Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
Contraceptive Agents, Female
Labor Stage, First
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal
Modulation of oestrogenic effects by progesterone antagonists in the rat uterus. (1/1154)Antiprogestins can modulate oestrogenic effects in various oestrogen-dependent tissues, dependent on species, tissue, dose and duration of treatment. Enhanced oestrogenic responses to mifepristone and onapristone occur in vitro and in vivo. However, the antiprogestins mifepristone, onapristone, and ZK 137 316 can block the ability of oestradiol to increase endometrial growth in non-human primates. Our purposes were firstly, to decide whether mifepristone and onapristone had direct oestrogenic activity in vitro and in the uterus of spayed and immature rats, and secondly, to discover whether antiprogestins exhibit inhibitory effects on oestrogen action in the uterus in spayed, oestrogen-substituted rats. In transactivation assays, mifepristone induced oestrogenic response, whereas onapristone had only marginal effects on reporter gene transcription. In immature rats, onapristone and mifepristone markedly increased uterine weights, and onapristone, but not mifepristone significantly enhanced endometrial luminal epithelial height, a sensitive oestrogen parameter. Conversely, in spayed and adrenalectomized rats, neither onapristone nor mifepristone changed uterine weights or endometrial morphology, indicating that their effects in immature rats were indirect. In spayed, oestrogen-substituted rats, antiprogestins did not block oestradiol-stimulated endometrial growth and luminal and glandular epithelium were stimulated more after antiprogestin plus oestrogen, than after oestradiol alone. All compounds induced compaction of the uterine stroma. In spayed rats, onapristone and some other 13alpha-configured (type 1) antagonists (ZK 135 569, ZK 131 535) reduced oestradiol-stimulated myometrial proliferation and induced an overall uterine weight reduction in animals treated with oestrogen and antiprogestins, in comparison with oestradiol-treated controls. 13beta- configured (type II) antagonists, including mifepristone, lilopristone and ZK 112 993, were not effective. In the uteri of spayed rats, onapristone was also found to enhance the oestradiol-stimulatory effect on expression of the oestrogen-dependent proto-oncogene, c-fos. In conclusion, antiprogestins do not inhibit, but rather enhance, oestrogen-induced uterine glandular and luminal epithelium in spayed rats, contrary to their effects in primates. The rat model is unsuitable to study endometrial antiproliferative effects of antiprogestins in primate uteri. (+info)
Altered leucocyte trafficking and suppressed tumour necrosis factor alpha release from peripheral blood monocytes after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment. (2/1154)OBJECTIVES: A generalised transient improvement may follow intra-articular administration of glucocorticoids to patients with inflammatory arthropathy. This may represent a systemic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoid released from the joint, mediated through processes such as altered leucocyte trafficking or suppressed release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients, who had received intra-articular injections of glucocorticoids were therefore studied for evidence of these two systemic effects. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Peripheral blood leucocyte counts, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) release by peripheral blood monocytes, blood cortisol concentrations, and blood methylprednisolone concentration were measured for 96 hours after intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone acetate. RESULTS: Measurable concentrations of methylprednisolone were present in blood for up to 96 hours after injection. Significant suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis persisted throughout this time. Altered monocyte and lymphocyte trafficking, as evidenced by peripheral blood monocytopenia and lymphopenia, was apparent by four hours after injection and resolved in concordance with the elimination of methylprednisolone. Granulocytosis was observed at 24 and 48 hours. Release of TNF alpha by endotoxin stimulated peripheral blood monocytes was suppressed at four hours and thereafter. Suppression was maximal at eight hours and was largely reversed by the glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone. CONCLUSIONS: After intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone, blood concentrations of glucocorticoid are sufficient to suppress monocyte TNF alpha release for at least four days and to transiently alter leucocyte trafficking. These effects help to explain the transient systemic response to intra-articular glucocorticoids. Suppression of TNF alpha is principally a direct glucocorticoid effect, rather than a consequence of other methylprednisolone induced changes to blood composition. (+info)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids regulate the release of vascular endothelial growth factor in pituitary folliculostellate cells. (3/1154)There is increasing evidence that hormones play an important role in the control of endothelial cell function and growth by regulating the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF regulates vascular permeability and represents the most powerful growth factor for endothelial cells. In the normal anterior pituitary, VEGF