Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Santalum: A plant genus of the family SANTALACEAE which is the source of sandalwood oil.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Nucleotides, CyclicPatch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDrosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 2: Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)POU Domain Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.BenzaldehydesPotassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred ICRNerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate: A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
... made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa, a region of the nasal ... and which is perforated by olfactory nerve axons. The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... primarily from olfactory receptor neurons that express the same olfactory receptor.The glomeruli layer of the olfactory bulb is ...
... the olfactory glomeruli function as sorts of way-stations for the information flowing from the olfactory receptor neurons to ... For example, the neocortex and olfactory bulb both contain neuropil. White matter, which is mostly composed of axons and glial ... The optic lobe of arthropods and the ganglia of the arthropod brain as well as the ganglia in the ventral nerve cord are ... As in computing, an entity is most efficient when its wires are optimized; therefore, a brain which has undergone millions of ...
... is mediated by the olfactory nerve. The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is ... There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells. Each neuron has cilia in direct contact ... The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... available to the olfactory receptors. A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are ...
Olfactory receptor neuron axons project through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is a structure ... There are approximately 6 million bipolar sensory receptor neurons whose cell bodies and dendrites are in the epithelium. The ... nerve fibers, interneurons, microglia, astrocytes, and blood vessels. It is made up of 6 layers: olfactory nerve layer, ... Less than 500 receptors are functional in the nasal epithelium. Each receptor neuron is a single type of olfactory receptor and ...
The olfactory nerve zone is composed of preterminals and terminals of the olfactory nerve and is where the olfactory receptor ... The olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), which originate in the nasal epithelium express only one type of olfactory receptor (OR ... All glomeruli are located near the surface of the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb also includes a portion of the anterior ... producing a correspondingly sharpened ability to detect and discriminate among millions of odors. Characteristics of these ...
The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2% are believed to be photosensitive ganglia.[8] These ... are integral to receiving stimuli in gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the ...
The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2% are believed to be photosensitive ganglia. These photosensitive ... terminates in the olfactory bulb. The chemo-receptors involved in olfactory nervous cascade involve using G-protein receptors ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites ... An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olfactory receptor neurons.. *NIF Search - Olfactory receptor neuron via the ...
In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells function like ... The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in ... Bushdid, C.; Magnasco, M.O.; Vosshall, L.B.; Keller, A. (21 March 2014). "Humans Can Discriminate More than 1 million Olfactory ... Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking ...
Smell receptors are bipolar neurons that bind odorants from the air and congregate at the olfactory nerve before passing axons ... The olfactory bulb houses glomeruli, or cell junctures, on which thousands of receptors of the same type, in addition to mitral ... the mouth to the nasal cavity resulted from selection from long-distance running when humans migrated out of Africa 2 million ... the olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium, mitral cells, and olfactory pyramidal neurons. At the level of the ...
Olfactory bulb projectionsEdit. Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve ... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[51] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... "Humans Can Discriminate More than 1 million Olfactory Stimuli". Science. 343 (6177): 1370-1372. Bibcode:2014Sci...343.1370B. ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ...
The olfactory bulb is a special structure that processes olfactory sensory signals and sends its output to the olfactory part ... Each sensory system begins with specialized receptor cells, such as light-receptive neurons in the retina of the eye, or ... Most of the space in the brain is taken up by axons, which are often bundled together in what are called nerve fiber tracts. A ... The first vertebrates appeared over 500 million years ago (Mya), during the Cambrian period, and may have resembled the modern ...
Cross section of the olfactory bulb of a rat, stained in two different ways at the same time: one stain shows neuron cell ... Each sensory system begins with specialized receptor cells,[8] such as light-receptive neurons in the retina of the eye, or ... Most of the space in the brain is taken up by axons, which are often bundled together in what are called nerve fiber tracts. A ... The first vertebrates appeared over 500 million years ago (Mya), during the Cambrian period, and may have resembled the modern ...
"Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb: A quantitative morphological study". The ... there is no evidence to date that suggests there are nerve and axon connections between any existing sensory receptor cells ... Among studies that use microanatomical methods, there is no reported evidence that human beings have active sensory neurons ... http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/462433.pdf http://www.anatomyatlases.org/AnatomicVariants/MuscularSystem/Text/L/ ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2% are believed to be photosensitive ganglia.[8] These ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ...
Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum; individuals at this stage may be ... 115 million for research and nearly $50 million for education and advocacy programs since its founding in 1957 by William Black ... in many of the remaining neurons. This loss of neurons is accompanied by the death of astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells) and ... Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food ...
... is concentrated more centrally around the olfactory bulb rather than on the periphery where the olfactory receptor neurons ... Fork, R. L. (March 1971). "Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia". Science. 171 (3974): 907-8. Bibcode:1971Sci...171.. ... 4 million euro) for his "contributions to the understanding of the biological basis of psychiatric disorders". Play media Play ... Optogenetic activation of olfactory sensory neurons was critical for demonstrating timing in odor processing and for mechanism ...
... describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste. The olfactory receptors are located on ... The enteric nervous system consists of some one hundred million neurons that are embedded in the peritoneum, the lining of the ... The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani, and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste ... The first receptacle for this chyme is the duodenal bulb. From here it passes into the first of the three sections of the small ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the ...
Rods, cones and nerve layers in the retina. The front (anterior) of the eye is on the left. Light (from the left) passes through several transparent nerve layers to reach the rods and cones (far right). A chemical change in the rods and cones send a signal back to the nerves. The signal goes first to the Retina bipolar cell and Retina horizontal cell(yellow layer), then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are processed in these layers. First, the signals start as raw outputs of points in the rod and cone cells. Then the nerve layers identify simple shapes, such as bright points surrounded by dark points, edges, and movement. (Based on a drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1911 ...
Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons ...
... (/ˌoʊdəbiːˈnɒsɪtɒps/) was a small toothed whale known from Peru and Chile. Restricted to the Neogene (mostly Miocene), the genus is believed to have become extinct before the Pliocene. It had two tusks, and, in some fossils, one tusk was longer than the other. Odobenocetops can be identified as a cetacean based on several features unique to this order: The presence of large air sinuses in the auditory region connected to large pterygoid sinuses. The large supraorbital process of the frontal bone overhanging the orbital region. Narial fossae opening dorsally (thought not at the apex of the skull like in other cetaceans.) The absence of a true cribriform plate (a bony blade separating the nares). In Odobenocetops, a group of foramina in this plate allows the passage of olfactory nerves connected to the small olfactory lobes in the brain. In other cetaceans, the olfactory ...
... is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. These receptors are bipolar neurons that connect to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, traveling through the cribriform plate. At the glomerular layer, axons from the olfactory receptor neurons intermingle with ...
මොළයට අයත් කොටස්වලින් කෙලින්ම ඇතිවන ස්නායු කපාල ස්නායු නම් වේ. මෙමගින් මොලය හා දේහයේ අනෙක් කොටස් සමග ස්නායුක සම්බන්ධතාවය පවත්වා ගැනීම සිදු වේ. [1] මෙම ස්නායු රෝම ඉලක්කම් වලින් I සිට XII දක්වා දක්වන අතර ඒවායින් කෙරෙන කාර්යන් මත වෙන්වූ නම්ද පවතී. පහත එම ස්නායුවල සිංහල නම් හා ඉංග්‍රීසි නම් දක්වා ඇත. I. ආඝ්‍රාණ ස්නායුව - Olfactory nerve II. දෘෂ්ටික ස්නායුව - Optic nerve III. අක්ෂිචාලක ස්නායුව - Occulomotor nerve IV. කප්පික ...
