Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.
Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.

Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (1/26295)

Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis [1]. Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators [2] [3]. The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism [4] [5] [6] [7]. Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1 [8] [9]) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (2/26295)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (3/26295)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (4/26295)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (5/26295)

Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay.  (+info)

Mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release during apoptosis in PC6 cells. (6/26295)

Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria into the cytosol in cells undergoing apoptosis. The temporal relationship between cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored by laser-scanning confocal microscopy in single living pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Mitochondrial membrane potential monitored by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester decreased abruptly in individual cells from 2 to 7 h after treatment with staurosporine. Depolarization was accompanied by cytochrome c release documented by release of transfected green fluorescent protein-tagged cytochrome c in these cells. The results show that mitochondrial depolarization accompanies cytochrome c release in pheochromocytoma-6 cells undergoing apoptosis.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (7/26295)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (8/26295)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.

Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. Muscle weakness and wasting
2. Seizures
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction

Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

There are several types of mitochondrial myopathies, each with different clinical features and inheritance patterns. Some of the most common forms include:

1. Kearns-Sayre syndrome: This is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system, muscles, and other organs. It is characterized by weakness and paralysis, seizures, and vision loss.
2. MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes): This condition is characterized by recurring stroke-like episodes, seizures, muscle weakness, and cognitive decline.
3. MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers): This disorder is characterized by myoclonus (muscle jerks), seizures, and progressive muscle weakness.
4. LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy): This condition affects the optic nerve and can lead to sudden vision loss.

The symptoms of mitochondrial myopathies can vary widely, depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the mutation. They may include muscle weakness, muscle cramps, muscle wasting, seizures, vision loss, and cognitive decline.

There is no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include physical therapy, medications to control seizures or muscle spasms, and nutritional supplements to support energy production. In some cases, a lung or heart-lung transplant may be necessary.

The diagnosis of a mitochondrial myopathy is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to measure the levels of certain enzymes and other molecules in the body, as well as muscle biopsy to examine the muscle tissue under a microscope. Genetic testing can help identify the specific mutation responsible for the condition.

The prognosis for mitochondrial myopathies varies depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the symptoms. Some forms of the disease are slowly progressive, while others may be more rapidly debilitating. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome.

There is currently no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but research is ongoing to develop new treatments and therapies. In addition, there are several organizations and support groups that provide information and resources for individuals with these conditions and their families.

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

Some common examples of neurodegenerative diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive loss of cognitive function, memory, and thinking skills that is the most common form of dementia.
2. Parkinson's disease: A disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination, causing tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited condition that causes progressive loss of cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
5. Prion diseases: A group of rare and fatal disorders caused by misfolded proteins in the brain, leading to neurodegeneration and death.
6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder caused by an abnormal form of a protein called a prion.
7. Frontotemporal dementia: A group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.

Neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, lifestyle, and environmental factors. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases vary depending on the specific condition and its underlying causes, but may include medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

Preventing or slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is a major focus of current research, with various potential therapeutic strategies being explored, such as:

1. Stem cell therapies: Using stem cells to replace damaged neurons and restore brain function.
2. Gene therapies: Replacing or editing genes that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases.
3. Small molecule therapies: Developing small molecules that can slow or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
4. Immunotherapies: Harnessing the immune system to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
5. Lifestyle interventions: Promoting healthy lifestyle choices, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet, to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.