has been detected only in folliculostellate (FS) cells. In the present study, the regulation of the release of VEGF from FS-like mouse TtT/GF cells, and from FS cells of rat pituitary monolayer cell cultures was investigated using a specific VEGF ELISA. Basal release of VEGF was demonstrated in cultures of both TtT/GF cells and rat pituitary cells. Interestingly, the VEGF secretion was stimulated by both forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-38 and PACAP-27), indicating that this hypothalamic peptide regulates endothelial cell function and growth within the pituitary. VEGF secretion was also stimulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) whereas basal, IL-6- and PACAP-stimulated secretion was inhibited by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The inhibitory action of dexamethasone was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, suggesting that in FS cells functional glucocorticoid receptors mediate the inhibitory action of glucocorticoids on the VEGF secretion. The endocrine and auto-/paracrine control of VEGF production in pituitary FS cells by PACAP, IL-6 and glucocorticoids may play an important role both in angiogenesis and vascular permeability regulation within the pituitary under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (+info)
Gestational regulation of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor expression in the human placenta. (4/1154)A number of cytokines and their receptors are abundantly expressed at the materno-fetal interface and are thought to have a function in the regulation of placentation. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is expressed by stromal cells in both placental tissue and maternal decidua throughout placentation. In this study, we examined the expression of placental G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) mRNA and protein throughout gestation by ribonuclease protection assays, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The major placental form of G-CSFR mRNA, corresponding to a membrane-bound form of the protein, was present in first-trimester placental tissues; levels decreased in second- and were highest in third-trimester placental tissues. Two placental G-CSFR molecules, 120 kDa and 150 kDa, were detected in first- and third-, but not second-, trimester tissues. The level of the 150-kDa G-CSFR was greater in the third- than in first-trimester samples. These differences were irrespective of whether or not the patients had received prostaglandin E1 analogues, prostaglandin E1 analogues and oxytocin, oxytocin alone, or mifepristone before labor. We demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that interstitial cytotrophoblast in first- and second-trimester decidual tissue and cytotrophoblast in term fetal membranes express G-CSFR. These data demonstrate that the expression of specific forms of placental G-CSFR is strictly cell type- and developmental stage-specific, and they suggest that G-CSFR may be important in decidual invasion of cytotrophoblast and in trophoblast function during placentation. (+info)
Effects of glucocorticoids on maturation of pig oocytes and their subsequent fertilizing capacity in vitro. (5/1154)The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of glucocorticoids in the maturation of pig oocytes and their subsequent fertilizing capacity in vitro. Pig cumulus-enclosed oocytes collected from prepubertal gilts were cultured in Waymouth MB752/1 medium supplemented with sodium pyruvate (50 microg/ml), LH (0.5 microg/ml), FSH (0.5 microg/ml), and estradiol-17beta (1 microg/ml) in the presence or absence of cortisol or dexamethasone (DEX) for 24 h; they then were cultured without hormonal supplements in the presence or absence of cortisol or DEX for an additional 16-24 h. Treatment of cumulus-enclosed or denuded oocytes with increasing concentrations of cortisol or DEX for 48 h resulted in a dose-response inhibition of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB). Increasing duration (12-48 h) of treatment with DEX (10 microg/ml) led to a time-dependent inhibition of GVB, which achieved statistical significance by 12 h. The addition of DEX (10 microg/ml) to maturation medium immediately after culture or at 12 h, 24 h, or 36 h after culture also decreased the percentage of oocytes with GVB. When oocytes were exposed to DEX for 48 h, the maturation rate was reduced. The degree of this reduction was dependent on DEX, and a concentration of DEX higher than 0.1 microg/ml was needed. The inhibitory effect of DEX on the maturation of oocytes was prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. Exposure of oocytes to DEX for 40 h did not prevent sperm penetration, affect the incidence of polyspermy, or decrease the ability of oocytes to form a male pronucleus. The intracellular concentration of glutathione (GSH) in cumulus-enclosed oocytes was 4.4 mM per oocyte. Exposure of oocytes to DEX (0.01-10 microg/ml) had no effect on GSH concentration. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids directly inhibit the meiotic but not cytoplasmic maturation of pig oocytes in vitro. This inhibitory effect is not mediated through a decrease in the level of intracellular GSH. (+info)
