The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The act of constricting.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.

Nitric oxide donors in pregnancy: fetomaternal hemodynamic effects induced in mild pre-eclampsia and threatened preterm labor. (1/963)

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to determine whether there are significant differences in the effects of the nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, administration in pregnancies complicated by mild pre-eclampsia compared to the effects in pregnancies which are uncomplicated by this pathology. Glyceryl trinitrate is able to release nitric oxide (NO); deficiency of NO has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of pre-eclamptic disorders. METHODS: In this prospective study, ten patients with threatened preterm labor and ten patients with mild preeclampsia were studied at around 30 weeks of pregnancy. The maternal blood pressure, maternal heart rate, fetal heart rate and flow velocity waveforms of the placental uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery, evaluated by means of color Doppler and pulsed Doppler, were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 min after the sublingual administration of 0.3 mg of glyceryl trinitrate or placebo. The pulsatility index (PI) was calculated. The percentage change from the control period (delta %) was calculated for each parameter at 10, 20 and 30 min. Ten normal pregnant women at the same gestational age were used as controls and were administered a placebo. RESULTS: The maternal blood pressure recorded as systolic and diastolic values, demonstrated a significant decrease in the pre-eclampsia group after glyceryl trinitrate administration; the delta % at any time considered was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group than in the threatened preterm labor group. The PI of the placental uterine artery showed a significant decrease in both groups after 20 and 30 min from drug administration; the delta % at 20 and 30 min was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group than in the threatened preterm labor group. The PI of the umbilical artery showed a significant decrease after 30 min from the glyceryl trinitrate administration. The fetal heart rate showed no significant variations during the study in either group. The PI of the fetal middle cerebral artery showed no significant variations during the study in either group. No parameter was changed in the control group. CONCLUSION: Glyceryl trinitrate administration was followed by a greater reduction of the resistance to blood flow in the fetoplacental circulation of the pregnancies affected by mild pre-eclampsia compared to pregnancies uncomplicated by this pathology. This effect can be attributed to the NO released by the drug which offsets the decreased production of NO, postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.  (+info)

Predictors of clinical improvement, angiographic recanalization, and intracranial hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. (2/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome, angiographic success, and adverse effects after intra-arterial administration of urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We designed a Brain Attack program at University Hospitals of Cleveland for diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting within 6 hours of onset of neurological deficit. Patients with ischemia referable to the carotid circulation were treated with intra-arterial urokinase. Angiographic recanalization was assessed at the end of medication infusion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was investigated immediately after and 24 hours after treatment. Stroke severity was determined, followed by long-term outcome. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were treated. There was improvement of >/=4 points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale from presentation to 24 hours after onset in 43% of the treated patients, and this was related to the severity of the initial deficit. Forty-eight percent of patients had a Barthel Index score of 95 to 100 at 90 days, and total mortality was 24%. Cranial CT scans revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in 17% of patients in the first 24 hours, and these patients had more severe deficits at presentation. Eighty-seven percent of patients received intravenous heparin after thrombolysis, and 9% of them developed a hemorrhage into infarction. Angiographic recanalization was the rule in complete occlusions of the horizontal portion of the middle cerebral artery, but distal carotid occlusions responded less well to thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-arterial route for thrombolysis allows for greater diagnostic precision and achievement of a higher concentration of the thrombolytic agent in the vicinity of the clot. Disadvantages of this therapy lie in the cost and delay. Severity of stroke and site of angiographic occlusion may be important predictors of successful treatment.  (+info)

Effects of spontaneous recanalization on functional and electrophysiological recovery in acute ischemic stroke. (3/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) studies have shown that spontaneous recanalization results in a better clinical improvement after the onset of stroke. However, its effect on electrophysiological recovery is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spontaneous recanalization on the change in central motor conduction time (CMCT) in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Seventeen healthy subjects and 38 consecutive patients with a first acute ischemic stroke involving the middle cerebral artery territory were included. TCD was used to detect spontaneous recanalization. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to determine the change in CMCT on days 1 and 14. Improvement of the CMCT at day 14 was indicated if it decreased in comparison with previous data recorded at day 1 or when a nonrecordable motor response at day 1 reappeared at day 14. No CMCT improvement was indicated when there was no recordable motor response at day 1 and day 14 or the CMCT at day 14 worsened, becoming absent or more delayed. The Pearson chi(2) test was used to assess the statistical significance of the results in this study. RESULTS: Spontaneous recanalization was observed in 62% of the patients: 24% before 24 hours and 38% after this period. No recanalization was observed in 14 patients. The CMCT improved in 87% of the patients who had recanalized before 24 hours and 62% in the recanalized after 24 hours group (P=0.005). In contrast, CMCT improved in only 17% of the patients in the non-recanalized group CONCLUSIONS: These data show that spontaneous recanalization results in a better recovery of the central motor pathway leading to a better CMCT improvement in acute ischemic stroke.  (+info)

Lateralization of cerebral blood flow velocity changes during cognitive tasks. A simultaneous bilateral transcranial Doppler study. (4/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) permits the assessment of cognitively induced cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) changes. We sought to investigate the lateralization of BFV acceleration induced by a variety of cognitive tasks and to determine the influence of age, gender, IQ, and quality of the performance on the relative BFV changes. METHODS: Simultaneous bilateral TCD monitoring of BFV in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed in 90 normal right-handed volunteers during 13 verbal and visuospatial tasks and their preceding rest periods. RESULTS: All tasks induced a significant bilateral BFV increase in the MCAs compared with the preceding rest periods. Five verbal tasks showed a significant left-hemispheric BFV acceleration. Linguistic tasks that required active or creative processing of the verbal stimuli, such as sentence construction or word fluency, elicited the most asymmetric response. Five visuospatial tasks revealed a significant right-hemispheric BFV shift. Paradigms that combined visuospatial attention and visuomotor manipulation showed the most lateralized acceleration. Older volunteers (aged >50 years) showed higher relative BFV changes, but lateralization was not influenced by age. Gender, IQ, and performance quality did not reveal significant effects on BFV change. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral TCD is a noninvasive technique that has the potential to connect the particular change in flow pattern of the MCA distribution with selective cognitive activity and thus offers specific functional information of scientific and clinical value.  (+info)

Effects of some guanidino compounds on human cerebral arteries. (5/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accumulation of endogenous guanidino-substituted analogues of L-arginine in chronic renal failure might contribute to some of the vascular and neurological disorders of this pathology. We tested the hypothesis that in human cerebral arteries, some guanidino compounds may increase vascular tone, through nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition, and impair endothelium-dependent relaxation. METHODS: Rings of human middle cerebral artery were obtained during autopsy of 26 patients who had died 3 to 12 hours before. The rings were suspended in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. We then studied the responses to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), N(G),N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (asymmetrical dimethylarginine; ADMA), aminoguanidine (AG), and methylguanidine (MG). RESULTS: L-NMMA (10(-6) to 3x10(-4) mol/L) and ADMA (10(-6) to 3x10(-4) mol/L) caused concentration- and endothelium-dependent contractions (median effective concentrations [EC(50)]=1.1x10(-5) and 1.6x10(-5) mol/L, respectively; E(max)=35. 5+/-7.9% and 43.9+/-5.9% of the response to 100 mmol/L KCl). AG (10(-5) to 3x10(-3) mol/L) and MG (10(-5) to 3x10(-3) mol/L) produced endothelium-independent contractions (E(max)=44.3+/-8.8% and 45.7+/-5.8% of the response to 100 mmol/L KCl, respectively). L-Arginine (10(-3) mol/L) prevented the contractions by L-NMMA and ADMA but did not change contractions induced by AG and MG. L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner; AG and MG were without effect. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the contractions induced by L-NMMA and ADMA are due to inhibition of endothelial NO synthase activity, whereas AG and MG do not affect the synthesis of NO. An increase in the plasma concentration of L-NMMA and ADMA associated with uremia is likely to represent a diminished release or effect of NO, and consequently, an increased cerebrovascular tone in uremic patients is highly conceivable.  (+info)

Larger anastomoses in angiotensinogen-knockout mice attenuate early metabolic disturbances after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (6/963)

Abnormalities in the homeostasis of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including stroke. The authors investigated whether angiotensinogen (AGN) knockout mice exhibit differences in brain susceptibility to focal ischemia, and whether such differences can be related to special features of the collateral circulation. Wild-type and AGN-knockout mice were submitted to permanent suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The collateral vascular system was visualized by systemic latex infusion, and the ischemic lesions were identified by cresyl-violet staining. The core and penumbra of the evolving infarct were differentiated by bioluminescence and autoradiographic imaging of ATP and protein biosynthesis, respectively. In wild-type mice, mean arterial blood pressure was 95.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, and the diameter of fully relaxed anastomotic vessels between the peripheral branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries 26.6 +/- 4.0 microm. In AGN knockouts, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower, 71.5 +/- 8.5 mm Hg (P < .01), and the anastomotic vessels were significantly larger, 29.4 +/- 4.6 microm (P < .01). One hour after MCA occlusion, AGN-knockout mice exhibited a smaller ischemic core (defined as the region of ATP depletion) but a larger penumbra (the area of disturbed protein synthesis with preserved ATP). At 24 hours after MCA occlusion, this difference disappeared, and histologically visible lesions were of similar size in both strains. The observations show that in AGN-knockout mice the more efficient collateral blood supply delays ischemic injury despite the lower blood pressure. Pharmacologic suppression of angiotensin formation may prolong the therapeutic window for treatment of infarcts.  (+info)

Spectral analysis of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity during supine rest and orthostasis. (7/963)

This study evaluates the effect of orthostasis on the low frequency (LF, 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) fluctuations in the blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCAFV) in relation to its arterial blood pressure (ABP) equivalent to further define and quantify this relationship in cerebrovascular regulation. Spectral analysis was performed on 22 healthy subjects during supine rest and head-up tilt. The power in the LF range can be used to quantify the LF fluctuations, and four types of LF power data could be obtained for each individual: LF power of supine MCAFV, LF power of supine ABP, LF power of tilt MCAFV, and LF power of tilt ABP. By comparing LF power of MCAFV with LF power of ABP, two power ratios could be generated to describe the flow-pressure relationship during supine rest and head-up tilt, respectively, supine power ratio (LF power of supine MCAFV/ LF power of supine ABP) and tilt power ratio (LF power of tilt MCAFV/ LF power of tilt ABP). In addition, an index for dynamic autoregulation in response to orthostasis can be calculated from these two power ratios (tilt power ratio/supine power ratio). The authors found that this index was dependent on the extent of orthostatic MCAFV changes, and the dependency could be mathematically expressed (r = 0.61, P = .0001), suggesting its involvement in cerebrovascular regulation. Moreover, these data further support the previous observation that the LF fluctuations of MCAFV might result from modulation of its ABP equivalent, and the modulation effect could be quantified as the power ratio (LF power of MCAFV/ LF power of ABP). These observations could be an important step toward further insight into cerebrovascular regulation, which warrants more research in the future.  (+info)

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis complicated by vasculitis: a cause of fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in two cases. (8/963)

We describe two cases of disseminated coccidioidomycosis that were complicated by fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the first case, a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm and long-segment vasculitis occurred. In the second case, MR imaging revealed an enlarging coccidioidal granuloma at the tip of the basilar artery, and the artery subsequently ruptured. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
This exhibit features two color coded illustrations of the brain, highlighting the territory of the middle cerebral artery. The first illustration consists of a lateral brain with the middle cerebral artery in situ. The area of blood supplied by the middle cerebral artery is delineated in yellow. The second image color codes the various areas of function within the middle cerebral artery territory of the brain.
