genes (MT-TH, MT-TL1, and MT-TV) encode ...
Mitochondrion. 11 (6): 946-953. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2011.08.009. PMID 21907832. Telonis AG, Kirino Y, Rigoutsos I (2015). " ... as for example in mitochondria. Per cell, 61 tRNA types are required to provide one-to-one correspondence between tRNA ... genes transferred from the mitochondria to the nucleus). The phenomenon of multiple nuclear copies of mitochondrial tRNA (tRNA- ... the yeast tRNA splicing endonuclease mainly localizes on the mitochondria". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (8): 3266-3279. ...
Mitochondria carry their own DNA, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The information stored in the mtDNA is used to produce ... Mitochondria are essential organelles in eukaryotic cells. Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino ... This results in a deficit of COX protein, reducing the amount of energy produced by mitochondria. SURF1 is located on the long ... Mitochondrion. 47: 294-297. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2019.02.004. PMID 30743023. "SURF1". Genetics Home Reference. NIH. 19 November ...
Mitochondrion. 14 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2013.12.002. PMID 24355295. "Haplogroup U5". haplogroup.org. 2016-06-06. ...
Studies of complex organelles, like mitochondria, also benefit from STED microscopy for structural analysis. Using custom-made ... Mitochondrion. 12 (2): 230-236. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2011.09.004. PMC 3258335. PMID 21982778. Wurm, C. A.; D. Neumann; R. Schmidt ...
Mitochondrion, The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, AIDS Care, The Journal of Translational Medicine, Molecular ... Mitochondrion. 1 (6): 511-518. doi:10.1016/S1567-7249(02)00042-9. PMID 16120303. Gonzalez, Corina E.; Samakoses, Rudi; Boler, ...
ATAD3B is associated with the mitochondria. The C terminus is anchored in the mitochondrial inter membrane space. The protein ... Mitochondrion. 12 (4): 441-448. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2012.05.005. ISSN 1567-7249. PMID 22664726. Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamanaka, ...
In some mitochondria, such as those in the central nervous system, high levels of Ca2+ within mitochondria can cause the MPT ... MPT also allows Ca2+ to leave the mitochondrion, which can place further stress on nearby mitochondria, and which can activate ... Although the MPTP has been studied mainly in mitochondria from mammalian sources, mitochondria from diverse species also ... Ca2+-induced transition in mitochondria: A cellular catastrophe? Chapter 6 In Mitochondria in pathogenesis. Lemasters JJ and ...
September 2016). "Mitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy". Mitochondrion. 30: 35-41. doi:10.1016/j.mito. ...
... could be applied to modified or artificial mitochondria. Mitochondria could be modified to produce few or no free ... This process can lead to an increase in the amount of mtDNA present in the mitochondria of the target cells. The transduction ... A specific MLS is used for protofection because it permits mtDNA to enter the mitochondria. TFAM is used because it unwinds the ... The complete mtDNA genome or just fragments of PCR-generated mtDNA can be transferred into the target mitochondria through the ...
Mitochondrion. 15: 18-23. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2014.03.001. ISSN 1567-7249. PMID 24632472. van der Walt, Joelle M.; Nicodemus, ...
If a drug targets mitochondria and creates ROS, autophagy may dispose of so many mitochondria and other damaged organelles that ... When mitochondria are damaged and begin to release ROS, autophagy is initiated to dispose of the damaging organelle. ... SOD1 is located primarily in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria and SOD3 is extracellular. The first is a dimer (consists ... If too much damage is present in mitochondria, a cell undergoes apoptosis or programmed cell death. In addition, ROS are ...
"Mitochondria" is Kenichi Suzumuras third single, released on February 4, 2009. It came with a disc with the PV of the title ... track "Mitochondria", and peaked at #20 on the Oricon charts. All lyrics are written by Kenichi Suzumura. v t e. ...
Maybe it is the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. But the ER- mitochondria contact site ... Mitochondria associated membranes are involved in the transport of calcium from the ER to mitochondria. This interaction is ... when the mitochondria does not function well enough the cell becomes very unwell and the organism they live inside becomes cry ... The wild-type gene that codes for α-Syn promotes the physical junction between ER and mitochondria by binding to the lipid raft ...
... www.wordle.net/thumb/wrdl/4374972/mitochondria_1" alt="Wordle: mitochondria 1" style="padding:4px;border:1px solid #ddd",,/a,. ... a href="http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/4374972/mitochondria_1" title="Wordle: mitochondria 1",,img src="http:// ...
The role of mitochondria in longevity and healthspan The role of mitochondria in aging and disease remains contentious more ... Mitochondria at the extremes: pioneers, protectorates, protagonists The engulfment of a proto-mitochondrion by a primitive ... Mitochondria as signaling organelles Almost 20 years ago, the discovery that mitochondrial release of cytochrome c initiates a ... Mitochondria as biosynthetic factories for cancer proliferation Unchecked growth and proliferation is a hallmark of cancer, and ...
Mitochondria in Alzheimers Disease and Diabetes-Associated Neurodegeneration: License to Heal! Susana M. Cardoso, Sónia C. ... calcium mitochondrial ion channels mitochondrion oxidative stress pharmacology reactive oxygen species Editors and affiliations ... Nuclear Transcription Factors in the Mitochondria: A New Paradigm in Fine-Tuning Mitochondrial Metabolism ... by leading mitochondrial researchers in the handbook will take us through the novel pharmacological strategies via mitochondria ...
Mitochondria are double membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for ... The structure of a mitochondrion. Mitochondria are between 1-10μm in length, and often form branched networks within cells. The ... Both sperm and egg gametes contain mitochondria, however mitochondria in the sperm are broken down after fertilisation of the ... The evolutionary origins of mitochondria. The widely accepted endosymbiont theory states that mitochondria were once an ...
As in that seminal first edition, the second edition tackles the biochemistry, genetics, and pathology of mitochondria in ... March 2009 This book is the eagerly awaited second edition of the best-selling Mitochondria, a book widely acknowledged as the ... scientifically fundamental topic of the cellular organelles known as mitochondria. This new edition brings readers completely ... Mitochondria in Health and Disease. Carolyn D. Berdanier. No hay ninguna vista previa disponible - 2005. ...
... www.wordle.net/thumb/wrdl/4375032/mitochondria_3_%28cluster_1%29" alt="Wordle: mitochondria 3 (cluster 1)" style="padding:4px; ... a href="http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/4375032/mitochondria_3_%28cluster_1%29" title="Wordle: mitochondria 3 (cluster 1)",,img ...
Mitochondria dysfunction often underlies the pathogenesis of disease. ... Mitochondria play a central role in cell bioenergetics, free radical signaling, redox homeostasis, ion regulation, and cell ... Mitochondria and Metabolism Center (MMC). Wang Laboratory. University of Washington, Box 358057. 850 Republican Street, Room ... Mitochondria play a central role in cell bioenergetics, free radical signaling, redox homeostasis, ion regulation, and cell ...
It is now a well established fact that mitochondria did evolve from free living bacteria being the common ancestor of both, ... eukaryotic mitochondria and α-proteobacteria. Advances in genome sequencing, the establishment of in organello and ... Mitochondria are the product of a long evolutionary history. ... Mitochondria are the product of a long evolutionary history. It ... Plant Mitochondria. Editors. * Frank Kempken Series Title. Advances in Plant Biology. Series Volume. 1. Copyright. 2011. ...