Once-a-month treatment with a combination of mifepristone and the prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. (6/1154)In this two centre study, the efficacy of 200 mg mifepristone orally followed 48 h later by 0.4 mg misoprostol orally for menstrual regulation was investigated. The dose of mifepristone was taken the day before the expected day of menstruation. Each volunteer was planned to participate for up to 6 months. A plasma beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) was measured on the day of mifepristone intake. The study was disrupted prematurely due to low efficacy. In 125 treatment cycles the overall pregnancy rate was 17.6% (22 pregnancies) and the rate of continuing pregnancies (failure) was 4.0%. Eight women discontinued the study due to bleeding irregularities which were seen in 15 cycles (12%). These effects on bleeding pattern made the timing of treatment day difficult. Late luteal phase treatment with a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is not adequately effective for menstrual regulation. (+info)
The negative regulation of the rat aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 gene by glucocorticoids: involvement of a single imperfect palindromic glucocorticoid responsive element. (7/1154)Glucocorticoids repressed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-dependent induction of Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH3) enzyme activity and mRNA levels in isolated rat hepatocytes by more than 50 to 80%, with a concentration-dependence consistent with the involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). No consistent effect on the low basal transcription rate was observed. This effect of glucocorticoids (GC) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induction was effectively antagonized at the mRNA and protein level by the GR antagonist RU38486. The response was cycloheximide-sensitive, because the protein synthesis inhibitor caused a GC-dependent superinduction of ALDH3 mRNA levels. This suggests that the effects of GC on this gene are complex and both positive and negative gene regulation is possible. The GC-response was recapitulated in HepG2 cells using transient transfection experiments with CAT reporter constructs containing 3.5 kb of 5'-flanking region from ALDH3. This ligand-dependent response was also observed when a chimeric GR (GR DNA-binding domain and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand-binding domain) was used in place of GR in the presence of the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin. A putative palindromic glucocorticoid-responsive element exists between -930 and -910 base pairs relative to the transcription start site. If this element was either deleted or mutated, the negative GC-response was completely lost, which suggests that this sequence is responsible, in part, for the negative regulation of the gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that this palindromic glucocorticoid-responsive element is capable of forming a specific DNA-protein complex with human glucocorticoid receptor. In conclusion, the negative regulation of ALDH3 in rat liver is probably mediated through direct GR binding to its canonical responsive element. (+info)
Conformational change in the human glucocorticoid receptor induced by ligand binding is altered by mutation of isoleucine 747 by a threonine. (8/1154)Limited proteolysis experiments were performed to study conformation changes induced by ligand binding on in vitro produced wild-type and I747T mutant glucocorticoid receptors. Dexamethasone-induced conformational changes were characterized by two resistant proteolysis fragments of 30 and 27 kDa. Although dexamethasone binding affinity was only slightly altered by the I747T substitution (Roux, S., Terouanne, B., Balaguer, P., Loffreda-Jausons, N., Pons, M., Chambon, P., Gronemeyer, H., and Nicolas, J.-C. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10, 1214-1226), higher dexamethasone concentrations were required to obtain the same proteolysis pattern. This difference was less marked when proteolysis experiments were conducted at 0 degrees C, indicating that a step of the conformational change after ligand binding was affected by the mutation. In contrast, RU486 binding to the wild-type receptor induced a different conformational change that was not affected by the mutation. Analysis of proteolysis fragments obtained in the presence of dexamethasone or RU486 indicated that the RU486-induced conformational change affected the C-terminal part of the ligand binding domain differently. These data suggest that the ligand-induced conformational change occurs via a multistep process. In the first step, characterized by compaction of the ligand binding domain, the mutation has no effect. The second step, which stabilizes the activated conformation and does not occur at 4 degrees C, seems to be a key element in the activation process that can be altered by the mutation. This step could involve modification of the helix H12 position, explaining why the conformation induced by RU486 is not affected by the mutation. (+info)
Mifepristone is a medication that is used to induce abortion. It is a synthetic steroid that works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone that is necessary for a pregnancy to continue. Mifepristone is typically used in combination with another medication, such as misoprostol, to induce abortion. It is usually taken orally, but it can also be administered by injection. Mifepristone is typically used in the first trimester of pregnancy, but it can also be used later in pregnancy to induce labor. It is considered to be a safe and effective method of abortion when used under medical supervision.
