The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain TERPENES and achyrofuran, a prenylated dibenzofuran (BENZOFURANS).
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The act of constricting.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE named after the drooping clusters of flowers.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.

Nitric oxide donors in pregnancy: fetomaternal hemodynamic effects induced in mild pre-eclampsia and threatened preterm labor. (1/963)

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to determine whether there are significant differences in the effects of the nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, administration in pregnancies complicated by mild pre-eclampsia compared to the effects in pregnancies which are uncomplicated by this pathology. Glyceryl trinitrate is able to release nitric oxide (NO); deficiency of NO has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of pre-eclamptic disorders. METHODS: In this prospective study, ten patients with threatened preterm labor and ten patients with mild preeclampsia were studied at around 30 weeks of pregnancy. The maternal blood pressure, maternal heart rate, fetal heart rate and flow velocity waveforms of the placental uterine artery, umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery, evaluated by means of color Doppler and pulsed Doppler, were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 min after the sublingual administration of 0.3 mg of glyceryl trinitrate or placebo. The pulsatility index (PI) was calculated. The percentage change from the control period (delta %) was calculated for each parameter at 10, 20 and 30 min. Ten normal pregnant women at the same gestational age were used as controls and were administered a placebo. RESULTS: The maternal blood pressure recorded as systolic and diastolic values, demonstrated a significant decrease in the pre-eclampsia group after glyceryl trinitrate administration; the delta % at any time considered was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group than in the threatened preterm labor group. The PI of the placental uterine artery showed a significant decrease in both groups after 20 and 30 min from drug administration; the delta % at 20 and 30 min was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group than in the threatened preterm labor group. The PI of the umbilical artery showed a significant decrease after 30 min from the glyceryl trinitrate administration. The fetal heart rate showed no significant variations during the study in either group. The PI of the fetal middle cerebral artery showed no significant variations during the study in either group. No parameter was changed in the control group. CONCLUSION: Glyceryl trinitrate administration was followed by a greater reduction of the resistance to blood flow in the fetoplacental circulation of the pregnancies affected by mild pre-eclampsia compared to pregnancies uncomplicated by this pathology. This effect can be attributed to the NO released by the drug which offsets the decreased production of NO, postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.  (+info)

Predictors of clinical improvement, angiographic recanalization, and intracranial hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. (2/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome, angiographic success, and adverse effects after intra-arterial administration of urokinase for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We designed a Brain Attack program at University Hospitals of Cleveland for diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting within 6 hours of onset of neurological deficit. Patients with ischemia referable to the carotid circulation were treated with intra-arterial urokinase. Angiographic recanalization was assessed at the end of medication infusion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was investigated immediately after and 24 hours after treatment. Stroke severity was determined, followed by long-term outcome. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were treated. There was improvement of >/=4 points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale from presentation to 24 hours after onset in 43% of the treated patients, and this was related to the severity of the initial deficit. Forty-eight percent of patients had a Barthel Index score of 95 to 100 at 90 days, and total mortality was 24%. Cranial CT scans revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in 17% of patients in the first 24 hours, and these patients had more severe deficits at presentation. Eighty-seven percent of patients received intravenous heparin after thrombolysis, and 9% of them developed a hemorrhage into infarction. Angiographic recanalization was the rule in complete occlusions of the horizontal portion of the middle cerebral artery, but distal carotid occlusions responded less well to thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-arterial route for thrombolysis allows for greater diagnostic precision and achievement of a higher concentration of the thrombolytic agent in the vicinity of the clot. Disadvantages of this therapy lie in the cost and delay. Severity of stroke and site of angiographic occlusion may be important predictors of successful treatment.  (+info)

Effects of spontaneous recanalization on functional and electrophysiological recovery in acute ischemic stroke. (3/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) studies have shown that spontaneous recanalization results in a better clinical improvement after the onset of stroke. However, its effect on electrophysiological recovery is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spontaneous recanalization on the change in central motor conduction time (CMCT) in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Seventeen healthy subjects and 38 consecutive patients with a first acute ischemic stroke involving the middle cerebral artery territory were included. TCD was used to detect spontaneous recanalization. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to determine the change in CMCT on days 1 and 14. Improvement of the CMCT at day 14 was indicated if it decreased in comparison with previous data recorded at day 1 or when a nonrecordable motor response at day 1 reappeared at day 14. No CMCT improvement was indicated when there was no recordable motor response at day 1 and day 14 or the CMCT at day 14 worsened, becoming absent or more delayed. The Pearson chi(2) test was used to assess the statistical significance of the results in this study. RESULTS: Spontaneous recanalization was observed in 62% of the patients: 24% before 24 hours and 38% after this period. No recanalization was observed in 14 patients. The CMCT improved in 87% of the patients who had recanalized before 24 hours and 62% in the recanalized after 24 hours group (P=0.005). In contrast, CMCT improved in only 17% of the patients in the non-recanalized group CONCLUSIONS: These data show that spontaneous recanalization results in a better recovery of the central motor pathway leading to a better CMCT improvement in acute ischemic stroke.  (+info)

Lateralization of cerebral blood flow velocity changes during cognitive tasks. A simultaneous bilateral transcranial Doppler study. (4/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) permits the assessment of cognitively induced cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) changes. We sought to investigate the lateralization of BFV acceleration induced by a variety of cognitive tasks and to determine the influence of age, gender, IQ, and quality of the performance on the relative BFV changes. METHODS: Simultaneous bilateral TCD monitoring of BFV in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed in 90 normal right-handed volunteers during 13 verbal and visuospatial tasks and their preceding rest periods. RESULTS: All tasks induced a significant bilateral BFV increase in the MCAs compared with the preceding rest periods. Five verbal tasks showed a significant left-hemispheric BFV acceleration. Linguistic tasks that required active or creative processing of the verbal stimuli, such as sentence construction or word fluency, elicited the most asymmetric response. Five visuospatial tasks revealed a significant right-hemispheric BFV shift. Paradigms that combined visuospatial attention and visuomotor manipulation showed the most lateralized acceleration. Older volunteers (aged >50 years) showed higher relative BFV changes, but lateralization was not influenced by age. Gender, IQ, and performance quality did not reveal significant effects on BFV change. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral TCD is a noninvasive technique that has the potential to connect the particular change in flow pattern of the MCA distribution with selective cognitive activity and thus offers specific functional information of scientific and clinical value.  (+info)

Effects of some guanidino compounds on human cerebral arteries. (5/963)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accumulation of endogenous guanidino-substituted analogues of L-arginine in chronic renal failure might contribute to some of the vascular and neurological disorders of this pathology. We tested the hypothesis that in human cerebral arteries, some guanidino compounds may increase vascular tone, through nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition, and impair endothelium-dependent relaxation. METHODS: Rings of human middle cerebral artery were obtained during autopsy of 26 patients who had died 3 to 12 hours before. The rings were suspended in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. We then studied the responses to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), N(G),N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (asymmetrical dimethylarginine; ADMA), aminoguanidine (AG), and methylguanidine (MG). RESULTS: L-NMMA (10(-6) to 3x10(-4) mol/L) and ADMA (10(-6) to 3x10(-4) mol/L) caused concentration- and endothelium-dependent contractions (median effective concentrations [EC(50)]=1.1x10(-5) and 1.6x10(-5) mol/L, respectively; E(max)=35. 5+/-7.9% and 43.9+/-5.9% of the response to 100 mmol/L KCl). AG (10(-5) to 3x10(-3) mol/L) and MG (10(-5) to 3x10(-3) mol/L) produced endothelium-independent contractions (E(max)=44.3+/-8.8% and 45.7+/-5.8% of the response to 100 mmol/L KCl, respectively). L-Arginine (10(-3) mol/L) prevented the contractions by L-NMMA and ADMA but did not change contractions induced by AG and MG. L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner; AG and MG were without effect. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the contractions induced by L-NMMA and ADMA are due to inhibition of endothelial NO synthase activity, whereas AG and MG do not affect the synthesis of NO. An increase in the plasma concentration of L-NMMA and ADMA associated with uremia is likely to represent a diminished release or effect of NO, and consequently, an increased cerebrovascular tone in uremic patients is highly conceivable.  (+info)

Larger anastomoses in angiotensinogen-knockout mice attenuate early metabolic disturbances after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (6/963)

Abnormalities in the homeostasis of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including stroke. The authors investigated whether angiotensinogen (AGN) knockout mice exhibit differences in brain susceptibility to focal ischemia, and whether such differences can be related to special features of the collateral circulation. Wild-type and AGN-knockout mice were submitted to permanent suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The collateral vascular system was visualized by systemic latex infusion, and the ischemic lesions were identified by cresyl-violet staining. The core and penumbra of the evolving infarct were differentiated by bioluminescence and autoradiographic imaging of ATP and protein biosynthesis, respectively. In wild-type mice, mean arterial blood pressure was 95.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, and the diameter of fully relaxed anastomotic vessels between the peripheral branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries 26.6 +/- 4.0 microm. In AGN knockouts, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower, 71.5 +/- 8.5 mm Hg (P < .01), and the anastomotic vessels were significantly larger, 29.4 +/- 4.6 microm (P < .01). One hour after MCA occlusion, AGN-knockout mice exhibited a smaller ischemic core (defined as the region of ATP depletion) but a larger penumbra (the area of disturbed protein synthesis with preserved ATP). At 24 hours after MCA occlusion, this difference disappeared, and histologically visible lesions were of similar size in both strains. The observations show that in AGN-knockout mice the more efficient collateral blood supply delays ischemic injury despite the lower blood pressure. Pharmacologic suppression of angiotensin formation may prolong the therapeutic window for treatment of infarcts.  (+info)