Lipids of mitochondria.. Horvath SE1, Daum G.. Author information. 1. Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology ... Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part ... A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply ... CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; CDS; CL; CS; DMPE; ER; ER-mitochondria encounter structure; ERMES; IMM; IMS; Lipid synthesis; ...
Mitochondria are often called the powerhouses of the cell. We explain how they got this title, and outline other important ... Mitochondria are important in a number of processes.. Although the best-known role of mitochondria is energy production, they ... Mitochondria and aging. Over recent years, researchers have investigated a link between mitochondria dysfunction and aging. ... Mitochondria help decide which cells are destroyed.. Mitochondria release cytochrome C, which activates caspase, one of the ...
Introduction Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Their primary function is the synthesis of ATP ... mitochondria. ("mitochondria" is also a: user.). Confirm. Do you really want to send jafuser a message saying you like their ... Mitochondria, the plural of mitochondrion, are organelles which function as the powerhouse of the cell. The Krebs Cycle takes ... The typical liver cell has over 1,000 mitochondria. Some people have theorized that the mitochondria was a primitive ...
Mitochondria, oxidants, and aging.. Balaban RS1, Nemoto S, Finkel T.. Author information. 1. Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, ...
... ... Dysfunctioning mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species and release mediators that kill cells, so recognizing and breaking ... Cardiolipin is found in the inner membrane of healthy mitochondria and is not present in any other organelle. Using primary ... The findings from this study point to a mechanism by which externalized cardiolipin in injured mitochondria interacts with LC3 ...
Researchers discover how macrophages stop mitochondria from producing energy and coerce them into producing harmful products ... Mitochondria are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell. They are present in nearly all cell types and generate the ... "Mitochondria are well known as the key energy generators in our cells, but we found that during inflammation they switch from ... "Inflammation turns mitochondria into toxic factories." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Sep. 2016. Web.. 18 Aug. 2018 ...
Mitochondria modulate programmed neuritic retraction. Sergei V. Baranov, Oxana V. Baranova, Svitlana Yablonska, Yalikun Suofu, ... Mitochondria modulate programmed neuritic retraction. Sergei V. Baranov, Oxana V. Baranova, Svitlana Yablonska, Yalikun Suofu, ... Mitochondria modulate programmed neuritic retraction. Sergei V. Baranov, Oxana V. Baranova, Svitlana Yablonska, Yalikun Suofu, ... We demonstrate that impaired distal mitochondria have a lower threshold for focal/nonlethal neuritic caspase-3 activation in ...
Mitochondria and Parkinsons Disease. David K. Simon. ,1 Charleen T. Chu. ,2 and Russell H. Swerdlow3. 1Beth Israel Deaconess ... Mitochondria and Parkinsons Disease,. Parkinsons Disease,. vol. 2011. ,. Article ID 261791. ,. 2. pages. ,. 2011. .. https ... Overall, this review makes a compelling case for why mitochondria should be considered to play a key role in both PD etiology ... Relationships between mitochondria and oxidative stress, cell calcium homeostasis, dopamine metabolism, and Lewy bodies are ...
High quality Mitochondria inspired T-Shirts, Posters, Mugs and more by independent artists and designers from around the world ... Related searches:Science,Biology,Cell,Nerd,Mighty Mitochondria,Organelle,Girl Power,Feminism,Feminist,Women Inventors,Cell ... High quality Mitochondria inspired T-Shirts, Posters, Mugs and more by independent artists and designers from around the world ...
... Cláudia S. F. Queiroga,1,2,3 Ana S. Almeida,1,2 and Helena L. A. Vieira1,2,3 ... Mitochondria present two key roles on cellular functioning: (i) cell metabolism, being the main cellular source of energy and ( ... Herein, mitochondrion is approached as the main cellular target of carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper, two main perspectives ...
The direct role of CO on targeting mitochondria was evaluated in isolated nonsynaptic mitochondria from rat cortex. MMP was ... Carbon Monoxide Targeting Mitochondria. Cláudia S. F. Queiroga,1,2,3 Ana S. Almeida,1,2 and Helena L. A. Vieira1,2,3 ... Under physiological conditions, mitochondria continuously produce low levels of anion superoxide (. ) as a byproduct of ... In isolated mitochondria from human muscle, CO partially prevented COX activity at 50, 100, and 500 ppm, while no effect was ...
Charles Darwins Mitochondria. *John Hayman1. *. Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, ... Mitochondria and mitochondrial disorders are maternally inherited. An examination of Darwins family history provides ... 2007 Population prevalence of the MELAS A3243G mutation. Mitochondrion 7: 230-233. ... 2011 Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in asthma: implications for mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapeutics. ...
Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria lie at the heart of immunity. Mitochondrial DNA acts as a danger-associated ... ONeill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, in innate and ... Mitochondria are gate-keepers of T cell function by producing the ATP that drives purinergic signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 289, ... Mitochondria are required for antigen-specific T cell activation through reactive oxygen species signaling. Immunity 38, 225- ...
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Metabolomics (also known as metabonomics or metabolic profiling) deals with the quantitative analysis of multicomponent mixtures of biological samples, and is focused on establishing metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic alterations. While vast progress in the fields of genomics and proteomics have provided a wealth of information for understanding the factors that regulate cell physiology and pathology, great insight into the functions of biological systems is also gained through the study of concentrations and fluxes of metabolites.. The quantitative measurement of small molecule metabolites that are the end products of genes, transcripts and proteins functions provides vital information for understanding the composition and function of biochemical networks, and promises solutions to many important questions related to human disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development. Significant interest in the application of metabolomics-based approaches ...
Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind- ... At the core of bioenergetics are the mitochondria, residing in large numbers outside the nucleus of every cell. Mitochondria ... Mitochondria affect stress responses. Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. Journal. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind- ...
Mitochondria are organelles in each cell outside the nucleus and are the energy source of all cells. As such, they are crucial ... Mitochondria are organelles in each cell outside the nucleus and are the energy source of all cells. As such, they are crucial ...
Translational jumping in mitochondria. B. Franz Lang, Michaela Jakubkova, Eva Hegedusova, Rachid Daoud, Lise Forget, Brona ... Translational jumping in mitochondria. B. Franz Lang, Michaela Jakubkova, Eva Hegedusova, Rachid Daoud, Lise Forget, Brona ... Massive programmed translational jumping in mitochondria. B. Franz Lang, Michaela Jakubkova, Eva Hegedusova, Rachid Daoud, Lise ... Here, we report 81 translational bypassing elements (byps) in mitochondria of the yeast Magnusiomyces capitatus and demonstrate ...
Mitochondria are tiny inclusions in your cell, originally thought to be derived from bacteria. Most cells have several thousand ...
How Mitochondria Produce Energy To produce energy, your mitochondria require oxygen from the air you breathe and fat and ... Exercise Helps Keep Your Mitochondria Young. Exercise also promotes mitochondrial health, as it forces your mitochondria to ... which means your cells are forced to use their mitochondria. Your mitochondria are the only mechanisms by which your body can ... Mitochondria: you might not know what they are, but they are vital to your health. Rhonda Patrick, PhD is a biomedical ...
