Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Medical Order Entry Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, that enable providers to initiate medical procedures, prescribe medications, etc. These systems support medical decision-making and error-reduction during patient care.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.United StatesTask Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Systems Analysis: The analysis of an activity, procedure, method, technique, or business to determine what must be accomplished and how the necessary operations may best be accomplished.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Medication Systems: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.ComputersMedication Reconciliation: The formal process of obtaining a complete and accurate list of each patient's current home medications including name, dosage, frequency, and route of administration, and comparing admission, transfer, and/or discharge medication orders to that list. The reconciliation is done to avoid medication errors.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Selection Bias: The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.HandwritingEye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Speech Recognition Software: Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Physician Self-Referral: Referral by physicians to testing or treatment facilities in which they have financial interest. The practice is regulated by the Ethics in Patient Referrals Act of 1989.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Great BritainGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
For example, insert a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null or insert missing memory ... Targeted automatic bug-fixing techniques generate repairs for specific classes of errors such as null pointer exception integer ... Patching program errors (CACM 2008) doi:10.1145/1409360.1409381 Automated Patching Techniques: The Fix Is In (CACM 2010) doi: ... include inserting a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null to fix null pointer exception, ...
... to ask the user for the missing values, or to unwind the stack and abort processing with an error message. The restarts offered ... like a missing file, a hard disk error, or out-of-memory errors). In systems without exceptions, routines would need to return ... Errors and Exceptions" Provide an uncaught exception handler PyMOTW (Python Module Of The Week), "Exception Handling" Re: ... The exception which occurred was not due to random failure but a design error. The exception was detected, but inappropriately ...
The full cell may also indicate a missing value in a table. It can also function more generally as a column marker to keep the ... An exception are the musical notes do and so, which are spelled out as d-o and s-o. Since the letters ⟨ed, er, ow⟩ are not used ... The full cell ⟨⟩ is used to over-type and strike out errors when using a braille writer. (Mistakes may also be erased by ... There are three main exceptions to this: ⟨one⟩ need not keep its odd pronunciation, as long as the o and n fall in the same ...
Prior to the IEEE standard, programmers often used a special value (such as −99999999) to represent undefined or missing values ... The predicate isNaN(x) determines if a value is a NaN and never signals an exception, even if x is a signaling NaN. There are ... Quiet NaNs are used to propagate errors resulting from invalid operations or values, whereas signaling NaNs can support ... was that the value of functions at singular points can be taken as a particular value if that value is in the limit the value[ ...
... co-relate gaps in the reconciliations with missing profile information or missing reference information or other system errors ... missing records, unmatched records, problems in source file (duplicates, invalid values) It should be able to filter the data ... It should have the ability to configure ETL level alarms and thresholds on data and notify relevant users of any exceptions The ... For example, a particular number series may be missing in the Switch and hence not getting connected or updating a missing ...
The result is that some errors are known by multiple names. Filled die errors are also known as missing design element errors ... Errors on ancient, medieval, and higher-value coins are usually detrimental to the coin's numismatic value. 1966 "Wavy 2" 20 ... A few exceptions exist, where the dies are used despite producing obvious flaws. The 1955 Lincoln cent is an example. A ... These errors are often called "missing element coins" (discussed above and as "filled dies."(A great example of such an error ...
The markers he proposed were to stand for "Missing but Applicable" and "Missing but Inapplicable", known as A-values and I- ... According to the SQL standard this is an invalid syntax and shall lead to an error message or an exception. But most ... This should not be confused with a value of 0. A null value indicates a lack of a value - a lack of a value is not the same ... In Codd's book, these two Null-type markers are referred to as 'A-Values' and 'I-Values', representing 'Missing But Applicable ...
Reporting of near misses by observers is an established error reduction technique in aviation, and has been extended to private ... There was initial concern that exception reporting would allow inappropriate exclusion of patients in whom targets were missed ... However, pilot programs now underway focus on simple indicators such as improvement in lab values or use of emergency services ... The term "e-iatrogenesis" can be used to describe the local error manifestation. The sources for these errors include: ...
Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Greenhouse, Linda. "IN HER FIRST CASE, GINSBURG DISSENTS". ... Newton wrote for SCOTUSblog on the value of law review articles for United States Supreme Court justices. According to Newton, ... Process 671 (2001) Disarray Among the Federal Circuits: Harmless Error Review of Rule 11 Violations, 2 J. App. Prac. & Process ... Process 177 (2003) An Argument for Reviving the Actual Futility Exception to the Supreme Court's Procedural Default Doctrine, 4 ...
EXCEPTION -- Exception-handling part begins (optional) WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(error_message); END create_ ... variable_name date := to_date('01-01-2005 14:20:23', 'DD-MM-YYYY hh24:mi:ss'); Date variables can contain date and time. The ... Each exception has an SQL error number and SQL error message associated with it. Programmers can access these by using the ... Exceptions-errors during code execution-are of two types: user defined and predefined. User-defined exceptions are always ...
... missing arguments"); } } std::cout << *s++; } } // recursive template. void printf(const char *s, T value, Args... args) { ... Variadic templates can also be used in an exception specification, a base class list, or the initialization list of a ... error("invalid format string: ... There is no simple mechanism to iterate over the values of the ... The arguments must be known at compile time and can be either values, types, functions or even non-specialized templates. This ...
Check date values in: ,access-date= (help); Missing or empty ,title= (help) "Brett Hundley leads UCLA to easy victory over Cal ... Cite error: The named reference 17TAM was invoked but never defined (see the help page). "Ishmael Adams' 2 long TD runbacks key ... The NCAA didn't allow freshmen to play varsity football until 1972 (with the exception of the World War II years), allowing ... Check date values in: ,access-date=, ,date= (help); Missing or empty ,title= (help) "Joe Williams, recently unretired, runs for ...
"XL: MOD() Function Returns #NUM! Error Value". Microsoft. January 19, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.. ... The accuracy and convenience of statistical tools in Excel has been criticized,[50][51][52][53][54] as mishandling missing data ... Password to protect workbook is an exception - when it is set, a document is encrypted with the standard password " ... "type()" incorrectly returns 16, meaning "Error value". *"IsText()", when called as a method of the VBA object " ...
"XL: MOD() Function Returns #NUM! Error Value". Microsoft. January 19, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008. "The MOD bug". Byg ... The XML Spreadsheet format introduced in Excel 2002 is a simple, XML based format missing some more advanced features like ... Password to protect workbook is an exception - when it is set, a document is encrypted with the standard password " ... Other errors specific to Excel include misleading statistics functions, mod function errors, date limitations and the Excel ...
Accommodates missing data (i.e. missing feature values in training instances) Limited Software Availability: There are a ... Rule accuracy/error is different than model accuracy/error, since it is not calculated over the entire training data, but only ... Typically, most parameters can be left to the community determined defaults with the exception of two critical parameters: ... The set of feature values of an instance is commonly referred to as the state. For simplicity let's assume an example problem ...
Missing / Unknown. The Data QC process uses the information from the QA process to decide to use the data for analysis or in an ... Data quality refers to the condition of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. There are many definitions of ... Some data quality checks may be translated into business rules after repeated instances of exceptions in the past.[citation ... General example: if a Data QC process finds that the data contains too many errors or inconsistencies, then it prevents that ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) Packer, Abel (October 2000). "SciELO - a Model for Cooperative Electronic Publishing in ... Guedon and Cetto emphasizing the value of initiatives such as SciELO and Redalyc (also targeted by Beall) to the development of ... This process may reveal errors that are reported back to the publisher for correction. Graphics are also converted to standard ... The motion takes exception to Beall's characterization, draws attention to the underlying "ethnocentric prejudice", and ...
Now consider the following code: error = PrepareForCommit(); if (error == SUCCESS) { error = Commit(); assert(error == SUCCESS ... int value) { return value + 20; } int main(int argc, char * argv[]) { int a = pFunc(aFunction(atoi(argv[1]))); if (a > 20 ... It is written to require no modification of system source and no insertion of software traps, since the processor's exception ... and validated by the model checker should be considered as new properties that have been missed during the initial verification ...
In August 2010 The Motley Fool named Warnaco one of its Top 10 Values in Consumer Durables, citing the stock's low price-to- ... The Great Depression of the 1930s was difficult on the clothing industry and Warner was no exception to this financial ... Connecticut newspaper The Day reported "a Miss Jones...who is believed to have objected to the [negotiation] proceedings, is ... of this error and that PwC incorporated this mischaracterization into their own audit report. In the suit, the SEC specifically ...