In conclusion, neurodegenerative diseases are a complex and diverse group of disorders that can have a profound impact on individuals and society. While there is currently no cure for these conditions, research is providing new insights into their causes and potential treatments. By continuing to invest in research and developing innovative therapeutic strategies, we can work towards improving the lives of those affected by neurodegenerative diseases and ultimately finding a cure.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

"Mitochondria" is Kenichi Suzumura's third single, released on February 4, 2009. It came with a disc with the PV of the title ... track "Mitochondria", and peaked at #20 on the Oricon charts. All lyrics are written by Kenichi Suzumura. v t e (Articles ...
Maybe it is the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. But the ER- mitochondria contact site ... Mitochondria associated membranes are involved in the transport of calcium from the ER to mitochondria. This interaction is ... The wild-type gene that codes for α-Syn promotes the physical junction between ER and mitochondria by binding to the lipid raft ... Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) represent a region of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which is reversibly tethered to ...
... is the movement of whole mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA between cells. Mitochondria ... Healthy mitochondria from hMSCs moved to recipient lung carcinoma cells with nonfunctional mitochondria and repaired their ... Transfer of intact mitochondria can contribute to tissue repair in vivo. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) injected into ... Intercellular transfer of mitochondria in culture has been documented from MSCs and endothelial cells to breast cancer cell ...
Mitochondria Atlas at University of Mainz Mitochondria Research Portal at Mitochondria: Architecture dictates ... mitochondria) is an organelle found in the cells of most Eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi. Mitochondria have a ... However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP. A dominant role for the mitochondria ... The term mitochondrion was coined by Carl Benda in 1898. The mitochondrion is popularly nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell ...
The proto-mitochondrion is the hypothetical ancestral bacterial endosymbiont from which all mitochondria in eukaryotes are ... The phylogenetic analyses of the few genes that are still encoded in the genomes of modern mitochondria suggest an ... Martijn et al found mitochondria are a possible sister-group to all other alphaproteobacteria. The phylogenetic tree of the ... Although the order Rickettsiales has been proposed as the alphaproteobacterial sister-group of mitochondria, there is no ...
Mitochondrion is a Canadian black-death metal band from Victoria, British Columbia, formed in 2003. The band has undergone some ... According to music critics, "What makes Mitochondrion stand out is their ability to bring order to chaos. [...] It is a trait ... "5 Questions With Mitochondrion". Retrieved 3 April 2012. Norton, Justin M. (31 January 2011). "Parasignosis review ... With this line-up Mitochondrion has recorded two full-length studio albums, the self-released Archaeaeon (2008) and ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3". Retrieved 2017-10-24. Xie Q, Lin T, Zhang Y, Zheng J, ... pylori-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells mediated via the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria ...
"Mitochondria". Retrieved 2016-05-03. "Developmental Processes, Malformations and Diseases". medicine. ... Epigenetics and Common Human Diseases The Tumor and its Microenvironment Mitochondria Developmental Processes, Malformations ...
ISBN 0-87969-628-1. Schon, Eric A.; Pon, Liza A. (2001). Mitochondria. Methods in Cell Biology. Vol. 65. Boston: Academic Press ...
Unlike the IMS of the mitochondria, the IMS of the chloroplast does not seem to have any obvious function. Mitochondria are ... The IMS of mitochondria plays a crucial role in coordinating a variety of cellular activities, such as regulation of ... Unlike the IMS of the mitochondria, the IMS of the chloroplast does not seem to have any obvious function. The translocase of ... This electrochemical gradient from the IMS to the matrix is used to drive the synthesis of ATP in the mitochondria. Releasing ...
As the mitochondria pass through the narrow valve of the French press, they experience extremely high pressures around 2000 psi ... Once the mitochondria are isolated, mitoplasts can then be formed. Mitoplasts are most commonly formed using an apparatus ... A mitoplast is a mitochondrion that has been stripped of its outer membrane leaving the inner membrane and matrix intact. To ... The scientific understanding of mitochondria has grown tremendously since the 1930s due to development of the electron ...