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Our approach to look at cerebral autoregulation in migraineurs showed 2 striking results. First, the phase and gain behavior was completely different compared with the controls, and second, the spectral power magnitudes of BP and V were very much increased in the migraineurs.. One interpretation of the transfer function approach is to consider the cerebrovascular system as a high-pass filter, which delays low frequencies and lets pass through the higher beat-by-beat-depending frequencies.6,7 Phase and gain are 2 parameters to describe the filter. The findings in our controls can be interpreted in exactly that way. The V lead over BP in the controls means that slow BP changes are delayed before they enter the cerebrovascular bed. In migraineurs, the phase shift indicates that BP is always earlier in time than V, hence BP is driving V. If the filter indicates the presence or absence of cerebral autoregulation, it is evident that migraine patients lack autoregulation. An argument in favor of a real ...
We investigated the effect of acute hypoxia (AH) on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using two independent assessment techniques to clarify previous, conflicting reports. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 men, 6 women) performed six classic leg cuff tests, three breathing normoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.21) and three breathing hypoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.12) gas, using a single blinded, Latin squares design with 5-min washout between trials. Continuous measurements of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFv; DWL MultiDop X2) and radial artery blood pressure (ABP; Colin 7000) were recorded in the supine position during a single experimental session. Autoregulation index (ARI) scores were calculated using the model of Tiecks et al. (Tiecks FP, Lam AM, Aaslid R, Newell DW. Stroke 26: 1014-1019, 1995) from ABP and CBFv changes following rapid cuff deflation (cuff ARI) and from ABP to CBFv transfer function, impulse, and step responses (TFA ARI) obtained during a 4-min period prior to cuff inflation. A new ...
Introduction Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler blood flow pulsatility indices (PIs) and MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) are essential variables for clinically evaluating fetal well-being. Here we examined how a maternal meal influenced these Doppler blood flow velocity variables. Methods This prospective cohort study included 89 healthy Caucasian women with normal singleton pregnancies (median age, 32 years). Measurements were performed at gestational weeks 30 and 36, representing the start and near the end of the energy-depositing period. Measured variables included the MCA-PI, UA-PI, fetal heart rate (FHR) and MCA-PSV. The cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was calculated as the ratio of MCA-PI to UA-PI. The first examination was performed in the fasting state at 08:30 a.m. Then participants ate a standard breakfast (approximate caloric intake, 400kcal), and the examination was repeated ~105 min after the meal. Results Without adjustment for FHR, fetal MCA-PI decreased ...
A resource for health professionals to improve prenatal ultrasound and accurate distinction between normal and abnormal anatomy. We believe this will save fetal lives and provide more reassurance to parents regarding their pregnancy
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Middle Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA.
Recent evidence indicates that cerebral autoregulation (CA) might be more pressure passive than previously thought. That is, cerebral blood flow, traditionally thought to be regulated independently of prevailing mean arterial pressure (MAP), might fluctuate, to some extent, as a function of MAP. However, due to limitations associated with experimental usage of pharmaceuticals to manipulate MAP and inconsistent control of arterial carbon dioxide, questions remain regarding the MAP-cerebral blood flow relationship, especially during typical daily activities that alter MAP. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess CA using a nonpharmacological acute psychological stress task to augment MAP, while at the same time controlling for end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET CO2 ). Twenty-five healthy young adults completed a stressful task while continuous measures of MAP, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and PET CO2 were recorded. Slope values obtained from hierarchical linear regression ...
Details of the image Haemorrhagic transformation of right middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke Modality: CT (non-contrast)
A prospective cross-sectional study of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in a normal obstetric population attending an Indian Medical College ...
Differences between middle cerebral artery bifurcations with normal anatomy and those with aneurysms.: The objectives of this study were to elucidate the normal
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement and interventions (ie.
Richard J. Davis, Colin E. Murdoch, Mozam Ali, Stuart Purbrick, Rivka Ravid, Gordon S. Baxter, Nick Tilford, Robert L.G. Sheldrick, Kenneth L. Clark, Robert A. Coleman ...
As I have described recently, I had surgery Dec. 19th for an M2, M3 right middle cerebral anuerysm clipped and have a question. Are/were any of you exhausted to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of heat stress on dynamic cerebral autoregulation during large fluctuations in arterial blood pressure. AU - Brothers, R. Matthew. AU - Zhang, Rong. AU - Wingo, Jonathan E.. AU - Hubing, Kimberly A.. AU - Crandall, Craig G.. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. N2 - Impaired cerebral autoregulation during marked reductions in arterial blood pressure may contribute to heat stress-induced orthostatic intolerance. This study tested the hypothesis that passive heat stress attenuates dynamic cerebral autoregulation during pronounced swings in arterial blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity were continuously recorded for ∼6 min during normothermia and heat stress (core body temperature = 36.9 ± 0.1°C and 38.0 ± 0.1°C, respectively, P , 0.001) in nine healthy individuals. Swings in MAP were induced by 70-mmHg oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) during normothermia and at a sufficient lower body negative pressure ...
Continuous positive airway pressure (C PA P) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. C PA P impairs venous return to the heart and, in turn, affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) a
Complete ganglion blockade alters dynamic cerebral autoregulation, suggesting links between systemic autonomic traffic and regulation of cerebral blood flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that acute head-down tilt, a physiological maneuver that decreases systemic sympathetic activity, would similarly disrupt normal dynamic cerebral autoregulation. We studied 10 healthy young subjects (5 men and 5 women; age 21 +/- 0.88 yr, height 169 +/- 3.1 cm, and weight 76 +/- 6.1 kg). ECG, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2 concentration, and middle cerebral blood flow velocity were recorded continuously while subjects breathed to a metronome. We recorded data during 5-min periods and averaged responses from three Valsalva maneuvers with subjects in both the supine and -10 degrees head-down tilt positions (randomized). Controlled-breathing data were analyzed in the frequency domain with power spectral analysis. The magnitude of input-output relations were determined with cross
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different cerebral hemodynamic responses between sexes and various vessels in orthostatic stress tests. AU - Wang, Yuh Jen. AU - Chao, A. Ching. AU - Chung, Chih Ping. AU - Huang, Ying Ju. AU - Hu, Han Hwa. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Objective: The argument about why the head-up tilt table test (HUT) does not include the posterior cerebral circulation, which is mainly responsible for syncope, as a monitor target has not been resolved. It is also unclear whether there is a sex difference in cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes. We hypothesized that orthostatic CBF changes more in the posterior circulation than in the anterior circulation and is different between sexes. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers (13 female and 17 male) were recruited for the HUT. The blood pressure (BP), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV), and posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAFV) were monitored simultaneously. Static cerebral autoregulation (CA) was calculated. Results: The female ...