Hormone antagonists are medications that block or inhibit the effects of hormones in the body. They are often used in medical treatments to counteract the effects of hormones that are either overactive or underactive. Examples of hormone antagonists include: 1. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): These medications block the effects of estrogen in some tissues but not others. They are used to treat conditions such as breast cancer and osteoporosis. 2. Progestins: These medications mimic the effects of the hormone progesterone and are used to treat conditions such as menopause symptoms and endometriosis. 3. Androgens: These medications block the effects of testosterone and are used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women). 4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists: These medications block the release of gonadotropins, hormones that stimulate the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones. They are used to treat conditions such as endometriosis and prostate cancer. Overall, hormone antagonists are an important tool in the medical field for treating a variety of conditions related to hormonal imbalances.
Misoprostol is a medication that is used to prevent and treat a number of conditions related to the uterus and the digestive system. It is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog that is commonly used to induce labor and to treat uterine contractions in pregnant women who are at risk of a miscarriage or who are experiencing a threatened abortion. Misoprostol is also used to treat stomach ulcers and to prevent bleeding in women who have had a dilation and curettage (D&C) procedure to remove tissue from the uterus. It is usually taken orally or vaginally, and its effects can be felt within 30 minutes to an hour. Misoprostol is a relatively safe medication, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking misoprostol, as the dosage and frequency of use can vary depending on the condition being treated.
Levonorgestrel is a synthetic progestin hormone that is commonly used in the medical field as a contraceptive and for emergency contraception. It is also used to treat certain types of abnormal bleeding, such as uterine bleeding, and to prevent the growth of certain types of tumors in the uterus and ovaries. In addition, levonorgestrel is sometimes used to treat acne and to reduce the risk of preterm labor in pregnant women. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, vaginal rings, and injectable contraceptives.
Norpregnadienes are a group of hormones that are derived from progesterone, a hormone that is produced by the ovaries in women and plays a key role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Norpregnadienes are a subclass of progestins, which are synthetic versions of progesterone that are used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual disorders, endometriosis, and menopausal symptoms. Norpregnadienes are synthesized from progesterone by removing two carbon atoms from the molecule, resulting in a compound that is structurally similar to but not identical to progesterone. They are classified as "norpregnadienes" because they have a similar chemical structure to the natural hormone pregnadiene, which is a precursor to other hormones in the progesterone family. Norpregnadienes are used in a variety of medical treatments, including: * Hormonal contraception: Norpregnadienes are used in combination with estrogen in oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus, which makes it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. * Menstrual disorders: Norpregnadienes are used to treat menstrual disorders such as heavy bleeding, irregular periods, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). * Endometriosis: Norpregnadienes are used to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and other symptoms. * Menopause: Norpregnadienes are used to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Norpregnadienes are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as nausea, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. They should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Receptors, Glucocorticoid are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to hormones called glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone that are produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress or injury. They play a role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and inflammation. When glucocorticoid hormones bind to their receptors, they trigger a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that leads to changes in gene expression and cellular function. This allows the body to respond to stress and maintain homeostasis.
Progesterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is produced by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy and is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. Progesterone also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and can be used as a contraceptive. In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone has a number of other effects on the body. It can help to reduce inflammation, promote bone density, and regulate mood. Progesterone is also used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. Progesterone is available as a medication in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, injections, and creams. It is important to note that progesterone can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and mood changes. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of using progesterone with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding, is a medical condition characterized by excessive bleeding from the uterus. It can occur in women of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including pregnancy, childbirth, hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, uterine polyps, uterine cancer, and other medical conditions. Uterine hemorrhage can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute uterine hemorrhage is a sudden and severe episode of bleeding that requires immediate medical attention, while chronic uterine hemorrhage is a persistent and gradual bleeding that occurs over a longer period of time. Symptoms of uterine hemorrhage may include heavy bleeding, abdominal pain, dizziness, weakness, and fainting. Treatment for uterine hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other medical interventions. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the bleeding and prevent complications.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Gonanes." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a commonly used term in the medical field. If you have any additional information or context, please let me know and I'll do my best to assist you.
Receptors, Progesterone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone progesterone. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle, maintaining pregnancy, and supporting the development of the fetus. When progesterone binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of cell and the tissue in which it is found. For example, progesterone receptors in the uterus help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a potential pregnancy, while receptors in the brain can help to regulate mood and behavior.
Pregnanediol is a hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy. It is a breakdown product of the hormone progesterone, which is essential for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Pregnanediol is produced in the placenta and is excreted in the urine and feces. It is often used as a marker of pregnancy in laboratory tests, as its levels in the body increase significantly during pregnancy. Pregnanediol can also be used to help diagnose certain medical conditions, such as miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy.
Danazol is a synthetic androgenic steroid medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. It works by reducing the production of estrogen in the body, which can help to shrink tumors and reduce inflammation. Danazol is typically taken orally in tablet form and is usually prescribed for short-term use, although it can be used for longer periods of time in some cases. It is important to note that Danazol can have side effects, including mood changes, weight gain, and liver problems, and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Megestrol is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in the treatment of various medical conditions. It is a synthetic version of the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by the ovaries in women and plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and supporting pregnancy. Megestrol is primarily used to treat anorexia nervosa, a condition characterized by a lack of appetite and severe weight loss. It is also used to treat breast cancer in women who have not responded to other treatments, and to treat advanced prostate cancer in men. In addition to its use in cancer treatment, Megestrol is also used to treat menstrual disorders, such as heavy bleeding and irregular periods, and to promote weight gain in people who are underweight due to chronic illness or other medical conditions. Megestrol is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injections. It is typically administered orally, although it can also be given intramuscularly or subcutaneously. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication.
Alcohol-induced disorders of the nervous system refer to a group of conditions that result from excessive or prolonged alcohol consumption and affect the brain and nervous system. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, including the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Some common alcohol-induced disorders of the nervous system include: 1. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: A severe neurological disorder characterized by confusion, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination. 2. Delirium tremens: A severe mental disorder that can occur after a period of heavy drinking and is characterized by confusion, hallucinations, and tremors. 3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A group of conditions that can occur in children whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy and can include physical, behavioral, and cognitive problems. 4. Alcohol dependence: A chronic and often relapsing disorder characterized by a strong desire or need to drink alcohol despite negative consequences. 5. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: A group of symptoms that can occur when a person stops drinking alcohol after a period of heavy use and can include tremors, seizures, and delirium. These disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support from family and friends.
Metrorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormal vaginal bleeding that is not related to the menstrual cycle. It can be defined as any bleeding that occurs between menstrual periods or after menopause, or bleeding that is heavier or longer than usual during the menstrual cycle. Metrorrhagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, infections, and certain types of cancer. It can also be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as thyroid disorders or liver disease. In order to diagnose the cause of metrorrhagia, a healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, order laboratory tests, and perform imaging studies such as ultrasounds or MRIs. Treatment for metrorrhagia will depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Algestone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an estrogen medication to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to treat certain conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal uterine bleeding. Algestone works by thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and by inhibiting the release of an egg from the ovaries. It is usually taken in the form of a pill or injection, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the condition being treated.