... the cell's mitochondria. In minority MOMP, only a few mitochondria of the cell experience MOMP-the result of sublethal stress. ...
Because of its antioxidant role, GSS mostly produce GSH inside the cytoplasm of liver cells and imported to mitochondria where ... Ribas V, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC (Jul 2014). "Glutathione and mitochondria". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 5: 151. doi: ...
Mitochondria function as a dynamic network constantly undergoing fusion and fission. The balance between fusion and fission is ... In particular, it is not clear if MFN2 is linked to AD through its effects on mitochondria or by affecting other pathways. In ... Celsi F, Pizzo P, Brini M, Leo S, Fotino C, Pinton P, Rizzuto R (May 2009). "Mitochondria, calcium and cell death: a deadly ... MFN2 has also been suggested to be a key regulator of ER-mitochondria contiguity, though its exact function in this inter- ...
Mitochondria play a pivotal role in eukaryotic respiration. Because of maternal inheritance, mtDNA has no selection in males. ... "Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging." Current Biology 22.18 (2012): 1717-1721. Dowling, Damian K., A. Larkeson ... "Mitochondria-related male infertility." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.41 (2006): 15148-15153. Labuda, ...
For typical liver mitochondria, the area of the inner membrane is about 5 times as large as the outer membrane due to cristae. ... In pig heart mitochondria, phosphatidylethanolamine makes up the majority of the inner mitochondrial membrane at 37.0% of the ... This ratio is variable and mitochondria from cells that have a greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain even more ... Krauss, Stefan (2001). "Mitochondria: Structure and Role in Respiration" (PDF). Nature Publishing Group. Archived from the ...
Therefore, It needs a lot of energy to function and contains abundant mitochondria. Any abnormalities in mitochondria would ... Mitochondria, also known as the powerhouse of a cell, is enclosed in a double membrane. As the inner mitochondrial membrane is ... Mitochondria is responsible for oxidation using NAD+, which is produced in Step 4 of the citrate-malate shuttle system. In high ... Moreover, overloading of mitochondria may occur. There is an increase in reactive oxygen species level in the liver. Those ...
The descent of mitochondria from bacteria and of chloroplasts from cyanobacteria was experimentally demonstrated in 1978 by ... Still a junior faculty member at Boston University at the time, her theory that cell organelles such as mitochondria and ... Gillham, Nicholas W. (14 January 2014). "Chloroplasts and Mitochondria". In Reeve, Eric C.R. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Genetics. ... Schwartz, R.; Dayhoff, M. (1978). "Origins of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts". Science. 199 (4327): ...
Scheffler IE (2008). Mitochondria (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Liss. ISBN 978-0-470-04073-7. Choe SS, Huh JY, Hwang IJ, Kim ... Long chain fatty acids (more than 14 carbon) need to be converted to fatty acyl-CoA in order to pass across the mitochondria ... The resulting acyl-CoA cross the mitochondria membrane and enter the process of beta oxidation. The main products of the beta ... However, the main steps of fatty acids catabolism occur in the mitochondria. ...
"Professor Doug Turnbull: Personal Biography". Newcastle upon Tyne. Archived from the original on ...
While not all eukaryotes have mitochondria or chloroplasts, mitochondria are found in most eukaryotes, and chloroplasts are ... "Origin of Mitochondria". Nature. Retrieved 2015-11-23. "Endosymbiosis and The Origin of Eukaryotes". Retrieved ... It is likely that modern mitochondria were once a species similar to Rickettsia, with the parasitic ability to enter a cell. ... Prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria or a nucleus. Instead, most prokaryotes have an irregular ...
"Professor Doug Turnbull: Personal Biography". Newcastle upon Tyne. Archived from the original on 31 ...
Gray, Michael W.; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud (2004-12-01). "Mitochondria of Protists". Annual Review of Genetics. 38 (1 ...
She also studied metabolism within cancer cells and found aerobic respiration within mitochondria in cancer cells, which ... "Tea and Mitochondria". 2016-04-27. "List of Emeritus Professors". "Newshub - NUS' News Portal". Mok, J.S.L.; Hutchinson, J.S. ( ...