Brain Surgery - Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Repair. This medical exhibit illustrates a successful graft of the middle cerebral artery bypassing an aneurysm versus an unsuccessful placement of the graft.
Brain Surgery - Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Repair. This medical exhibit illustrates a successful graft of the middle cerebral artery bypassing an aneurysm versus an unsuccessful placement of the graft.
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Authors: Kostoglou K, Debert CT, Poulin MJ, Mitsis GD.. We examined the time-varying characteristics of cerebral autoregulation and hemodynamics during a step hypercapnic stimulus by using recursively estimated multivariate (two-input) models which quantify the dynamic effects of mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2 tension ( [Formula: see text] ) on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFV). Beat-to-beat values of ABP and CBFV, as well as breath-to-breath values of [Formula: see text] during baseline and sustained euoxic hypercapnia were obtained in 8 female subjects. The multiple-input, single-output models used were based on the Laguerre expansion technique, and their parameters were updated using recursive least squares with multiple forgetting factors. The results reveal the presence of nonstationarities that confirm previously reported effects of hypercapnia on autoregulation, i.e. a decrease in the MABP phase lead, and suggest that the incorporation of [Formula: ...
Parameters describing dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) have limited reproducibility. 59 In an international, multi-centre study, we evaluated the influence of multiple analytical 60 methods on the reproducibility of DCA. Fourteen participating centers analyzed repeated 61 measurements from 75 healthy subjects, consisting of five minutes of spontaneous 62 fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) signals, based on 63 their usual methods of analysis. DCA- methods were grouped into three broad categories, 64 depending on output types: 1. Transfer function analysis (TFA); 2. Autoregulation index 65 (ARI); and 3. correlation coefficient. Only TFA gain in the low frequency (LF) band showed 66 good reproducibility in approximately half of the estimates of gain, defined as an intraclass 67 correlation coefficient (ICC) of , 0.6. None of the other DCA metrics had good 68 reproducibility. For TFA-like and ARI-like methods, ICCs were lower than values obtained 69 with ...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, respectively), with a ...
The Valsalva maneuver (VM) produces large and abrupt changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that challenge cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. We examined the effect of VM intensity on middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and cortical oxygenation responses during (phase I, II, III) and following (phase IV) a VM. Healthy participants (n=20 mean ± SD: 27±7 y) completed 30 and 90% of their maximal VM mouth pressure for 10 s (order randomised) whilst standing. Beat-to-beat MCAv, cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) and MAP across the different phases of the VM are reported as the difference from standing baseline. There were significant interaction (phase * intensity) effects for MCAv, total oxygenation index (TOI) and MAP (all P
In the current evaluation of the dynamic relation between MBP oscillations and CBF fluctuations using transfer function analysis, coherence in the very-low- and low-frequency ranges was below 0.5 during administration of dexmedetomidine, with remarkable reduction in MBP variability. Because small coherence suggests any one of three possible mechanisms, i.e. , (1) a nonlinear relation between changes in pressure and velocity, (2) the presence of a low signal-to-noise ratio, or (3) a weak relation between the two signals, i.e. , effective autoregulation,10,11 the current study cannot reveal which process led to the small coherence. Many previous studies have estimated transfer function gain and phase as interpretable indices even if coherence was small.19,24,31-33 Moreover, changes in transfer function gain and phase are unlikely to be induced solely by alterations in arterial pressure variability.14,34 Therefore, increases in transfer function gain in the very-low-frequency range and phase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herniation of an enlarged middle cerebral artery through a temporal bone defect in association with an arteriovenous malformation. AU - Raley, Darryl Alan. AU - Davidson, Andrew Stewart. AU - Morgan, Michael Kerin. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - We present a previously undescribed variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) protruding through a defect in the temporal bone, associated with a large arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient, a 59-year-old male, presented with a large right frontoparietal AVM with feeding aneurysms and a recent haemorrhage. Preoperative imaging demonstrated a tortuous right MCA feeder abutting the anterosuperior temporal bone in the region of the pterion. An associated temporal bone defect was visible. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy for surgical clipping of aneurysms associated with the AVM. On reflection of the temporalis muscle, the MCA branch was transected as it coursed through a defect in the temporal bone. This patient ...
During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. We reviewed 100 consecutive patients, admitted within 14 hours after a first stroke. Selective criteria were clinical presentation with MCA ischemia and at least two CTs (1 initial and 1 control). All CTs were retrospectively analyzed by at least two physicians blinded to the patients status. On the first CT, early signs were hyperdense MCA sign (HMCAS), early parenchymatous signs (attenuation of the lentiform nucleus [ALN], loss of the insular ribbon [LIR], and hemispheric sulcus effacement [HSE]), midline shift, and early infarction. Subsequent infarct locations were classified according to total, partial superficial (superior or inferior), deep, or multiple MCA territories. Clinical features, etiology, and Rankin scale were collected. There were 52 ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as ...
Read Potential for the Use of the Solitaire Stent for Recanalization of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion without a Susceptibility Vessel Sign, American Journal of Neuroradiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Ground truth for evaluation of ischemic stroke hybrid segmentation in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms. We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with
The Middle Cerebral Artery and Regional Anatomy. A, Basal view of the cerebrum. 1, anterior orbital gyrus; 2, olfactory tract; 3, lateral...
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score. Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects,
The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebrovascular responses to rowing exercise, investigating whether their diurnal variation might explain performance differences across a day. Twelve male rowers completed incremental rowing exercise and a 2000-m ergometer time trial at 07:00 h and 16:00 h, 1 week apart, while middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebral (prefrontal), and muscular (vastus lateralis) tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin volume (via near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate, and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2) were recorded. MCAv was 20-25% above resting levels (68 ± 12 cm/s) during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities, despite PET CO2 being reduced during maximal efforts (down ∼ 0.5-0.8 kPa); thus revealing a different perfusion profile to the inverted-U observed in other exercise modes. The afternoon time trial was 3.4 s faster (95% confidence interval 0.9-5.8 s) and mean power output 3.2% higher (337 vs 347 W; P = 0.04), in conjunction with similar exercise
A 39-year-old 34-week-pregnant woman was referred to our hospital for preterm labor and fetal dysfunction. Fetal middle cerebral artery systolic maximum blood flow velocity was high, so fetal anemia was suspected. Blood type was O-type Rh (+) and fetal hemoglobin was 0.4%; tests for irregular antibody and human parvovirus B19 IgM were negative. A high brightness echoic mass was observed in fetal stomach bubble, and amniotic fluid appeared bright. Labor suppression was disabled, and emergency cesarean section was performed. Amniotic fluid turbidity was observed, and on suctioning the stomach content of the infant, turbid amniotic fluid containing blood was obtained. On placental pathological examination, the cause of bloody amniotic fluid was not identified. The infants hemoglobin level was low at 8.7 g/dL, so the infant received red cell concentrate, with improvement of general condition.
Synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebral artery, posterior. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior?
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Diagnosis Code I60.12 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Moris classification11,15 is helpful in predicting the likelihood of technical and clinical success. However, the technical success of stenting appears more closely related to the circumstances of access; the risk of complications as well as that of restenosis is related to the morphological features of the target lesion itself, while the occlusion risk of larger branches is related to the location of lesion. Based on this observation and concept, the authors put forward the LMA classification as described above, which served as a basis to work out the individual therapy planning.. Lateral projection of the cerebral arteries is used for evaluation of access. In this series, the only technical failure was caused by the inability of the stent to negotiate the extremely tortuous siphon of ICA (case 29, type III access). The successful rate of stenting of type III access (85.7%) would be lower than type II and I (100%). Access classification redounds to determining whether single wire or assembly ...
Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. An increase in pressure within the artery lumen causes the vessel to constrict through depolarization and contraction of the encircling smooth muscle cells. This pressure-sensing mechanism involves activation of two types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: TRPC6 and TRPM4. We provide evidence that the activation of the γ1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLCγ1) is critical for pressure sensing in cerebral arteries. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to Ca2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated colocalization of PLCγ1 and TRPC6 with TRPM4, suggesting ...
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Background The contribution of neuroinflammation and specifically mind lymphocyte invasion is recognized as a considerable pathophysiological mechanism after stroke increasingly. and behavioural dysfunction werent decreased 7d after long lasting occlusion from the distal middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Additionally, we didnt measure a substantial decrease in infarct quantity at 24h after 60 min filament-induced MCAO, and didnt see differences in human brain edema between FTY720 and PBS treatment. Analysis of human brain cytokine expression uncovered complex ramifications of FTY720 on postischemic neuroinflammation composed of a substantial reduced amount of postponed proinflammatory cytokine appearance at 3d but an early on boost of IL-1 and IFN- at 24 h after MCAO. Also, serum cytokine degrees of TNF- and IL-6 had been increased in FTY720 treated pets in comparison to handles. Conclusions/Significance In todays study we could actually detect a reduced amount of lymphocyte human brain ...