  • Mitochondria are highly dynamic and structurally complex organelles that provide multiple essential metabolic functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondria are double membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • This book is the eagerly awaited second edition of the best-selling Mitochondria , a book widely acknowledged as the first modern, truly comprehensive authored work on the important, scientifically fundamental topic of the cellular organelles known as mitochondria. (google.com)
  • Although mitochondria are often drawn as oval-shaped organelles, they are constantly dividing (fission) and bonding together (fusion). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mitochondria are self- replicating double-walled organelles in all eukaryotic cells. (everything2.com)
  • Mitochondria, the plural of mitochondrion , are organelles which function as the powerhouse of the cell . (everything2.com)
  • Mitochondria are organelles in each cell outside the nucleus and are the energy source of all cells. (springer.com)
  • Mitochondria are organelles in a cell that convert energy from food (glucose) into a form of energy that can be used by cells called adenosine triphosphate. (ucsd.edu)
  • Prokaryotes - bacteria and archaea - are single-celled microbes without mitochondria nor other organelles aside from ribosomes. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • One remarkable theory, called endosymbiosis, holds that the first eukaryotes engulfed smaller, free-living prokaryotic cells, which then became mitochondria and other organelles inside of more complex cells. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Bio-inorganic chemist Kogularamanan Suntharalingam and his group at King's College, London, UK, explore how mitochondria killing agents can be inserted into the organelles and what damage can be achieved. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondria are very versatile organelles and they are involved in a plethora of cellular functions, such as energy production, regulation of death pathways, calcium buffering. (hupo.org)
  • Meet mitochondria: cellular compartments, or organelles, that are best known as the powerhouses that convert energy from the food we eat into energy that runs a range of biological processes. (livescience.com)
  • As you can see in this close-up of mitochondria from a rat's heart muscle cell, the organelles have an inner membrane that folds in many places (and that appears here as striations). (livescience.com)
  • mitochondrion ), are rod-shaped organelles that are responsible for the lions share of energy metabolism within a cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into Carbon dioxide and water and synthesizing ATP in the process. (conservapedia.com)
  • The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends upon the metabolic requirements of that cell , and may range from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles . (conservapedia.com)
  • Mitochondria are generally oblong organelles , which range in size between 1 and 10 micrometers in length, and occur in numbers that directly correlate with the cell's level of metabolic activity. (conservapedia.com)
  • The organelles are quite flexible, however, and time-lapse studies of living cells have demonstrated that mitochondria change shape rapidly and move about in the cell almost constantly. (conservapedia.com)
  • Mitochondria (singular - mitochondrion) are rod-shaped or kidney-shaped, membrane-enclosed organelles, ranging in size from 1 to 10 micrometers, that are found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. (brighthub.com)
  • All eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and little organelles - and one of the most famous was the mitochondrion. (nhpr.org)
  • Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that function as power plants for the cell, generating energy in the form of ATP from glucose, oxygen, and other molecules. (cshlpress.com)
  • Mitochondria are referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because these small organelles take energy that is ingested in the form of sugars or fats and convert it to fuel for the cell in a process called respiration. (nih.gov)
  • In eukaryotic cells, two organelles, peroxisomes and mitochondria, are the major sites of oxygen utilization. (jove.com)
  • mitochondrion) are organelles , or parts of a eukaryote cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria are small, spherical or cylindrical organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ATP is released from the mitochondrion, and broken down by the other organelles of the cell to power their own functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria: totally real cell organelles that convert sugars, fats and oxygen into usable energy for cells. (livescience.com)
  • Mitochondria are organelles which contain their own DNA. (reference.com)
  • Mitochondria are organelles that are about 1 to 10 micrometers long. (reference.com)
  • Mitochondria are indispensable organelles of eukaryotic cells, takes part in the efficient generation of energy required for the cellular activities. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that exchange a multiplicity of signals with other cell compartments, in order to finely adjust key biological routines to the fluctuating metabolic needs of the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Navdeep Chandel outlines the important role for mitochondrial metabolism in providing the building blocks for cell proliferation and explains how mitochondria contribute to the bioenergetic, biosynthetic and signaling requirements of proliferating cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells with a less active metabolism may have one single large mitochondrion, whereas cells which migrate or contract, such as muscle cells, or those with an active metabolism, such as liver cells, can possess hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria present two key roles on cellular functioning: (i) cell metabolism, being the main cellular source of energy and (ii) modulation of cell death, by mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. (hindawi.com)
  • Although he emphasizes that much more research remains to be done on the role of mitochondria on human behavior, Wallace postulates that the current study indicates that an important reason for our limited progress in understanding the genetic and biologic basis of psychology is our lack of appreciation for the importance of systematic alterations in energetic metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Your mitochondria have enormous potential to influence your health, specifically cancer, and I'm starting to believe that optimizing mitochondrial metabolism may in fact be at the core of effective cancer treatment. (mercola.com)
  • Taking this line of thought, Johan Auwerx's lab at EPFL looked at mitochondria, which are the energy-producing powerhouses of cells, and thus central in metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer cells, which have an increased metabolism, not only contain more mitochondria than healthy cells, but also different ones, structurally and functionally. (eurekalert.org)
  • The distinctive features and their decisive role in cell metabolism have made malignant mitochondria a prominent target for new therapeutic compounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results were impressive: The authors observed a dose-dependent viability loss of up to 100 percent of the cells, mitochondrial membrane disintegration, drug intake into the mitochondria, ROS generation, and impairment of the mitochondrial metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup attracts participants with a wide range of interests. (biophysics.org)
  • The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and apoptosis are hot topics since they combine bioenergetics with mitochondria ability to rapidly respond to changes in cell function and adaption but also disease development. (biophysics.org)
  • In order to join the Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, and Metabolism Subgroup, you must be a member of the Society. (biophysics.org)
  • zinc toxicity alters mitochondrial metabolism and lowers ATP production in liver mitochondria. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • For example, mitochondria in liver cells contain enzymes that allow them to detoxify ammonia , a waste product of protein metabolism. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria contains papers presented at the 1972 symposium on metabolic regulation, held at the University of Nebraska Medical School in Omaha, Nebraska. (elsevier.com)
  • Mitochondria also house key enzyme systems quite distinct from those required for intermediary metabolism-the rate-limiting enzymes in steroid biosynthesis, the synthesis of haem, and even the carbonic anhydrase required for acid secretion in the stomach. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. (nih.gov)
  • Cells recognize the damage and respond to it by recruiting proteins that tell the mitochondria to eliminate the damaged area, but the repair process ends up helping the virus. (ucsd.edu)
  • Mitochondria are the cell's metabolic headquarters, fueling oxidative phosphorylation for adenosine 5′-triphosphate production, and driving reactions to manufacture core metabolites for the biosynthesis of fats, DNA, and proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The primary focus is mitochondria and chloroplasts, from biogenesis to the structure and function of individual proteins and protein complexes. (biophysics.org)
  • Mitochondria import many hundreds of different proteins that are encoded by nuclear genes. (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are targeted to the mitochondria, translocated through the mitochondrial membranes, and sorted to the different mitochondrial subcompartments. (nih.gov)
  • The main goal of this action is to obtain robust information about the integrative role of proteins acting at the mitochondrial level, considering both those encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) and the nuclear encoded proteins (either imported into mitochondria or simply associated to them). (hupo.org)