Reiter RJ, Rosales-Corral S, Tan DX, Jou MJ, Galano A, Xu B (November 2017). "Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant ... It has been hypothesized that melatonin is made in the mitochondria and chloroplasts. In order to hydroxylate L-tryptophan, the ... Tan DX, Manchester LC, Liu X, Rosales-Corral SA, Acuna-Castroviejo D, Reiter RJ (March 2013). "Mitochondria and chloroplasts as ... melatonin is specifically targeted to the mitochondria where it seems to function as an apex antioxidant ... The measurement of ...
Mayo JC, Sainz RM, González-Menéndez P, Hevia D, Cernuda-Cernuda R (November 2017). "Melatonin transport into mitochondria". ...
In the UPRmt, the mitochondrion will either upregulate chaperone proteins or invoke proteases to degrade proteins that fail to ... The UPRmt results from unfolded or misfolded proteins in mitochondria beyond the capacity of chaperone proteins to handle them ... In organelles like the ER and mitochondria, the responses is slightly more complex. Both UPR mechanisms are conceptually ... The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a cellular stress response related to the mitochondria. ...
In addition, some protists lacking mitochondria were discovered. As mitochondria were known to be the result of the ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (1987). "Eukaryotes with no mitochondria". Nature. 326 (6111): 332-333. Bibcode:1987Natur.326..332C. doi ...
... meaning that their ancestors once possessed mitochondria but that these mitochondria had, over time, been lost or reduced. In ... As a result, it could not be said that there are any eukaryotes lacking mitochondria which had emerged from an earlier part of ... Clark, C.G.; Roger, A.J. (1995). "Direct evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria in Entamoeba histolytica". Proc. Natl. ... This indicated that the ancestors of these organisms once possessed mitochondria which expressed these proteins, but that these ...
Martin, William F.; Mentel, Marek (2010). "The Origin of Mitochondria". Nature Education. 3 (9): 58. Mehta, Angad P.; Supekova ... In order to probe details of the traditionally accepted hypothesis that mitochondria originated when independent bacteria ... as has happened with mitochondria over time. He is a founder of Affymax Research Institute, Symyx Technologies, Syrrx, Kalypsys ... "Engineering yeast endosymbionts as a step toward the evolution of mitochondria". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
HD Biosciences, Luxcel Ink Marketing Deal for Mitochondria Assays Mar 01, 2017 , staff reporter ... "Luxcels growing portfolio of proprietary mitochondria toxicity, bioenergetics, and metabolism assays is highly complementary ... mitochondria assays and technologies for preclinical drug safety testing, the companies announced today. ...
Yenkin, A.L., Bramley, J.C., Kremitzki, C.L. et al. Pooled image-base screening of mitochondria with microraft isolation ... a Confocal images of mutant cells at two magnifications (blue = nuclear staining by Hoechst, green = mitochondria staining by ... Pooled image-base screening of mitochondria with microraft isolation distinguishes pathogenic mitofusin 2 mutations. *Alex L. ... The following vital dyes were used; DNA labeling/nuclei (Hoechst, Thermo Fisher H3570), mitochondria (MitoTracker Deep Red, ...
All the latest science news about mitochondria from ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a ... The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, ... Unraveling the protein map of the cells mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy supply of the organism and ... New method for delivering an antioxidant directly to mitochondria in the liver, mitigating oxidative stress. Mitochondria are ...
mitochondria from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around the world ... Collapse of Mitochondria-Associated Membrane in ALS. Researchers report a collapse of the mitochondria-associated membrane is a ... A new study could be the first step to developing drugs that targets carbonic anhydrase in mitochondria to help protect against ... Researchers have identified how the circadian clock helps prime mitochondria to correctly use stored energy when we are not ...
However, the functions of nuclear genome-derived circRNAs localized in mitochondria of tumor cells remain largely elusive. Here ... However, the functions of nuclear genome-derived circRNAs localized in mitochondria of tumor cells remain largely elusive. Here ... Nuclear genome-derived circular RNA circPUM1 localizes in mitochondria and regulates oxidative phosphorylation in esophageal ... localizes in mitochondria. The expression level of circPUM1 is positively correlated with HIF1α accumulation under CoCl2- ...
Next Generation Treatments for Autism: From Mitochondria to Music - Dr Suzanne Goh Posted by admin On June 5, 2016, 1:50 pm ...