After reaching the value of 255, the Message Code rolls over to zero. This allows receiving stations to determine missing or ... CANaerospace defines a mechanism that allows each node to transmit information about exception or error situations. This ... CAN error frames may lead to unpredictable behavior if the bandwidth is consumed by error frames resulting from faults of the ... For ensuring this under fault conditions the system designer has to define the behaviour under these conditions (error frames ...
... do allow missing values using a technique called surrogate splits. MARS models can make predictions quickly. The prediction ... At each step it finds the pair of basis functions that gives the maximum reduction in sum-of-squares residual error (it is a ... The guidelines below are intended to give an idea of the pros and cons of MARS, but there will be exceptions to the guidelines ... with the original values of y once again shown as red dots. The predicted response is now a better fit to the original y values ...
A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the argument's form. All formal fallacies are specific types of non ... Accident - an exception to a generalization is ignored.No true Scotsman - makes a generalization true by changing the ... For a compound proposition to be true, the truth values of its constituent parts must satisfy the relevant logical connectives ... missing the point) - an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question. Kettle logic - using ...
Washington Dollar Errors discusses a variety of actual and rumored minting errors. Archived April 10, 2007, at the Wayback ... One exception is the coin depicting suffragist Alice Paul which represents the era of the Chester A. Arthur presidency, as ... Because one of the inscriptions missing from the coins is the motto "In God we trust", some articles on the subject have ... Such upside-down coins have been sold on auction websites like eBay and Amazon for greater than their face value, though they ...
Thirdly, the scarcity of women in society leads to girls being highly valued and their social status increased as a result. ... However, the policy was not enforced among the country's ethnic minorities, and a number of exceptions were made among the ... These marriageable-age husbands-to-be, known as guang gun (error: {{lang}}: unrecognized language tag: zh-han (help)), ... About 37-45% of China's missing females may have been missing at birth. According to China Statistics Press 2013, the sex ratio ...
Perhaps, though, I'm missing something. Where in wp:RS is there something to support the idea that any text appearing on a ... My last three reverts were in response to vandalism which is clearly an exception to 3RR; I'll give Boing! the benefit of the ... So you'd like to remove the entire infobox? That would certainly make the question of what value to give the parameter rather ... If you found an error with any archives or the URLs themselves, you can fix them with this tool. ...
CS1 errors: missing periodical. *CS1: long volume value. *Harv and Sfn no-target errors ... An exception to the normal thinking regarding side-effects is Homeopathy. Since 1938, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... Kopelman 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKopelman2004 (help).. Wieland et al. 2011 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWieland ... A placebo is a treatment with no intended therapeutic value. An example of a placebo is an inert pill, but it can include more ...
exception handling, Error handling - - - existence test operator, Missing value test operator - - - exists built-in, List of ... missing value test operator, Missing value test operator - - - missing variable, Handling missing values - - - Model 2, Using ... Missing value test operator - - - testing for null, Missing value test operator - - - testing for undefined, Missing value test ... error, Special Variable Reference - - - error handling, Handling missing values, -Error handling, -attempt, recover - - - ...
Error 1000 . I tried building a decision tree instead and got the same error. I dont think it is to do with missing values as ... I passed in a categorical variable which had no missing values and got the same error. ... When categorical fields included in logistic regression I get error Exception of type Microsoft.Numerics.AFxLibraryException ... Exception of type Microsoft.Numerics.AFxLibraryException was thrown. . ...
For example, insert a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null or insert missing memory ... Targeted automatic bug-fixing techniques generate repairs for specific classes of errors such as null pointer exception integer ... Patching program errors (CACM 2008) doi:10.1145/1409360.1409381 Automated Patching Techniques: The Fix Is In (CACM 2010) doi: ... include inserting a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null to fix null pointer exception, ...
Commonly dataset has missing values that impacts on the model correctness. What is more, data is susceptible to change due to ... The second type of errors are errors of an element working in conditions for which the device was not intended. This is usually ... noise and exceptions. Statistical noise is an unexplained variability within a given data sample, which impairs the models ... human errors (e.g. on the production line), first and second type errors, environmental conditions and other events that could ...