Spectral analysis of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity during supine rest and orthostasis. (7/963)

This study evaluates the effect of orthostasis on the low frequency (LF, 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) fluctuations in the blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCAFV) in relation to its arterial blood pressure (ABP) equivalent to further define and quantify this relationship in cerebrovascular regulation. Spectral analysis was performed on 22 healthy subjects during supine rest and head-up tilt. The power in the LF range can be used to quantify the LF fluctuations, and four types of LF power data could be obtained for each individual: LF power of supine MCAFV, LF power of supine ABP, LF power of tilt MCAFV, and LF power of tilt ABP. By comparing LF power of MCAFV with LF power of ABP, two power ratios could be generated to describe the flow-pressure relationship during supine rest and head-up tilt, respectively, supine power ratio (LF power of supine MCAFV/ LF power of supine ABP) and tilt power ratio (LF power of tilt MCAFV/ LF power of tilt ABP). In addition, an index for dynamic autoregulation in response to orthostasis can be calculated from these two power ratios (tilt power ratio/supine power ratio). The authors found that this index was dependent on the extent of orthostatic MCAFV changes, and the dependency could be mathematically expressed (r = 0.61, P = .0001), suggesting its involvement in cerebrovascular regulation. Moreover, these data further support the previous observation that the LF fluctuations of MCAFV might result from modulation of its ABP equivalent, and the modulation effect could be quantified as the power ratio (LF power of MCAFV/ LF power of ABP). These observations could be an important step toward further insight into cerebrovascular regulation, which warrants more research in the future.  (+info)

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis complicated by vasculitis: a cause of fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in two cases. (8/963)

We describe two cases of disseminated coccidioidomycosis that were complicated by fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the first case, a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm and long-segment vasculitis occurred. In the second case, MR imaging revealed an enlarging coccidioidal granuloma at the tip of the basilar artery, and the artery subsequently ruptured. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage is a rare complication of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
This exhibit features two color coded illustrations of the brain, highlighting the territory of the middle cerebral artery. The first illustration consists of a lateral brain with the middle cerebral artery in situ. The area of blood supplied by the middle cerebral artery is delineated in yellow. The second image color codes the various areas of function within the middle cerebral artery territory of the brain.
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Our approach to look at cerebral autoregulation in migraineurs showed 2 striking results. First, the phase and gain behavior was completely different compared with the controls, and second, the spectral power magnitudes of BP and V were very much increased in the migraineurs.. One interpretation of the transfer function approach is to consider the cerebrovascular system as a high-pass filter, which delays low frequencies and lets pass through the higher beat-by-beat-depending frequencies.6,7 Phase and gain are 2 parameters to describe the filter. The findings in our controls can be interpreted in exactly that way. The V lead over BP in the controls means that slow BP changes are delayed before they enter the cerebrovascular bed. In migraineurs, the phase shift indicates that BP is always earlier in time than V, hence BP is driving V. If the filter indicates the presence or absence of cerebral autoregulation, it is evident that migraine patients lack autoregulation. An argument in favor of a real ...
We investigated the effect of acute hypoxia (AH) on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using two independent assessment techniques to clarify previous, conflicting reports. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 men, 6 women) performed six classic leg cuff tests, three breathing normoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.21) and three breathing hypoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.12) gas, using a single blinded, Latin squares design with 5-min washout between trials. Continuous measurements of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFv; DWL MultiDop X2) and radial artery blood pressure (ABP; Colin 7000) were recorded in the supine position during a single experimental session. Autoregulation index (ARI) scores were calculated using the model of Tiecks et al. (Tiecks FP, Lam AM, Aaslid R, Newell DW. Stroke 26: 1014-1019, 1995) from ABP and CBFv changes following rapid cuff deflation (cuff ARI) and from ABP to CBFv transfer function, impulse, and step responses (TFA ARI) obtained during a 4-min period prior to cuff inflation. A new ...
Introduction Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler blood flow pulsatility indices (PIs) and MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) are essential variables for clinically evaluating fetal well-being. Here we examined how a maternal meal influenced these Doppler blood flow velocity variables. Methods This prospective cohort study included 89 healthy Caucasian women with normal singleton pregnancies (median age, 32 years). Measurements were performed at gestational weeks 30 and 36, representing the start and near the end of the energy-depositing period. Measured variables included the MCA-PI, UA-PI, fetal heart rate (FHR) and MCA-PSV. The cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was calculated as the ratio of MCA-PI to UA-PI. The first examination was performed in the fasting state at 08:30 a.m. Then participants ate a standard breakfast (approximate caloric intake, 400kcal), and the examination was repeated ~105 min after the meal. Results Without adjustment for FHR, fetal MCA-PI decreased ...
A resource for health professionals to improve prenatal ultrasound and accurate distinction between normal and abnormal anatomy. We believe this will save fetal lives and provide more reassurance to parents regarding their pregnancy
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Middle Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA.
Recent evidence indicates that cerebral autoregulation (CA) might be more pressure passive than previously thought. That is, cerebral blood flow, traditionally thought to be regulated independently of prevailing mean arterial pressure (MAP), might fluctuate, to some extent, as a function of MAP. However, due to limitations associated with experimental usage of pharmaceuticals to manipulate MAP and inconsistent control of arterial carbon dioxide, questions remain regarding the MAP-cerebral blood flow relationship, especially during typical daily activities that alter MAP. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess CA using a nonpharmacological acute psychological stress task to augment MAP, while at the same time controlling for end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET CO2 ). Twenty-five healthy young adults completed a stressful task while continuous measures of MAP, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and PET CO2 were recorded. Slope values obtained from hierarchical linear regression ...
Details of the image Haemorrhagic transformation of right middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke Modality: CT (non-contrast)
A prospective cross-sectional study of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in a normal obstetric population attending an Indian Medical College ...
Differences between middle cerebral artery bifurcations with normal anatomy and those with aneurysms.: The objectives of this study were to elucidate the normal
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement and interventions (ie.
Richard J. Davis, Colin E. Murdoch, Mozam Ali, Stuart Purbrick, Rivka Ravid, Gordon S. Baxter, Nick Tilford, Robert L.G. Sheldrick, Kenneth L. Clark, Robert A. Coleman ...
As I have described recently, I had surgery Dec. 19th for an M2, M3 right middle cerebral anuerysm clipped and have a question. Are/were any of you exhausted to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of heat stress on dynamic cerebral autoregulation during large fluctuations in arterial blood pressure. AU - Brothers, R. Matthew. AU - Zhang, Rong. AU - Wingo, Jonathan E.. AU - Hubing, Kimberly A.. AU - Crandall, Craig G.. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. N2 - Impaired cerebral autoregulation during marked reductions in arterial blood pressure may contribute to heat stress-induced orthostatic intolerance. This study tested the hypothesis that passive heat stress attenuates dynamic cerebral autoregulation during pronounced swings in arterial blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity were continuously recorded for ∼6 min during normothermia and heat stress (core body temperature = 36.9 ± 0.1°C and 38.0 ± 0.1°C, respectively, P , 0.001) in nine healthy individuals. Swings in MAP were induced by 70-mmHg oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) during normothermia and at a sufficient lower body negative pressure ...
Continuous positive airway pressure (C PA P) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. C PA P impairs venous return to the heart and, in turn, affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) a
Complete ganglion blockade alters dynamic cerebral autoregulation, suggesting links between systemic autonomic traffic and regulation of cerebral blood flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that acute head-down tilt, a physiological maneuver that decreases systemic sympathetic activity, would similarly disrupt normal dynamic cerebral autoregulation. We studied 10 healthy young subjects (5 men and 5 women; age 21 +/- 0.88 yr, height 169 +/- 3.1 cm, and weight 76 +/- 6.1 kg). ECG, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2 concentration, and middle cerebral blood flow velocity were recorded continuously while subjects breathed to a metronome. We recorded data during 5-min periods and averaged responses from three Valsalva maneuvers with subjects in both the supine and -10 degrees head-down tilt positions (randomized). Controlled-breathing data were analyzed in the frequency domain with power spectral analysis. The magnitude of input-output relations were determined with cross
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different cerebral hemodynamic responses between sexes and various vessels in orthostatic stress tests. AU - Wang, Yuh Jen. AU - Chao, A. Ching. AU - Chung, Chih Ping. AU - Huang, Ying Ju. AU - Hu, Han Hwa. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Objective: The argument about why the head-up tilt table test (HUT) does not include the posterior cerebral circulation, which is mainly responsible for syncope, as a monitor target has not been resolved. It is also unclear whether there is a sex difference in cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes. We hypothesized that orthostatic CBF changes more in the posterior circulation than in the anterior circulation and is different between sexes. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers (13 female and 17 male) were recruited for the HUT. The blood pressure (BP), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV), and posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAFV) were monitored simultaneously. Static cerebral autoregulation (CA) was calculated. Results: The female ...