  • Two specialized membranes encircle each mitochondrion present in a cell, dividing the organelle into a narrow intermembrane space and a much larger internal matrix, each of which contains highly specialized proteins. (conservapedia.com)
  • The study revealed a target in mitochondria, called caseinolytic protease P (ClpP), which, upon activation, breaks down proteins within mitochondria, a process known as mitochondrial proteolysis. (medindia.net)
  • A mitochondrion comprises outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers studded with proteins , much like a typical cell membrane . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thus, mitochondria possess their own genetic material, and the machinery to manufacture their own RNAs and proteins . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The presence of these DNA modifications leads the researchers to believe that a system of gene control similar to what occurs in the nucleus is present in mitochondria, functioning to ensure the correct levels of proteins needed for proper energy generation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondrial disorders may emerge as a result of mutations not only in the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) but also in the nuclear DNA (nDNA) encoding proteins, which forms part of the mitochondrial proteome. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • When mitochondria become damaged, they avoid causing further problems by signaling cellular proteins to degrade them. (phys.org)
  • This transport is regulated with chaperones and regulatory proteins which control the formation of the ER-mitochondria junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria have smooth outer membranes and folded inner membranes with tubular projections called cristae. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • A mitochondrion contains two membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) represent a region of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which is reversibly tethered to mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are involved in import of certain lipids from the ER to mitochondria and in regulation of calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial function, autophagy and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • when the mitochondria does not function well enough the cell becomes very unwell and the organism they live inside becomes cry sick and may even die as a result of the disfunction this may then In mammalian cells, formation of these linkage sites are important for some cellular events including: Mitochondria associated membranes are involved in the transport of calcium from the ER to mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • the ER stress have a key sensor enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), play role in cell death modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochindrial associated membranes associated with Alzheimer's disease have been reported to have an up-regulation of lipids synthesized in the MAMs juxtaposition and an up regulation of protein complexes present in the contact region between the ER and mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria are the 'engine room' of eukaryotic organisms, as they are the main site of cellular respiration. (news-medical.net)
  • Cristae vastly increase the surface area of which cellular respiration can occur in the mitochondrion, making it much more efficient. (news-medical.net)
  • Herein, mitochondrion is approached as the main cellular target of carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper, two main perspectives concerning CO modulation of mitochondrial functioning are evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Ca2+-Induced Transition in Mitochondria: A Cellular Catastrophe? (springer.com)
  • In some way, just about every cellular process is linked to mitochondria,' says Harvard Medical School's Vamsi Mootha. (livescience.com)
  • Research into mitochondria - small structures within a cell that have their own DNA - suggests that they may be a cause of cellular death, according to Newsweek. (slashdot.org)
  • Other functions of the mitochondria include controlling the cell cycle - signaling, differentiation, growth and death - and assisting with cellular aerobic respiration. (brighthub.com)
  • Indeed, even though mitochondria undeniably play a crucial role in aging pathways at the cellular and organismal level, the original hypothesis in which mitochondrial dysfunction and production of free radicals represent the main driving force of cell degeneration has been strongly challenged. (mdpi.com)
  • There are clearly implications for cellular communication, for inflammation, and for several other processes as well, but what I'm taking away from this paper is that for decades we have been missing the fact that normal whole blood apparently has ordinary mitochondria floating around in it. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two recent studies of blood stem cells highlight the importance of cellular components called mitochondria in determining how these cells function. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria carry out cellular respiration-the process that converts energy from food into ATP-the primary form of energy used by cells. (jove.com)
  • In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signalling , cellular differentiation , cell death , as well as the control of the cell division cycle and cell growth . (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the central role that mitochondria play as the cellular powerhouse, their unique membrane composition and structure are critical to facilitate a variety of important biochemical processes within the cell. (biophysics.org)
  • Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants," because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP via the process of oxidative phosphorylation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The primary function of mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mitochondria encompassing crucial cellular functions are fulfilled by protein coding genes encoded by both mtDNA and nDNA. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. (phys.org)
  • Automatic segmentation of mitochondria also called "cellular power plants" from a FIB-SEM image stack. (epfl.ch)
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts differ from other cellular compartments by their endosymbiotic origin, their semiautonomous genetic systems, their role in energy transduction, and their complex biology. (grc.org)
  • All these therapies send vibrations directly to the cellular level activating and energizing the mitochondria. (hippocratesinst.org)
  • A tight ER-mitochondria contact site is integral to the mechanisms controlling cellular apoptosis and to inter-organelle Ca2 + signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological energy conversion in mitochondria is carried out by the membrane protein complexes of the respiratory chain and the mitochondrial ATP synthase in the inner membrane cristae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cristae also divide a mitochondrion into two internal compartments. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria are approximately 7 micrometre s long and consist mainly of a double phospholipid envelope , the inner membrane of which is infolded into projections called cristae . (everything2.com)
  • Mitochondria are surrounded by a double membrane: a smooth outer membrane, and an inner membrane that has many folds called cristae. (jove.com)
  • In typical liver mitochondria, for example, the surface area, including cristae, is about five times that of the outer membrane. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mitochondria of cells that have greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain even more cristae than typical liver mitochondria. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mitochondria are also involved in other tasks, such as signaling between cells and cell death, otherwise known as apoptosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Controlled' is not the word I would use (not in most cases of mammalian apoptosis, anyway), since the originating signal that triggers apoptosis of a given cell usually comes from outside the cell, but yes, mitochondria play a central and quite early role in apoptosis. (bio.net)
  • A small protein called cytochrome c, which is normally part of the respiratory chain, was 'to general stupefaction' (I quote a recent paper) discovered, only a few years ago, to be massively released from mitochondria into the cytosol shortly before apoptosis occurs. (bio.net)
  • Scientists from the UK have now synthesized a copper-containing peptide that is readily taken up by mitochondria in breast cancer stem cells, where it effectively induces apoptosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • If their mitochondria are taken off, cells will die through apoptosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • And the localization to the mitochondria is crucial to the initiation of apoptosis. (redorbit.com)
  • Here, it binds, deubiquitylates, and stabilizes type 3 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R3), modulating calcium (Ca 2+ ) release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol and mitochondria, promoting apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • The copper-containing peptide is readily taken up by mitochondria in breast cancer stem cells and triggers programmed cell death, apoptosis. (chemweb.com)
  • MOMP is the process before apoptosis, which is accompanied to permeability of the inner membrane of the mitochondria (IMM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence supporting this includes the independent reproduction of mitochondria in cells by binary fission, and the presence of mitochondrial DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria are between 1-10μm in length, and often form branched networks within cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Cells with a high demand for energy tend to have greater numbers of mitochondria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Around 40 percent of the cytoplasm in heart muscle cells is taken up by mitochondria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Also, in sperm cells, the mitochondria are spiraled in the midpiece and provide energy for tail motion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Billions of cells working 24 hours a day, all being exploited by the mitochondria factory owners, making you slave and ripping you off, and taking away your rights ! (everything2.com)