The included error file lists errors for seven records.. 1st error: Incorrect value 5 for race. Race takes on the values 1,2,3 ... absolute risk related output quantities are set to a missing value of .. Compare the output. which you obtained with the file ... 6th error: Incorrect value 9 for Hours Xrcise Hours Xrcise takes only values of 0,1,2,3.. 7th error: Incorrect value 0 for ... 2nd error: Incorrect value 49 for Age1. Age1 must be ge 50.. 3rd error: Incorrect value 60 for Age1 and Age2. Age2 must be gt ...
... the standard error is no more than 30 percent of the estimate). Therefore, it is important to know the value of the lowest ... Missing data items were imputed by randomly assigning a value from a Patient Record form with similar characteristics; ... exception is allergy shot. Limit entries to drug name only. Additional information, such as dosage strength or regimen is not ... K. SAMPLING ERRORS Procedures for calculating sampling errors as well as estimates of standard errors of statistics derived ...
FreeMarker template error (DEBUG mode; use RETHROW in production!): The following has evaluated to null or missing: ==> m. ... Tip: If the failing expression is known to be legally refer to something thats null or missing, either specify a default value ... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance( ... Its the step after the last dot that caused this error, not those before it. ---- ...
Facebook only has value insofar as it provides predictive value beyond that of reliable data that is already available through ... Light gray indicates missing data. View this figure. Discussion. When we first undertook this research plan, it was our ... Standard errors are high due to the limited sample size, but 2 of our Facebook likes categories retain their significance in ... However, although there are some exceptions, the consistency and strength of fit we have found seem manifest. Our models do ...
Imputation of missing values was performed only when a peptide was detected in at least half (four) of the replicates analyzed ... An exception to this was the cohesin subunit SA-1 (Stag1), which showed opposing omic abundance changes. Stag1 exhibited a 2- ... the Sequest HT search was performed with a precursor mass tolerance of 5 ppm and 0.02 Da mass error on the fragment ions; no ... The MS1 signals were mapped across runs to pick up missing values from peptides not sequenced in every run and then quantified ...
... missing answers before imputation. The remaining missing values were imputed using the expectation maximisation algorithm. ... Mean values and percentages of positive responses, as well as corresponding standard errors for all SAQ-S-GE dimensions, each ... The dimensions of the SAQ-S-GE demonstrated good internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha ≥0.7, with the exception of the ... missing answers on any of 31 SAQ-S-GE items and imputing the remaining missing values, 263 questionnaires were available for ...
... missing values in nested data indicate sparsity, not values missing at random. The value ODMS_MISSING_VALUE_DELETE_ROW. is only ... If this value is used with nested data, an exception is raised. ... Standard error of the coefficient estimate. * t-value of the ... ODMS_MISSING_VALUE_TREATMENT. setting, you can cause the algorithm to delete rows in the training data that have missing values ... Missing Values. When building or applying a model, Oracle Data Mining automatically replaces missing values of numerical ...
... to ask the user for the missing values, or to unwind the stack and abort processing with an error message. The restarts offered ... like a missing file, a hard disk error, or out-of-memory errors). In systems without exceptions, routines would need to return ... Errors and Exceptions" Provide an uncaught exception handler PyMOTW (Python Module Of The Week), "Exception Handling" Re: ... The exception which occurred was not due to random failure but a design error. The exception was detected, but inappropriately ...
One Survey Participant had a response to HIQ260 which was changed to a missing value. This person should not have answered ... The CAPI system is programmed with built-in consistency checks to reduce data entry errors. CAPI also uses online help screens ... with the exception of two changes. These are:. *Check box HIQ065 had a change to the second part of the criteria. In 2007-2008 ...
... missing exception is raised. An exception is a named error condition. EXEC SQL EXECUTE BEGIN IF :salary:ind_sal IS NULL THEN ... Handling Truncated Values. PL/SQL does not raise an exception when a truncated string value is assigned to a host variable. ... Processing error; exit program with an error; END sql_error; Notice that the host variable emp_number is set before the PL/SQL ... Processing error; exit program with an error; END sql_error; VARCHAR Pseudotype. Recall from Chapter 3, "Meeting Program ...