Brain Surgery - Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Repair. This medical exhibit illustrates a successful graft of the middle cerebral artery bypassing an aneurysm versus an unsuccessful placement of the graft.
Brain Surgery - Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Repair. This medical exhibit illustrates a successful graft of the middle cerebral artery bypassing an aneurysm versus an unsuccessful placement of the graft.
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Authors: Kostoglou K, Debert CT, Poulin MJ, Mitsis GD.. We examined the time-varying characteristics of cerebral autoregulation and hemodynamics during a step hypercapnic stimulus by using recursively estimated multivariate (two-input) models which quantify the dynamic effects of mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2 tension ( [Formula: see text] ) on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFV). Beat-to-beat values of ABP and CBFV, as well as breath-to-breath values of [Formula: see text] during baseline and sustained euoxic hypercapnia were obtained in 8 female subjects. The multiple-input, single-output models used were based on the Laguerre expansion technique, and their parameters were updated using recursive least squares with multiple forgetting factors. The results reveal the presence of nonstationarities that confirm previously reported effects of hypercapnia on autoregulation, i.e. a decrease in the MABP phase lead, and suggest that the incorporation of [Formula: ...
Parameters describing dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) have limited reproducibility. 59 In an international, multi-centre study, we evaluated the influence of multiple analytical 60 methods on the reproducibility of DCA. Fourteen participating centers analyzed repeated 61 measurements from 75 healthy subjects, consisting of five minutes of spontaneous 62 fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) signals, based on 63 their usual methods of analysis. DCA- methods were grouped into three broad categories, 64 depending on output types: 1. Transfer function analysis (TFA); 2. Autoregulation index 65 (ARI); and 3. correlation coefficient. Only TFA gain in the low frequency (LF) band showed 66 good reproducibility in approximately half of the estimates of gain, defined as an intraclass 67 correlation coefficient (ICC) of , 0.6. None of the other DCA metrics had good 68 reproducibility. For TFA-like and ARI-like methods, ICCs were lower than values obtained 69 with ...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, respectively), with a ...
The Valsalva maneuver (VM) produces large and abrupt changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that challenge cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. We examined the effect of VM intensity on middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and cortical oxygenation responses during (phase I, II, III) and following (phase IV) a VM. Healthy participants (n=20 mean ± SD: 27±7 y) completed 30 and 90% of their maximal VM mouth pressure for 10 s (order randomised) whilst standing. Beat-to-beat MCAv, cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) and MAP across the different phases of the VM are reported as the difference from standing baseline. There were significant interaction (phase * intensity) effects for MCAv, total oxygenation index (TOI) and MAP (all P
In the current evaluation of the dynamic relation between MBP oscillations and CBF fluctuations using transfer function analysis, coherence in the very-low- and low-frequency ranges was below 0.5 during administration of dexmedetomidine, with remarkable reduction in MBP variability. Because small coherence suggests any one of three possible mechanisms, i.e. , (1) a nonlinear relation between changes in pressure and velocity, (2) the presence of a low signal-to-noise ratio, or (3) a weak relation between the two signals, i.e. , effective autoregulation,10,11 the current study cannot reveal which process led to the small coherence. Many previous studies have estimated transfer function gain and phase as interpretable indices even if coherence was small.19,24,31-33 Moreover, changes in transfer function gain and phase are unlikely to be induced solely by alterations in arterial pressure variability.14,34 Therefore, increases in transfer function gain in the very-low-frequency range and phase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herniation of an enlarged middle cerebral artery through a temporal bone defect in association with an arteriovenous malformation. AU - Raley, Darryl Alan. AU - Davidson, Andrew Stewart. AU - Morgan, Michael Kerin. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - We present a previously undescribed variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) protruding through a defect in the temporal bone, associated with a large arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient, a 59-year-old male, presented with a large right frontoparietal AVM with feeding aneurysms and a recent haemorrhage. Preoperative imaging demonstrated a tortuous right MCA feeder abutting the anterosuperior temporal bone in the region of the pterion. An associated temporal bone defect was visible. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy for surgical clipping of aneurysms associated with the AVM. On reflection of the temporalis muscle, the MCA branch was transected as it coursed through a defect in the temporal bone. This patient ...
During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. We reviewed 100 consecutive patients, admitted within 14 hours after a first stroke. Selective criteria were clinical presentation with MCA ischemia and at least two CTs (1 initial and 1 control). All CTs were retrospectively analyzed by at least two physicians blinded to the patients status. On the first CT, early signs were hyperdense MCA sign (HMCAS), early parenchymatous signs (attenuation of the lentiform nucleus [ALN], loss of the insular ribbon [LIR], and hemispheric sulcus effacement [HSE]), midline shift, and early infarction. Subsequent infarct locations were classified according to total, partial superficial (superior or inferior), deep, or multiple MCA territories. Clinical features, etiology, and Rankin scale were collected. There were 52 ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as ...
Read Potential for the Use of the Solitaire Stent for Recanalization of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion without a Susceptibility Vessel Sign, American Journal of Neuroradiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Ground truth for evaluation of ischemic stroke hybrid segmentation in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms. We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with
The Middle Cerebral Artery and Regional Anatomy. A, Basal view of the cerebrum. 1, anterior orbital gyrus; 2, olfactory tract; 3, lateral...
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score. Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects,
The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebrovascular responses to rowing exercise, investigating whether their diurnal variation might explain performance differences across a day. Twelve male rowers completed incremental rowing exercise and a 2000-m ergometer time trial at 07:00 h and 16:00 h, 1 week apart, while middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebral (prefrontal), and muscular (vastus lateralis) tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin volume (via near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate, and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2) were recorded. MCAv was 20-25% above resting levels (68 ± 12 cm/s) during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities, despite PET CO2 being reduced during maximal efforts (down ∼ 0.5-0.8 kPa); thus revealing a different perfusion profile to the inverted-U observed in other exercise modes. The afternoon time trial was 3.4 s faster (95% confidence interval 0.9-5.8 s) and mean power output 3.2% higher (337 vs 347 W; P = 0.04), in conjunction with similar exercise
A 39-year-old 34-week-pregnant woman was referred to our hospital for preterm labor and fetal dysfunction. Fetal middle cerebral artery systolic maximum blood flow velocity was high, so fetal anemia was suspected. Blood type was O-type Rh (+) and fetal hemoglobin was 0.4%; tests for irregular antibody and human parvovirus B19 IgM were negative. A high brightness echoic mass was observed in fetal stomach bubble, and amniotic fluid appeared bright. Labor suppression was disabled, and emergency cesarean section was performed. Amniotic fluid turbidity was observed, and on suctioning the stomach content of the infant, turbid amniotic fluid containing blood was obtained. On placental pathological examination, the cause of bloody amniotic fluid was not identified. The infants hemoglobin level was low at 8.7 g/dL, so the infant received red cell concentrate, with improvement of general condition.
Synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebral artery, posterior. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior?
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Diagnosis Code I60.12 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Moris classification11,15 is helpful in predicting the likelihood of technical and clinical success. However, the technical success of stenting appears more closely related to the circumstances of access; the risk of complications as well as that of restenosis is related to the morphological features of the target lesion itself, while the occlusion risk of larger branches is related to the location of lesion. Based on this observation and concept, the authors put forward the LMA classification as described above, which served as a basis to work out the individual therapy planning.. Lateral projection of the cerebral arteries is used for evaluation of access. In this series, the only technical failure was caused by the inability of the stent to negotiate the extremely tortuous siphon of ICA (case 29, type III access). The successful rate of stenting of type III access (85.7%) would be lower than type II and I (100%). Access classification redounds to determining whether single wire or assembly ...
Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. An increase in pressure within the artery lumen causes the vessel to constrict through depolarization and contraction of the encircling smooth muscle cells. This pressure-sensing mechanism involves activation of two types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: TRPC6 and TRPM4. We provide evidence that the activation of the γ1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLCγ1) is critical for pressure sensing in cerebral arteries. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to Ca2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated colocalization of PLCγ1 and TRPC6 with TRPM4, suggesting ...
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Background The contribution of neuroinflammation and specifically mind lymphocyte invasion is recognized as a considerable pathophysiological mechanism after stroke increasingly. and behavioural dysfunction werent decreased 7d after long lasting occlusion from the distal middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Additionally, we didnt measure a substantial decrease in infarct quantity at 24h after 60 min filament-induced MCAO, and didnt see differences in human brain edema between FTY720 and PBS treatment. Analysis of human brain cytokine expression uncovered complex ramifications of FTY720 on postischemic neuroinflammation composed of a substantial reduced amount of postponed proinflammatory cytokine appearance at 3d but an early on boost of IL-1 and IFN- at 24 h after MCAO. Also, serum cytokine degrees of TNF- and IL-6 had been increased in FTY720 treated pets in comparison to handles. Conclusions/Significance In todays study we could actually detect a reduced amount of lymphocyte human brain ...