  • These cells have between 1 and 10,000 mitochondria, but most cells average around 200. (everything2.com)
  • Some people have theorized that the mitochondria was a primitive independent life form which formed a symbiotic relationship with a host cell, and have been an important part of eukaryotic cells ever since. (everything2.com)
  • Scientists suspect that mitochondria were once small microorganisms about 3.5 billion years ago and were absorbed into mammal cells and became symbiotes . (everything2.com)
  • The investigators found that during the initial phase of the macrophage response, the cells alter the activity of mitochondria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mitochondria are well known as the key energy generators in our cells, but we found that during inflammation they switch from that role to instead making toxic products from oxygen using an enzyme called succinate dehydrogenase, which promotes inflammation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind-body interactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, one of the universal characteristics of cancer cells is they have serious mitochondrial dysfunction with radically decreased numbers of functional mitochondria. (mercola.com)
  • The mitochondria can still function in cancer cells. (mercola.com)
  • But one of the things that occur [in cancer cells] is that they immediately become dependent on glucose and they're not using their mitochondria even though they have mitochondria there. (mercola.com)
  • The hard-to-kill pathogen, which infects an estimated 200 million people worldwide, attacks the liver cells' energy centers - the mitochondria - dismantling the cell's innate ability to fight infection. (ucsd.edu)
  • The virus damages mitochondria in liver cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Mitochondria in hepatitis C-infected cells (bottom row) are self-destructing. (ucsd.edu)
  • Incidentally, I agree vis a vis mitochondria: they are the major (95%) source of intracellular free radicals and therefore one of the major sources of entropic damage within cells. (bio.net)
  • It clearly occurs in somatic cells (you are correct) and yet it clearly has not occurred within the inherited maternal germ cell line of mitochondria for an astounding timespan. (bio.net)
  • Mitochondria, also known as the powerhouse of the cell, combine oxygen with food to generate energy for cells to move, divide and live. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Some cells have only one mitochondria, but most have many. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Eukaryotes - animals, plants, fungi and protists - have cells with mitochondria as well as nuclei with DNA. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • During normal aging and age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's, cells face increasing damage and struggle to protect and replace dysfunctional mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since mitochondria provide energy to brain cells, leaving them unprotected in Alzheimer's disease favors brain damage, giving rise to symptoms like memory loss over the years. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondria are the power factories of the cells and the central "node" of cell death induction. (eurekalert.org)
  • The drug also affected the cancer stem cells more than the normal cell line, which was explained by their higher content of mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nearly all our cells have mitochondria, but cells with higher energy demands have more. (livescience.com)
  • Mitochondria make the iron compound that allows red blood cells to ferry oxygen to the body's tissues. (livescience.com)
  • The cooling process may help stop the death of brain and heart cells initiated by the mitochondria once they are deprived of oxygen. (slashdot.org)
  • Interestingly, remarkable quercetin accumulation is also detected in the mitochondria isolated from quercetin-pre-loaded cells, and exposure to either ONOO− or extracellular oxidants caused the parallel loss of both the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of the flavonoid. (wellnessresources.com)
  • In conclusion, Jurkat cells accumulate large amounts of quercetin and even larger amounts of the flavonoid further accumulate in their mitochondria. (wellnessresources.com)
  • human cells normally contain 3000-5000 mitochondria. (brighthub.com)
  • Findings from the new study were published recently in Oncotarget , in an article entitled " ONC201 Kills Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro by Targeting Mitochondria . (genengnews.com)
  • Mitochondria are the powerhouses inside eukaryotic cells , the type of complicated cell that makes up people, other critters and plants and fungi. (nhpr.org)
  • Mitochondria have their own DNA, and scientists believe they were once free-living bacteria that got engulfed by primitive, ancient cells that were evolving to become the complex life forms we know and love today. (nhpr.org)
  • For decades, researchers have tried to find eukaryotic cells that don't have mitochondria - and for a while they thought they'd found some. (nhpr.org)
  • What they learned is that instead of relying on mitochondria to assemble iron-sulfur clusters, these cells use a different kind of machinery. (nhpr.org)
  • However, the results do not negate the idea that the acquisition of a mitochondrion was an important and perhaps defining event in the evolution of eukaryotic cells, he adds. (nhpr.org)
  • That's because it seems clear that this organism's ancestors had mitochondria that were then lost after the cells acquired their non-mitochondrial system for making iron-sulfur clusters. (nhpr.org)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology discusses the evolution of mitochondria, their functions in cells, and the numerous diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated. (cshlpress.com)
  • Magnesium deficiency led to decreased mitochondria-per-cell count and increased size of individual mitochondrions in liver and kidney cells, which indicates that not only did low magnesium drop the overall number of mitochondria, but also increased the workload of the remaining mitochondria. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Mitochondria are specialized subunits (organelle) within cells. (familytreedna.com)
  • That's a mystery all by itself, because compared to nuclear DNA, mitrochondrial DNA is a much simpler circular species (reflecting its ancient origins from the days when mitochondria were free-living bacteria all their own that took up residence inside early eukaryotic cells). (sciencemag.org)
  • Might mitochondrial damage within long-lived cells be repaired by culturing healthy mitochondria in vitro and infecting the damaged cells with healthy mitochondria? (sciencemag.org)
  • Further analysis of mouse Tie2-containing blood stem cells showed that these cells "turn on" several genes involved in the degradation of mitochondria, which helps cells remain healthy by selectively removing damaged mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria are energy-generating structures found in the cells of complex organisms which possess their own much smaller genome. (newscientist.com)
  • Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells except red blood cells and are present in greater numbers in tissues with high energy requirements, such as muscle and liver. (jove.com)
  • In mammalian cells, the mitochondria also carry out β oxidation, as well as using products from the catabolism of other energy sources, such as glucose, to produce ATP. (jove.com)
  • Novel pharmaceuticals in the form of metallopeptides can be used to target the mitochondria present in cancer cells, according to new research published by researchers from King's College London, UK. (chemweb.com)
  • It is thought that mitochondria were once independent bacteria , and became part of the eukaryotic cells by being engulfed, a process called endosymbiosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The egg cell contains relatively few mitochondria, but it is these mitochondria that survive and divide to populate the cells of the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria is a sequence of DNA which is passed from the mother to all her children (male or female) and exists inside human cells but outside the nucleus of the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • A mitochondrion (plural mitochondria ) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mitochondria are dynamic structures inside eukaryotic cells that provide much of the energy to keep a cell humming along. (yeastgenome.org)
  • When two haploid yeast cells mate, they merge to form a single diploid cell that contains mitochondria from both of its parents. (yeastgenome.org)
  • What Types of Cells Have the Most Mitochondria? (reference.com)
  • Animal cells generally have approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mitochondria. (reference.com)
  • The process by which the mitochondria produce ATP is called aerobic respiration and this process allows cells to produce 15 times more ATP than they would without mitochondria. (reference.com)
  • Mitochondria are present in all cells but the amount of energy they can produce in any given type of cell does vary. (cea.fr)
  • Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria. (phys.org)
  • Mitochondria afford the bioenergetic plasticity that allows tumor cells to adapt and thrive in this ever changing and often unfavorable environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitochondria gained center stage in molecular oncology when Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells can ferment glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen, proposing that a failure in mitochondrial respiration was the cause of this metabolic trait, called aerobic glycolysis, and that this was in turn required for neoplastic growth ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because they found no wild-type SOD1 associated with spinal motor neuron mitochondria, the authors suggest that the selective import of the mutant SOD1 in motor neurons provides a compelling explanation for the specificity of the disease for these cells. (alzforum.org)