Error-value=8: SYMBOLIC-PATH-NAME TLV missing 19 Invalid Operation Error-value=6: PCE-initiated LSP limit reached Error-value=7 ... value) and Error-value=1 (SYMBOLIC-PATH-NAME in use). The only exception to this rule is for LSPs for which the State Timeout ... Error-value=1: Unacceptable instantiation parameters Error-value=2: Internal error Error-value=3: Signaling error Crabbe, et al ... PCEP-Error Object IANA has registered the following error types and error values within the "PCEP-ERROR Object Error Types and ...
... exact value passed as the input. Exceptions are raised appropriately , +for this value and in accordance with IEEE 754 / ISO C ... end itemize , , Therefore many of the functions in the math library have errors. The , table lists the maximum error for each ... but not missing underflow exceptions , +in cases where it is inexact). OK. , + , [email protected] , [email protected]{} does not aim for ... the value returned is , +the appropriate overflow value for the current rounding direction, , +with the overflow exception ...
... which can conflate bias caused by record linkage error, with bias caused by missing records (data capture errors). Four large ... Record linkage studies will generally contain some level of residual record linkage error, where individual records are either ... A key question is whether errors in linkage quality are distributed evenly throughout the population, or whether certain ... with the associations with linkage error reversed across different datasets due to quirks of the specific data collection ...
Nor do they reflect the error from imputed values due to missing responses. Thus, the standard errors calculated represent a ... With the exception of addresses in Remote Alaska, the general timing of data collection is: Month 1: Addresses in sample that ... The margin of error is 99,234. Standard Error = Margin of Error / 1.645 Calculating the standard error using the margin of ... Nonsampling Error. In addition to sampling error, data users should realize that other types of errors may be introduced during ...
In cases of missing or unavailable radionuclide GFR values, GFR was estimated by cimetidine creatinine clearance. If neither ... with the exception that participants who commenced dialysis postrandomization were assigned a GFR value of 10 mL/min/1.73 m2. ... The results are summarized in terms of least square means with standard errors (SEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) about ... In cases of outlying values (ie, >10% difference among the 3 values), the nephrologist discarded those values believed to be ...
We calculated standard errors for all results, as recommended by the NCHS, using STATA software version 10 (StataCorp, LP, ... It is plausible that acute or chronic complaints not addressed during preventive gynecologic visits may represent a missed ... For this study, major exceptions include race (18% to 33% annual nonresponse rates) and ethnicity (22% to 35% annual ... Imputation was performed by randomly assigning a value from a patient record form with similar characteristics. ...
e.g. Return value: New reference.). The following API functions are missing that. Some of them, like PyMemoryView_FromBuffer ... GetObject Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeDecodeError_GetReason Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeEncodeError_Create Doc/c- ... The list has been generated automatically, so it might contain some errors. Doc/c-api/arg.rst: Py_VaBuildValue Doc/c-api/buffer ... The value of the function name has a type that is recognized by the interpreter as a user-defined function. This value can be ...
e.g. Return value: New reference.). The following API functions are missing that. Some of them, like PyMemoryView_FromBuffer ... GetObject Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeDecodeError_GetReason Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeEncodeError_Create Doc/c- ... The list has been generated automatically, so it might contain some errors. Doc/c-api/arg.rst: Py_VaBuildValue Doc/c-api/buffer ... XMLCharRefReplaceErrors Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeDecodeError_Create Doc/c-api/exceptions.rst: PyUnicodeDecodeError_ ...
I am getting error org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException: Unable to convert: {actions=[org ... ).click(DBOCHCorLangSel).build ... unknown error: call function result missing value Facing Error Exception in thread main org.openqa.selenium . ... Error: selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException: Message: chromedriver executable needs to be in PATH You can also ... Error throwing org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException: Cannot find firefox binary in PATH Dont use firefox.exe in the end e.g ...
... code Im envisioning code that is getting that None value and using it as an error signal or treating it the same as a missing ... The value of None was already defined to mean that no port is included in the URL. Also, the ValueError exception should be ... Changing the return value from None to an exception after three 3.4 bugfix releases(3.4.1, 3.4.2 and 3.4.3 -- also since 3.4.3 ... It is surprising that urlsplit() does not raise any exception I have a bit of a TL;DR in #20271, trying to capture what the ...