4.. A patient with a stroke affecting the right middle cerebral artery has difficulty walking, especially over uneven surfaces. Which of the following describes the MOST appropriate initial treatment to improve the patients ability to walk over ...
I had a stroke in November 2009. MRI showed infarc in the back of my brain at lower right. An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef...
Structural diagram of the MCAo surgery region and histological results followed by anocclusion period in rats and mice. (A) Monofilament was inserted into MCA v
Use the MEDIAN function to identify the middle value in a range of cells containing values. If the number of cells being tabulated is even, average the middle two cells. MEDIAN is often contrasted with AVERAGE. Use the MODE function to indicate the value that appears most often within a selected range.
anterior cerebral artery. *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries *internal striate. *external striate ... ileocolic artery. middle suprarenal[edit]. renal[edit]. Anterior and posterior[edit]. interlobar artery[edit]. *arcuate artery ... internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic artery *Orbital group *Lacrimal artery *lateral palpebral arteries ... common hepatic artery *proper hepatic artery *Terminal branches *right hepatic artery *Cystic artery ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Function. Primary somatosensory cortex. Identifiers. Latin. Gyrus postcentralis. ...
Muscular artery. *Предна мозъчна артерия (a. cerebri anterior). *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries * ... deep artery of the penis ♂ (Helicine arteries of penis)/Deep artery of clitoris ♀ • Dorsal artery of the penis ♂/Dorsal artery ... Colic branch of ileocolic artery, Anterior cecal artery, posterior cecal, Ileal branch of ileocolic artery, Appendicular artery ... Gastroduodenal artery (Right gastro-omental artery, Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Supraduodenal artery) ...
Ayotte, J. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-38. doi: ... Many of the cases of music agnosia have resulted from surgery involving the middle cerebral artery. Patient studies have ... Halpern, Andrea R. (2006). "Cerebral Substrates of Musical Imagery". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 930 (1): 179- ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved.[14] EEG recordings ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Identifiers. Latin. Cortex praemotorius. NeuroNames. 2331. FMA. 224852. ... Campbell, A. W. (1905). Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Function. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University ... The premotor cortex occupies the part of Brodmann area 6 that lies on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The ... Penfield, W. and Boldrey, E. (1937). "Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by ...
The middle cerebral artery is most often affected.[citation needed] Parenchymal syphilis occurs years to decades after initial ... or large arteries supplying the CNS. The parenchymal syphilis, presents as tabes dorsalis and general paresis. Tabes dorsalis ... along with astrocytic and microglial proliferation and damage may preferentially occur in the cerebral cortex, striatum, ...
"Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat". Hum Exp Toxicol. ...
"Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise". Journal of Applied ... Moraine, J. J.; Lamotte, M.; Berré, J.; Niset, G.; Leduc, A.; Naeije, R. (1993). "Relationship of middle cerebral artery blood ... Jørgensen, LG; Perko, M; Hanel, B; Schroeder, TV; Secher, NH (March 1992). "Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood flow ... Pott, Frank; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Ide, Kojiro; Madsen, Per; Secher, Niels H. (2003). "Middle cerebral artery blood ...
"Pseudoaneurysm complicating superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass". Surg Neurol. 12 (4): 305-6. PMID 524245 ... "Dual cerebral and meningeal supply to giant arteriovenous malformations of the posterior cerebral hemisphere". Journal of ... His specialties range from brain surgery for the removal of cerebral tumors; traumatic blood clots of the brain; diagnosis and ... treatment of pituitary tumors via microsurgery; diagnosis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations; ...
Bolia suffered a ruptured middle cerebral artery, and an autopsy revealed a pre-existing condition. The ride was closed for ...
"Patterns of Music Agnosia Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9. ... For example, patient JB suffered extensive damage to the parietal-occipital areas to the left cerebral hemisphere leading to ... Some individuals are unable to recognize objects by touch because of a small cerebral infarction. Tactile Apperceptive Agnosia ...
Many of the cases of music agnosia have resulted from surgery involving the middle cerebral artery. Patient studies have ... Ayotte, J. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-38. doi: ... They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved. EEG recordings have ...
Ayotte, Peretz, Rousseau, Bard & Bojanowski (2000) found that those patients who had their left middle cerebral artery cut in ... than those patients who had their right middle cerebral artery cut. Thus, they concluded that the left hemisphere is mainly ... "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infracts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9. ... There was also some activation in the middle and inferior frontal gyri in the left hemisphere. Retrieval of episodic musical ...
The study was performed on 53 stroke patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction one week ... Ayotte J, Peretz I, Rousseau I, Bard C, Bojanowski M (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery ... Research has been shown that amusia may be related to an increase in size of the cerebral cortex, which may be a result of a ... Zatorre RJ, Berlin P (2001). "Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (10): 946-53. doi ...
A comparative study in chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. Stroke. 10(2): 126-34. PMID: 442136 Ohta T, Kikuchi H ... The mechanism of action of a novel cerebral protective drug against anoxia I. The effect on cerebral energy demand. Arch Int ... Mechanisms of cerebral protection by pentobarbital and nizofenone correlated with the course of local cerebral blood flow ... PMID: 543750 Tamura A, Asano T, Sano K, Tsumagari T, Nakajima A (1979). Protection from cerebral ischemia by a new imidazole ...
Globally, the vessel most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Embolisms can originate from multiple parts of the ... of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery. ... Both are caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF). The definition of TIA was classically ... A portion of the plaque can become dislodged and lead to embolic pathology in the cerebral vessels. In-situ thrombosis, an ...
Short segment internal maxillary artery to middle cerebral artery: A novel technique for extracranial-to-intracranial bypass. ... "Minimally invasive superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass through an enlarged bur hole: The use of ... "Short Segment Internal Maxillary Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass: A Novel Technique for Extracranial-to-Intracranial ... Cerebral Revascularization: Techniques in Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass Surgery. Copyright 2011 Elsevier, Inc. ISBN 978-1 ...
... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... Spectral density plots right and left middle cerebral arteries cross-amplitude plots in men. ... Bleton, H; Perera, S; Sejdic, E (2016). "Cognitive tasks and cerebral blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries: a study ... especially for middle cerebral artery. A research has been done to compare Power Motion Doppler of TCD (PMD-TCD) with CT ...
Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are commonly caused by middle cerebral artery strokes. Symptoms of conduction aphasia, as with ... Howard, H. (2017, October 7). Cerebral cortex. Retrieved from http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/BrLg/Cortex.html Kohn, Susan E. ( ...
"The kappa opioid agonist niravoline decreases brain edema in the mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke". The ... 3.[1] It has diuretic and aquaretic effects and has been studied for its potential use for cerebral edema[2] and cirrhosis.[3] ...
This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery.[9] ... "Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke". Medscape Reference. Medscape. Retrieved 23 October 2011.. *^ Siegel, Allan; Sapru, Hreday N ... In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may ...
Artery. Middle cerebral. Identifiers. Latin. gyri temporales transversi. NeuroNames. 1520. TA. A14.1.09.140. ...
The common artery involved is the lenticulostriate branch of the middle cerebral artery. Common locations of hypertensive ... Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. Retinal microaneurysms are seen in conditions like ...
"Factors Associated with Outcome after Hemicraniectomy for Large Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction". Neurosurgery. 56 ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "Meet President Trump's biggest Middle Tennessee donors of 2019". November 20, 2019. Retrieved ...
"Detection of spreading depolarizations in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in swine". Acta Neurochirurgica. 162 (3): ... "A delayed class of BOLD waveforms associated with spreading depression in the feline cerebral cortex can be detected and ... The folded structure of the cerebral cortex is capable of irregular and complex CSD propagation patterns. The irregularities of ... Leão AAP (1944). "Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex". J Neurophysiol. 7 (6): 359-390. doi:10.1152/jn. ...
These areas receive blood from the same branch of the middle cerebral artery. Any damage to that blood supply would cause ...
The blood supply to the claustrum is fulfilled via the middle cerebral artery. It is considered to be the most densely ... The claustrum is a small bilateral gray matter structure (comprising roughly 0.25% of the cerebral cortex) located deep to the ... Cerebral Cortex. 12 (12): 1331-41. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.12.1331. PMID 12427683. S2CID 33360335. Cascella NG, Gerner GJ, ... connected structure per regional volume in the brain and suggest that it may serve as a hub to coordinate activity of cerebral ...
"Moderate Hypothermia in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction". Stroke. 29 (12): 2461-6. doi: ... Periods of poor blood flow may be due to cardiac arrest or the blockage of an artery by a clot as in the case of a stroke. ... Their most notable uses are in preventing or reducing alopecia in chemotherapy, and for preventing cerebral palsy in babies ... Galvin IM, Levy R, Boyd JG, Day AG, Wallace MC (2015). "Cooling for cerebral protection during brain surgery". Cochrane ...