  • When mitochondria, highlighted here in cow cells, suffer age-related oxidative damage, they can give rise to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (asbmb.org)
  • About 98% of inhaled oxygen is consumed by mitochondria, and without mitochondria, we would have no need of the oxygen transfer machinery of the lungs, red cells, hemoglobin, or even the circulatory system that delivers oxygen to the tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fluorescence emission intensity from a culture of normal canine kidney epithelial ( MDCK line) cells that were transfected with a pEYFP-Mitochondria plasmid subcellular localization vector. (microscopyu.com)
  • The mitochondrion is the amazing organelle, only 10 microns in size, that is the powerhouse of all the cells of the human body. (hippocratesinst.org)
  • A quadrillion mitochondria inhabit the cells of the human body, producing the huge amount of energy we need in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (hippocratesinst.org)
  • Although most of our DNA is kept in the nucleus of each cell, mitochondria have their own set of DNA. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • fautly Mitochondria DNA can deprive the nucleus of energy and lead to cancer and other diseases. (everything2.com)
  • At the core of bioenergetics are the mitochondria, residing in large numbers outside the nucleus of every cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondria contain their own DNA, which codes for essential energy genes and which exchanges biological signals with the more familiar DNA housed in the cell nucleus. (eurekalert.org)
  • It was considered to be a kind of living fossil because it had a nucleus but didn't seem to have acquired mitochondria. (nhpr.org)
  • The results point to the importance of the mitochondria-nucleus interactions and may inform our understanding of human mitochondrial disorders, about half of which are caused by mitochondrial mutations in tRNA genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • The paper's figure 5 has a possible mechanism, whereby a bacterial species and an archaeaon fused together in the distant past, with the former eventually becoming the mitochondrion inside a larger eukaryotic cell and the latter becoming a primitive nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • But the idea it has complete control is questioned by a new study suggesting mitochondria may be able to influence the nucleus. (newscientist.com)
  • Most of a cell's DNA is in the cell nucleus , but the mitochondrion has its own independent genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • One set exists in the nucleus while the other exists in the mitochondrion, the energy generator of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • If so, drugs known to impact gene expression in the nucleus may be useful in reversing damage caused by improper gene expression in mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • In many cases, mitochondria are concentrated near the nucleus, leading to an increase in fluorescence emission from this region. (microscopyu.com)
  • Mitochondria are split into different compartments or regions, each of which carries out distinct roles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Together, the various compartments of a mitochondrion are able to work in harmony to generate ATP in a complex multi-step process. (conservapedia.com)
  • Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of mitochondria a cell possesses depends on its metabolic demands. (news-medical.net)
  • The ATP molecules produced by mitochondria are used as the energy supply for the various cell metabolic processes. (reference.com)
  • Here we analyse how mitochondria orchestrate the profound metabolic rewiring required for neoplastic growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitochondria are metabolic hubs that harbor enzymes responsible for several biochemical circuitries, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), fatty acid oxidation (FAO), biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides and maintenance of homeostatic levels of Ca 2+ and of reducing equivalent carriers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike Warburg's proposal, tumor cell mitochondria not only retain their functionality, but are also instrumental for integrating a variety of signals and adjusting the metabolic activity of the cell to such a demanding and stressful situation ( 4 ) (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This fragmentation (fission) results in the formation of one healthy mitochondrion and one damaged or bad mitochondrion, the latter of which is quickly broken down (catabolized) and dissolved in the cell's cytoplasm. (ucsd.edu)
  • In a series of biochemical experiments, the researchers also found that Reaper must travel to the mitochondria, the cell's energy factories, to effectively deliver its death sentence, and that to get there, it must hitch a ride on the Hid protein, with which it interacts. (redorbit.com)
  • Mitochondria have been described as "the powerhouses of the cell" because they generate most of a cell's supply of chemical energy. (nhpr.org)
  • Usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria, which can occupy up to 25 percent of the cell's cytoplasm . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Mitochondria are organelle s found in nearly all eukaryotic cell s. (everything2.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is an active participant in the division of another organelle, the mitochondrion. (sciencemag.org)
  • The elaborate structure of a mitochondrion is very important to the functioning of the organelle . (conservapedia.com)
  • So even if a microbe powers itself in a different way and has a limited form of the organelle that isn't the same as the mitochondria found in people, Karnkowska says, "it's still a mitochondrion and it has some important function for the cell. (nhpr.org)
  • The mitochondrion is a double membrane bound organelle. (jove.com)
  • Mitochondria contain their own DNA, encoding genes necessary for the organelle to do its work. (yeastgenome.org)
  • DJ-1 can localize to mitochondria under some circumstances, and a fraction of parkin is also found in this organelle. (alzforum.org)
  • The 2020 Gordon Research Conference on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will bring together established scientists and young researchers to present and discuss emerging aspects of organelle biology. (grc.org)
  • Then, oxidative phosphorylation through the electron transport chain occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, resulting in the production of a significant amount of ATP. (jove.com)
  • In addition to their role as energy generators, mitochondria play critical and active roles in diverse signalling pathways, from immunity to cell survival and cell fate decisions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eventually, the organisms merged into one, forming a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria also have other roles within cell homeostasis, which are the conditions at which optimum function of a cell is achieved. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Present in nearly all types of human cell, mitochondria are vital to our survival. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Different cell types have different numbers of mitochondria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mitochondria convert chemical energy from the food we eat into an energy form that the cell can use. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is a song about the fucking mitochondria, the so-called factory of the cell, damn right it's a factory. (everything2.com)
  • The typical liver cell has over 1,000 mitochondria. (everything2.com)
  • There are usually several mitochondria in each cell , depending on how much energy the cell requires. (everything2.com)
  • Mitochondria are tiny inclusions in your cell, originally thought to be derived from bacteria. (mercola.com)
  • Although the fragmentation serves to excise the damaged area from the mitochondrion, the formation of a healthy mitochondrion also helps keep the virus-infected cell alive. (ucsd.edu)
  • Anything that improves our homeostatic defences should extend lifespan, but these effects (whether Coenzyme Q, DHEA, more efficient SOD, or vitamin E) can scarcely be expected to result in the biological 'immortality' already inherant in germ cell line mitochondria. (bio.net)
  • Mitochondria (red) from the heart muscle cell of a rat. (livescience.com)
  • Mitochondria are critical to cell survival in a variety of ways. (livescience.com)
  • Consequently, mitochondria may be organized into lengthy traveling chains, packed tightly into relatively stable groups, or appear in many other formations based upon the particular needs of the cell and the characteristics of its microtubular network. (conservapedia.com)
  • Eventually, according to this view, the larger organism developed into the eukaryotic cell and the smaller organism into the mitochondrion. (conservapedia.com)
  • It is for this reason that the mitochondria are called the power plants of the cell. (brighthub.com)
  • These mitochondria, in red, are from the heart muscle cell of a rat. (nhpr.org)
  • Scientists have found a microbe that does something textbooks say is impossible: It's a complex cell that survives without mitochondria. (nhpr.org)
  • It turned out that all of them actually had some kind of remnant mitochondrion," says Karnkowska, who notes that mitochondria perform key jobs in the cell beyond just generating power. (nhpr.org)
  • New working hypothesis will be also presented in which mitochondria are considered at the center of a complex web of cell dysfunctions that eventually leads to cell senescence and death. (mdpi.com)
  • Confocal microscopy indicated that EGFR and CoxII colocalized in mitochondria and EGFR and CoxII coimmunoprecipitated from a mitochondrial fraction of a breast cancer cell line that overexpresses EGFR and c-Src (MDA-MB-231). (sciencemag.org)
  • In humans, mitochondria are responsible for cell respiration and for producing energy. (familytreedna.com)