The main olfactory bulb transmits pulses to both mitral and tufted cells, which help determine odor concentration based off the time certain neuron clusters fire (called 'timing code'). These cells also note differences between highly similar odors and use that data to aid in later recognition. The cells are different with mitral having low firing-rates and being easily inhibited by neighboring cells, while tufted have high rates of firing and are more difficult to inhibit.[7][8][9][10]. The uncus houses the olfactory cortex which includes the piriform cortex (posterior orbitofrontal cortex), amygdala, olfactory tubercle, and parahippocampal gyrus.. The olfactory tubercle connects to numerous areas of the amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brain stem, retina, auditory cortex, and olfactory system. *In total it ...
... are generally named according to their structure or function. For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: trigeminus meaning triplets),[6] and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus).[7] Cranial nerves are numbered based on their rostral-caudal (front-back) position,[1] when viewing the brain. If the brain is carefully removed from the ...
The olfactory tubercle differs in location and relative size between humans, non-human primates, rodents, birds, and other animals. In most cases, the olfactory tubercle is identified as a round bulge along the basal forebrain anterior to the optic chiasm and posterior to the olfactory peduncle.[7] In humans and non-human primates, visual identification of the olfactory tubercle is not easy because the basal forebrain bulge is small in these animals.[8] With regard to functional anatomy, the olfactory tubercle can be considered to be a part of three larger networks. First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its location along the rostral ventral region of the brain, that is, the front-bottom part. Second, it is considered to be part of the ...
Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the sense of smell - Treviranus having earlier noted that, between species, the size of the parahippocampal gyrus varies with the size of the olfactory nerve.[2] In 1937 Papez theorized that a neural circuit (the Papez circuit) including the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus constitutes the neural substrate of emotional behavior,[3] and Klüver and Bucy reported that, in monkeys, resection involving the hippocampal formation and the amygdaloid complex has a profound effect on emotional responses.[4][5] As a consequence of these publications, the idea that the entire limbic lobe is dedicated to olfaction receded, and a direct connection between emotion and the limbic lobe was established.[6]. ...
Blows to the head can shear off the olfactory nerves that pass though the ethmoid bone and cause anosmia, an irreversible loss of the sense of smell and a great reduction in the sense of taste (most of which depends on smell). This not only deprives life of some of its pleasures, but can also be dangerous, as when a person fails to smell smoke, gas, or spoiled food.. ...
Each aroma sets off a signal made by the receptors that travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory ... The air travels over millions of olfactory receptor neurons that sit on a stamp-size sheet, the olfactory epithelium, on the ... Researchers recently determined which receptors in a fruit fly detect which specific odors. They plotted each receptor to form ... Signals from the bulb tell your brain what reeks.. Humans can recognize 10,000 different odors. However, no two people sense ...
... made up of the axons from approximately ten million olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa, a region of the nasal ... and which is perforated by olfactory nerve axons. The bulb is divided into two distinct structures: the main olfactory bulb and ... As a neural circuit, the olfactory bulb has one source of sensory input (axons from olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory ... primarily from olfactory receptor neurons that express the same olfactory receptor.The glomeruli layer of the olfactory bulb is ...
The olfactory bulb in the brain is made up of 50 million neuron receptors. When we inhale the fragrance of an essential oil, ... The odor molecules stimulate this lining of nerve cells and trigger electrical impulses to the olfactory bulb in the brain. The ... the odor molecules travel up the nose where theyre registered by the nerves of the olfactory membranes in the nose lining. ... Olfactory responses to odors induce the brain to stimulate the release of hormones and neurochemicals that, in turn, alter the ...
The axons of the olfactory receptor neurons go through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and enter the olfactory bulb. ... Interspersed between these cells are 10 - 20 millions receptor cells. Olfactory receptors are neurons with short and thick ... The electrical signal proceeds through the olfactory nerves axons to the olfactory bulbs. In this region there are between ... However the olfactory system is different from other sensory systems in three fundamental ways [1]: *Olfactory receptor neurons ...
The cilia on the olfactory sensory neurons need receptors for odorants that fit like a glove. Each neuron must respond to an ... The olfactory bulb (shown in the animation) is a fantastic sorting device, that takes the incoming signals from millions of ... That software, in turn, must tie into muscles and nerves that can produce the appropriate behavior rapidly. ... The signals need to know where to go: to particular points on the olfactory bulb. ...
It contains something like five million olfactory receptor neurons, and these connect directly into the olfactory bulb, a part ... the neuron transmits a certain electrical signal to the brain via the olfactory bulb and olfactory nerve. ... Projecting from these neurons into the layer of mucus covering the epithelium are cilia, tiny hairs containing the receptors ... Its those electrical signals sent by the receptor neurons that the brain translates into smells. Some smells, like that of ...
Our sense of smell involves nerves, the brain, and sensory organs such as the nose and olfactory bulbs. ... The olfactory system enables us to detect odors. ... Odor receptor neurons in olfactory epithelium detect these ... Olfactory epithelium located in the nose contains millions of chemical receptors that detect odors. When we sniff, chemicals in ... to the olfactory bulbs.. *Olfactory bulbs - bulb-shaped structures in the forebrain where olfactory nerves end and the ...
Olfactory receptors are primarily located on the ethmoturbinates of the nasal cavity. The vomeronasal organ is an additional ... Olfactory receptors are primarily located on the ethmoturbinates of the nasal cavity. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an ... and microbiota shifts on olfactory performance in working canines. ... and microbiota on olfactory function in canines has not been examined in review. The most important characteristic of the ...
... the olfactory glomeruli function as sorts of way-stations for the information flowing from the olfactory receptor neurons to ... For example, the neocortex and olfactory bulb both contain neuropil. White matter, which is mostly composed of axons and glial ... The optic lobe of arthropods and the ganglia of the arthropod brain as well as the ganglia in the ventral nerve cord are ... As in computing, an entity is most efficient when its wires are optimized; therefore, a brain which has undergone millions of ...
Axons of the OSNs in the main olfactory epithelium comprise the olfactory nerve and innervate the olfactory bulb. Vomeronasal ... Axon guidance of mouse olfactory sensory neurons by odorant receptors and the beta2 adrenergic receptor. Cell. 117:833-846. doi ... In the mouse, there are 5-10 million OSNs in the olfactory epithelium and ∼1,800 glomeruli in each olfactory bulb, which ... for the anterior versus posterior olfactory bulb are presorted in the olfactory nerve before they enter the olfactory bulb, and ...
The use of calcium channel blockers administered intra-nasally to inhibit olfactory sensory perception to treat eating ... olfactory receptor neurons and surrounding cells in the nasal mucosa, the olfactory nerve, the olfactory bulb, and connections ... Right now, at least 39 million Americans: more than one-quarter of all adults and about one in five children. Some people are ... olfactory receptor neurons and surrounding cells in the nasal mucosa, olfactory nerve, olfactory bulb, and connections to the ...
Several properties of olfactory systems have been proposed to contribute to concentration invariance, but none of these alone ... Several properties of olfactory systems have been proposed to contribute to concentration invariance, but none of these alone ... We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the ... We here propose that the mammalian olfactory system uses at least six computational mechanisms in series to reduce the ...
Millions of specialised olfactory receptor neurons have a sole function of detecting odour molecules. The part of the neuron ... 3. In the olfactory bulb, these signals are relayed to glomeruli, collections of receptor cells of the same type that create a ... 4. The glomeruli receptor nerve endings excite mitral cells that forward the signal onto higher brain regions with maintained ... Buck & Axel found that each olfactory neuron expresses only one or, at most, a small number of different receptor genes. That ...
The olfactory epithelia contains olfactory sensory neurons, small nerve cells covered with cilia that protrude into the mucus ... contrast our measly 10 million olfactory receptors with those of a bloodhound, which has about 200 million, and you can see why ... which means that the right olfactory bulb receives information from the right nostril and the left olfactory bulb receives ... OLFACTORY CILIA RECEPTOR CELLS The exceptionally short path (just a few synapses) from the olfactory receptors in the nose to ...
Humans have about 40 million olfactory receptor neurons. In vertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons reside on the olfactory ... dendrite facing the interior space of the nasal cavity and an axon that travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb ... An olfactory receptors neuron sends an impulse via Cranial nerve I the olfactory nerve. Although 80-90% of what we think is " ... Each olfactory receptor neuron in the nose expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells may function ...
... the olfactory nerve is among the first of 12 cranial nerves situated in the head. It transmits sensory data to ... Each olfactory receptor cells is mainly sensory bipolar neuron. On an average, a nasal cavity contains more than 100 million ... The olfactory receptor cells axons extend into the olfactory bulb.. Olfactory Cortex. It is responsible for transmitting ... There is one odor receptor in each olfactory neuron.. Olfactory Nerve Location and Origin. This nerve is located in the head ...
... is mediated by the olfactory nerve. The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is ... There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells. Each neuron has cilia in direct contact ... The olfactory bulb acts as a relay station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is ... available to the olfactory receptors. A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are ...
... is considered as the first cranial nerve, although it is actually a collection of the olfactory receptor cell axons and is ... first cranial nerve, CN I, latin: nervus olfactorius) ... There are around 3 million receptor cells in the olfactory ... The axons of the second-order cells form the olfactory tract that serves as a connection between the olfactory bulb and the ... The axons of the third-order neurons reach the olfactory cortex, and also synapse with the components of the limbic system. The ...
... neurons that bear a given type of receptor would be localized in the olfactory epithelium. Activation of neurons at specific ... about 10 million axons come together to form the olfactory nerve, which then enters the brain. Once inside the brain, groups of ... The olfactory bulb serves as the first relay station for processing olfactory information in the brain; the bulb connects the ... But how does the olfactory cortex, which receives signals from the olfactory bulb, decode the map provided by the olfactory ...
110 Renewed olfactory receptors regenerate neural connections to the olfactory bulb. These olfactory receptor neurons are ... There are 10 to 20 million receptor cells per nasal chamber, and the receptor portion of the cell undergoes continuous renewal ... 106 Although primary odor detection is a function of the olfactory nerve (I), some irritant odors, such as ammonia and acetone ... Olfactory receptors are bipolar neurons located in the superior nasal turbinates and the adjacent septum. ...
... of neurons obtained from olfactory tissues to achieve this goal.The olfactory epithelium contains olfactory receptor neurons at ... along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space. ... In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos ... Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Vomeronasal Organ, skull bone removal, nasal cavity, olfactory epithelium, olfactory turbinate, ...
The neurons terminate in the olfactory bulb, which computes signal patterns from 350 receptor types representing thousands of ... Millions of olfactory receptors line the nasal passages, each designed to attach to specific molecules, activating a molecular ... Temperature and pain receptors (nociceptors) are bare nerve endings. A "fast" pathway transmits localized pain caused by ... The organization of the olfactory system is somewhat primitive too: receptors are dendrites of neurons that go directly to the ...
Each olfactory receptor cell is a primary sensory bipolar neuron. The average nasal cavity contains more than 100 million such ... The olfactory bulb cells contacted by the olfactory receptor cells include the mitral and tufted cells, arranged in specialized ... the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve) or their ganglia may cause a ... The glomerular cells are the primary output neurons of the olfactory bulb. Axons from these cells travel to the olfactory ...
... and then to the olfactory bulbs. The signal then travels from the olfactory bulbs, along cranial nerve 1, to the olfactory area ... As air enters the cavities, some chemicals in the air bind to and activate nervous system receptors on the cilia. This stimulus ... This respiratory process takes place through hundreds of millions of microscopic sacs called alveoli. Oxygen from inhaled air ... sends a signal to the brain: neurons take the signal from the nasal cavities through openings in the ethmoid bone, ...
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. (See the image ... Mitral cells are second-order neurons contacted by the olfactory nerve fibers at the glomerular layer of the bulb. The ... contains more than 100 million olfactory receptor cells. These specialized epithelial cells give rise to the olfactory vesicles ... Olfactory Bulb. The olfactory bulb lies inferior to the basal frontal lobe. The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure ...
  • Only two synapses separate the olfactory bulb from the amygdala, which is involved in the expression and experience of emotion. (dana.org)
  • This effect appears to occur via a GABAB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release from these synapses. (grantome.com)
  • Therefore, regions of the visual field are retinotopically organized within the optic nerve and at their synapses in the LGN. (statpearls.com)
  • The coronavirus seems to rapidly decrease the number of synapses, the connections between neurons. (abs-cbn.com)
  • In this proposal we examine the mechanisms underlying increased glutamate release mediated by these receptors at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses in the hippocampus. (grantome.com)
  • The next level of synaptic processing in the olfactory bulb occurs in the external plexiform layer, between the glomerular layer and the mitral cell layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory bulb is a highly organized structure composed of several distinct layers and synaptic specializations. (medscape.com)
  • We found that the complex interplay between adaptive neuron threshold and activity-dependent synaptic mechanisms is responsible for this new phenomenology. (jove.com)
  • Pair recordings involve simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling not only direct electrophysiological characterization of the synaptic connections between individual neurons, but also pharmacological manipulation of either the presynaptic or the postsynaptic neuron. (jove.com)
  • Thereafter, the use of OHCs in studies focusing on neuron cell death and synaptic plasticity is discussed. (springer.com)
  • The interaction between immune receptors within the central nervous system (CNS) and excitatory glutamate receptors trigger a series of events, such as extensive reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species generation, accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, and prostaglandin activation, which then leads to dendritic retraction, synaptic injury, damage to microtubules, and mitochondrial suppression. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Chemoreceptors play a major role in the olfactory system, as they are responsible for signalling the nervous system that a change has occurred in the body. (omicsgroup.org)
  • A functional model which proposed that NGF was produced by targets of sensory and sympathetic innervation, regulating the specificity of axon growth to the target and the survival of neurons which found the correct target, became dogmatically accepted. (springer.com)
  • When the neuron is stimulated, an action potential will go up the axon. (scientopia.org)
  • However, they number about 600,000 in humans'4 and have an axon-like process that extends to the olfactory bulb. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Baker H, Kawano T, Albert V, Joh TH, Reis DJ, Margolis FL (1984) Olfactory bulb dopamine neurons survive deafferentation induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. (springer.com)
  • Chuhma et al (2014) Dopamine neurons control striatal cholinergic neurons via regionally heterogeneous dopamine and glutamate signaling. (tocris.com)
  • Dragicevic et al (2014) Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. (tocris.com)
  • In hippocampal cell cultures, Homer 1b/c and Cupidin/Homer 2a/b are expressed in inhibitory and excitatory neurons, whereas Homer 3a/b is largely expressed in excitatory neurons but not in inhibitory neurons. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of the co-expression of HGF and c-Met/HGF receptor in hippocampal neurons, we found that HGF prolonged survival of embryonic hippocampal neurons in primary culture: HGF elicited maximal surviving effect at 0.5-1 ng/ml and the potency was comparable to that of nerve growth factor. (nih.gov)
  • Ayer-LeLievre C, Olson L, Ebendal T, Seiger A, Persson H (1988b) Expression of the beta-nerve growth factor gene in hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • When carried out in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, the probability that two neurons are synaptically connected is significantly increased. (jove.com)
  • While CA3-CA3 pyramidal cell pairs are most widely used in the organotypic slice hippocampal preparation, this technique has also been successful in CA3-CA1 pairs and can be adapted to any neurons that are synaptically connected in the same slice preparation. (jove.com)
  • Uchida et al (1996) The differential antagonism by bicuculline and SR95531 of pentobarbitone-induced currents in cultured hippocampal neurons. (tocris.com)
  • Hair cells within the cochlear duct, semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule are polarized sensory receptor cells with apical ciliary extensions that transduce an electrochemical signal upon mechanical deformation. (statpearls.com)