... described a patient with Ganser syndrome after a left-hemispheric middle cerebral artery infarct.[15]A neuropsychological ... One case study of Ganser syndrome presented a middle-aged man who had been in a car crash and wanted disability insurance ... leading to the conclusion that the giving of approximate answers might be related to frontal-executive cerebral dysfunction.[15 ...
Middle cerebral artery - peak systolic velocity is changing the way sensitized pregnancies are managed. This test is done ... Mari, G. (2005). "Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity for the diagnosis of fetal anemia: The untold story". ... By measuring the peak velocity of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery, a MoM (multiple of the median) score can be ... and may also include assessment with amniocentesis and Middle Cerebral Artery scans.[citation needed] Blood testing for the ...
The heart of the blue whale is the largest of any animal,[38] and the walls of the arteries in the heart have been described as ... In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance equalizer between the outside air's low impedance and the cochlear fluid's high ... Hof, Patrick R.; Van Der Gucht, Estel (2007). "Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae ( ... Instead of sound passing through the outer ear to the middle ear, whales receive sound through the throat, from which it passes ...
"Edinburgh Artery Study: prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the general population". Int ... One in five of the middle-aged (65-75 years) population of the United Kingdom have evidence of peripheral arterial disease on ... It is classically associated with early-stage peripheral artery disease, and can progress to critical limb ischemia unless ... testing is often performed to confirm the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. ...
Mayr, Gerald (2011). "Well-preserved new skeleton of the Middle Eocene Messelastursubstantiates sister group relationship ... Instead of using the cerebral cortex like mammals, birds use the mediorostral HVC for cognition.[74] Not only have parrots ... a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture ...
... a large majority of the clinical cases in stroke pathology with the infarct usually occurring in the middle cerebral artery ( ... diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia ... Cerebral infarction - A "stroke", caused by complete oxygen deprivation due to an interference in cerebral blood flow which ... Aneurysm in a cerebral artery,. one cause of hypoxic anoxic injury (HAI). ...
The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not ... Posterior communicating artery (left and right). The middle cerebral arteries, supplying the brain, are not considered part of ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral ...
মধ্যকর্ণ (Middle ear) *কর্ণাস্থিকা (Auditory ossicles). *অন্তঃকর্ণ (Inner ear) *কর্ণকম্বু (Cochlea). *কর্ণগহ্বর (Vestibule) ... মস্তিষ্ক গোলার্ধ (Cerebral hemisphere). *আন্তর মস্তিষ্ক (Diencephalon). *মস্তিষ্ককাণ্ড (Brain stem) *মধ্যমস্তিষ্ক ( ... ধমনী (Artery). *শিরা (Vein). *কৈশিকনালী (Capillary). *লোহিত রক্তকণিকা (Red blood cell). *অণুচক্রিকা (Platelet) ...
Artery. superior suprarenal artery, middle suprarenal artery, Inferior suprarenal artery. Vein. suprarenal veins. ... "Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla". Proceedings of the National ...
... and cerebral palsy. Recently the U.S. Public Health Service reported that if all pregnant women in the United States stopped ... any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up). Studies indicate ... and an increased risk of middle ear infections. A grandmother who smoked during the pregnancy of her daughter transmits an ... weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong disabilities such as cerebral ...
... baik yang bersifat intrakranial seperti moderate middle cerebral artery stenosis, ekstrakranial seperti vertebral artery origin ... impaired cerebral autoregulation dan perubahan protrombotik dipercaya merupakan penyebab cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). ... Cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI)[sunting , sunting sumber]. CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ... Sistem TOAST membagi stroke menjadi 5 subtipe yaitu,[11][12] large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardiaoembolic infarct (CEI ...
The morphology for heat exchange occurs via cerebral arteries and the ophthalmic rete, a network of arteries originating from ... middle, and caudal sections by large veins.[61] The caudal section is the largest, extends into the middle of the pelvis.[61] ... The Arabian ostriches in the Near and Middle East were hunted to extinction by the middle of the 20th century. Attempts to ... S. c. syriacus), also known as the Syrian ostrich or Middle Eastern ostrich. Was formerly very common in the Arabian Peninsula ...
... including cerebral Autoregulation and Cerebral Compliance).. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography[edit]. The TCD measures the ... Ophthalmic artery (OA) - a unique vessel with intracranial and extracranial segments is used as pressure sensor and as a ... The stapedius, which emerges from the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity of the middle ear and inserts into the neck of the ... Cerebral ventricle[edit]. Michaeli [7] proposed that ICP be inferred from the magnitude and shape of pulsations of the third ...
It may result from laceration of an artery, most commonly the middle meningeal artery. This is a very dangerous type of injury ... Cerebral contusionEdit. Main article: Cerebral contusion. Cerebral contusion is bruising of the brain tissue. The piamater is ... Temperoparietal locus (most likely) - Middle meningeal artery Frontal locus - anterior ethmoidal artery Occipital locus - ... Main article: cerebral hemorrhage. Intra-axial hemorrhage is bleeding within the brain itself, or cerebral hemorrhage. This ...
It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the ... Inferior thyroid artery. Thyrocervical trunk and its branches, including inferior thyroid artery. Superficial dissection of the ...
"Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 45 (2): 520-26. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003433. PMID 24385275.. ... High blood pressure, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, COPD, obesity, ... appears to be associated with a modest increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in middle-aged and elderly people.[19][35][ ... An embolus proceeds through smaller and smaller arteries until it plugs one of them and prevents blood from flowing through the ...
মধ্যকর্ণ (Middle ear) *কর্ণাস্থিকা (Auditory ossicles). *অন্তঃকর্ণ (Inner ear) *কর্ণকম্বু (Cochlea). *কর্ণগহ্বর (Vestibule) ... Testicular artery. শিরা. Testicular vein, Pampiniform plexus. স্নায়ু. Spermatic plexus. লসিকা. Lumbar lymph nodes. ... মস্তিষ্ক গোলার্ধ (Cerebral hemisphere). *আন্তর মস্তিষ্ক (Diencephalon). *মস্তিষ্ককাণ্ড (Brain stem) *মধ্যমস্তিষ্ক ( ...
... artery the anterior choroidal artery The internal carotid then divides to form the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral ... Middle cerebral artery (a terminal branch) The sympathetic trunk forms a plexus of nerves around the artery known as the ... Branches from the communicating portion Posterior communicating artery Anterior choroidal artery Anterior cerebral artery (a ... The named branches of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery are: the vidian artery or artery of the pterygoid ...
They merge into the basilar artery, which then divides into the posterior cerebral artery. ... vertebral arteries in their V1 and V2 segments and a dissection of the middle and distal third of the right subclavian artery. ... Vertebral artery dissection is one of the two types of dissection of the arteries in the neck. The other type, carotid artery ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ...
Middle cerebral artery. *Internal carotid artery. *Tip of basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms tend to have a lack of tunica ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... Cerebral bypass surgery[edit]. Cerebral bypass surgery was developed in the 1960s in Switzerland by Gazi Yasargil, M.D. When a ... A catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, typically the femoral artery, and passed through blood vessels into the cerebral ...
After percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), such as the placement of a coronary artery stent, a U.S. Agency for ... Aspirin causes an increased risk of cerebral microbleeds having the appearance on MRI scans of 5 to 10 mm or smaller, ... and were part of the pharmacopoeia of Western medicine in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.[11] Willow bark extract ... Hall SL, Lorenc T (February 2010). "Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease". American Family Physician. 81 (3): 289-96 ...
大脑中动脉综合征(英语:Middle cerebral artery syndrome) ... 大脑前动脉综合征(英语:Anterior cerebral artery syndrome) ... 大脑后动脉综合征(英语:Posterior cerebral artery syndrome) ... 癱瘓疾病(英语
... it is highly probable that the left middle cerebral artery malfunctioned, leading to a gradual accumulation of blood in the ... The ligature was loosened slightly, which allowed blood from the arteries to come into the arm, since arteries are deeper in ... This would cut off blood flow from the arteries and the veins. When this was done, the arm below the ligature was cool and pale ... Descriptions of the event seem to show that he died of a cerebral haemorrhage from vessels long injured by gout: ...
The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: *The inner layer ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The middle layer Tunica media is the thickest layer in arteries. It consists of circularly arranged elastic fiber, connective ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ...
I67.1) Cerebral arteriovenous fistula, acquired. *(I77.0) Arteriovenous fistula, acquired. *(I77.2) Fistula of artery ... Perilymph fistula: tear between the membranes between the middle and inner ears ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: between an artery and vein of the lungs, resulting in shunting of blood. This results in ...
The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The central retinal artery is formed from the proximal part of the hyaloid artery after atrophy of its distal part has formed ... However it should be remembered that the Cilio retinal artery itself is a branch of the Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries which ...
In cerebral achromatopsia, a person cannot perceive colors even though the eyes are capable of distinguishing them. Some ... The most frequent forms of human color blindness result from problems with either the middle (green) or long (red) wavelength ... Although the term may refer to acquired disorders such as cerebral achromatopsia also known as color agnosia, it typically ... Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion. *Retinopathy *diabetic. *hypertensive. *Purtscher's ...