Glucocorticoids are a class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland that regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma 2. Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease 3. Allergies and anaphylaxis 4. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis 5. Cancer treatment to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system 6. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in cells throughout the body, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. They can also increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose and decreasing the body's sensitivity to insulin. Long-term use of high doses of glucocorticoids can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection.
Norgestrel is a synthetic progestin hormone that is used in a variety of medical applications. It is a derivative of the natural hormone progesterone and is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel is also used in emergency contraception, to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex, and in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. In addition, norgestrel is used in the treatment of endometriosis, a condition in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, and in the prevention of miscarriage.
Menorrhagia is a medical condition characterized by excessive or abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding. It is defined as bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeding that is so heavy that it causes iron deficiency anemia or other health problems. Menorrhagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, or other medical conditions. Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Corticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. It plays a key role in the body's stress response and helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. Corticosterone is also involved in the development and maintenance of bone tissue, and it has anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, corticosterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. It is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered orally or by injection.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic estrogen hormone that is used in combination with progestin in birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings. It is also used in hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms and in the treatment of endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Ethinyl estradiol works by preventing ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. It can also cause changes in the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
Leiomyoma is a medical term used to describe a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the smooth muscle cells of the uterus. These tumors are also known as uterine fibroids and are the most common type of pelvic tumor in women of reproductive age. Leiomyomas can vary in size and number, and they can grow anywhere in the uterus, but they are most commonly found in the muscular walls of the uterus. They can also develop in other parts of the body, such as the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Symptoms of leiomyomas may include heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, pressure on the bladder or bowels, and infertility. Treatment options for leiomyomas depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of symptoms. They may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.
Receptors, Mineralocorticoid are a type of protein found in cells throughout the body that bind to and respond to hormones called mineralocorticoids. These hormones, which include aldosterone and cortisol, play a key role in regulating the body's electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and blood volume. When mineralocorticoids bind to their receptors, they trigger a series of chemical reactions within the cell that help to regulate these processes. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid are found in a variety of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, and blood vessels. They are also involved in the regulation of other physiological processes, such as glucose metabolism and immune function.
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- Still in the company of the clinic nurse, the patient then takes the mifepristone with her doctor watching, and receives the follow-up drug, misoprostol, to take later. (feminist.org)
- Women who use mifepristone for a medical abortion are at risk of severe hemorrhage if they do not complete the procedure with misoprostol, a new study reports. (neurosciencenews.com)
- In addition, a fatal case of C. sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol was reported in 2001, in Canada ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Cases potentially associated with use of mifepristone or misoprostol should also be reported through the FDA MedWatch system available at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/index.html or telephone 800-FDA-1088. (cdc.gov)
- The "abortion pill" is the generic name for two different drugs used to terminate a pregnancy: mifepristone and misoprostol. (thehealthforum.org)
- Subsequently, medical options that interfere with the progesterone support (mifepristone) and induce uterine contractions (misoprostol) became available. (medscape.com)
- The review summarizes the findings of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nine prospective observational studies of mifepristone and misoprostol use for medical abortion. (medscape.com)