  • This ties in well with the realization in recent years that mitochondria are in fact be transferred from cell to cell under normal conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • To me (not working in the field) it seems as if free-floating mitochondria would be expected whenever you have cell lysis happening. (sciencemag.org)
  • It's very important to investigate the exact role of mitochondria and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in all cell types responsible for diabetic wound healing. (news-medical.net)
  • [2] This means mitochondria are known as "the powerhouse of the cell" [3] . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 100-150 mitochondria in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In single-celled eukaryotes, division of mitochondria is linked to cell division . (wikipedia.org)
  • This division must be controlled so that each daughter cell receives at least one mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other eukaryotes (in humans for example), mitochondria may replicate their DNA and divide in response to the energy needs of the cell, rather than in phase with the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mitochondrial DNA is physically separate from nuclear DNA, it turns out that the two need to work together if the cell is to make functioning mitochondria. (yeastgenome.org)
  • But other pairing combinations were inauspicious, giving sickly or dead mitochondria that can harm the cell, especially when it is growing under stressful conditions. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Why Is the Mitochondria Called the Powerhouse of the Cell? (reference.com)
  • The usage of MitoModel has proved the efficiency of the approach to understand the behaviour of the mitochondria from the RNA-seq data in HCT116 5/4, RPE1 5/3 12/3 and RPE1H2B 21/3 aneuploidy cell lines generated by collaborators. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. (phys.org)
  • These bioenergetic, biosynthetic and signaling functions render mitochondria capable of rapidly sensing and integrating stress signals, in order to coordinate biochemical pathways required for the appropriate responses of the cell to environmental changes ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Incidentally, the same issue of Science magazine also carries a report on a mitochondrial enzyme that interacts specifically with Aβ, supporting the widely held assumption that an inability of mitochondria to handle cell stress may be a general but important factor that interacts with disease-specific molecules to cause Parkinson's in one person and AD in another. (alzforum.org)
  • Among the potential damage that the authors point to, they emphasize the fact that mitochondria are 'the gatekeepers of caspase-directed cell death. (alzforum.org)
  • Mitochondria play a central role in cell life and cell death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mitochondrion lies at the heart of cell life and cell death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By accumulating calcium when cytosolic calcium levels are high, mitochondria play subtle roles in coordinating the complexities of intracellular calcium-signaling pathways, as least in some cell types, in which their contribution may be extremely important in the finer aspects of cell regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Killing mitochondria could be accomplished, for example, by introducing agents to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). (eurekalert.org)
  • It proves that reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria play an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic wounds. (news-medical.net)
  • Mitochondria also produce other molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). (cea.fr)
  • In fact, only about 3 percent of the genes needed to make a mitochondrion go into its energy production equipment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes, these mitochondria exchange pieces of DNA, mixing-and-matching genes in a process known as mitochondrial recombination . (yeastgenome.org)
  • In this thesis, an overall model termed as mitochondrial model (MitoModel) is developed, which at present includes 17 mitochondria specific processes with 659 genes further grouped into functional clusters. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The resulting product-acetyl-CoA-is released into the cytosol and can travel to the mitochondria, where it is used to produce ATP. (jove.com)
  • Transfer of calcium from ER to mitochondria depends on high concentration of calcium macrodomes in the intermembrane space, and mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) accumulates of calcium into the mitochondrial matrix for electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in that seminal first edition, the second edition tackles the biochemistry, genetics, and pathology of mitochondria in different organisms. (google.com)
  • Mitochondria are wonderful, yet most organisms do not have any at all. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • These defense and recycle pathways of the mitochondria are essential in organisms, from the worm C. elegans all the way to humans," says Vincenzo Sorrentino, first author of the paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scope of Mitochondrion is broad, reporting on basic science of mitochondria from all organisms and from basic research to pathology and clinical aspects of mitochondrial diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • Mitochondria have their own DNA , and, according to the generally accepted endosymbiotic theory , they were originally derived from external organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Consider then how much of the physiology of higher organisms is dictated by the demand of our mitochondria for a supply of oxygen. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • And yet without the supply of energy provided by mitochondria as ATP, the evolution of higher organisms would not have been possible. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitophagy is a selective form of macro-autophagy in which mitochondria are selectively targeted for degradation in autophagolysosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of PINK1, Parkin, and DJ-1 in the degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy) is discussed also. (hindawi.com)
  • Second, mitophagy, a process that recycles defective mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Specifically, the researchers discovered that the virus stimulates the production of a protein (Drp 1) that induces viral-damaged mitochondria to undergo asymmetric fragmentation. (ucsd.edu)
  • Using worms and mice as models, they discovered that boosting mitochondria defenses against a particular form of protein stress, enables them to not only protect themselves, but to also reduce the formation of amyloid plaques. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists identified two mechanisms that control the quality of mitochondria: First, the "mitochondrial unfolded protein response" (UPRmt), which protects mitochondria from stress stimuli. (eurekalert.org)
  • The outer membrane of a mitochondrion contains many channels formed by the protein porin and acts like a sieve, filtering out molecules that are too big. (conservapedia.com)
  • The matrix contains about 2/3rd of the total mitochondrion protein. (brighthub.com)
  • In the first paper, Don Cleveland of the University of California, San Diego, and colleagues at several other institutions, showed that mutant SOD1 protein, but not wild-type SOD1, finds a home in the mitochondria of spinal cord neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • It is now a well established fact that mitochondria did evolve from free living bacteria being the common ancestor of both, eukaryotic mitochondria and α-proteobacteria. (springer.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is then converted to water by glutathione peroxidase, the most abundant peroxidase in the cytosol and mitochondria. (jci.org)
  • What Is the Function and Structure of Mitochondria? (brighthub.com)
  • Transport of phosphatidylserine into mitochondria from the ER for decarboxylation to phosphatidylethanolamine through the ER-mitochondria lipid which transform phosphatidic acid (PA) into phosphatidylserine (PS) by phosphatidylserine synthases 1 and 2 (PSS1, PSS2) in the ER and then transfers PS to mitochondria, where phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) transform into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chapters contributed by leading mitochondrial researchers in the handbook will take us through the novel pharmacological strategies via mitochondria to understand their physiological and pathological role as well as present them as therapeutic targets. (springer.com)
  • Although the best-known role of mitochondria is energy production, they carry out other important tasks as well. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Wallace, who has investigated the genetics of mitochondria and their role in health for over 40 years, has long argued that a traditional biomedical approach focused on anatomy and thus, on the organ exhibiting the most prominent symptoms of a disease, overlooks the key role played by systematic bioenergetics in health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we discuss the caveats of the traditional mitochondrial free radical theory of aging and highlight other possible mechanisms, including insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) and the target of rapamycin pathways, that underlie the central role of mitochondria in the aging process. (jci.org)
  • In particular, we discuss the role of mitochondria in regulating the innate immune system, the mechanisms linking mitochondrial quality control to age-dependent pathology, and the possibility that mitochondrial-to-nuclear signaling might regulate the rate of aging. (jci.org)
  • Gerry Shadel studies the role of mitochondria in human disease and aging. (thesciencenetwork.org)
  • Together, these results reveal an unrecognized possible role of neuronal mitochondria in the regulation of microglial activation, and propose neuronal Mfn2 as a likely mechanistic linker between neuronal mitochondria dysfunction and neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cytochrome c is a small enzyme that plays an important role in the production of energy by mitochondria. (phys.org)
  • Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders and cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. (phys.org)
  • These findings add significantly to a growing body of literature on the role of mitochondria in Parkinson's. (alzforum.org)
  • Substantial evidence now suggests that the accumulation of calcium into mitochondria may play a key role as a trigger to mitochondrial pathology, especially when that calcium uptake is accompanied by another stressor, in particular nitrosative or oxidative stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A single mitochondrion can contain 2-10 copies of its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most ATP is produced in mitochondria through a series of reactions, known as the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The end product of beta oxidation is acetyl-CoA, which can enter mitochondria along with pyruvate from carbohydrates to generate ATP via the citric acid cycle in oxidative phosphorylation. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, about the same amount of mutant SOD1 localized to the mitochondria irrespective of the protein's concentration in the cytoplasm of motor neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • S. Papa, M. Lorusso, D. Boffoli and E. Bellomo, Redox-linked proton translocation in the b-c1 complex from beef-heart mitochondria reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. (springer.com)
  • However, there is some evidence that animal mitochondria can undergo recombination . (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with the decrease in muscle mitochondria in the muscle-R1KO mice, adiponectin caused an increase in mitochondrial DNA in C2C12 myocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • If you want to improve your exercise performance by increasing the effectiveness of your muscle mitochondria, this post is for you. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Slow twitch muscle fibers, the ones employed in endurance training, contain the most mitochondria, so it's natural that training that targets slow twitch fibers will also target more muscle mitochondria . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Neuronal mitochondria dysfunction and neuroinflammation are two prominent pathological features increasingly realized as important pathogenic mechanisms for neurodegenerative diseases. (jneurosci.org)
  • To explore the significance of neuronal mitochondria in the regulation of neuroinflammation, male and female transgenic mice with forced overexpression of Mfn2 specifically in neurons were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a widely used approach to model neurodegeneration-associated neuroinflammation. (jneurosci.org)
  • An international team 1 including MIRCen showed that within the energy-voracious brain (close to 20% of total glucose consumption in humans), neuronal mitochondria produce more ATP than astrocytic mitochondria, but inversely, astrocytic mitochondria produce much more ROS than neuronal mitochondria 2 . (cea.fr)
  • Killing malignant mitochondria is one of the most promising approaches in the development of new anticancer drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • K + efflux-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation by small molecules targeting mitochondria. (nature.com)
  • By targeting mitochondria, NR and other molecules that stimulate their 'defense and recycle' systems could perhaps succeed where so many drugs, most of which aim to decrease amyloid plaque formation, have failed," says Vincenzo Sorrentino. (medindia.net)
  • These life-and-death roles are just a few examples of the many parts mitochondria play. (livescience.com)
  • In putting together your workforce, there are plenty of factors to consider, including micronutrient status, supplementation, and exercise, all of which play huge roles in the health of your mitochondria. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Quite apart from the provision of ATP, mitochondria play important roles in aspects of normal physiology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondria are intracellular stores of calcium, which is an important signalling molecule. (news-medical.net)
  • In a second model, of calcium overload in neurons, the neurotoxicity of glutamate depends on mitochondrial calcium uptake, but the toxicity to mitochondria also requires the generation of nitric oxide. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This interaction is important for rapid uptake of calcium by mitochondria through Voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs), which are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each session of the GRC on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will be introduced by an expert Discussion Leader who will provide a general overview to integrate the research communities and stimulate conceptual discussions. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Maybe it is the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the subgroup's annual Young Investigator Award recognizes excellence in the field of bioenergetics and mitochondria by investigators at different stages of their careers. (biophysics.org)
  • The scientists, including Nicola O'Reilly's peptide chemistry group at The Francis Crick Institute, prepared the deadly parcel made of a copper-containing metallopeptide by covalently linking the phenanthroline copper(II) complex to an established mitochondria-penetrating peptide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health are discovering there's more to mitochondria than meets the eye, especially when it comes to understanding and treating disease. (livescience.com)
  • Indeed, the scientists found that, in mitochondria from both mutant SOD1 mice and human spinal cord, but not from liver, SOD1-containing aggregates trap significant amounts of Bcl-2. (alzforum.org)
  • G. Von Jagow, W. D. Engel and H. Schägger, On the mechanism of proton translocation linked to electron transfer at energy conversion site 2, in: "Vectorial Reactions in Electron and Ion Transport in Mitochondria and Bacteria", F. Palmieri, E. Quagliariello, N. Siliprandi, E. C. Slater, eds. (springer.com)
  • Richmond, Va. (June 20, 2011) - Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center have revealed novel mechanisms in mitochondria that have implications for cancer as well as many other age-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease, heart disease and hypertension. (eurekalert.org)
  • Permeability transition pore (PTP) opening induces mitochondrial swelling and outer membrane of the mitochondria (OMM) rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miranda Robertson explains how the changing perception of the structure and function of mitochondria is reflected in the inaugural reviews published in BMC Biology for the series on mitochondria, and will inform future contributions to the series. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main function of mitochondria is to produce energy through aerobic respiration. (news-medical.net)
  • In order for your organs to function properly, they require energy, and that energy is produced by the mitochondria. (mercola.com)
  • Since mitochondrial function is at the very heart of everything that occurs in your body, optimizing mitochondrial function - and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction by making sure you get all the right nutrients and precursors your mitochondria need - is extremely important for health and disease prevention. (mercola.com)
  • A couple weeks ago, I wrote about how becoming an efficient fat-burner helps mitochondrial function , and last week I went over some of the nutrients and supplements most important for your mitochondria . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Our research indicates that errors in gene expression could be unfolding in mitochondria, possibly contributing to loss of mitochondrial function typical of cancer and a host of other age-related diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Like the wand-wizard pairing in Harry Potter's world, the combination of a specific mitochondrial genome (the wand) with a particular nuclear genome (the wizard) is important for making a healthy mitochondrion. (yeastgenome.org)
  • But, there is more to mitochondria than energy production. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The increased ability to produce energy that mitochondria provide is probably one of the reasons for us eukaryotes being up here and prokaryotes never getting round to discovering fire , inventing the wheel , forming civilisation , that sort of thing. (everything2.com)
  • To produce energy, your mitochondria require oxygen from the air you breathe and fat and glucose from the food you eat. (mercola.com)
  • That's what the mitochondria use to generate energy in the form of ATP. (mercola.com)
  • Mitochondria started out being described as the generators of energy-rich ATP molecules,' says NIH's Vernon Anderson. (livescience.com)
  • In the fertilization process, the sperm is propelled towards the egg with energy it gets from the mitochondrion in its tail. (brighthub.com)
  • In last week's mitochondria post , I explained how burning fat for energy was the foundation for keeping your mitochondria plentiful, happy, and robust. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Yeah, if you want mitochondria to do one of their most basic jobs - break down fatty acids for energy - you better consume ample amounts of meat, or supplement with L-carnitine. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The liver processes both fats and sugars and healthy liver mitochondria are crucial for that important task. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Now, exercise may not be sufficient to keep your mitochondria happy and healthy, but it's a vital piece of the whole picture. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Gerner and his fellow researchers plan to continue this research by performing their proteomic analysis on blood samples taken from greater numbers of healthy elderly people and B-CLL patients to ultimatelybe able to test when mitochondria have become predisposed for the disease. (asbmb.org)