5. brain (cerebral ganglia). 6. prothorax. 7. dorsal blood vessel. 8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle). 9. mesothorax. 10. ... Insecta sensu strictissimo is then equivalent to Pterygota.[17] For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used ... The insect circulatory system is open; it has no veins or arteries, and instead consists of little more than a single, ... The middle segment is the mesothorax, with the major features being the second pair of legs and the anterior wings. The third ...
Main article: Middle cerebral artery syndrome. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in Middle cerebral artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (Pink is region ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The middle cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the internal carotid ...
Move the cursor along the course of the anterior and middle cerebral artery and its branches to identify individual segments ... Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem (proximal M1 segment) results in: *Contralateral hemiplegia ... Anterior Cerebral Arteries at their stems results in infarction of the anteromedial surface of the cerebral hemispheres:. ... of the Anterior Cerebral Artery as it arches superiorly and posteriorly.. Supplies the medial surface of the cerebral ...
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Coding pressure wires for artery branches (2013). By rebeccadyke84 in forum Cardiology ...
... ) and What is thrombolytic therapy for middle cerebral ... Outcomes in severe middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Aug. 21 (1):20-6. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... High serum substance P levels and mortality after malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. J Crit Care. 2020 Jan 20. 57:1-4 ... Hemispheric differences in malignant middle cerebral artery stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2015 Jun 15. 353 (1-2):20-27. [Medline]. ...
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A How is hypertension managed following middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke?. Updated: Feb 20, ... How is hypertension managed following middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke?) and How is hypertension managed following middle ... Outcomes in severe middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Aug. 21 (1):20-6. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Hemispheric differences in malignant middle cerebral artery stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2015 Jun 15. 353 (1-2):20-27. [Medline]. ...
... is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. It branches off the internal carotid artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Middle cerebral artery. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network - Written by the ... because this is a very sound indicator of thromboembolic middle cerebral artery obstruction, blockage of the middle cerebral ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. It branches ...
... , Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA. ... Middle Cerebral Artery, Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA ... middle cerebral artery infarct, middle cerebral artery stroke, mca infarction, Middle cerebral artery infarct, Middle cerebral ... Middle Cerebral Artery CVA. Middle Cerebral Artery CVA Aka: Middle Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle ...
Blockage Affects: Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( ... Middle Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to most of the temporal lobe, anterolateral frontal lobe, and parietal lobe. Perforating ... Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( proximal M1 segment ) results in: *Contralateral hemiplegia ...
Endovascular treatment with bare platinum coils for middle cerebral artery aneurysms.. Oishi H1, Yoshida K, Shimizu T, Yamamoto ... Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms often have unfavorable anatomical characteristics preventing successful endovascular ...
Malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical course and prognostic signs.. Hacke W1, Schwab S, Horn M, ... The prognosis of complete middle cerebral artery territory stroke is very poor and can be estimated by early clinical and ... The clinical course of patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction, defined by computed tomography and ... Fifty-five patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction caused by occlusion of either the distal ...
This topic contains 24 study abstracts on Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) indicating that the following substances may ... Diseases : Brain Ischemia, Cerebral Ischemia, Cerebral Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), Stroke: Attenuation/ ... Diseases : Cerebral Ischemia, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Heat Shock ... Diseases : Cerebral Ischemia, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Apoptotic, ...
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery. Ischemia. Pathologic Processes. Necrosis. Cerebral Infarction. Brain Infarction. Brain ... Decompressive Craniectomy In Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarcts (DECIMAL). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Procedure: Decompressive hemicraniectomy and duraplasty Procedure: hemicraniectomy ... The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction have a better clinical ...
Ultrasound Enhanced Thrombolytic Therapy of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Ultrasound Enhanced Thrombolytic Therapy of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. Official Title ICMJE Transcranial Ultrasound ... The most frequent cause of ischemic stroke is thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preliminary in vitro, animal and ... phase III trial is to investigate the safety and efficacy of continuous 1-hour insonation of occluded middle cerebral artery ...
All cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a rete pattern of collateralization were included in this series. ... All cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a rete pattern of collateralization were included in this series. ... The development of moyamoya-like collaterals secondary to isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion and the natural ... Results: There were 3 cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a moyamoya pattern of collateralization. The ...
The prognosis of complete middle cerebral artery territory stroke is very poor and can be estimated by early clinical and ... Malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical course and prognostic signs Arch Neurol. 1996 Apr;53(4):309-15 ... Conclusions: The prognosis of complete middle cerebral artery territory stroke is very poor and can be estimated by early ... Results: Fifty-five patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction caused by occlusion of either the distal ...
Diagnosis of deep subcortical infarcts based on atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is important because this ... Middle cerebral artery plaque imaging using 3-Tesla high-resolution MRI J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Oct;15(10):1137-41. doi: 10.1016/ ... Diagnosis of deep subcortical infarcts based on atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is important because this ...
Thrombolysis and Deferoxamine in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (TANDEM-1). The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Iron intake increases infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 11;952(1):1- ... Oxygen radicals in cerebral ischemia: the 2001 Willis lecture. Stroke. 2001 Nov;32(11):2712-6. ... Deferoxamine reduces early metabolic failure associated with severe cerebral ischemic acidosis in dogs. Stroke. 1995 Apr;26(4): ...
Elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has been reported in nonanemic fetuses following fetal ... Measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has become the mainstay for the detection of fetal ... Elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has been reported in nonanemic fetuses following fetal ... Elevated Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity in a Nonanemic Fetus with Alpha-Thalassemia Trait. ...
... is the mainstay of treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). Although this operation significantly red ... middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the ... Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery. NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to ... Relationship between middle cerebral parent artery asymmetry and middle cerebral artery aneurysm rupture risk factors. ...
We report a similar complication after distal intracranial (middle cerebral artery [MCA] M2 segme ... as well as internal carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. ... Cerebral Angiography. Cerebral Arteries*. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology*. Constriction, Pathologic / diagnosis, surgery. Fatal ... We report a similar complication after distal intracranial (middle cerebral artery [MCA] M2 segment) angioplasty. To our ...
Magnetic Resonance Image Correlates of Hemiparesis After Neonatal and Childhood Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke. James P. ... Magnetic Resonance Image Correlates of Hemiparesis After Neonatal and Childhood Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke ... Magnetic Resonance Image Correlates of Hemiparesis After Neonatal and Childhood Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke ... Magnetic Resonance Image Correlates of Hemiparesis After Neonatal and Childhood Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke ...
Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography. Patrizia Presbitero, ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ...
Middle cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is restricted, ... Middle cerebral artery lesions mostly affect the dominant hemisphere i.e. the left cerebral hemisphere. Hemiparesis or ... Stroke syndromes: Middle cerebral artery - superior division. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. Retrieved ... Stroke syndromes: Middle cerebral artery - inferior division. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. Retrieved ...
Koo CK, Teasdale E, Muir K. What constitutes a true hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign? Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000; 10: 419-423. ... Kalafut MA, Schriger DL, Saver JL, Starkman S. Detection of early CT signs of ,1/3 middle cerebral artery infarctions. Stroke. ... Validation of Computed Tomographic Middle Cerebral Artery "Dot" Sign. An Angiographic Correlation Study. Megan C. Leary, ... Validation of Computed Tomographic Middle Cerebral Artery "Dot" Sign. Megan C. Leary, Chelsea S. Kidwell, J. Pablo Villablanca ...
Stenting of Symptomatic M1 Stenosis of Middle Cerebral Artery. Wei-Jian Jiang, Yong-Jun Wang, Bin Du, Su-Xiang Wang, Gui-Hong ... Stenting of Symptomatic M1 Stenosis of Middle Cerebral Artery. Wei-Jian Jiang, Yong-Jun Wang, Bin Du, Su-Xiang Wang, Gui-Hong ... Stenting of Symptomatic M1 Stenosis of Middle Cerebral Artery. An Initial Experience of 40 Patients. Wei-Jian Jiang, Yong-Jun ... Wong KS, Li H, Lam WWM, Chan YL, Kay R. Progression of middle cerebral artery occlusive disease and its relationship with ...
Middle Aged. Middle Cerebral Artery / surgery*. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Instruments / standards*. ... Despite the fact that in ISAT middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were clearly underrepresented, the study is often used as ... Quadros RS, Gallas S, Noudel R, Rousseaux P, Pierot L (2007) Endovascular treatment of middle cerebral artery aneurysms as ... Keywords: Keywords Brain aneurysm, Middle cerebral artery, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Endovascular coiling, Neurosurgical ...
Park DJ, Shah FA, Koh PO (2018) Quercetin attenuates neuronal cells damage in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model. ... Quercetin Might Promote Autophagy in a Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion-Mediated Ischemia Model: Comments on Fawad-Ali Shah et ... of the flavonoid quercetin in a cerebral ischemia model induced in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats by middle cerebral artery ... Identification of proteins differentially expressed by quercetin treatment in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model: a ...