... but rather about those where third party library code isnt handling missing values correctly, so the debugging scenario a ... By attaching the object to the exception rather than squeezing its representation into the string, you avoid making the error ... shouldnt we change error messages that contains the repr of not found value? That is what I was thinking too, apart from ... But shouldnt we change error messages that contains the repr of not found value? Affected collections are list, deque and ...
  • It is surprising that urlsplit() does not raise any exception, but then simply getting the "port" attribute does raise the exception. (python.org)
  • Nick Coghlan added the comment: While I agree it's reasonable to keep arbitrary value repr's out of these messages by default, I do think it would be desirable for someone sufficiently motivated to file a separate RFE about adding the value as a structured exception attribute so that custom sys.excepthook implementations and other "unhandled runtime exception" loggers may choose to handle the situation differently. (mail-archive.com)
  • Linear models make a set of restrictive assumptions, most importantly, that the target (dependent variable y ) is normally distributed conditioned on the value of predictors with a constant variance regardless of the predicted response value. (oracle.com)
  • index(x) 7 The C API documents PyNumber_Index() as: 'Returns the o converted to a Python int on success or NULL with a TypeError exception raised on failure. (python.org)
  • with pytest.raises(SystemExit, match=0): sys.exit(1) # crashes, but crashes too late (`TypeError` in re compile) with pytest.raises(SystemExit, match=1): sys.exit(1) # correct usage with pytest.raises(SystemExit) as cm: sys.exit(0) assert cm.value.args == (0,) # another trap! (github.com)
  • If the value that is searched for is in some extension module where it's calculated using C code then you have no way of accessing that value unless the extension module was nice enough to provide the object in the exception, give the repr in the exception message, or document how exactly the transformation from input to what you searched for is. (mail-archive.com)
  • In some cases, the change would be detrimental to readability, introducing clutter into an otherwise clear error message. (mail-archive.com)
  • Previously, when using the libvirt library with the VMWare ESXi hypervisor, loading a guest virtual machine that contained empty CD-ROM images failed with an 'internal error' message. (redhat.com)
  • User probably expected: simple match on exception message (useful), but it's actually for providing custom failure message (not very useful). (github.com)
  • And it's annoying when the error message itself contains regex syntax that you'll need to escape. (github.com)
  • with pytest.raises(Exception, message="boom"): Exception("boom") # whoops! (github.com)
  • Admittedly it won't help people who put too much logic into their custom exception classes, but it should cover majority standard use-cases (where exceptions are dumb subclasses, just with a custom numeric error code or message). (github.com)
  • Installation fails with a missing dll message like: There is a problem with the Windows Installer package. (wavespell.net)
  • Inspect the error message to find the cause of the problem. (ebay.com)
  • Clang's early lead in terms of compiler error message expressivity has led the GCC developers to improve their error messages , and obviously GCC provides a very high bar to meet when LLVM and Clang were being brought up. (slashdot.org)
  • Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions - anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing - often changing the normal flow of program execution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IEEE 754 standard uses the term "trapping" to refer to the calling of a user-supplied exception-handling routine on exceptional conditions, and is an optional feature of the standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a generic, stateless, protocol which can be used for many tasks beyond its use for hypertext, such as name servers and distributed object management systems, through extension of its request methods, error codes and headers . (ietf.org)
  • Whatever the cause of the stochasticity reflected in our dataset (either coming from missing information or measurement errors), we can models it with noise. (wavespell.net)
  • What Causes Measurement Errors? (wavespell.net)
  • Now that we know the types of measurement errors that can occur, what factors lead to errors when we take measurements? (wavespell.net)
  • Because the process of imputation leads to some potential measurement errors in comparing prices paid for a particular drug by individuals with different coverage statuses, all the price comparisons in chapter 3 are based on MEPS drug purchases for which the price was established through a direct match of pharmacy and household survey information. (hhs.gov)
  • I still have no idea why the same code would raise an exception inside Django but work stand-alone (but of course generate unwanted markup). (kuttler.eu)
  • Clang compiles code significantly faster than GCC in many cases, still generates slightly better errors and warning messages than GCC, and is usually a bit ahead in terms of support for the C++ standard. (slashdot.org)
  • 3. No easy way to achieve the most simple and basic use-case: assert exact match on an exception instance args with basic types such as strings and/or numbers. (github.com)