4.. A patient with a stroke affecting the right middle cerebral artery has difficulty walking, especially over uneven surfaces. Which of the following describes the MOST appropriate initial treatment to improve the patients ability to walk over ...
I had a stroke in November 2009. MRI showed infarc in the back of my brain at lower right. An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef...
Structural diagram of the MCAo surgery region and histological results followed by anocclusion period in rats and mice. (A) Monofilament was inserted into MCA v
Im not really the middle middle child. I am the second of five. But I am the middle daughter, three girls before two brothers. Looking back over the years, I remember how it felt to not be the oldest, not the youngest, not the first daughter, not the youngest daughter, not the first son (of…
Use the MEDIAN function to identify the middle value in a range of cells containing values. If the number of cells being tabulated is even, average the middle two cells. MEDIAN is often contrasted with AVERAGE. Use the MODE function to indicate the value that appears most often within a selected range.
... posterior branch of MCA Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in Middle cerebral artery syndrome, potentially showing ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired cerebral arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA ... 105-123, ISBN 978-0-86577-067-6 "Middle Cerebral Artery". Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral ... It "competes" in size with the frontal polar branch of the anterior cerebral artery Prefrontal arteries: These arteries fan out ...
... is a condition whereby the blood supply from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is restricted, ... Middle cerebral artery lesions mostly affect the dominant hemisphere i.e. the left cerebral hemisphere. Hemiparesis or ... Stroke syndromes: Middle cerebral artery - superior division. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. Retrieved ... Stroke syndromes: Middle cerebral artery - inferior division. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. Retrieved ...
... also forms the middle cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery. The anterior cerebral arteries grow toward each other ... paratonic rigidity Anterior cerebral artery Cerebral arteries seen from beneath. Anterior cerebral artery visible at centre. ... The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. Anterior cerebral artery ... arise from the trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries. Cerebral circulation Middle cerebral artery Krayenbühl, Hugo; ...
These anastomose with the middle cerebral arteries and internal carotid arteries via the posterior communicating arteries. The ... showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. Areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery shown in yellow. The arteries of ... The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of cerebral arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe, ... small arteries which arise from the posterior cerebral artery after it has turned around the cerebral peduncle; they supply a ...
This cistern contains the middle cerebral artery. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 877 of the 20th ... The cistern of lateral cerebral fossa is a subarachnoid cistern formed in front of each temporal lobe by the arachnoid mater ...
The middle cerebral artery is most often affected.[citation needed] Parenchymal syphilis occurs years to decades after initial ... or large arteries supplying the CNS. The parenchymal syphilis, presents as tabes dorsalis and general paresis. Tabes dorsalis ... along with astrocytic and microglial proliferation and damage may preferentially occur in the cerebral cortex, striatum, ...
The frequency of this sign in ACA infarcts is similar to that in the territories of the middle cerebral artery and the ... Anterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is restricted ... One should be aware that most of the patients involved in DAWN and DEFUSE 3 trials had middle cerebral artery occlusions. ... Anterior cerebral artery strokes could be missed on imaging studies depending on their location or size. One case series found ...
The sign has been observed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery, and basilar ... Launes J, Ketonen L (November 1987). "Dense middle cerebral artery sign: an indicator of poor outcome in middle cerebral artery ... 1993). "Increased density in the middle cerebral artery by nonenhanced computed tomography. Prognostic value in acute cerebral ... Koo CK, Teasdale E, Muir KW (2000). "What constitutes a true hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign?". Cerebrovasc. Dis. 10 (6 ...
The lenticulostriate arteries arise from the middle cerebral artery. The recurrent artery of Heubner usually arises from the A1 ... The recurrent artery of Heubner, Heubner's artery or distal medial striate artery is an artery in the head. It is named after ... The recurrent artery of Heubner is a branch of the anterior cerebral artery. It has a mean diameter of 0.8 mm, and a mean ... It is a branch of the anterior cerebral artery. Its vascular territory is the anteromedial section of the caudate nucleus and ...
"Pseudoaneurysm complicating superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass". Surg Neurol. 12 (4): 305-6. PMID 524245 ... "Dual cerebral and meningeal supply to giant arteriovenous malformations of the posterior cerebral hemisphere". Journal of ... His specialties range from brain surgery for the removal of cerebral tumors; traumatic blood clots of the brain; diagnosis and ... treatment of pituitary tumors via microsurgery; diagnosis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations; ...
"Patterns of Music Agnosia Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9. ... For example, patient JB suffered extensive damage to the parietal-occipital areas to the left cerebral hemisphere leading to ... Some individuals are unable to recognize objects by touch because of a small cerebral infarction. Tactile Apperceptive Agnosia ...
... arise from the middle cerebral artery. The anterior choroidal artery originates from the distal carotid artery 5 mm after the ... However, the posterior limb of the internal capsule also receives lenticulostriate arteries from the middle cerebral artery, ... The anterior choroidal artery originates from the internal carotid artery. However, it may (rarely) ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anterior choroidal artery. MedEd at Loyola Neuro/neurovasc/navigation/achr.htm "Anatomy ...
Many of the cases of music agnosia have resulted from surgery involving the middle cerebral artery. Patient studies have ... Ayotte, J. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-38. doi: ... They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved. EEG recordings have ...
Ayotte, Peretz, Rousseau, Bard & Bojanowski (2000) found that those patients who had their left middle cerebral artery cut in ... than those patients who had their right middle cerebral artery cut. Thus, they concluded that the left hemisphere is mainly ... "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infracts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9. ... There was also some activation in the middle and inferior frontal gyri in the left hemisphere. Retrieval of episodic musical ...
The anterior cerebral artery arises just below the anterior perforated substance. The middle cerebral artery passes through its ... The anterior perforated substance is supplied by lenticulostriate arteries, which branch from the middle cerebral artery. It is ... Applied Anatomy of the Brain Arteries". Stroke in Children and Young Adults (2nd ed.). Saunders. pp. 15-68. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... also supplied by anterior choroidal artery. Small branches from these create holes, which give the anterior perforated ...
The study was performed on 53 stroke patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction one week ... Ayotte J, Peretz I, Rousseau I, Bard C, Bojanowski M (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery ... Research has been shown that amusia may be related to an increase in size of the cerebral cortex, which may be a result of a ... Zatorre RJ, Berlin P (2001). "Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (10): 946-53. doi ...
A comparative study in chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. Stroke. 10(2): 126-34. PMID: 442136 Ohta T, Kikuchi H ... The mechanism of action of a novel cerebral protective drug against anoxia I. The effect on cerebral energy demand. Arch Int ... Mechanisms of cerebral protection by pentobarbital and nizofenone correlated with the course of local cerebral blood flow ... PMID: 543750 Tamura A, Asano T, Sano K, Tsumagari T, Nakajima A (1979). Protection from cerebral ischemia by a new imidazole ...
Globally, the vessel most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Embolisms can originate from multiple parts of the ... of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery. ... A TIA is caused by a temporary disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF). The primary difference ... A portion of the plaque can become dislodged and lead to embolic pathology in the cerebral vessels. In-situ thrombosis, an ...
Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are commonly caused by middle cerebral artery strokes. Symptoms of conduction aphasia, as with ... Howard, H. (2017, October 7). Cerebral cortex. Retrieved from Kohn, Susan E. ( ...
"Detection of spreading depolarizations in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in swine". Acta Neurochirurgica. 162 (3): ... If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is ... This is accomplished by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, directing it into the cerebral circulation, and deploying ... A cerebral infarction is the pathologic process that results in an area of necrotic tissue in the brain (cerebral infarct). It ...
The common artery involved is the lenticulostriate branch of the middle cerebral artery. Common locations of hypertensive ... Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. Retinal microaneurysms are seen in conditions like ...
"Factors Associated with Outcome after Hemicraniectomy for Large Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction". Neurosurgery. 56 ... "Meet President Trump's biggest Middle Tennessee donors of 2019". November 20, 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019. Ebert, Joel. " ...
"Detection of spreading depolarizations in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in swine". Acta Neurochirurgica. 162 (3): ... "A delayed class of BOLD waveforms associated with spreading depression in the feline cerebral cortex can be detected and ... Leão AAP (1944). "Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex". J Neurophysiol. 7 (6): 359-390. doi:10.1152/jn. ... Ayata, Cenk; Lauritzen, Martin (2015-07-01). "Spreading Depression, Spreading Depolarizations, and the Cerebral Vasculature". ...
These areas receive blood from the same branch of the middle cerebral artery. Any damage to that blood supply would cause ...
The blood supply to the claustrum is fulfilled via the middle cerebral artery. It is considered to be the most densely ... The claustrum is a small bilateral gray matter structure (comprising roughly 0.25% of the cerebral cortex) located deep to the ... Cerebral Cortex. 12 (12): 1331-41. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.12.1331. PMID 12427683. S2CID 33360335. Cascella NG, Gerner GJ, ... connected structure per regional volume in the brain and suggest that it may serve as a hub to coordinate activity of cerebral ...