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models have become well established as the most suitable way to simulate stroke in ... Neuroprotection Isoflurane Cerebral perfusion Middle cerebral artery occlusion model This is a preview of subscription content ... Effect of anesthesia and cerebral blood flow on neuronal injury in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. ... Mitochondrial function and cerebral blood flow variable responses to middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosci Methods 188: ...
Longitudinal thalamic diffusion changes after middle cerebral artery infarcts. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry ...
  • Other cases include duplication of the MCA at the internal carotid artery (ICA) or an accessory MCA (AccMCA) which arise not from the ICA but as a branch from the anterior cerebral artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • It branches off the internal carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • It is classically defined as bilateral occlusion at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery together with an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Takeuchi, 1961 )The patho-physiology of moyamoya is thought to involve progression of stenosis or occlusion of the intracranial major arteries including the distal ends of the internal carotid artery as the primary lesion and the formation of the abnormal vascular network secondarily as collateral supply. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome is a well-documented complication of carotid endarterectomy, as well as internal carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After systemic heparinization (bolus of 5000 UI), a 6F Amplatz Right Guide catheter was placed in the left internal carotid artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using an infusion catheter (Ultrafuse 3.6 F) that was advanced to the upper end of the cervical part of the internal carotid artery, we performed LIT with urokinase (total dose, 700 000 U) near the proximal end of the occluding thrombus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The MCA is a large artery that arises from the internal carotid artery and is the one that is often blocked or damaged if you have a stroke . (verywellhealth.com)
  • The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery ), coursing laterally into the lateral sulcus where it branches to perfuse the cerebral cortex. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Under isoflurane anesthesia, a filament was inserted through an incision in the external carotid artery and slid into the internal carotid artery so that it blocked the right middle cerebral and ophthalmic arteries. (arvojournals.org)
  • The MCAs were injected with Congo red dye after adequately ligating the distal one-third of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the proximal one-third of the posterior communicating artery. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A silicone filament was inserted through the internal carotid artery until blood flow reduction was confirmed in the middle cerebral artery via laser-doppler. (arvojournals.org)
  • The middle cerebral artery territory is the most commonly affected territory in a cerebral infarction , due to the size of the territory and the direct flow from internal carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery , providing the easiest path for thromboembolism. (radiopaedia.org)
  • MR angiography showed severe stenosis of the bilateral terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). (curehunter.com)
  • Superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis may have inadequate effects in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), because poor blood flow in the STA leads to insufficient flow to the MCA. (eurekamag.com)
  • Under DMCA, he defined two blood vessels originating from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the accessory MCA is defined as an artery arising from the proximal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery, just after its origin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this model, a monofilament is implemented into the internal carotid artery (ICA) until it blocks blood flow to the middle cerebral artery (MCA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • What is thrombolytic therapy for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke? (medscape.com)
  • How is hypertension managed following middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke? (medscape.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery is often obstructed, or blocked, during a stroke. (healthline.com)
  • The purpose of the present, randomized, controlled multicenter phase III trial is to investigate the safety and efficacy of continuous 1-hour insonation of occluded middle cerebral artery with 2 MHz TCCS in stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 3 hours after symptom onset. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The most frequent cause of ischemic stroke is thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although the clinical features of space-occupying ischemic stroke are well known, there are limited prospective data on the clinical course of complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction and on the predisposing factors leading to subsequent herniation and brain death. (nih.gov)
  • The prognosis of complete middle cerebral artery territory stroke is very poor and can be estimated by early clinical and neuroradiological data within the first few hours after the onset of symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Outcomes of Hypothermia in Addition to Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in Treatment of Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Space-occupying, malignant middle cerebral artery (M-MCA) infarctions are still one of the most devastating forms of ischemic stroke, with a mortality of up to 80% in untreated patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a open label study to assess the safety of autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with a ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory within 90 days from sym. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The long-term prognosis of 78 stroke patients with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or its branches is described. (ahajournals.org)
  • We report 2 consecutive cases of successful local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) for embolic stroke of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during diagnostic coronary angiography that resulted in complete neurological recovery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stroke syndromes: Middle cerebral artery - superior division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods- Noncontrast CT scans and immediately subsequent cerebral angiograms from 54 acute stroke patients within 8 hours of symptom onset were analyzed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased density of a cerebral artery on noncontrast CT indicating the presence of intraluminal thrombus was one of the first early CT signs described in ischemic stroke patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Background and Purpose Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction(MMI) affects 5-10% of acute ischaemic stroke patients. (bmj.com)
  • So a middle cerebral artery blockage or bleed might be referred to as an MCA stroke. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Strokes that affect the middle cerebral artery on one side of the body can cause weakness ( hemiplegia ) and numbness in the face, and/or arm and/or leg in the side of the body opposite the stroke. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Because a middle cerebral artery stroke is usually a large stroke, long-term recovery and rehabilitation may take months or even years. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Each person suffering from a middle cerebral artery stroke has a different recovery time and need for long-term care. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models have become well established as the most suitable way to simulate stroke in experimental studies. (springer.com)
  • During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. (neurology.org)
  • Ocular ischemia is often observed in cases of cerebral stroke and atherosclerosis of the ophthalmic or carotid arteries. (arvojournals.org)
  • Thus, we are investigating the common mechanism of inflammation in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, a stroke model that affects both the brain and eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • Acute bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion is, however, rare, but raises significant issues for stroke neurologists and interventional radiologists regarding which lesion should be treated first. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertension has an effect on vasoconstrictive receptor responses to endothelin 1, sarafotoxin 6c and angiotensin II after stroke by inducing transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats using the wire-myograph. (figshare.com)
  • We demonstrated an increased contractile response to endothelin 1 and extracellular potassium as well as an increased carbachol-induced dilator response in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive rats after stroke. (figshare.com)
  • This study evaluated infarct patterns and outcomes in acute stroke patients with relevant artery occlusions, focusing on features specific to each occlusion mechanism. (figshare.com)
  • Acute ischemic stroke patients who were consecutively registered in a tertiary hospital between 2002 and 2010 with infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory and a corresponding M1 occlusion confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, or conventional angiography were enrolled. (figshare.com)
  • Otherwise, the results of our study indicates that infarct patterns on DWI might be a clue for determining ischemic stroke etiology on patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. (figshare.com)
  • When the volume is more than 145 cc on DWI, massive cerebral oedema occurs in 80% of patients and generally manifests itself between the 2nd and the 5th day after stroke onset. (eso-stroke.org)
  • The territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most frequently affected arterial territory in childhood stroke. (bmj.com)
  • The present findings provide insight into willed movement‑facilitated rehabilitation and may help treat stroke‑triggered motor deficit and improve angiogenesis of cerebral endothelial cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit due to pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and subsequently experienced a stroke in the left middle cerebral artery. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Cerebral stroke frequently occurs in Japanese elderly people and lowers quality of life of the patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Regenerative medicine may induce the regeneration of disturbed neurons and give us hope for functional recovery even after cerebral stroke. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We made a stroke model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats with nylon suture method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated the several mechanisms why cell transplantation induced recovery from cerebral infarction using rat stroke model. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is a clinical entity affecting up to 10% of all patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atherosclerotic middle cerebral arteries are frequent sites of thrombosis, leading to stroke. (bris.ac.uk)
  • One case involved the right middle cerebral artery and one case involved the left middle cerebral artery, and one case involved both middle cerebral arteries. (frontiersin.org)
  • The right middle cerebral artery was occluded (90 min) and reperfused (24 h). (aspetjournals.org)
  • A) The initial angiography shows isolated stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery (arrowhead). (neurology.org)
  • Sprague‑Dawley rats undergoing right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery were randomly divided into four groups: MCAO alone, willed movement (WM), environmental modification (EM) and common rehabilitation (CR). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • During the procedure, while advancing the microcatheter across the mitral valve, the microcatheter was sheared embolising into the right middle cerebral artery. (bmj.com)
  • Acupuncture attenuates neuronal cell death in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Apigenin may play an important neuroprotective role in acute transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • During the first hours after the onset of cerebral ischemia, brain CT scans can often appear normal. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, subtle CT signs indicating acute ischemia or infarction frequently may be detected, including obscuration of the lentiform nucleus, hypoattenuation of the insular ribbon, cortical hypodensity, sulcal effacement, and the hyperdense middle cerebral artery (HMCA) sign. (ahajournals.org)
  • Quercetin Might Promote Autophagy in a Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion-Mediated Ischemia Model: Comments on Fawad-Ali Shah et al. (springer.com)
  • Brint S, Jacewicz M, Kiessling M, Tanabe J, Pulsinelli W (1988) Focal brain ischemia in the rat: methods for reproducible neocortical infarction using tandem occlusion of the distal middle cerebral and ipsilateral common carotid arteries. (springer.com)