The Cellular Control of Mitochondria. Home / Naturopathic News / The Cellular Control of Mitochondria ... "The connection with mitochondria is new. These results allow us to better understand these disorders and develop treatment ... Errors in the metabolic processes of mitochondria are responsible for a variety of diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers ... The TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) is considered the gateway to the mitochondrion, the ...
We compared the nucleotide contents of a large number of vertebrate and high C/G ratio invertebrate mitochondria in both coding ... These findings suggest that vertebrate and high C/G ratio invertebrate mitochondria descended independently from the same ... We compared the nucleotide contents of a large number of vertebrate and high C/G ratio invertebrate mitochondria in both coding ... Evidence for the independent divergence of vertebrate and high C/G ratio invertebrate mitochondria from the same origin () ...
However, Rhodospirillum rubrum came as close to mitochondria as any alpha-proteobacterium investigated. This prompted a search ... A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes. ... to ascertain the sister of mitochondria among the current sample of eight alpha-proteobacterial genomes using mitochondrially- ... methods to directly compare eukaryotic genomes to their prokaryotic counterparts to investigate the origin of the mitochondrion ...
You searched for: Author Khavkin, E. E. ✖ Remove constraint Author: Khavkin, E. E. Subject Mitochondria ✖ Remove constraint ... 1. Protein Patterns of Developing Mitochondria at the Onset of Germination in Maize (Zea mays L.) Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Khavkin ...
Isolation of mitochondria-associated membranes and mitochondria from animal tissues and cells ... Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes in Insulin Signaling Guy A. Rutter; Guy A. Rutter ... Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) integrity is required for insulin signaling and is implicated in ... Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane (MAM) Integrity Is Required for Insulin Signaling and Is Implicated in ...
Mitochondria define the ways our bodies respond to training. New data says check ups could help with the future of endurance ... "So where mitochondria are in relation to all the other parts of the cell has a big impact on how mitochondria work within ... Mitochondria and exercise. The number of mitochondria you have in your cells can also vary depending on the stressors you face ... But mitochondria isnt all one thing throughout the body. "If you take the mitochondria from two different cell types, for ...
Number of mitochondria in budding cell grown on ethanol. Range. 20-30 Table - link mitochondria/cell ... The most striking observation concerned the number of mitochondria, which was approximately ten-fold higher in ethanol-grown ... Researchers] used the vital stain for mitochondria methylpyridinium iodine (DASPMI), a fluorescent, non-toxic stain for ... This implies that mitochondria in ethanol-grown cultures have a much larger surface area than those in glucose-grown cells...In ...
... the number of mitochondria in their cells increases. This could mean that ginseng slows aging, or makes slimming attempts more ... If people use 3 grams of Korean ginseng daily, the number of mitochondria in their cells increases. This could mean that ... Supplementation with ginseng caused a sharp increase in the number of mitochondria in the cells of the test subjects. This ...
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Mitochondria. Peroxidation. Chemiluminescence. Ácido linoleico conjugado. Mitocondrias. Peroxidación. Quimioluminiscencia. ... Mitochondria. Peroxidation. Chemiluminescence. Ácido linoleico conjugado. Mitocondrias. Peroxidación. Quimioluminiscencia. ... Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on non enzymatic lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different rat tissues The ... Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on non enzymatic lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different rat tissues. ...
Mitochondria Is the Subject Area "Mitochondria" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
In order to optimally deliver the energy to the cells, the mitochondria move. The movement of the mitochondria was disturbed in ... A Single Dose of Alcohol Can Permanently Alter the Neuronal Mitochondria. News Published: August 30, 2022 ... In particular, the structure of the synapses as well as the dynamics of mitochondria - the powerhouses of the cell - are ... Together with the migration of mitochondria in neurons, which are also important for synaptic transmission and plasticity, the ...
ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. While pharmacological inhibition or genetic ... ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. While pharmacological inhibition or genetic ... Lysosomal Zn 2+ release triggers rapid, mitochondria-mediated, non-apoptotic cell death in metastatic melanoma ... mitochondria-mediated, non-apoptotic cell death in metastatic melanoma" (2022). Medical Student Research Symposium. 177. https ...
... Posted on August 8, 2022 by Mike Roberto and Nick Andrews , No ... Mitochondria are the powerhouses of your cells, organelles responsible for generating all the energy your body uses to carry ... Carnitine helps shuttle fatty acids into your cells mitochondria, which can then burn the fact for energy.[71] This can ... ATP is produced by the mitochondria in your cells using a machine called the electron transport chain (ETC). The electrical ...
Mitochondria are the major site of energy production in the cell. An interesting and unique feature of the Electron Transport ... Mitochondria are the major site of energy production in the cell. An interesting and unique feature of the Electron Transport ... Dissecting the distinct functions of mitochondria. 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems ... During her Doctorate studies, she focused on the role of mitochondria in cancer. She was awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship from ...
Adult, Cell Respiration, Exercise, Female, Humans, Hydrogen Peroxide, Male, Mitochondria, Muscle, Oxidative Phosphorylation, ... Substrate-Specific Respiration of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria after 1 h of Moderate Cycling in Sedentary Adults. ... Substrate-Specific Respiration of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria after 1 h of Moderate Cycling in Sedentary Adults.. ... INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle mitochondria have dynamic shifts in oxidative metabolism to meet energy demands of aerobic ...
A new billboard on Manchester Road in Missouri reads, HEY ISIS, YOU SUCK!!! From: #ActualMuslims. A group of Muslim-Americans have put up a blunt billboard ...
Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 ; Vol. 97, No. ... Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria. Larry Simpson, Otavio H. Thiemann, Nicholas J. Savill, Juan D. Alfonzo, D ... Simpson, L, Thiemann, OH, Savill, NJ, Alfonzo, JD & Maslov, DA 2000, Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria, ... Evolution of RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 Jun 20;97(13):6986- ...
Maternal Mitochondria. An artistic collaboration with Miriam Sagan & Isabel Winson-Sagan. Tag: class. 1 spot left!. Posted on ...
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brainenergyhuman upgrademental illnessmetabolic disordermetabolismmitochondriaPodcast. How Your Mitochondria Control Your Brain ... athleteexercisemitochondriaoxygenozoneozone therapyPodcastskincare. Ozone Therapy: Your New Favorite Biohack- Micah Lowe with ... human upgradeketoketonesmitochondriamitochondrial uncouplingPodcast. Upgrade Your Keto Thinking - Dr. Steven Gundry - Best of ... biohackbiohackerbiohackingbiohacksDave AspreyGut HealthHealthy Aging/Anti-Agingimmune systemmitochondriamitopure ...
Mitochondria are at the center of apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death. Intra-cellular and extra-cellular signals ... MitoNews is a free periodic annotated review of important publications in mitochondria and metabolic research. Recent Issue: ... Mitochondria are at the center of apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death. Intra-cellular and extra-cellular signals ...
माइटोकॉन्ड्रिया (Mitochondria) Mitochondria शब्द ग्रीक भाषाके दो शब्दों Mitos यानि धागा (Thread) तथा Chondrion यानि कण (granule ...
Browse full-text Mitochondria articles and other academic articles in Inquiries Journal ... Mitochondria are eukaryotic, membrane-enclosed, 1-10um sized organelles, described as "cellular power plants" as they are ...
  • Luxcel's growing portfolio of proprietary mitochondria toxicity, bioenergetics, and metabolism assays is highly complementary to our current offerings and provides early and effective identification of mitochondrial liabilities for our clients' drug-discovery programs. (
  • Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders and cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. (
  • Knock-down of circPUM1 would result in lower intracellular oxygen concentration, downregulated oxidative phosphorylation, decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of ROS generation and shrinking of mitochondria, respectively. (
  • The TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) is considered the gateway to the mitochondrion, the proverbial powerhouse of the cell. (