- There is considerable heterogeneity with respect to the dose of mifepristone (50 mg-600 mg) or misoprostol (200 µg-800 µg) used and the route of misoprostol administration (oral, buccal, vaginal). (medscape.com)
- The investigators concluded that mifepristone and misoprostol provide effective medical abortion for very early pregnancies (up to 42 days). (medscape.com)
- Medical management of abortion generally involves either a combination regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol or a misoprostol-only regimen. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, expanding the numbers of primary care practitioners willing to provide early medical abortion (EMA) (using mifepristone followed by misoprostol to end an early pregnancy up to 9 weeks), which is a more accessible and less invasive option than surgical termination that can be provided in primary care settings, has proven challenging. (who.int)
Approval of mifepristone7
- A group in Texas sued the FDA over its approval of mifepristone. (wmfe.org)
- The court was asked to throw out FDA's original approval of mifepristone, which was way back in 2000, and the changes that it made to how the medicine is prescribed in 2016 and 2021. (wmfe.org)
- Recently, there have been legal efforts to reverse the 2000 U.S. FDA approval of mifepristone, a medication with over two decades of established safety and efficacy. (acmt.net)
- On April 7, 2023, a federal district court in Texas issued a ruling in favor of the plaintiffs in a lawsuit against FDA and the U.S. Health and Human Services over the approval of mifepristone . (acmt.net)
- Overturning FDA's approval of mifepristone in the Courts would result in serious negative policy and public health consequences. (acmt.net)
- On April 7, 2023, Texas federal district Judge Kacsmaryk granted a motion for preliminary injunction against Danco and the FDA, staying FDA approval of mifepristone, including the original 2000 approval, the 2016 change, and subsequent generic approval. (knobbe.com)
- On the same day as the Texas federal judge ruling, federal district Judge Rice in Washington issued a preliminary injunction preventing the FDA from altering approval of mifepristone. (knobbe.com)
- Mifepristone is also available as another product (Mifeprex) that is used alone or in combination with another medication to end an early pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you are using mifepristone to terminate a pregnancy, read the monograph entitled mifepristone (Mifeprex), which has been written about this product. (medlineplus.gov)
-  Approval Letter - Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Tablet, FDA (September 28, 2000). (knobbe.com)
-  Supplemental Approval Letter - Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Tablet, FDA (March 28, 2016) ( https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2016/020687Orig1s020ltr.pdf ). (knobbe.com)
- Mifepristone (Korlym) is used to treat hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in people with a certain type of Cushing's syndrome in which the body makes too much cortisol (a hormone) and who have failed surgery or cannot have surgery to treat this condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- This monograph only gives information about mifepristone (Korlym) used to control hyperglycemia in people with a certain type of Cushing's syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- Korlym™ (mifepristone) 300 mg Tablets. (acmt.net)
Terminate a pregnancy1
- Mifepristone is a drug intended to terminate a pregnancy in its early stages. (feminist.org)
- On April 21, 2023, the Supreme Court granted a stay in Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine v. FDA , a case concerning the Food and Drug Administration's approval of and access to the widely used abortion pill mifepristone. (knobbe.com)
-  See Katherine Eban, "They're Winning": How the Mifepristone Case Could Sabotage the FDA , Vanity Fair (April 13, 2023) ( https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2023/04/mifepristone-abortion-ban-fda ). (knobbe.com)
- Mifepristone can cause loss of the pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- You must have a negative pregnancy test before starting treatment with mifepristone and before beginning treatment again if you stop taking it for more than 14 days. (medlineplus.gov)
- So if this order stands, it would mean no telemedicine appointments for mifepristone and no access to the drug after the very first weeks of pregnancy anywhere in the country. (wmfe.org)
- This decision would prevent patients from having access to mifepristone for medication abortion and early pregnancy loss, leading to an increase in complications and unnecessary surgical procedures. (acmt.net)
- FDA required implementation of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) with approval of the drug with the intent of preventing misdiagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy (which cannot be managed with mifepristone) not due to inherent toxicity of the drug . (acmt.net)
-  Initially, mifepristone was approved for medical abortion during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. (knobbe.com)
- The limited time for inducing pregnancy with Mifepristone is 9 weeks or 63 days. (drugs99.com)
- Mifepristone is used in the first trimester of the pregnancy. (drugs99.com)
- Your doctor may order certain tests to check your body's response to mifepristone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Planned Parenthood has being using telemedicine to provide mifepristone to patients in Iowa since 2008, performing some 1,500 procedures, reports the Times . (feminist.org)
- The stay preserves access to mifepristone as the Biden administration and Danco Laboratories, the drug's manufacturer, appeal a lower court ruling that would greatly limit the availability of the drug. (knobbe.com)
- The FDA originally approved mifepristone in 2000. (knobbe.com)
- Mifepristone (RU486), a clinical abortion agent and potential endocrine disruptor, binds to progestin and glucocorticoid receptors and has multiple functional importance in reproductive physiology. (nih.gov)
- Time-course kinetics of cytotoxicity triggered by cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) followed or not followed by mifepristone (MF) in OV2008 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- tell your doctor if you are allergic to mifepristone, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in mifepristone tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
- The current law in Iowa requires a licensed physician to be present for the administration of mifepristone, making it difficult for women lacking access to a doctor who perform abortions to obtain the drug. (feminist.org)
- An appeals court decision could come as soon as tomorrow over the abortion drug mifepristone. (ksut.org)
- Olympia, WA) -- Recent rulings by a federal judge in Texas and the US 5th Circuit Court of Appeals will have no bearing on either the availability or legality of abortion drug mifepristone. (newstalk870.am)
- He adds a federal judge in Spokane issued a ruling ordering the Food and Drug Administration to protect access to mifepristone in Washington and 17 other states protects access and supersedes the rulings from both the Texas judge and the 5th Circuit. (newstalk870.am)
-  An additional case was filed in Maryland District Court by GenBioPro, a manufacturer of generic mifepristone, arguing that even if the order in Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine v. FDA were to take effect, FDA cannot change availability of the generic mifepristone without first following the statutory and regulatory processes for withdrawing an approved drug application. (knobbe.com)
- If you can become pregnant, you will need to avoid becoming pregnant during your treatment with mifepristone. (medlineplus.gov)
- Planned Parenthood clinics in Iowa have introduced a program that enables mifepristone, also known as RU-486 or the "abortion pill," to be administered to patients while videoconferencing with their doctors, reports the New York Times . (feminist.org)
- First you take a pill called mifepristone. (thehealthforum.org)
- The pill Mifepristone is a bunch of advantages for a woman who is seeking an abortion. (drugs99.com)
- So first of all, does this ruling change anything in terms of access now to mifepristone? (wmfe.org)
- Revoking mifepristone approval would not only undermine the robust FDA approval process and overturn precedent on scientific regulation of drugs, but will limit access to the medication, which will have harmful consequences. (acmt.net)
- In order for a woman to receive mifepristone via videoconference, she must first go to her local Planned Parenthood and undergo the required physical exam, blood test, medical history report, ultrasound, and counseling session, all administered in - person by a nurse, describes the Times . (feminist.org)
- The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology [10,11], the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Family Physicians, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, recognize mifepristone as safe. (acmt.net)
- Japan's crawl towards medical abortion: Why was Japan the last of the G8 countries to approve mifepristone? (safeabortionwomensright.org)
- There are only three easy steps involved in a medical abortion with Mifepristone. (drugs99.com)
- CHANG: Isn't there a separate case about mifepristone in the courts right now? (wmfe.org)
- Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with mifepristone and each time you refill your prescription. (medlineplus.gov)
- And in the hearing, the three judges, who were all appointed by Republican presidents, really hammered the attorneys for the FDA and the pharmaceutical company behind mifepristone. (wmfe.org)
- Cialis Online Pharmacy Overnight U. Cheap Viagra With mifepristone online in south africa . (onlinehome.us)
- Dr. Sarah Prager, a UW Medicine OB-GYN, discusses mifepristone availability ahead of hearing in the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. (uw.edu)
- They argued mifepristone has side effects, even though the complication rate is very low, and that they as doctors have had to treat patients with those side effects in the past and might have to again in the future. (wmfe.org)
- Having some minimal side effects is common after having Mifepristone. (drugs99.com)
- If you think you are pregnant, you miss a menstrual period, or you have sex without using birth control while taking mifepristone or within 1 month after your treatment, call your doctor immediately. (medlineplus.gov)
- Talk to your doctor about the risk(s) of taking mifepristone. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop taking mifepristone, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Women would favour Mifepristone without taking much time to choose. (drugs99.com)
- Zyban is used to help people stop smoking by reducing mifepristone online in south africa . (onlinehome.us)
- Not only has mifepristone undergone the appropriate approval process, but it has over two decades of clinical experience and FDA postmarketing surveillance that demonstrate it is safe and effective and that serious adverse effects are rare [8,9]. (acmt.net)