"Moderate Hypothermia in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction". Stroke. 29 (12): 2461-2466. ... Periods of poor blood flow may be due to cardiac arrest or the blockage of an artery by a clot as in the case of a stroke. ... Their most notable uses are in preventing or reducing alopecia in chemotherapy, and for preventing cerebral palsy in babies ... Galvin IM, Levy R, Boyd JG, Day AG, Wallace MC (2015). "Cooling for cerebral protection during brain surgery". Cochrane ...
... facial processing has been studied using measurements of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... During facial recognition tasks, greater changes occur in the right middle cerebral artery than the left. Men are right- ... Most neuroanatomical substrates for facial processing are perfused by the middle cerebral artery. Therefore, ...
"MR angiography and imaging for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic disease". American Journal of ... Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is found in 90% of the cases at autopsy, with 25% being severe CAA. Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) ... Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some ... The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are ...
The main arteries supplying the cortex are the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the posterior cerebral ... The middle cerebral artery supplies the parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and parts of the occipital lobes. The middle cerebral ... Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ... "Detection of spreading depolarizations in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in swine". Acta Neurochirurgica. 162 (3): ...
Middle cerebral artery - peak systolic velocity is changing the way sensitized pregnancies are managed. This test is done ... Mari, G. (2005). "Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity for the diagnosis of fetal anemia: The untold story". ... By measuring the peak velocity of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery, a MoM (multiple of the median) score can be ... and may also include assessment with amniocentesis and Middle Cerebral Artery scans.[citation needed] Blood testing for the ...
... and the middle cerebral artery blood FV were calculated using waveform time integration (average values of 256 consecutive ... CPP values above CPPopt are believed to cause hyperemia, i.e. to high cerebral blood flow that may cause cerebral edema and ... Under normal conditions, cerebral autoregulation ensures that cerebral blood flow is unchanged despite variations in blood ... For example, if the blood pressure increases, the cerebral vessels vasoconstrict to keep cerebral blood flow normal, whereas a ...
The actual blood flow caudally through these arteries, derived from the posterior cerebral circulation, is inadequate to ... The arachnoid mater, the middle protective layer, is named for its open, spiderweb-like appearance. The space between the ... The three longitudinal arteries are the anterior spinal artery, and the right and left posterior spinal arteries. These travel ... The spinal cord is supplied with blood by three arteries that run along its length starting in the brain, and many arteries ...
In 1983, French anthropologist Roger Saban stated that the parietal branch of the middle meningeal artery originated from the ... Tobias, P. V. (1987). "The brain of Homo habilis: A new level of organization in cerebral evolution". Journal of Human ...
Ellen inspects the koala's blood and finds out that the disease was created by an unknown enzyme found in the koala's cerebral ... She appears as an attractive middle-class Victorian human but has ice-cold skin and clockwork interiors, similar to the ... during this time the veins and arteries will convulse and the eyes will change before the brain is fully infected. The Standard ...
The principal vascular structures coursing along the middle incisural space are the posterior cerebral artery and the superior ... This area can be divided into three spaces: anterior, middle (lateral to), and posterior to the brainstem. The middle incisural ... cerebellar artery which pass around the brainstem, parallel to the free tentorial edge. The incisura has also a close ...
Because this drug is thought to expand the arteries, it helps to increase the blood flow as well as increase the flow of oxygen ... It is also used in cases of cerebral ischemia, ocular ischemic syndrome and other ocular disease caused by disturbed arterial ... Ethiopian-Swedish middle-distance runner Abeba Aregawi, Ethiopian long-distance runner Endeshaw Negesse, Russian cyclist Eduard ... Meldonium may be used to treat coronary artery disease. These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where ...
... like that encountered in vital arteries such as coronary arteries and cerebral arteries), or another unspecified obstruction, ... If this vertical plane runs directly down the middle of the body, it is called the midsagittal or median plane. If it divides ... Patent, meaning a structure such as an artery or vein that abnormally remains open, such as a patent ductus arteriosus, ...
... decreasing or completely blocking blood flow through the artery. A complete occlusion of the artery can result in cerebral ... Arterial walls are composed of three layers: an intima (the innermost layer), media (the middle muscular layer), and adventitia ... Cervical arteries, as mentioned above, consist of two pairs of arteries: vertebral and carotid. As such, cervical artery ... However, parts of the thrombus can break apart and result in emboli that can lodge themselves in distal cerebral arteries ...
... the Middle East and Africa. Some Middle Eastern Christians actually view the procedure as a rite of passage. R. Peteet, John ( ... Despite atrophy of blood vessels and nerves, the arteries, veins, nerves and the corpora spongiosa were successfully matched. ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. ... Root of the penis (radix): It is the attached part, consisting of the bulb of penis in the middle and the crus of penis, one on ...
A medical board concluded that this was due to a transient disturbance of blood flow in the posterior cerebral arteries. ... when the middle of the train is struck by train UW 77 coming from Mogi das Cruzes at 70 km/h (43 mph). There are 3,000 people ...
She suffered a ruptured middle cerebral artery, and an autopsy revealed a pre-existing condition. The ride was closed for ...
Branches of the middle cerebral artery provide most of the arterial blood supply for the primary motor cortex. The medial ... is supplied by branches of the anterior cerebral artery. Lesions of the precentral gyrus result in paralysis of the ... As they travel down through the cerebral white matter, the motor axons move closer together and form part of the posterior limb ... side of each cerebral hemisphere - from which it is separated by the central sulcus. Its anterior border is represented by the ...
... cerebral spinal fluid instead of cerebral mantles". Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 40: 79. doi:10.1186/s13052-014-0079-1. ISSN ... They can be a groove down the middle of the upper part of the skull, between the forehead and nose, or the back of the skull. ... The carotid artery is the most important blood supplier of the brain. With a blockage, the brain barely receives blood. Blood ... Hydranencephaly is a condition in which the cerebral hemispheres are missing and instead filled with sacs of cerebrospinal ...
The heart organ played a role in mediating the exchange of the blood which was in the vein and the air in the arteries. The ... He further identified 8 of the cerebral nerves and tracked them to the spinal cord and throughout the body. The choroid plexus ... 2010). Reconfiguring the world : nature, God, and human understanding from the Middle Ages to early modern Europe. Baltimore: ... Galen states in On Respiration and the Arteries "one must determine by dissection that the number and nature of the structures ...
Posterior cerebral artery (left and right) Posterior communicating artery (left and right) The middle cerebral arteries, ... The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... The circle of Willis is a part of the cerebral circulation and is composed of the following arteries: Anterior cerebral artery ...
... is more common in the Middle East. A 1973 report found that CVST could be found on autopsy (examination of the body after death ... requires puncture of the femoral artery with a sheath and advancing a thin tube through the blood vessels to the brain where ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), is the ... There are various neuroimaging investigations that may detect cerebral sinus thrombosis. Cerebral edema and venous infarction ...
It may result from laceration of an artery, most commonly the middle meningeal artery. This is a very dangerous type of injury ... Cerebral contusion is bruising of the brain tissue. The piamater is not breached in contusion in contrary to lacerations. The ... Cerebral concussion is the most common head injury seen in children. Types of intracranial hemorrhage are roughly grouped into ... Complications may include cerebral edema and transtentorial herniation. The goal of treatment should be to treat the increased ...
Arteries in the brain can also be twisted with frayed and split inner walls. This can lead to rupture or blockage of the ... is a mild form of Menkes syndrome that begins in early to middle childhood. It is characterized by calcium deposits in a bone ... and focal cerebral and cerebellar degeneration". Pediatrics. 29: 764-779. PMID 14472668. "Research Overview". ... arteries. Weakened bones (osteoporosis) may result in fractures. Occipital horn syndrome (sometimes called X-linked cutis laxa ...
... and cerebral palsy. Recently the U.S. Public Health Service reported that if all pregnant women in the United States stopped ... any condition related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up). Studies indicate ... and an increased risk of middle ear infections. A grandmother who smokes during her daughter's pregnancy transmits an increased ... weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong disabilities such as cerebral ...
... "middle cerebral artery susceptibility sign", which is a dark linear filling defect that is wider than the corresponding artery ... This sign is 83% sensitive and 100% specific for thrombotic occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It can detect hemosiderin ...
... microbubble enhances migration and therapeutic efficacy of marrow mesenchymal stem cell on rat middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
... upper half of section Relations of the brain and middle meningeal artery to the surface of the skull Left temporal bone showing ... Cerebral Venous Sinuses at Portal: Anatomy (Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 20th edition of ... and they receive some of the inferior cerebral and inferior cerebellar veins, and some veins from the diploë. The petrosquamous ...
... on the volume of ischemic brain damage off cytotoxic brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the feline brain". ... Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 28 (11): 2244-51. doi:10.1161/01.str.28.11.2244. PMID 9368572. Taniguchi K, Shinjo K ...
"Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat". Hum Exp Toxicol. ...
... a stroke in the middle cerebral artery), wherein the pupils of the eye tend to move toward the side of the body where the ... and array-centered locations in patients with left middle cerebral artery stroke". Neurocase. 11 (6): 416-26. doi:10.1080/ ...
Cerebral ischaemia refers to a severely reduced flow of blood in the brain due to narrowing or blocking of arteries or blood ... Typically, visual disturbances in MA patients begin as a zig zag line in the middle of the ocular field which appears to be ... causing cerebral vasoconstriction which ultimately narrows blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral hypoxia and tissue ... A thrombus is a blood clot which forms in a cerebral blood vessel, reducing the flow of blood through that vessel. This ...
... at 75% by volume reduces ischemia-induced neuronal death induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in ...
The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident. ... Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ... encoded search term (Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape ... Where do most malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke occur?. What are common impairments in middle cerebral artery (MCA ...
Find more synonyms for middle_cerebral_artery there.. Help Advanced Feedback iPhone/iPad Android API @RhymeZoneCom Blog Privacy ... Words related to middle cerebral artery:. Closest meaning first. A → Z Most lyrical. Most funny-sounding. Most modern Oldest ...
The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident. ... Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ... encoded search term (Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape ... Where do most malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke occur?. What are common impairments in middle cerebral artery (MCA ...
This case suggests that a normal major artery, if located close to the target volume, may be affected by low-dose irradiation ( ... Middle cerebral artery stenosis caused by relatively low-dose irradiation with stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral ... developed remarkable stenosis of the middle cerebral artery trunk (M1) 3 years after gamma knife radiosurgery. The nidus was ... a decrease in blood flow through the M1 because of nidus shrinkage or associated stenosis of the distal middle cerebral artery ...
Successful Mechanical Thrombectomy of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion 14 Hours after Stroke Onset Authors. * Robin Bhattarai ... of 10 and occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the M1 segment. Last known normal time was 14hrs (wake up ... Successful Mechanical Thrombectomy of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion 14 Hours after Stroke Onset. Eastern Green Neurosurgery ...
Welcome to the Pathology Education Informational Resource (PEIR) Digital Library, a multidisciplinary public access image database for use in medical education. ...
Adult male ICR mice (n=42) underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. One week after brain ischemia, low frequency ( ...
O-021 Significant improvement in patient functional outcome after revascularization of the middle cerebral artery by mechanical ... O-021 Significant improvement in patient functional outcome after revascularization of the middle cerebral artery by mechanical ...
BACKGROUND: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular ... Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery. Neurology India. 2005 Jun; 53(2): 186-90. ... artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. ... Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations ...
The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident. ... Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ... encoded search term (Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape ... Where do most malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke occur?. What are common impairments in middle cerebral artery (MCA ...
Middle cerebral artery vasculitis and stroke after varicella in a young adult. In: Southern medical journal. 1998 ; Vol. 91, No ... Middle cerebral artery vasculitis and stroke after varicella in a young adult. Southern medical journal. 1998 Nov;91(11):1070- ... Middle cerebral artery vasculitis and stroke after varicella in a young adult. / Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Smith, Nathaniel H.; ... Dive into the research topics of Middle cerebral artery vasculitis and stroke after varicella in a young adult. Together they ...
Intracranial arteries are involved in many neurologic disorders. ... Middle cerebral artery. Variation in MCA anatomy is less common ... and terminates at the bifurcation into the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). This bifurcation is ... Komiyama M, Nakajima H, Nishikawa M, Yasui T. Middle cerebral artery variations: duplicated and accessory arteries. AJNR Am J ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a terminal continuation of the ICA with a gradual change in blood vessel wall ...
RMCA right middle cerebral artery. RMCAT right middle cerebral artery thrombosis. RML right middle lobe ... PA pernicious anemia; paralysis agitans; pulmonary artery; peripheral arteriosclerosis. PAC premature auricular contraction; ... LML left middle lobe; left mesiolateral. LMCAT left middle cerebral artery thrombosis ...
Here, we combine the model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) with light sheet fluorescence microscopy and ... As cerebral thrombi are frequently observed after experimental stroke, a thrombus-induced impairment of the brain ... Our data reveal that tissue damage already peaks after 8 h of reperfusion following 60 min MCAO, while cerebral ... Thus, cerebral thrombosis is not causative for secondary infarct growth during ischemic stroke. ...
... and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of ... and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of ... and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of ... and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of ...
60+ year old male for a superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass graft. Background: Left MCA infarct 2017 and ... Middle cerebral artery bypass. July 26, 2022. Gabrielle Morris 60+ year old male for a superficial temporal to middle cerebral ...
... analysis demonstrated acceptable mean measurement differences and limits of agreement between series of middle cerebral artery ... in either of the groups.ConclusionsTranscranial Doppler generates reproducible data regarding the middle cerebral artery ... we recruited 20 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. In a quiet temperature-controlled ... and reproducibility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound in healthy volunteers and patients with symptomatic carotid artery ...
Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mouse. hMCT2 Tg and wild-type mice (10-week-old) were anesthetized by an ... Middle cerebral artery occlusion. (1) In rats under general anesthesia, a craniectomy was performed, and surgical exposure of ... In addition, the functional recovery to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and hMCT2 transgenic mice and of ... 1995) Neurological deficit and extent of neuronal necrosis attributable to middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. ...
MH, mental health; MCA, middle cerebral artery; ND, no data. Main Article ...
Effect of different dosages of difluoromethylornithine on reperfusion injury after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... Effect of different dosages of difluoromethylornithine on reperfusion injury after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... Effect of different dosages of difluoromethylornithine on reperfusion injury after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. ... Effect of different dosages of difluoromethylornithine on reperfusion injury after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. ...
Since vasospasm may involve anterior cerebral arteries while sparing middle cerebral arteries, especially after rupture of an ... Sensitivity and specificity of transcranial Doppler to classify middle cerebral arteries, anterior cerebral arteries, and ... For the middle cerebral artery, sensitivity was 86%, specificity 98%. For the anterior cerebral artery, sensitivity was 13%, ... transcranial Doppler accurately differentiates between middle cerebral arteries with and without vasospasm on angiography, but ...
... investigated the roles of TGR5 activation in attenuating BBB damage and underlying mechanisms after middle cerebral artery ... The effect of INT777 and siRNA on TGR5 and BRCA1 expression in penumbra after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). a, b ... Activation of TGR5 protects blood brain barrier via the BRCA1/Sirt1 pathway after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. * ... Activation of TGR5 protects blood brain barrier via the BRCA1/Sirt1 pathway after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats ...
Temporal profile of cytochrome c and caspase-3 immunoreactivities and TUNEL staining after permanent middle cerebral artery ... Temporal profile of cytochrome c and caspase-3 immunoreactivities and TUNEL staining after permanent middle cerebral artery ... Temporal profile of cytochrome c and caspase-3 immunoreactivities and TUNEL staining after permanent middle cerebral artery ... were examined in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Cytochrome c was strongly induced in neurons ...
Hemodynamic Significance of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Associated With the Severity of Ipsilateral White Matter Changes ... Hemodynamic Significance of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Associated With the Severity of Ipsilateral White Matter Changes ...
The Efficacy of Decompressive Craniectomy in Elderly Patients Older than 80 Years Old with Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery ... The Effect of Decompressive Craniectomy in Elderly Patients Aged 80 and Over with Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction2016 ... Factors Affecting the Result of Decompressive Craniectomy in Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction2015 June;11(1) ... Dominant hemisphere involvement and inclusion of the anterior cerebral artery or posterior cerebral artery were related with ...
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Thrombus in distal M1-segment of middle cerebral artery(MCA). CT angiography shows complete occlusion of M2 segment on the ... Yellow arrow shows complete occlusion of the M2 segment of middle cerebral artery in the same patient on the right. ... Acute occlusion of Middle cerebral artery. Acute occlusion of Middle cerebral artery ...
... umbilical and middle cerebral arteries Doppler and cardiotocogram ... Hemodynamics of the cerebral arteries of infants with ... Effect of dexamethasone on daily fetal movement, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries Doppler and cardiotocogram. ...
Unruptured Left Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm & Unruptured Left Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm 10/10/2014 ... Unruptured Left Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm & Unruptured Left Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm -- Juha ...