  • Linear regression with the identity link and variance function equal to the constant 1 (constant variance over the range of response values). (oracle.com)
  • Generally, you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. (oracle.com)
  • This value can be assigned to another name which can then also be used as a function. (python.org)
  • The supplier of the inertial navigation system (SRI) was only following the specification given to it, which stipulated that in the event of any detected exception the processor was to be stopped. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case you want to monitor or check from the DB2 LUW database side how often and when a deadlock or a lock timeout occurred, you can use the following query that reports cumulative values since database-activation. (ibm.com)
  • It is surprising that urlsplit() does not raise any exception I have a bit of a TL;DR in #20271 , trying to capture what the responsibilities of split and parse methods in urllib are and what they should be if consistency is something that we're after. (python.org)
  • report include an explanation of of the drugs mentioned on the Patient sampling errors with guidelines for Record forms was determined using the Methods judging the precision of the estimates. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditional methods of clearing inventory, such as promotions and mark-downs, were leading to revenue loss and missed opportunities. (accenture.com)
  • Return value: New reference. (python.org)
  • Changing the return value from None to an exception after three 3.4 bugfix releases(3.4.1, 3.4.2 and 3.4.3 -- also since 3.4.3 was released in Feb 2015, 3.4.4 will probably be the last bugfix release of 3.4) would not be the best action. (python.org)
  • Examples of fix templates include inserting a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null to fix null pointer exception, inserting memory deallocation statement to fix memory leaks, and changing a integer constant by one to fix off-by-one errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in 1996 the maiden flight of the Ariane 5 (Flight 501) ended in a catastrophic explosion due in part to the Ada programming language exception handling policy of aborting computation on arithmetic error, which in this case was a 64-bit floating point to 16-bit integer conversion overflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here is a patch to raise ValueError for out-of-range integer values instead. (python.org)
  • Once the patient identity and condition are obtained, a baseline value related to treatment. (google.com)
  • And, if the total treatment is less than the baseline value, then a monetary incentive can be provided to the provider based upon that episode of care. (google.com)
  • 2. A computer-implemented method according to claim 1 wherein the initial baseline value represents a typical cost for providing treatment for the episode of care, the method further comprising the step of verifying that the episode of care is not subject to gaming effects. (google.com)
  • Record linkage studies will generally contain some level of residual record linkage error, where individual records are either incorrectly marked as belonging to the same individual, or incorrectly marked as belonging to separate individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cultivating the culture of safety in healthcare organisations has been recommended to enable better communication and open exchange, to learn from errors, eventually leading to better patient outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • I would like to propose using exception instances to overcome these stumbling blocks. (github.com)
  • There were also instances in which a total price was available for the prescription, but the amounts paid by the insurer and/or the individual were missing. (hhs.gov)
  • File system errors (missing or locked files, access denied, etc. (smartbear.com)
  • 27.20.3-1 - Mark the mount point assignment in TUI as experimental (vpodzime) - Reset storage on change in text mode (vpodzime) - Only allow the supported file systems in text mode (vpodzime) - Textual configuration of mount points (vpodzime) - Add support for the new 'mount' kickstart command (vpodzime) - Fix dnf exception repository not set (#1495211) (jkonecny) - Add logging of complete spokes in GUI. (rpmfind.net)
  • On those occasions when we have decided to file a protest, it was because we believed fundamental errors were made in awarding the contract. (wavespell.net)
  • Please refer to the appropriate documentation files (DESCRIPT, RSE) for information on how to apply the weights and to obtain relative standard errors of national estimates. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, insert a conditional statement to check whether the value of a variable is null or insert missing memory deallocation statements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors highlighted the need to report near-misses, because such events constitute a valuable learning experience and should be identified, reported and scrutinised as part of supervision. (scirp.org)
  • We undertook a number of case studies to explore the economic value and benefits of text mining to UKFHE. (jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk)
  • Due to the limited uptake of text mining and legal and commercial restrictions, we adopted a stylised approach, focusing on specific small-scale illustrations of the value and benefits of text mining, and the wider potential value and benefits that could be delivered if technical and legal limitations were resolved. (jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk)