Migraine with Aura
Migraine without Aura
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Depressive Disorder, Major
Cortical Spreading Depression
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Serotonin Receptor Agonists
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive
Headache Disorders, Primary
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Headache Disorders, Secondary
Borderline Personality Disorder
Nervous System Diseases
Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (1/1420)Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels. (+info)
The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation. (2/1420)Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression. (+info)
Computerised axial tomography in patients with severe migraine: a preliminary report. (3/1420)Patients suffering from severe migraine, usually for many years, have been examined by the EMI scanner between attacks. Judged by criteria validated originally by comparison with pneumoencephalography, about half of the patients showed evidence of cerebral atrophy. Perhaps of more significance than generalised atrophy was the frequency of areas of focal atrophy and of evidence of infarction. (+info)
Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (4/1420)Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine. (+info)
Cost-effectiveness of sumatriptan in a managed care population. (5/1420)We conducted an open-labeled study to determine whether sumatriptan is more cost-effective than other therapies used to treat migraine headache. We contacted by phone 220 sumatriptan users enrolled in QualMed, a health maintenance organization (HMO) in Spokane, Washington. Of these, 203 met the inclusion criteria and 164 (81%) completed our telephone survey. The main outcome measures were healthcare costs to the HMO and number of days free of migraine-related disability before and after sumatriptan treatment. Before sumatriptan treatment, 89% of patients reported severe migraine, compared with 63% after sumatriptan treatment. The number of monthly migraine disability days decreased from 6.5 days per month before sumatriptan to 3.9 days per month after sumatriptan. Healthcare utilization rates (ie, number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits) and costs were lower after the patients began taking sumatriptan. The number of different over-the-counter medicines and prescription medications (other than sumatriptan) taken for migraine disabilities decreased. Although total drug expenditures per month increased, the total migraine healthcare expenditure was 41% lower after sumatriptan was initiated. The cost-effectiveness ratio was 47% more favorable after patients started taking sumatriptan. Overall, patients reported fewer migraine-related disabilities, had lower migraine severity scores, and used fewer healthcare resources when taking sumatriptan. These changes resulted in a better cost-effectiveness ratio for migraine treatment. (+info)
Migraine: a problem for employers and managed care plans. (6/1420)Headache is probably the most common symptom in the workforce and in the general population. Among the many types of headache, the one with perhaps the greatest impact on well-being and functional capacity is migraine. It disrupts work and leisure activities and engenders significant use of healthcare resources. Migraine cannot be cured, but it can usually be managed. Managed care organizations can facilitate the treatment of migraine through disease management programs. Unfortunately, however, many migraineurs receive substandard, ineffectual, and inappropriate care--or no care at all. This article reviews the diagnosis, epidemiology, and treatment of migraine, with an emphasis on the perspectives of employers and managed care plans, with the hope of encouraging them to become more proactive in dealing with individuals with migraine. (+info)
Cost of migraine management: a pharmacoeconomic overview. (7/1420)Migraine is a chronic, sometimes debilitating, condition that tends to afflict young people who are otherwise healthy and productive. Because diagnostic criteria and effective treatment modalities have not been well taught to physicians, the condition is often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and mismanaged, causing unnecessary pain, hardship to the individual, disability, loss of productivity, and increased expense to the healthcare system. This paper discusses a rational approach to the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of migraine, highlighting the relative costs of preventive and acute care therapies. Several cases are presented to illustrate how the costs of inefficiently managed migraine therapy can be decreased even by using medications that have a higher per-dose cost, as they decrease the pain and disability and actually lower the total cost of managing the patient with migraine. (+info)
The inhibition of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by some analgesic drugs and progesterone. (8/1420)1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery and to study the effects of drugs associated with the aetiology or treatment of migraine on the nicotine response. 2. The guinea-pig isolated basilar artery, pre-contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), in the presence of atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (3 microM), relaxed on addition of nicotine (0.1 mM) in approximately 50% of preparations. The responses to nicotine were of short duration and blocked in preparations pre-treated for 10 min with capsaicin (1 microM) and are therefore probably a consequence of the stimulation of trigeminal C fibre terminals. 3. Responses to nicotine were reduced in the presence of 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and sumatriptan in that order of potency. This is consistent with a 5-HT1 receptor mechanism. These agonists evoked small additional contractions in vessels pre-contracted with PGF2alpha. 4. Indomethacin (0.3-10 microM), aspirin (10-30 microM), and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) reduced nicotine-evoked relaxation of the basilar artery, suggesting the involvement of both nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase products in this response. 5. Progesterone (1 microM) markedly reduced the response to nicotine, a possible reflection of the ion channel blocking activity of high concentrations of this compound. 6. The guinea-pig basilar artery is a preparation in which the effects of drugs on responses to stimulation of trigeminal nerve terminals can be studied in vitro and may thus be of interest in assessing the actions of drugs used in treatment of headache. (+info)
There are several types of migraine disorders, including:
1. Migraine without aura: This is the most common type of migraine, characterized by a throbbing headache on one side of the head, often accompanied by sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Migraine with aura: This type of migraine is characterized by aura symptoms, such as visual disturbances, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms, which occur before the headache.
3. Chronic migraine: This type of migraine is characterized by headaches that occur 15 days or more per month, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and anxiety.
4. Hemiplegic migraine: This is a rare type of migraine that is characterized by a temporary weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, often accompanied by a severe headache.
5. Familial hemiplegic migraine: This is a rare inherited condition that is characterized by recurrent episodes of temporary weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, often accompanied by headaches.
6. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine: This is a rare condition that is characterized by recurrent episodes of temporary weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, often accompanied by headaches, but without a clear family history.
7. Migraine-related disorders: These are conditions that are associated with migraine, such as stroke, seizures, and autonomic dysfunction.
Migraine disorders can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can vary in severity and frequency, and may overlap with other conditions. However, there are several diagnostic criteria that healthcare providers use to identify migraine disorders, including:
1. Headache frequency: Migraine headaches typically occur more frequently than headaches caused by other conditions, such as tension headaches or sinus headaches.
2. Headache severity: Migraine headaches can be severe and debilitating, often requiring bed rest or medication to relieve the pain.
3. Associated symptoms: Migraine headaches are often accompanied by other symptoms, such as sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances.
4. Family history: A family history of migraine can increase the likelihood of a diagnosis.
5. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of migraine, such as tenderness in the head and neck muscles or changes in the sensation and strength of the limbs.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, may be ordered to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.
7. Medication trials: Healthcare providers may prescribe medications to treat migraine headaches and observe the patient's response to determine if the condition is migraine-related.
There are several types of headaches, including:
1. Tension headaches: These headaches are caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp and can be treated with over-the-counter pain relievers.
2. Sinus headaches: These headaches are caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses and can be treated with antibiotics or decongestants.
3. Cluster headaches: These headaches occur in clusters or cycles and can be very severe, often waking the patient up during the night.
4. Rebound headaches: These headaches are caused by overuse of pain medications and can be treated by stopping the medication and using alternative therapies.
5. Hormonal headaches: These headaches are related to changes in hormone levels, such as those experienced during menstruation or menopause.
6. Caffeine headaches: These headaches are caused by excessive caffeine consumption and can be treated by reducing or avoiding caffeine intake.
7. Dehydration headaches: These headaches are caused by dehydration and can be treated by drinking plenty of water.
8. Medication overuse headaches: These headaches are caused by taking too much pain medication and can be treated by stopping the medication and using alternative therapies.
9. Chronic daily headaches: These headaches are defined as headaches that occur 15 days or more per month and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle tension, sinus problems, and other underlying conditions.
10. Migraine headaches: These headaches are characterized by severe pain, often on one side of the head, along with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. They can be treated with over-the-counter or prescription medications, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture and relaxation techniques.
Headaches can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Muscle tension: Tight muscles in the neck and scalp can lead to headaches.
2. Sinus problems: Inflammation or infection in the sinuses can cause headaches.
3. Allergies: Seasonal allergies or allergies to certain foods or substances can cause headaches.
4. Eye strain: Prolonged use of computers, smartphones, or other digital devices can cause eye strain and lead to headaches.
5. Sleep disorders: Poor sleep quality or insomnia can contribute to headaches.
6. Hormonal changes: Changes in estrogen levels, such as those experienced during menstruation or menopause, can cause headaches.
7. Dehydration: Not drinking enough water can lead to dehydration and contribute to headaches.
8. Poor posture: Slouching or hunching over can lead to muscle tension and contribute to headaches.
9. Stress: High levels of stress can cause muscle tension and contribute to headaches.
10. Diet: Certain foods, such as alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, and MSG, can trigger headaches in some people.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms along with your headache:
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Severe neck stiffness
4. Pain that worsens with movement or coughing
5. Headaches that occur more frequently or are more severe than usual
6. Headaches that interfere with daily activities or sleep
7. Sudden, severe headaches in someone who has never experienced them before
8. Headaches in someone who is taking certain medications or has a history of medical conditions such as migraines or stroke.
A healthcare professional can help determine the underlying cause of your headaches and recommend appropriate treatment options.
Migraine with aura is considered to be a more severe form of migraine than migraine without aura, which does not have the same neurological symptoms before the headache. Migraine with aura is also associated with a higher risk of other health problems, such as stroke and dementia.
There are several treatments available for migraine with aura, including medications that can help to reduce the frequency and severity of the headaches, as well as lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers and getting regular exercise. It is important for people who experience migraine with aura to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop an effective treatment plan.
Migraine is a type of headache disorder that can cause severe pain and disability. Migraine without aura, also known as common migraine or episodic migraine, is the most common form of migraine. In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for migraine without aura.
Causes of Migraine Without Aura
The exact cause of migraine without aura is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve changes in the blood flow and neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Some potential triggers for migraine without aura include:
* Hormonal fluctuations: Changes in estrogen levels, such as those experienced during the menstrual cycle or menopause, can trigger migraine without aura.
* Stress: High levels of stress can trigger migraine without aura.
* Sensory stimuli: Bright lights, loud noises, and strong smells can trigger migraine without aura.
* Sleep changes: Changes in sleep patterns or poor sleep quality can trigger migraine without aura.
* Dietary factors: Certain foods, such as alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, and MSG, can trigger migraine without aura.
Symptoms of Migraine Without Aura
The symptoms of migraine without aura are similar to those of migraine with aura, but without the warning signs. The main symptom is a severe headache, often described as a pulsating or throbbing pain on one side of the head. Other symptoms may include:
* Sensitivity to light and sound
* Nausea and vomiting
* Dizziness and balance problems
* Blurred vision or other visual disturbances
* Tingling or numbness in the face or limbs
Treatment of Migraine Without Aura
There is no cure for migraine without aura, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These include:
* Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen
* Triptans, which work by constricting blood vessels and blocking pain pathways in the brain
* Ergotamines, which also constrict blood vessels and block pain pathways
* Anti-nausea medications, such as metoclopramide or ondansetron
* Preventive medications, such as beta blockers, anticonvulsants, or corticosteroids, which can reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks.
Lifestyle Changes for Migraine Without Aura
In addition to medication, there are several lifestyle changes that can help manage migraine without aura. These include:
* Keeping a headache diary to track triggers and patterns
* Avoiding triggers such as certain foods, stress, or lack of sleep
* Maintaining a consistent sleep schedule
* Exercise regularly
* Practicing relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing
* Avoiding alcohol and caffeine
* Eating regular meals to maintain stable blood sugar levels.
It is important to work with a healthcare provider to find the best treatment plan for migraine without aura. With the right combination of medication and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Bipolar Disorder Types:
There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:
1. Bipolar I Disorder: One or more manic episodes with or without depressive episodes.
2. Bipolar II Disorder: At least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (a less severe form of mania).
3. Cyclothymic Disorder: Periods of hypomania and depression that last at least 2 years.
4. Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types.
5. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types, but there is still a noticeable impact on daily life.
Bipolar Disorder Causes:
The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Some potential causes include:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Brain structure and function: Imbalances in neurotransmitters and abnormalities in brain structure have been found in individuals with bipolar disorder.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol have been linked to bipolar disorder.
4. Life events: Traumatic events or significant changes in life circumstances can trigger episodes of mania or depression.
5. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or stroke, can increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms:
The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary depending on the individual and the specific type of episode they are experiencing. Some common symptoms include:
1. Manic episodes: Increased energy, reduced need for sleep, impulsivity, and grandiosity.
2. Depressive episodes: Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities.
3. Mixed episodes: A combination of manic and depressive symptoms.
4. Hypomanic episodes: Less severe than full-blown mania, but still disrupt daily life.
5. Rapid cycling: Experiencing four or more episodes within a year.
6. Melancholic features: Feeling sad, hopeless, and worthless.
7. Atypical features: Experiencing mania without elevated mood or grandiosity.
8. Mood instability: Rapid changes in mood throughout the day.
9. Anxiety symptoms: Restlessness, feeling on edge, and difficulty concentrating.
10. Sleep disturbances: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, or oversleeping.
11. Substance abuse: Using drugs or alcohol to cope with symptoms.
12. Suicidal thoughts or behaviors: Having thoughts of harming oneself or taking actions that could lead to death.
It's important to note that not everyone with bipolar disorder will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely between individuals.
Some common types of mental disorders include:
1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.
Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.
There are several types of mood disorders, including:
1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
2. Bipolar Disorder: This is a condition that involves periods of mania or hypomania (elevated mood) alternating with episodes of depression.
3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent low mood, lasting for two years or more. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
4. Postpartum Depression (PPD): This is a condition that occurs in some women after childbirth, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): This is a condition that occurs during the winter months, when there is less sunlight. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, lethargy, and a lack of energy.
6. Anxious Distress: This is a condition characterized by excessive worry, fear, and anxiety that interferes with daily life.
7. Adjustment Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences a significant change or stressor in their life, such as the loss of a loved one or a job change. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This is a condition that occurs in some women during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycle, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of energy.
Mood disorders can be treated with a combination of medication and therapy. Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are commonly used to treat mood disorders. These medications can help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT), can also be effective in treating mood disorders. CBT helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their depression, while IPT focuses on improving communication skills and relationships with others.
In addition to medication and therapy, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can also be helpful in managing mood disorders. Support from family and friends, as well as self-care activities such as meditation and relaxation techniques, can also be beneficial.
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression or anxiety persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with mood disorders can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and overall quality of life.
Some common types of anxiety disorders include:
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Excessive and persistent worry about everyday things, even when there is no apparent reason to be concerned.
2. Panic Disorder: Recurring panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time, even when there is no obvious trigger.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Excessive and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
4. Specific Phobias: Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Recurring, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that are distressing and disruptive to daily life.
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Persistent symptoms of anxiety, fear, and avoidance after experiencing a traumatic event.
Anxiety disorders can be treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, or both, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many people with anxiety disorders are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
There are several types of headaches, including:
1. Tension headache: This is the most common type of headache and is caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp.
2. Migraine: This is a severe headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Sinus headache: This type of headache is caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
4. Cluster headache: This is a rare type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles and can be very painful.
5. Rebound headache: This type of headache is caused by overuse of pain medication.
Headaches can be treated with a variety of methods, such as:
1. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
2. Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots, for migraines and other severe headaches.
3. Lifestyle changes, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
4. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or massage, which can help relieve tension and pain.
5. Addressing underlying causes, such as sinus infections or allergies, that may be contributing to the headaches.
It is important to seek medical attention if a headache is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, confusion, or weakness. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the headache and recommend appropriate treatment.
Primary headache disorders are those that are not caused by another medical condition or injury, and include:
1. Migraine: a severe, debilitating headache that can last for hours or even days, often accompanied by sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Tension headache: a common type of headache that is often described as a dull, squeezing pain on both sides of the head.
3. Cluster headache: a rare and intense form of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles, typically lasting several weeks or months.
4. Sinus headache: a type of headache caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
5. Trigeminal neuralgia: a chronic pain disorder that affects the nerves in the face and head.
Secondary headache disorders are those that are caused by another medical condition or injury, such as:
1. Medication overuse headache: a type of headache that develops as a result of taking too much pain medication.
2. Hormonal headache: a type of headache that occurs due to changes in hormone levels, such as during menstruation or menopause.
3. Headache caused by underlying medical conditions, such as stroke, tumors, or sinusitis.
4. Headache caused by trauma or injury, such as whiplash or a concussion.
Headache disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and can affect their ability to work, sleep, and participate in daily activities. Treatment for headache disorders depends on the underlying cause, but may include medication, lifestyle changes, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.
Tension-type headaches are the most common type of headache, and they can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, muscle tension, and poor posture. They can also be triggered by specific activities such as reading or watching TV for long periods of time.
The pain associated with tension-type headaches can range from mild to severe and can last anywhere from 30 minutes to several days. Other symptoms that may accompany the pain include sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and vomiting.
There are several treatments available for tension-type headaches, including over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, and prescription medications such as triptans or ergotamines. Lifestyle changes such as reducing stress, improving sleep, and maintaining good posture can also help to prevent and manage tension-type headaches.
In medical terminology, tension-type headaches are sometimes referred to as "muscle contraction headaches" or "stress headaches." They are considered a primary headache disorder, meaning that they are not caused by an underlying medical condition but rather by changes in the body's physiological processes.
Overall, tension-type headaches are a common and frustrating condition that can significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the causes and symptoms of this condition can help individuals to seek appropriate treatment and make lifestyle changes to manage their symptoms effectively.
Photophobia can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Eye conditions like cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal detachment
2. Medications like tranquilizers, antidepressants, or antihistamines
3. Head injuries or brain disorders
4. Chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis or migraines
5. Vitamin deficiencies like vitamin A or B12
6. Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins
Symptoms of photophobia may include:
1. Discomfort or pain in the eyes when exposed to light
2. Blurred vision or sensitivity to glare
3. Difficulty seeing in bright environments
4. Headaches or migraines triggered by light exposure
5. Nausea or dizziness
6. Sensitivity to light that worsens over time
Diagnosis of photophobia typically involves a comprehensive eye exam to rule out any underlying eye conditions. Medical history and lifestyle factors may also be considered to identify potential causes. Treatment options for photophobia depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Eyewear with tinted lenses or UV protection
2. Medications to reduce light sensitivity or alleviate symptoms
3. Adjustments to lighting environments
4. Lifestyle changes like avoiding bright lights, wearing sunglasses, or using a brimmed hat
5. Treatment of underlying conditions or diseases causing photophobia.
In summary, photophobia is a condition characterized by an excessive sensitivity to light, which can cause various discomforts and symptoms. Identifying the underlying cause through comprehensive diagnosis and implementing appropriate treatment options can help alleviate these symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals experiencing photophobia.
The exact cause of MDD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some risk factors for developing MDD include:
* Family history of depression or other mental health conditions
* History of trauma or stressful life events
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
* Substance abuse or addiction
* Personality traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism
Symptoms of MDD can vary from person to person, but typically include:
* Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
* Fatigue or loss of energy
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of death or suicide
MDD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, based on the symptoms and their duration. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may include:
* Antidepressant medications to relieve symptoms of depression
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others
* Other forms of therapy, such as mindfulness-based therapies or relaxation techniques
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression are severe or persistent, as MDD can have a significant impact on daily life and can increase the risk of suicide. With appropriate treatment, however, many people with MDD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:
* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:
* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.
Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.
It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.
1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of inattention, such as difficulty paying attention to details or making careless mistakes. Individuals with this type may have trouble sustaining their focus during tasks and may appear daydreamy or easily distracted.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, such as fidgeting, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with this type may also exhibit impulsivity, such as interrupting others or speaking out of turn.
3. Combined Type: This type is characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
The symptoms of ADHD can vary from person to person and may change over time. Some common symptoms include:
* Difficulty sustaining attention during tasks
* Easily distracted or interrupted
* Difficulty completing tasks
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet
* Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
* Impulsivity, such as acting without thinking
The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, as well as genetic factors. There is no cure for ADHD, but medication and behavioral therapy can help manage symptoms and improve functioning.
ADHD can have significant impacts on daily life, including academic and social difficulties. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with ADHD are able to lead successful and fulfilling lives.
The exact cause of OCD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Symptoms of OCD can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Recurrent and intrusive thoughts or fears (obsessions)
* Repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) such as checking, counting, or cleaning
* Feeling the need to perform compulsions in order to reduce anxiety or prevent something bad from happening
* Feeling a sense of relief after performing compulsions
* Time-consuming nature of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with daily activities and social interactions
OCD can be treated with a combination of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT helps individuals identify and challenge their obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors, while SSRIs help reduce the anxiety associated with OCD.
It's important to note that while individuals with OCD may recognize that their thoughts or behaviors are irrational, they are often unable to stop them without professional treatment. With appropriate treatment, however, many individuals with OCD are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
The symptoms of PTSD can vary widely and may include:
1. Flashbacks or intrusive memories of the traumatic event
2. Nightmares or disturbed sleep
3. Avoidance of people, places, or activities that remind them of the event
4. Hypervigilance or an exaggerated startle response
5. Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
6. Irritability, anger, or other mood changes
7. Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension
The exact cause of PTSD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the brain's response to stress and the release of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that help regulate emotions and memory.
PTSD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using a combination of psychological evaluation and medical history. Treatment for PTSD typically involves therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Therapy may include exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or other forms of talk therapy. Medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants may be used to help manage symptoms.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing PTSD, and this includes seeking support from friends, family, or mental health professionals soon after the traumatic event. Self-care practices such as exercise, meditation, or relaxation techniques can also be helpful in reducing stress and promoting emotional well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines Autistic Disorder as a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the following criteria:
A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., abnormal or absent eye contact, impaired understanding of facial expressions, delayed or lack of response to social overtures).
2. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (e.g., difficulty initiating or sustaining conversations, impairment in understanding social norms, rules, and expectations).
3. Deficits in using nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction (e.g., difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language, gestures).
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., hand flapping, head banging, repeating words or phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexibility, and adherence to routines or rituals.
3. Preoccupation with specific interests or activities that are repeated in a rigid and restricted manner (e.g., preoccupation with a particular topic, excessive focus on a specific activity).
C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period and significantly impact social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.
D. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during a medical or neurological condition (e.g., intellectual disability, hearing loss).
It is important to note that Autistic Disorder is a spectrum disorder and individuals with this diagnosis may have varying degrees of severity in their symptoms. Additionally, there are several other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) that have similar diagnostic criteria but may differ in severity and presentation. These include:
A. Asperger's Disorder: Characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but without the presence of significant delay or retardation in language development.
B. Rett Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
C. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Characterized by a loss of language and social skills that occurs after a period of normal development.
It is important to consult with a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Some common examples of phobic disorders include:
1. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
3. Agoraphobia (fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be difficult)
4. Claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces)
5. Cynophobia (fear of dogs)
6. Glossophobia (fear of speaking in public)
7. Mysophobia (fear of germs or dirt)
8. Necrophobia (fear of death or dead things)
9. Ophidiophobia (fear of snakes)
10. Social phobia (fear of social situations or being judged by others)
Phobic disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual's daily life, and can lead to avoidance behaviors that limit their ability to function in various contexts. Treatment for phobic disorders often involves exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication.
Types of Substance-Related Disorders:
1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.
1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.
1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.
1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.
1. Autism spectrum disorder: Children with autism spectrum disorder struggle with social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors. They may also have delays or impairments in language development, cognitive and social skills.
2. Rett syndrome: A rare genetic condition that affects girls almost exclusively. Children with Rett syndrome typically develop normally for the first six months of life before losing skills and experiencing difficulties with communication, movement and other areas of functioning.
3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: This is a rare condition in which children develop normally for at least two years before suddenly losing their language and social skills. Children with this disorder may also experience difficulty with eye contact, imitation and imagination.
4. Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): A diagnosis that is given to children who display some but not all of the characteristic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Children with PDD-NOS may have difficulties in social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors.
5. Other specified and unspecified pervasive developmental disorders: This category includes a range of rare conditions that affect children's development and functioning. Examples include;
a) Fragile X syndrome: A genetic condition associated with intellectual disability, behavioral challenges and physical characteristics such as large ears and a long face.
b) Williams syndrome: A rare genetic condition that affects about one in 10,000 children. It is characterized by heart problems, developmental delays and difficulties with social interaction and communication.
These disorders can have a significant impact on the child's family and caregivers, requiring early intervention and ongoing support to help the child reach their full potential.
Pervasive child development disorder is a broad term used to describe a range of conditions that affect children's social communication and behavioral development. There are five main types of pervasive developmental disorders:
1. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Children with ASD may have a hard time understanding other people's perspectives, initiating or maintaining conversations and developing and maintaining relationships. They may also exhibit repetitive behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking or repeating words or phrases.
2. Rett syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects girls almost exclusively. It is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors, as well as physical symptoms such as seizures, tremors and muscle weakness. Children with Rett syndrome may also experience anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances.
3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: A rare condition in which children develop typically for the first few years of life, but then lose their language and social skills and exhibit autistic-like behaviors.
4. Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): A diagnosis given to children who exhibit some, but not all, of the symptoms of ASD. Children with PDD-NOS may have difficulty with social interaction and communication, but do not meet the criteria for a full diagnosis of ASD.
5. Asperger's disorder: A milder form of autism that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but not with language development. Children with Asperger's disorder may have trouble understanding other people's perspectives, developing and maintaining relationships and exhibiting repetitive behaviors.
it's important to note that these categories are not exhaustive and there is some overlap between them. Additionally, each individual with a pervasive developmental disorder may experience a unique set of symptoms and challenges.
Some common types of psychotic disorders include:
1. Schizophrenia: A chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
2. Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder that causes extreme changes in mood, energy, and behavior. It can lead to manic or hypomanic episodes, as well as depression.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental disorder that combines symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings.
4. Brief Psychotic Disorder: A short-term episode of psychosis that can be triggered by a stressful event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
5. Postpartum Psychosis: A rare condition that occurs in some new mothers after childbirth. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
6. Drug-Induced Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by taking certain medications or drugs. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
7. Alcohol-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by alcohol use disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
8. Trauma-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by a traumatic event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
9. Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): A catch-all diagnosis for psychotic episodes that do not meet the criteria for any other specific psychotic disorder.
Symptoms of psychotic disorders can vary depending on the individual and the specific disorder. Common symptoms include:
1. Hallucinations: Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
2. Delusions: False beliefs that are not based in reality.
3. Disorganized thinking and speech: Difficulty organizing thoughts and expressing them in a clear and logical manner.
4. Disorganized behavior: Incoherent or bizarre behavior, such as dressing inappropriately for the weather or neglecting personal hygiene.
5. Catatonia: A state of immobility or abnormal movement, such as rigidity or agitation.
6. Negative symptoms: A decrease in emotional expression or motivation, such as a flat affect or a lack of interest in activities.
7. Cognitive impairment: Difficulty with attention, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions and relationships.
9. Lack of self-care: Neglecting personal hygiene, nutrition, and other basic needs.
10. Suicidal or homicidal ideation: Thoughts of harming oneself or others.
It's important to note that not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. With proper treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
1. Migraine: A severe, recurring headache that can last for hours to days, often accompanied by sensitivity to light, sound, and nausea.
2. Tension-type headache: A common type of headache characterized by a dull, aching pain on both sides of the head, often associated with muscle tension.
3. Cluster headache: A severe, one-sided headache that can occur multiple times a day and last for weeks or months.
4. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs): A group of rare but severely painful headaches that are often associated with facial swelling and tearing.
Primary headache disorders can be challenging to diagnose and manage, as they can have overlapping symptoms and may not be easily distinguishable from other conditions. However, there are several medications and therapies available to help manage these disorders and improve quality of life for individuals affected by them.
Conduct disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by a pattern of behavior in children and adolescents that violates the rights of others, as well as age-appropriate societal norms and rules. This condition can involve behaviors such as aggression to people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, and serious violations of rules.
Conduct disorder is also characterized by a lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions, as well as a tendency towards impulsivity.
Symptoms of conduct disorder can include:
* Aggression to people or animals
* Destruction of property
* Serious violations of rules
* Disrespect for authority figures
* Lack of empathy, guilt, or remorse for one's actions
* Difficulty with self-control
* Antisocial behavior
Conduct disorder is diagnosed based on a combination of the child's symptoms and behavior, as well as an evaluation of their social and family history. Treatment for conduct disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication.
Psychotherapy may involve:
* Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to help the child identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Family therapy to address any family dynamics that may be contributing to the child's behavior
* Social skills training to help the child learn appropriate social interactions and communication skills.
Medications that may be used to treat conduct disorder include:
* Stimulants, such as Ritalin (methylphenidate), to help with impulse control and attention
* Antipsychotics, such as Risperdal (risperidone), to help with aggression and irritability
* Antidepressants, such as Prozac (fluoxetine), to help with mood regulation.
It's important to note that conduct disorder is a mental health condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. Children with conduct disorder are at an increased risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, as well as engaging in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse and delinquency. With appropriate treatment and support, however, it is possible for children with conduct disorder to learn healthy coping mechanisms, improve their social skills, and lead successful lives as adults.
1. Migraine: A severe, debilitating headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
2. Tension headaches: A common type of headache that is often caused by muscle tension or stress.
3. Cluster headaches: A rare and severe type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles, typically on one side of the head.
4. Sinus headaches: A type of headache caused by inflammation or infection of the sinuses.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: Pain in the jaw joint and surrounding muscles can cause headaches.
6. Eye strain: Prolonged use of computers, smartphones, or other digital devices can cause eye strain, leading to headaches.
7. Sleep disorders: Sleep apnea, insomnia, and other sleep disorders can contribute to the development of secondary headaches.
8. Medication overuse: Taking too much pain medication can lead to rebound headaches or medication-overuse headaches.
9. Dehydration: Not drinking enough water can cause dehydration, leading to headaches.
10. Hormonal changes: Hormonal fluctuations during menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause can lead to secondary headaches.
Secondary headaches are often treated by addressing the underlying condition or disorder. This may involve medication, lifestyle changes, or other therapies, depending on the specific diagnosis.
There are several different types of tic disorders, including:
1. Tourette Syndrome: This is the most common type of tic disorder, and it is characterized by both motor and vocal tics. Motor tics can include simple movements such as blinking or facial grimacing, as well as more complex movements such as head jerking or arm flapping. Vocal tics can include repeated words or phrases, or other sounds such as grunting or sniffing.
2. Chronic Tic Disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and/or vocal tics that occur over a period of more than 1 year, but do not meet the criteria for Tourette Syndrome.
3. Provisional Tic Disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of fewer than 5 motor and/or vocal tics that occur over a period of less than 1 year.
4. Tic-like movements: These are movements or sounds that are similar to tics, but do not meet the full criteria for a tic disorder. Examples include stereotyped movements such as hand flapping or head banging, or repetitive sounds such as throat clearing or sniffing.
Tic disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and they may also be associated with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety. Treatment options for tic disorders include medications such as dopamine blockers and antipsychotics, as well as behavioral therapies such as habit reversal training and exposure and response prevention.
1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
2. Sleep apnea: pauses in breathing during sleep
3. Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep
4. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable sensations in the legs during sleep
5. Periodic limb movement disorder: involuntary movements of the legs or arms during sleep
6. Sleepwalking: walking or performing other activities during sleep
7. Sleep terrors: intense fear or anxiety during sleep
8. Sleep paralysis: temporary inability to move or speak during sleep
9. REM sleep behavior disorder: acting out dreams during sleep
10. Circadian rhythm disorders: disruptions to the body's internal clock, leading to irregular sleep patterns.
Sleep disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, sleep deprivation, and underlying medical conditions like chronic pain or sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes (such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment), medications, and behavioral therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia). In some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a sleep disorder, as untreated sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the specific sleep disorder and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
The exact cause of ophthalmoplegic migraine is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to changes in blood flow and neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Some people may have a family history of the condition, and it is more common in women than men.
Symptoms of ophthalmoplegic migraine can vary from person to person, but they often include:
* Double vision or blurred vision
* Weakness or paralysis of the extraocular muscles (muscles that control eye movements)
* Sensitivity to light and sound
* Nausea and vomiting
* Pain on one side of the head or face
There is no cure for ophthalmoplegic migraine, but medications and lifestyle changes can help manage symptoms. Treatment options may include:
* Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen
* Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots
* Anti-nausea drugs
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers, getting regular exercise, and managing stress
It is important to note that ophthalmoplegic migraine can be a chronic condition, and it may take some trial and error to find the best treatment plan. If you are experiencing symptoms of ophthalmoplegic migraine, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.
Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:
1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.
It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.
The term "somatoform" refers to the fact that these disorders involve somatic (physical) symptoms, rather than psychotic or mood-related symptoms. Somatoform disorders can include conditions such as:
* Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that are not easily explained by a medical condition, and which cause significant distress or impairment in daily life.
* Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite medical reassurance that no such illness exists.
* Conversion disorder: characterized by physical symptoms that are thought to be related to an unconscious psychological conflict or stress.
* Factitious disorder: characterized by intentionally producing or feigning physical symptoms in order to gain attention, sympathy, or other benefits.
Somatoform disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex interplay between psychological and physical factors. Treatment may involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and may require a multidisciplinary approach involving mental health professionals and medical specialists.
Hyperacusis is characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequencies of sound, particularly high-pitched noises. This can be accompanied by a decreased tolerance for loud noises and an increased sensitivity to soft sounds as well. Hyperacusis can cause significant distress and impairment in daily life, making it difficult for individuals with the condition to engage in everyday activities or even leave their homes due to the overwhelming nature of sound.
Hyperacusis is often associated with hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and other conditions that affect the auditory system. However, it can also occur in individuals with normal hearing. In some cases, hyperacusis may be a symptom of an underlying psychological condition such as anxiety or depression.
Treatment for hyperacusis typically involves a combination of sound therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Sound therapy can help desensitize the individual to certain frequencies of sound, while cognitive behavioral therapy can help address any underlying psychological issues that may be contributing to the condition. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as anxiety or depression.
Overall, hyperacusis is a chronic and debilitating condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to managing the condition and improving one's ability to function in daily life.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) defines BPD as a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, emotions, self-image, and behaviors, beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts. People with BPD may exhibit the following symptoms:
1. Unstable relationships: People with BPD may have intense and unstable relationships that can change rapidly from idealization to devaluation.
2. Impulsivity: They may engage in impulsive behaviors, such as substance abuse, reckless spending, or risky sexual behavior, without considering the consequences.
3. Emptiness: Individuals with BPD may feel empty or hollow, leading to a sense of incompleteness or unfulfillment.
4. Self-harm: They may engage in self-destructive behaviors, such as cutting or burning themselves, as a coping mechanism for their emotional pain.
5. Fear of abandonment: People with BPD often have a deep-seated fear of being abandoned or rejected by those they care about.
6. Dissociation: They may experience dissociation, feeling detached from their body or surroundings, especially during times of stress or trauma.
7. Intense emotional dysregulation: Individuals with BPD may experience intense and frequent mood swings, difficulty regulating their emotions, and a heightened sensitivity to perceived rejection or criticism.
8. Identity issues: People with BPD may struggle with their sense of self, experiencing confusion about their identity and a feeling of being uncertain about their place in the world.
9. Disrupted family relationships: BPD can have a significant impact on family members, causing them to feel anxious, confused, or drained by the individual's behavior.
10. Stigma and misconceptions: Borderline personality disorder is often misunderstood and stigmatized, leading to further isolation and marginalization of individuals with BPD.
It's important to remember that every person with BPD is unique and may not exhibit all of these symptoms. However, by understanding the common experiences and challenges faced by individuals with BPD, we can better support them in their recovery and well-being.
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.
Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:
* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke
Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.
There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:
* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet
In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.
Examples of Nervous System Diseases include:
1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease: A degenerative disorder that affects movement, balance and coordination.
3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that affects the protective covering of nerve fibers.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death.
5. Brain tumors: Abnormal growth of tissue in the brain.
6. Neuropathy: Damage to peripheral nerves that can cause pain, numbness and weakness in hands and feet.
7. Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
8. Motor neuron disease: Diseases that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
9. Chronic pain syndrome: Persistent pain that lasts more than 3 months.
10. Neurodevelopmental disorders: Conditions such as autism, ADHD and learning disabilities that affect the development of the brain and nervous system.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, toxins and ageing. Treatment options for Nervous System Diseases range from medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy to lifestyle changes.
The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.
There are different types of brain ischemia, including:
1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.
The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.
The exact cause of paraneoplastic syndromes is not fully understood, but it is believed that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the nervous system, leading to damage and dysfunction. Some research suggests that certain types of cancer may trigger an autoimmune response, while other factors such as genetics or environmental exposures may also play a role.
Paraneoplastic syndromes can be difficult to diagnose, as they often present with symptoms that are similar to those of more common conditions such as multiple sclerosis or stroke. However, certain tests such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) can help rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of a paraneoplastic syndrome.
Treatment for paraneoplastic syndromes typically focuses on managing symptoms and addressing any underlying cancer that may be present. Medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and chemotherapy may be used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, while surgery or radiation therapy may be necessary to remove cancerous tissue. In some cases, plasmapheresis (plasma exchange) may also be recommended to remove harmful antibodies from the blood.
Overall, paraneoplastic syndromes, nervous system are a complex and rare group of disorders that can significantly impact quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to managing symptoms and improving outcomes for patients with these conditions.
Genetics of migraine headaches
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Temporomandibular Joint Dis1
- As you can see in the studies results, there is a relationship between Chronic Migraine and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) in many cases. (headpaininstitute.com)
Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy2
- In an exploratory study, administration of BoNT-A in accordance with the Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) protocol effectively reduced the number of monthly migraine days for patients with HFEM, meeting the primary outcome. (medscape.com)
- The approval for chronic migraine was based on results of the phase 3 Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) program, which was made up of 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that included 1384 adults from 122 centers in North America and Europe, a statement from Allergan notes. (medscape.com)
- Objectives: To identify signs of temporomandibular disorders and cervical pain in individuals with episodic and chronic (transformed) migraine (CM), relative to controls without headaches. (headpaininstitute.com)
- Most migraine headaches last about 4 hours, but severe ones can go for more than 3 days. (webmd.com)
- Some people may get migraine headaches every few days, while others get them once or twice a year. (webmd.com)
- Doctors don't know the exact cause of migraine headaches, although they seem to be related to changes in your brain and to your genes. (webmd.com)
- Most people start having migraine headaches between ages 10 and 40. (webmd.com)
- Throughout the study, patients kept daily diaries of headaches and other related measures, such as scores on the Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS). (medscape.com)
- Can ADHD or stimulant medication be the cause of my migraine headaches? (additudemag.com)
- Anxiety, stress, and mood disorders can trigger headaches that linger for more than a day. (healthline.com)
- Specifically, those with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder tend to experience prolonged headaches more often than those without. (healthline.com)
- Allergan Inc) for headache prophylaxis in patients with adult chronic migraine who suffer headaches on 15 or more days per month, each lasting more than 4 hours. (medscape.com)
- It has not been shown to work for the treatment of episodic migraine headaches that occur 14 days or fewer per month, or for other forms of headache, it adds. (medscape.com)
- A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. (bvsalud.org)
- Methods: In this prospective, controlled, double-blind study, we examined 93 individuals divided in 3 groups: episodic migraine EM, (n=31), CM chronic migraine (n=34), and controls without migraine (n=28). (headpaininstitute.com)
- Injections of onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A, Botox) may reduce days of high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM), new research suggests. (medscape.com)
- HFEM, he noted, is likely a transition state from low/moderate-frequency episodic migraine to chronic migraine. (medscape.com)
- Here at AZ TMJ, we have found that when we treat a patients' TMJ problems they have significant relief from their Chronic Migraine symptoms. (headpaininstitute.com)
- This presence of migraines was associated with more severe gastroparesis symptoms. (impelpharma.com)
- Attention to this comorbidity may be particularly important if patients have symptoms of nausea, vomiting and/or abdominal pain who do not experience relief of migraine symptoms using oral abortive treatment. (impelpharma.com)
- What are the symptoms of migraines? (medlineplus.gov)
- An important part of diagnosing migraines is to rule out other medical conditions which could be causing the symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Abrupt onset of severe neuropsychiatric symptoms including obsessive-compulsive disorder, tics, anxiety, mood swings, irritability, and restricted eating is described in children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). (researchgate.net)
- Symptoms of motility disorders and FGIDs can range from mild to severe. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- To treat chronic migraine, onabotulinumtoxinA is given approximately every 12 weeks as multiple injections around the head and neck "to try to dull future headache symptoms," the FDA statement notes. (medscape.com)
- The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (bvsalud.org)
- It's important to be honest about what symptoms you feel when you have a migraine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Migraine University provides resources for young people living with migraine disease and headache disorders while trying to navigate their college experience. (headaches.org)
- Many people experience headache disorders, often due to triggers related to their age, gender, health, and overall lifestyle. (headaches.org)
- In fact, these young and seemingly healthy individuals often lead lifestyles that put them at high risk for headache disorders. (headaches.org)
- Ask your school if they provide accommodations for students living with migraine disease and headache disorders. (headaches.org)
- If they don't provide accommodations, present them with a suggested list of accommodations for migraine disease and headache disorders. (headaches.org)
- Students with migraine disease and headache disorders deserve the same opportunities to benefit from a college education. (headaches.org)
- They were also excluded if they had been diagnosed with other primary or secondary headache disorders. (medscape.com)
- Traducción libre del original: International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. (bvsalud.org)
- Medicines containing valproate have been approved nationally in the EU to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder and in some countries for prevention of migraine. (europa.eu)
- 54-57) Upon questioning by her attorney, Plaintiff testified that she had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by Paul Simon, D.O. Dr. Simon was not a psychiatrist, but he prescribed Plaintiffs medications which included Cymbalta. (justia.com)
- Plaintiff stated that her bipolar disorder caused her to be confused all the time. (justia.com)
- Mental, neurological and substance use disorders include common mental health conditions such as depressive and anxiety disorders, severe mental disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and, common among children, conduct disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity and developmental disorders. (who.int)
- The Neurobiology of Brain Disorders (NBD) Awards support innovative research by U.S. scientists who are studying neurological and psychiatric diseases. (mcknight.org)
- A long lasting headache that persists for days can be a symptom of a neurological condition, such as migraine, a headache disorder, or an injury. (healthline.com)
- Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a huge and growing burden in the African Region. (who.int)
- Against the huge burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders are the weak mental health systems in the Region. (who.int)
- draft intersectoral global action plan on epilepsy and other neurological disorders. (who.int)
- Stigma is very important in understanding how someone with migraines interacts with other people around them,' said Michael Oshinsky, Ph.D., a program director at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (medlineplus.gov)
- They've often experienced times in their life when other people do not take their neurological disorder seriously. (medlineplus.gov)
- Once the person feels educated and understands the complexity of the neurological disorder that migraine is, they can talk to other people when they're experiencing a migraine,' Dr. Oshinsky says. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is not a secret that severe and persistent mental illness like schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder, and major depression can require intense care management and advocacy. (migrainestoppper.com)
- A migraine usually starts gradually and then becomes more severe. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have frequent or severe migraines, you may need to take medicines to prevent further attacks. (medlineplus.gov)
- It's a privilege to be a resource for children and families facing the most severe, chronic forms of motility disorders and FGIDs. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- Migraine can be a severe type of headache that can last for days, or even weeks, at a time. (healthline.com)
- There has not been a confirmed serious case of spread of toxin effect when Botox has been used at the recommended dose to treat chronic migraine, severe underarm sweating, blepharospasm, or strabismus, or when Botox Cosmetic has been used at the recommended dose to improve frown lines," the FDA notes. (medscape.com)
- TCE was used for anesthesia in hospitals-especially for women during childbirth during the 1950s and 60s, as a surgical disinfectant, and to treat migraines and trigeminal neuralgia -which is a nerve disorder that causes severe pain in the face. (cdc.gov)
People with migraines3
Relief of migraine1
- One theory suggests that activation of 5-HT 1D receptors located on intracranial blood vessels, including those on arterio-venous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which correlates with the relief of migraine headache. (nih.gov)
Patients with migraine2
- Migraine is a neurologic disorder that often causes a strong headache. (webmd.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine headache or any other headache in a sample of Spanish adults with disabilities and their association with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. (cdc.gov)
- Factors associated with these conditions in both men and women included older age, a sleep disorder, and concomitant chronic anxiety and/or depression. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine or other headache is high in people with disability in Spain, especially in women, and these conditions often coexist with depression, anxiety, and/or a sleep disorder. (cdc.gov)
- The research team has also found that stress at work is associated with a 50 per cent excess risk of coronary heart disease, and there is consistent evidence that jobs with high demands, low control, and effort-reward imbalance are risk factors for mental and physical health problems (major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders). (migrainestoppper.com)
- Caffeine itself can be a treatment for acute migraine attacks. (webmd.com)
- A separate study presented at the meeting found that the oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) rimegepant performed well compared with placebo in a phase 3 trial in treating a single, acute migraine attack. (medscape.com)
- Stress management strategies, such as exercise, relaxation techniques, and biofeedback, may reduce the number and severity of migraines. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other types of paediatric parasomnia disorders include confusional arousals and night terrors. (hindustantimes.com)
- In adults, there may be underlying conditions such as seizures, migraines, sleep apnoea and psychiatric disorders. (hindustantimes.com)
- Aurora S, Ray S, Shrewsbury SB, Nguyen L, When Pills Don't Work: Disorders of Gastric Motility in Migraine, 2020 American Headache Society (AHS) Virtual Annual Scientific Meeting. (impelpharma.com)
- Motility disorders and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most common GI disorders among children. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- Statistically significant reductions in migraine days, headache days, and acute medication use occurred starting at the first 12-week measurement and were maintained at every subsequent time point. (medscape.com)
- The most common chronic diseases were cardiovascular disease (29.5%), digestive disorders (28.5%), hypertension (23.6%) and diabetes mellitus (23.5%), while 44.4% of subjects were overweight or obese. (who.int)
- Preeclampsia is a blood pressure disorder that usually occurs after week 20 of pregnancy in the second or third trimester . (pampers.com)
- An important association and several new findings about treatment and prevention options for migraine, as presented at the American Headache Society (AHS) Annual Meeting, led to the increased popularity in this week's top search term. (medscape.com)
- Another presentation at the meeting reported findings suggesting that the CGRP antagonist fremanezumab is associated with increased efficacy, better tolerance, and greater functional improvement in the prevention of chronic migraine when compared with topiramate. (medscape.com)
- Topiramate was also found to be inferior to use of onabotulinumtoxinA in the prevention of chronic migraine in a separate head-to-head, prospective, open-label study. (medscape.com)
- Current thinking is that a migraine likely starts when overactive nerve cells send out signals that trigger your trigeminal nerve, which gives sensation to your head and face. (webmd.com)
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling mental illness that can be divided into frequent primary and rarer organic secondary forms. (researchgate.net)
Type of headache1
- Migraines are a recurring type of headache. (medlineplus.gov)
- There are also a number of factors that can trigger a migraine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Make a log of what seems to trigger your migraines. (medlineplus.gov)
- Storm fronts, changes in barometric pressure, strong winds, or changes in altitude can all trigger a migraine. (webmd.com)
- The purpose of dry needling is to stimulate myofascial trigger points, muscles or other connective tissues for the management of neuromuscular and musculoskeletal disorders. (parkview.com)
- Key words, gastric stasis, migraine, autonomic dysfunction were used to obtain relevant studies in a literature search. (impelpharma.com)
- Extended time for tests is medically necessary as processing speed is slowed by the cognitive dysfunction that occurs as part of migraine, chronic pain, and multiple medications. (headaches.org)
- This year's awardees are conducting research into issues that affect huge numbers of people and society as a whole: Parkinson's Disease, migraines, and the epidemic of chronic pain that underlies the opioid crisis. (mcknight.org)
- While it's true that the injections have long been performed for cosmetic purposes, they also treat migraine and movement disorders such as cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. (healthpolicytoday.org)
- Psychiatry is a branch of medical science that deals with the study and treatment of mental illnesses or disorders. (migrainestoppper.com)
- Studies are needed to investigate whether treatment of 1 disorder will improve the other. (headpaininstitute.com)
- New efforts to rein in Medicare costs could delay treatment for people who need botulinum toxins for migraine or movement disorders. (healthpolicytoday.org)
- The primary endpoint of the trial was reduction in monthly migraine days during the 12-week period after the final treatment compared with baseline. (medscape.com)
- Stigma can make people hesitant to take time off during a bad migraine and sometimes hesitant to seek treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- We recorded signs of temporomandibular disorders , and of pain in the neck, after the protocol of Helkimo (1974). (headpaininstitute.com)
- The most common adverse reactions reported by patients being treated with onabotulinumtoxinA for chronic migraine were neck pain and headache. (medscape.com)
- For example, others may not believe their migraine pain is real or that bad, and may treat them negatively because of it. (medlineplus.gov)
- He suggests seeking out NINDS resources online to learn about migraines. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common cause of central dizziness is migraine, frequently referred to as vestibular migraine or migraine-associated dizziness. (medscape.com)
- In the case of migraine, prior authorization can introduce a variety of complications. (healthpolicytoday.org)
- Your parents can even pass down migraine triggers like fatigue , bright lights, or weather changes. (webmd.com)
- Its association with secondary autoimmune triggers was introduced through the discovery of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and Pediatric. (researchgate.net)
- Initially, study results indicating an association between chronic migraine and cognitive impairment were reported at the meeting. (medscape.com)
- Unlike previous research, which had indicated a potential role for the anticonvulsant topiramate as well as a possible role for depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and nonreparative sleep in cognitive impairment, migraine was the only relevant factor in this study associated with worse performance. (medscape.com)
- Researchers believe that migraine has a genetic cause. (medlineplus.gov)
- It aims at solving personality problems, mood disorders, stress, anxiety and other such psychological disorders. (migrainestoppper.com)
- From irritable and difficult to soothe babies, to temper tantrums in toddlers, to kids with ADHD and those with autism, to children with opposition defiant disorder and to risk taking and self harming teens, there is no shortage of challenging pediatric patients. (nesh.com)
- attention deficit hyperactive disorder, conduct disorders, developmental disorders and autism. (who.int)
- Even though there have been numerous advancements in the way of treating mental disorders in the past 50 years, there is still a certain stigma surrounding the views on mental illness. (migrainestoppper.com)
- The goal of the framework is to promote mental well-being, prevent mental disorders, provide care, enhance recovery, promote human rights and reduce mortality, morbidity and disability among persons with mental disorders. (who.int)