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes occlude capillaries following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in baboons. Stroke ... Polymorphonuclear leukocytes occlude capillaries following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in baboons. In: ... Polymorphonuclear leukocytes occlude capillaries following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in baboons. / del ... Dive into the research topics of Polymorphonuclear leukocytes occlude capillaries following middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ischemia in the territory supplied by the MCA. (
  • It has been shown that DFMO has neuroprotective effects on the infarction size after permanent focal and/or transient global cerebral ischemia. (
  • Therefore, the pharmacological targeting of protecting BBB may be a promising treatment strategy for cerebral infarction [ 5 ]. (
  • We report our results on the study of of elderly patients treated with decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction and compare them with the results from young patents. (
  • This is a retrospective review of patients who developed malignant middle cerebral artery infarction and underwent decompressive craniectomy. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in eldery patients is effective. (
  • Cryptogenic middle cerebral artery infarction in pure red cell aplasia" by Sajjad Ali, Salman Adil et al. (
  • We report a case of unexplained middle cerebral artery infarction in a 32-year-old woman with PRCA. (
  • Prominence and location of HV were documented in 52 consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction, before treatment with IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. (
  • She was admitted under the care of the acute stroke team, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain confirmed right middle cerebral artery territory infarction. (
  • CT shows a hypodense area in the distribution of the right middle cerebral artery that is consistent with a cerebral infarction (Figure 1). (
  • Successful reperfusion was achieved higher in MCA-only group [Thrombolysis in Cerebral infarction (TICI) classification 2b-3 14/33 (42.4%) vs. 3/21 (14.3%), p=0.030]. (
  • Large hemispheric infarction (LHI), synonymously called malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction, is a severe neurological disease with a high mortality and morbidity. (
  • If a blood clot (blood clot) completely blocks an artery, myocardial infarction, stroke (cerebral infarction-cerebral hemorrhage) may occur and death may occur. (
  • Our data reveal that tissue damage already peaks after 8 h of reperfusion following 60 min MCAO, while cerebral thrombi are only observed at later time points. (
  • In addition, the functional recovery to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and hMCT2 transgenic mice and of hippocampal slices subjected to ASH was assessed, as well as the effects of MCT blocker and MCT2 antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs. (
  • This study investigated the roles of TGR5 activation in attenuating BBB damage and underlying mechanisms after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). (
  • In the present study, we hypothesized that (1) activating TGR5 protects BBB damage and attenuates brain insult after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and (2) the protection of TGR5 on the BBB is mediated through a BRCA1/Sirt1-related signaling pathway. (
  • Recently, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by introducing various types of surgical monofilament intraluminally has been widely used, with their advantages and disadvantages. (
  • Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion stage. (
  • To test this, we investigated the relationship between acute brain ischemia, lung inflammation, and CNS reperfusion injury in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke. (
  • Most result from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) causing damage to striatum and cortex resulting in long-term disability. (
  • It is well known that platelets contribute to ischemia/reperfusion injury of the brain 7 , but it is still controversially discussed whether ongoing tissue damage is caused by cerebral microthrombosis or not. (
  • However, results using a model of temporary focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion that more closely resembles the pathological changes observed in human stroke have not been reported. (
  • These results demonstrate for the first time that DFMO has neuroprotective effect on reperfusion injury after focal cerebral ischemia. (
  • Conclusions: The rinding of capillary-obstructing polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the microvascular bed following middle cerebral artery reperfusion in focal ischemia in this model satisfies an essential requirement for postulating their role in early microvascular injury and the "no-reflow" phenomenon. (
  • modelling cerebral ischemia. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curdione on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in rats and further exploring the underlying mechanisms. (
  • Emerging evidence implicates organ crosstalk in the pathology of delayed central nervous system (CNS) damage following global cerebral ischemia. (
  • When a minor-risk cardioembolic source is present in a patient with cerebral ischemia, the etiologic role must be viewed with skepticism and considered in the context of other diagnostic information. (
  • 1. Tapeinos C, Battaglini M, Marino A, Ciofani G. Smart diagnostic nano- agents for cerebral ischemia. (
  • It mediates detrimental or beneficial roles in neuroinflammatory disorders including cerebral ischemia. (
  • Although the link between S1P₁ and microglial activation as a pathogenesis in cerebral ischemia had been clearly demonstrated, whether the pathogenic role of S1P₁ is associated with its regulation of M1/M2 polarization remains unclear. (
  • Overall, these results revealed S1P₁-regulated M1/M2 polarization toward brain damage as a pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. (
  • Lateral projection of a left common carotid artery injection that displays the order of branching in the intracranial carotid, including 1: ophthalmic, 2: posterior communicating, 3: anterior choroidal, and 4: anterior cerebral arteries. (
  • This gives rise to the superior hypophyseal perforators to the anterior pituitary and stalk, posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) before bifurcating into the ACA and MCA (see the image below). (
  • The PCoA extends posteriorly to connect with the primary segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), allowing collateral flow to pass between the anterior and posterior circulations. (
  • Dominant hemisphere involvement and inclusion of the anterior cerebral artery or posterior cerebral artery were related with borderline unfavorable outcomes (p=0.103 and 0.077). (
  • Three independent experts would manually segment the infraction volume, with changing infract size and location, including middle cerebral artery stroke, posterior cerebral artery stroke, and anterior cerebral artery stroke. (
  • associated with hypoplasia or absence of connection between the basilar artery and the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery. (
  • Intracranial arteries are involved in many neurologic disorders. (
  • p interaction =0·025), and among patients with more than 33% involvement of middle cerebral artery territory, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 15 (14%) of 108 patients in the EVT group versus four (4%) of 113 patients in the control group (4·17, 1·30-13·44, p interaction =0·012). (
  • Interpretation: EVT achieves better outcomes at 90 days than standard medical therapy across a broad range of baseline imaging categories, including infarcts affecting more than 33% of middle cerebral artery territory or ASPECTS less than 6, although in these patients the risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the EVT group than the control group. (
  • Patients in MCA only group had only MCA occlusion whereas those in MCA plus group had other major intracranial artery occlusion such as ipsilateral A2, P2, or contralateral A2 resulting from CTO. (
  • CTA has proven to be clinically useful in the evaluation of the carotid arteries in the neck, intracranial arteries, veins, and dural venous sinuses. (
  • Duplication of intracranial or cervical arteries is an infrequent type of vascular variant compared with anomalies involving other intracranial arteries. (
  • Transcranial Doppler and cerebral angiography were performed within the same 24 hours on each of 41 patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage. (
  • Therefore, transcranial Doppler accurately differentiates between middle cerebral arteries with and without vasospasm on angiography, but has a very low sensitivity for detecting anterior cerebral artery vasospasm and vasospasm in patients with anterior communicating artery aneurysms. (
  • Angiography disclosed a further aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery. (
  • Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography and MR imaging versus conventional angiography. (
  • Provenzale JM, Sarikaya B. Comparison of test performance characteristics of MRI, MR angiography, and CT angiography in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral artery dissection: a review of the medical literature. (
  • We investigated the baseline configuration of circle of Willis and the occlusion pattern of each cerebral artery and divided patients into middle cerebral artery (MCA) only group and MCA plus group by CT angiography. (
  • 저자들은 혈관 전산화단층촬영(CT angiography)에 의해 확인된 환자들의 윌리스 고리의 기본적 구조 및 폐색양상에 따라 단독중대뇌동맥(Middle cerebral artery[MCA]-only)와 복합중대뇌동맥(MCA-plus) 폐색으로 구분 하였다. (
  • A small bulge (1.4 mm) at the bifurcation of left middle cerebral artery (MCA), which was detected by 3D angiography, was well enhanced by CUBE T1 with Gd enhancement. (
  • Duplication of arteries usually occurs as two parallel arteries from two separate origins, as seen on CTA, MRA, and conventional angiography. (
  • Duplication of a portion of an artery whose main trunk is derived from a single origin, as seen on CTA, MRA, and conventional angiography. (
  • Since vasospasm may involve anterior cerebral arteries while sparing middle cerebral arteries, especially after rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, caution should be exercised in using negative transcranial Doppler results to make treatment decisions based on the assumed absence of vasospasm. (
  • Stenting and coil embolization of a surgically treated residual aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery bifurcation associated with coil embolization of a communicating artery aneurysm. (
  • We describe the case of a 76-year-old man admitted to our hospital for mild subarachnoid haemorrhage detected by CT scan in an aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery bifurcation treated surgically 29 years earlier and not completely occluded. (
  • During the same procedure we treated the residual aneurysm in the left middle cerebral artery bifurcation positioning a Neuroform3 stent (Boston) and embolization deploying two biologically active Cerecyte coils (Balt) for a total of 10 cm and excluding the communicating artery aneurysm from the circulation releasing two active Cerecyte coils for a total length of 30.9 cm. (
  • Thus, cerebral thrombosis is not causative for secondary infarct growth during ischemic stroke. (
  • We included patients who presented with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory ischemic stroke within 3 hours after onset and were treated with IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). (
  • In this large genome-wide genetic association study using mendelian randomization, HDPs were associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke but not heart failure or atrial fibrillation. (
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of a focal neurologic deficit resulting from hemorrhagic or ischemic disruption of the MCA's blood supply. (
  • A 45-year-old patient with no significant past medical history presented to out-patient department with aphasia and right hand weakness with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of 10 and occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the M1 segment. (
  • As cerebral thrombi are frequently observed after experimental stroke, a thrombus-induced impairment of the brain microcirculation is considered to contribute to tissue damage. (
  • In human stroke the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and its branches are most commonly affected and account for approximately 70% of infarcts 1 . (
  • Neither atrial fibrillation nor carotid artery stenosis (on Doppler ultrasound) were identified as causes for her stroke. (
  • Central investigators, masked to clinical information other than stroke side, categorised baseline imaging features of ischaemic change with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) or according to involvement of more than 33% of middle cerebral artery territory, and by thrombus volume, hyperdensity, and collateral status. (
  • In a randomized controlled trial of 250 patients with vertebral artery (n = 132) or extracranial carotid (n = 118) dissections who were randomly assigned to antiplatelet therapy versus anticoagulation therapy within 7 days of symptom onset, the investigators found no difference between either agent in preventing stroke and death after 3 months. (
  • Intensity of leg and arm training after primary middle-cerebral-artery stroke: A randomised trial[J]. Lancet, 1999, 354(9174): 191-196. (
  • abstract = "Objective: Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of adverse perinatal outcome. (
  • Reproducibility of Transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery. (
  • BackgroundTranscranial Doppler ultrasound remains the only imaging modality that is capable of real-time measurements of blood flow velocity and microembolic signals in the cerebral circulation. (
  • We here assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound in healthy volunteers and patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.MethodsBetween March and August 2017, we recruited 20 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. (
  • No spontaneous embolisation was detected in either of the groups.ConclusionsTranscranial Doppler generates reproducible data regarding the middle cerebral artery velocities. (
  • Transcranial Doppler detection of anterior cerebral artery vasospasm. (
  • The performance of transcranial Doppler in the detection of anterior cerebral artery vasospasm and vasospasm in patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage was analysed. (
  • Sensitivity and specificity of transcranial Doppler to classify middle cerebral arteries, anterior cerebral arteries, and patients with angiographic vasospasm were determined at mean velocities of 120 and 140 cm/s. (
  • Doppler ultrasound of the middle cerebral artery suggests anemia. (
  • Cerebrovascular function (middle cerebral artery velocity, MCAv) and cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnea (CVR CO 2 Hyper ) and hypocapnea (CVR CO2Hypo ) were determined via trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound and capnography. (
  • Here, we combine the model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) with light sheet fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of brain slices to investigate the kinetics of thrombus formation and infarct progression. (
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of DFMO therapy on postischemic injury size after reperfusion using a transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in rats. (
  • We have previously found that sphingosine 1-phospate receptor subtype 1 (S1P₁) in post-ischemic brain following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) can trigger microglial activation, leading to brain damage. (
  • Anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents are the drugs of choice (DOCs) to prevent thromboembolic disorders associated with vertebral artery dissection (VAD). (
  • Sudden unilateral deafness due to a right vertebral artery dissection. (
  • Carotid and vertebral artery dissections. (
  • Clinical import of Horner syndrome in internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection. (
  • Saeed AB, Shuaib A, Al-Sulaiti G, Emery D. Vertebral artery dissection: warning symptoms, clinical features and prognosis in 26 patients. (
  • basilar artery below anastomosis and vertebral arteries are usually small. (
  • Developmental variation when there are double segments involving portions of the vertebral, basilar, or carotid arteries. (
  • Clinical manifestation of acute cerebral infarcts in multiple arterial territories. (
  • [5] There is an increase in the pulmonary artery pressure, hypervolemia, polycythemia, and increased blood viscosity, all lead to additional stress on heart, predisposing personnel to Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). (
  • This artery arises from the common carotid artery in the neck, entering the head at skull base via the carotid canal, and terminates at the bifurcation into the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). (
  • Background and purpose BRANCH (wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery and basilar apex treated by endovascular techniques) is a multicentre, retrospective study comparing core lab evaluation of angiographic outcomes with self-reported outcomes. (
  • There have been occasional reports of stenosis or occlusion of major cerebral arteries occurring several years after stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations. (
  • Transfusions can be given through the fetal abdomen or, more often, by delivering the blood into the umbilical vein or artery. (
  • However, since the risk of coronary artery disease increases even when good cholesterol (HDL), which prevents atherosclerosis, decreases, the term dyslipidemia is medically more accurate than hyperlipidemia. (
  • On occasion, the persistent stapedial branch of the petrous segment traverses a bony canal and continues as the middle meningeal artery. (
  • The cavernous segment averages 39 mm in length and gives rise to far more branches, including the meningohypophyseal trunk, the anterior meningeal artery, the artery to the inferior portion of the cavernous sinus, and the ophthalmic artery. (
  • Yellow arrow shows complete occlusion of the M2 segment of middle cerebral artery in the same patient on the right. (
  • Internal maxillary artery bypass is created by using a vein graft and creating an end to end anastomosis with the internal maxillary artery and an end to side anastomosis with the M3 segment of the midddle cerebral artery. (
  • The patient was successfully treated by trapping of the lower division of the left M2 segment with superficial temporal artery-M3 bypass. (
  • Hypoplasia or absent A1 segment associated with a patent anterior communicating artery supplying blood to the ipsilateral A2 segment. (
  • Materials and methods Consecutive patients were enrolled from 10 US centres, aged between 18 and 85 with unruptured wide-neck middle cerebral artery (MCA) or basilar apex aneurysms treated endovascularly. (
  • Other less common types of anomalous carotid/basilar anastomoses include persistent hypoglossal artery (adjacent to cranial nerve XII), persistent otic artery, and proatlantal intersegment artery. (
  • The internal carotid artery (ICA) embryologically develops from the third primitive aortic arch. (
  • [ 3 ] The vidian artery anastomoses with the internal maxillary artery. (
  • Multiple tortuous contrast-enhancing vessels involving choroidal and thalamoperforate arteries, internal cerebral veins, vein of Galen (aneurysmal formation), straight and transverse venous sinuses, and other adjacent veins and arteries. (
  • It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX . (
  • The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. (
  • 60+ year old male for a superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass graft. (
  • Physiological parameters including blood gases analysis, blood glucose, hemoglobin, rectal and temporal muscle temperatures, and regional cerebral blood flow were monitored during the surgical procedure. (
  • Complications of Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis and Their Prevention: Technical Note]. (
  • Se divide en tres ramas, temporal, frontal y parietal que proporcionan irrigación a la mayor parte del parénquima de estos lóbulos en la CORTEZA CEREBRAL. (
  • The procedure uses an orbitozygomatic craniotomy (OZ) in combination with a low temporal craniotomy and planned craniectomy from the lower edge of the floor of the the middle cranial fossa to a point in between the foramen ovale and foramen rotundum. (
  • Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts. (
  • The present study explores the contribution of alterations in resting tone to cerebral artery narrowing in SHRs (spontaneously hypertensive rats) and the role of hypertension development. (
  • The flame-blunted monofilament was introduced through common carotid artery. (
  • The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident (CVA). (
  • BACKGROUND: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. (
  • To clarify this, we examined the time course of infarct progression, platelet deposition and thrombus formation in the murine brain after tMCAO and confirmed that the occurrence of cerebral thrombi correlated with infarct size after 24 h but was secondary to neuronal damage. (
  • Arteries to the brain on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). (
  • We included models that mimic VCI-related brain lesions (white matter hypoperfusion injury, focal ischaemia, cerebral amyloid angiopathy) or reproduce VCI risk factors (old age, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia, high-salt/high-fat diet) or reproduce genetic causes of VCI (CADASIL-causing Notch3 mutations). (
  • This case suggests that a normal major artery, if located close to the target volume, may be affected by low-dose irradiation (10 Gy or even slightly less) delivered with radiosurgery, although a decrease in blood flow through the M1 because of nidus shrinkage or associated stenosis of the distal middle cerebral artery, as well as other unknown factors, may also contribute to proximal M1 stenosis. (
  • The presence of distal hyperintense vessels before thrombolytic treatment is associated with large diffusion-perfusion mismatch and smaller subacute ischemic lesion volumes in patients with proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery. (
  • Therefore, knowledge of the detailed anatomy and pathway of the oculomotor nerve is critical for the management of lesions located in the middle cranial fossa and the clival, cavernous, and orbital regions. (
  • right extremity which result in pulmonary artery, into two efferent ve«s«l of the synovial membranes. (
  • The patient was treated by trapping of the left ICA with external carotid artery-saphenous vein graft-M2 bypass without complications. (
  • Ford was among the first clinicians who put together a concise review of clinical and pathological aspects of cerebral birth injuries in his first book Cerebral Birth Injuries and Their Results, which was published in 1927 [ 100 ]. (
  • Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. (
  • Cerebral Cavernous Malformation: What a Practicing Clinician Should Know. (
  • In the tMCAO model, complete recanalization is achieved by the removal of the filament, however cerebral perfusion is still not restored to 100% but only to approximately 50% 6 . (
  • I'd like to welcome you to today's COCA Call: Johnson and Johnson Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia -- Update for Clinicians on Early Detection and Treatment. (
  • Today I'll be discussing some background on the CVST situation and then move into a description of the reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia following the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • 1-6 Although HV is thought to be similar to the hyperdense artery sign on CT scan or the susceptibility vessel sign on gradient recalled echo (GRE) MRI, it has been shown to be superior to both for the detection of arterial occlusion. (
  • After age 40, narrowing of the arteries causes angina (chest pain) or peripheral arterial disease (leg pain when walking). (
  • These days, the intake of foods high in saturated fat is increasing, so even before middle age, there are cases in which blood vessels are damaged. (
  • We present a patient with arteriovenous malformations who, although asymptomatic, developed remarkable stenosis of the middle cerebral artery trunk (M1) 3 years after gamma knife radiosurgery. (
  • Kim YK, Schulman S. Cervical artery dissection: pathology, epidemiology and management. (