  • Analyses of 55 individual and 31 concatenated protein data sets encoded in Reclinomonas americana and Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genomes revealed that current methods for constructing phylogenetic trees are insufficiently sensitive (or artifact-insensitive) to ascertain the sister of mitochondria among the current sample of eight alpha-proteobacterial genomes using mitochondrially-encoded proteins. (
  • Although the number of mitochondria was different, the mitochondrial volume in ethanol-and glucose-grown cells was approximately the same (Table 1). (
  • In [researchers'] study, the different mitochondrial number and morphology observed in ethanol-and glucose-grown cells did not significantly affect the fraction of the cellular volume occupied by the mitochondria (6-7%, Table 1). (
  • We hypothesize that biological outcomes derived from these functions of mitochondria are also involved in the mechanisms mediating mitochondrial-associated diseases. (
  • In particular, the structure of the synapses as well as the dynamics of mitochondria - the powerhouses of the cell - are influenced by alcohol. (
  • Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. (
  • However, the functions of nuclear genome-derived circRNAs localized in mitochondria of tumor cells remain largely elusive. (
  • Here, we report that circPUM1, a circular RNA derived from back-splicing of pre-mRNAs of nuclear genome PUM1, localizes in mitochondria. (
  • In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria ) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. (
  • Researchers report a collapse of the mitochondria-associated membrane is a common halmark in two genetic forms of ALS. (
  • Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. (
  • Cadmium directly induced the opening of membrane permeability pore of mitochondria which possibly involved in cadmium-triggered apoptosis. (
  • If you're lucky enough to be able to remember back to high school biology class, you may recall being introduced to the mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell . (
  • ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the "cellular energy currency, and this is why mitochondria is called the 'powerhouse of the cell. (
  • Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. (
  • Mitochondria are considered to be the power plants of cells and are essential for human metabolism. (
  • In this way, the cell can specifically control the influx of precursor proteins for building elements of the metabolism, and it can adapt the function of the mitochondria to an altered cellular state. (
  • Skeletal muscle mitochondria have dynamic shifts in oxidative metabolism to meet energy demands of aerobic exercise. (
  • It is unclear if aerobic exercise stimulates intrinsic oxidative metabolism of mitochondria or varies between substrates. (
  • Researchers] used the vital stain for mitochondria methylpyridinium iodine (DASPMI), a fluorescent, non-toxic stain for mitochondria (Bereiter-Hahn 1976: Bereiter-Hahn et al. (
  • Substrate-Specific Respiration of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria after 1 h of Moderate Cycling in Sedentary Adults. (
  • The ARHGAP11B protein located in mitochondria induces a metabolic pathway, similar to the characteristics of cancer cells, in brain stem cells, resulting in brain development. (
  • The involvement of mitochondria in silica -induced apoptosis of pulmonary phagocytes. (
  • Mitochondria are responsible for the energy supply of the organism and fulfill functions in metabolic and signaling processes. (
  • Errors in the metabolic processes of mitochondria are responsible for a variety of diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. (
  • Mitochondria are microscopic organelles found within cells, and are by far the largest producer of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which provides energy to many processes in living cells. (
  • Energy production in nature is the responsibility of chloroplasts and mitochondria and is crucial for fabricating sustainable, synthetic cells in the lab. (
  • Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria. (
  • The most striking observation concerned the number of mitochondria, which was approximately ten-fold higher in ethanol-grown cells than in cells grown on glucose (Table 1). (
  • This implies that mitochondria in ethanol-grown cultures have a much larger surface area than those in glucose-grown cells. (
  • 2006 PMID 16464011 p.384 left column write that 'Several hundred mitochondria can be present in individual cells. (
  • If people use 3 grams of Korean ginseng daily, the number of mitochondria in their cells increases. (
  • Supplementation with ginseng caused a sharp increase in the number of mitochondria in the cells of the test subjects. (
  • Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). (
  • The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. (
  • ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. (
  • Originally described as sites for the exchange of phospholipids between organelles ( 5 ), mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) represent close contact sites through which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) communicates with mitochondria supporting the transfer not only of lipids but also the exchange of calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions and other species. (
  • Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. (
  • In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. (
  • The polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, chemiluminescence and peroxidizability index of mitochondria obtained from rat liver, kidney, lung and heart, were studied after oral administration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). (
  • But there's more to mitochondria than just keeping the molecular lights on. (
  • This prompted a search for methods to directly compare eukaryotic genomes to their prokaryotic counterparts to investigate the origin of the mitochondrion and its host from the standpoint of nuclear genes. (
  • Las mitocondrias dependen de los genes del núcleo, de las células en que residen, para muchos ARN MENSAJEROS. (
  • Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (
  • After incubation of mitochondria in an ascorbate Fe++ system (120 min at 37°C), it was observed that the total counts per min/mg protein originated from light emission: chemiluminescence, was lower in liver and kidney mitochondria in the CLA group than in the control group. (
  • As a consequence, the peroxidizability index -a parameter based on the maximal rate of oxidation of fatty acids- showed significant changes in liver and kidney mitochondria. (
  • Aging Disrupts Circadian Rhythms in Mouse Liver Mitochondria. (
  • Aspartato aminotransferasa localizada en las MITOCONDRIAS. (
  • Other two salient functions of mitochondria are their biosynthetic capacity and their role as signaling organelles. (
  • A new study reports caffeine concentration, the equivalent of four cups of coffee, can promote the movement of a regulatory protein into mitochondria. (
  • Mitochondria are the major site of energy production in the cell. (
  • The phrase lives of a cell refers to the independent yet interrelated parts of a human cell including mitochondria, centrioles, and basal bodies that once led independent lives. (
  • When BH3-only binds to one of the regions, BAX becomes able to damage mitochondria. (
  • This damage results from a buildup of harmful molecules called reactive oxygen species, which are byproducts of energy production in mitochondria. (
  • Several characteristics make mitochondria unique. (
  • Researchers report amnesia caused by cannabinoids relies on the activation of the CB1 receptor in mitochondria in the hippocampus. (
  • Researchers have identified how the circadian clock helps prime mitochondria to correctly use stored energy when we are not eating. (
  • MAMs play important roles in several signal transduction pathways and the relevance of the ER-mitochondria interface to human diseases, including Alzheimer disease, cancer, and lysosomal storage disease ( 6 ), is slowly emerging. (
  • During her Doctorate studies, she focused on the role of mitochondria in cancer. (
  • An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA. (
  • The techniques routinely used to study the MAMs are based on analysis of ER-mitochondria contact sites via electron microscopy, intracellular localization of MAM markers (such as FACL-4 or SigmaR1) in combination with microscopy techniques, or isolation of MAMs through subcellular fractionations followed by Western blot analysis ( 12 ). (
  • These findings suggest that vertebrate and high C/G ratio invertebrate mitochondria descended independently from the same origin. (
  • However, Rhodospirillum rubrum came as close to mitochondria as any alpha-proteobacterium investigated. (
  • A new study could be the first step to developing drugs that targets carbonic anhydrase in mitochondria to help protect against aging and neurodegeneration. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Mitochondria" applicable to this article? (
  • An advanced imaging-based method from scientists at Scripps Research offers a new way of studying mitochondria. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Chinese contract research organization HD Biosciences (HDB) has signed an agreement to co-market and sell Luxcel Biosciences' mitochondria assays and technologies for preclinical drug safety testing, the companies announced today. (