  • We investigated whether CD36 participates in the molecular events underlying the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia and may contribute to the tissue damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The infiltration of neutrophils and the glial reaction induced by cerebral ischemia were suppressed. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast to cerebral ischemia, the molecular and cellular inflammatory changes induced by intracerebroventricular injection of interleukin-1β were not attenuated in CD36-null mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to assess whether cerebral ischemia/reperfusion could affect vasoconstriction and vasodilatation on mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from Wistar Kyoto rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 0.001), and experienced delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) more frequently (38.9% vs 29.4%, p = 0.001) than non-MCAA patients. (thejns.org)
  • Tang Q, Yang Q, Hu Z, Liu B, Shuai J, Wang G, Liu Z, Xia J and Shen X: The effects of willed movement therapy on AMPA receptor properties for adult rat following focal cerebral ischemia. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tang Q, Tan L, Yang X, Shen Q, Huang X, Wang G, Chen H, Nie J, Li S and Wu L: Willed-movement training reduces motor deficits and induces a PICK1-dependent LTD in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Emergency superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration for acute cerebral ischemia in a patient with moyamoya disease. (curehunter.com)
  • There are few study data to help in the decision whether to perform aggressive surgical revascularization, such as emergency bypass, after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration in patients with progressive symptoms due to acute cerebral ischemia . (curehunter.com)
  • We performed digital subtraction angiography and diagnosed this condition as acute cerebral ischemia induced by moyamoya disease . (curehunter.com)
  • This is the first report of emergency STA-MCA bypass performed after intravenous rt-PA administration for acute cerebral ischemia in a patient with moyamoya disease . (curehunter.com)
  • Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the last decade, the rat has become the predominant species for models of focal cerebral ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Up to now, different techniques simulating human cerebral ischemia have been established in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reliable visualization and detection of cerebral ischemia and particularly the underlying vascular pathology remain a major challenge in vascular research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, detailed anatomical data about the vascular status, are generally sparse because (i) of the difficulty in their quantification, (ii) of difficulty to demonstrate their interconnectivity to other vessels (collaterals), (iii) of their very fine anatomy in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, the purpose of our study was to evaluate micro- and nano-CT's technical feasibility to detect and differentiate structural and functional vascular alterations in two different models of permanent arterial cerebral ischemia in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A test for detecting long-term sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal cerebral ischemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ethyl-acetate fraction of Trichilia catigua restores long-term retrograde memory and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation after global cerebral ischemia in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We tested whether significant leukocyte infiltration occurs in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. (monash.edu)
  • Transient MCAO was induced during either isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine (ket/xyl) anesthesia with simultaneously measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 60 male Wistar rats (380-420 g). (springer.com)
  • Various murine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) are widely used in experimental brain research. (jove.com)
  • In cases of ICAS, it is often observed that the infarct core caused by ICAS-related M1 segment middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is located in deeper parts of the brain (basal ganglia or semiovoid region). (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been reported that, in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), neuronal and inducible NOSs exacerbate cerebral infarction, whereas endothelial NOS conversely alleviates cerebral infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Reductions in cerebral blood flow during MCAO were identical between the two mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results provide the first evidence that complete disruption of all NOS genes markedly reduces cerebral infarct size after MCAO in mice, demonstrating a novel injurious role of the entire NOSs system in cerebral infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study provides new insight to the large scale protein changes resulting from transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery via the MCAO model. (arvojournals.org)
  • For this purpose, we used the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method to induce cognitive dysfunction in rats. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Methods A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was first established. (bmj.com)
  • Permanent MCAO with the suture technique, however, has one disadvantage: insertion of the suture occludes the entire course of the ICA, including the hypothalamic artery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C57BL6/J male mice underwent either permanent (3 or 24 hours) or transient (1 or 2 hours+22- to 23-hour reperfusion) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). (monash.edu)
  • Relationship between middle cerebral parent artery asymmetry and middle cerebral artery aneurysm rupture risk factors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the research was to evaluate independent risk factors for the presence of middle cerebral artery aneurysm. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Object: The investigation of surgical cases of a ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm to identify the risk factors of an intraoperative premature rupture. (ovid.com)
  • The aneurysm growth model was presented in a companion paper by Kroon and Holzapfel ("A Model for Saccular Cerebral Aneurysm Growth by Collagen Fibre Remodelling," J. Theor. (diva-portal.org)
  • An instant loss of the media in a region of the artery wall initiates the growth of the saccular aneurysm. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aneurysm wall is assumed to be a development of the adventitia of the original healthy artery, and collagen is assumed to be the only load-bearing constituent in the adventitia and in the aneurysm wall. (diva-portal.org)
  • Anomalies, aneurysm and histology of the middle cerebral artery in Nigerian Africans/Anomalias, aneurisma e histologia de la arteria cerebral media en Africanos Nigerianos. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The presence of a rare type of DMCA associated with cerebral aneurysms was diagnosed in 56 year old woman after a rupture of an aneurysm on the dorsal segment of the DMCA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An aneurysm arising from an artery that does not angiographically contribute to the blood flow to the AVM is uncommon. (springermedizin.de)
  • A distal middle cerebral artery (dMCA) aneurysm itself is also a rare presentation, especially in paediatric population. (springermedizin.de)
  • About 10-30% of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) have an associated artery aneurysm. (springermedizin.de)
  • An aneurysm arising from a different artery that does not angiographically contribute to the blood flow associated with the AVM is less common and would generally be regarded as unrelated to the AVM. (springermedizin.de)
  • Distal cerebral artery aneurysm itself is also a rare presentation, comprising of 1-7% of all middle cerebral artery aneurysm. (springermedizin.de)
  • We describe a young patient who was found to have distal middle cerebral artery (dMCA) aneurysm in follow-up DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiogram) after the initial successful surgical treatment for a cerebral frontal AVM. (springermedizin.de)
  • Significance of Temporary Occlusion of Blood Flow in the Treatment of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Wang Y, Leng X, Zhou X, Li W, Siddiqui AH, Xiang J: Hemodynamics in a Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Before Its Growth and Fatal Rupture: Case Study and Review of the Literature. (ubns.com)
  • The symptoms that prompted cerebral angiography were ischemic in all cases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The anastomotic supply was through a fine network of basal ganglia perforating arteries that gave the pattern of a "puff of smoke" associated with moyamoya disease in two-dimensional (Figure 1 ) and three-dimensional CT angiography (Figure 2 ) and digital subtraction angiography (Figure 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The carotid angiogram, performed immediately after coronary angiography at the beginning of cerebral symptoms, reveals total embolic occlusion of the M2 part of the left MCA with TIMI 0 flow (arrow). (ahajournals.org)
  • Coronary angiography, performed from the femoral approach with 6F catheters, excluded coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The MCA dot sign has not been validated previously against the gold standard of conventional cerebral angiography. (ahajournals.org)
  • The primary purpose of this study was to validate the CT MCA dot sign against the gold standard of conventional cerebral catheter angiography. (ahajournals.org)
  • Normal variants of the cerebral circulation at multidetector CT angiography. (radiopaedia.org)
  • 1 A 25-year-old woman with chronic headache underwent brain MRI and cerebral angiography, which showed isolated MCA stenosis ( figure, A ). Physical and neurologic examinations were normal. (neurology.org)
  • Catheter-directed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is considered the standard for evaluation of superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass patency. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction have a better clinical outcome after early decompressive surgery compared to standard medical management. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Decompressive Craniectomy In MALignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL) trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open (single blind for the evaluation of the primary outcome measure) controlled study of the efficacy of decompressive craniectomy plus the standard medical therapy as compared with the standard medical therapy alone in patients with a malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of the trial is to determine if patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction have a better clinical outcome after early decompressive surgery compared to standard medical therapy alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Novel Hemicraniectomy Technique for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Technical Note. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) is the mainstay of treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Stereotactic Aspiration of Necrotic Brain Tissue for treating Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: A Report of 13 consecutive Cases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Non-invasive Absolute Intracranial Pressure Measurement in Patients With Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction for Determination of Timing to Descompressive Craniectomy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the study is to demonstrate that patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarcti. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Decompressive hemicraniectomy reduces secondary brain injury related to brain edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). (ovid.com)
  • Background and Purpose- Predicting malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction can help to identify patients who may benefit from preventive decompressive surgery. (eur.nl)
  • Indeed, bigger the infarct volume, higher the likelihood of occupying-space oedema, intracranial hypertension and cerebral herniation (the so called "malignant" evolution). (eso-stroke.org)
  • We included consecutive patients aged 18-60 years until 2014, and without upper age limit after the publication of the Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Malignant Infarction of the Middle Cerebral Artery (DESTINY) II trial. (eso-stroke.org)
  • CT perfusion parameters have an important role in predicting malignant brain infarction and should be included in the initial evaluation of patients to facilitate the early identification and surgical treatment of large middle cerebral artery infarctions, to improve patient's prognosis. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Dang J, Mitkari B, Kipp M, Beyer C (2011) Gonadal steroids prevent cell damage and stimulate behavioral recovery after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male and female rats. (springer.com)
  • The right ophthalmic artery was occluded for 2 hours prior to reperfusion in nine wistar rats, while the left served as an internal control. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An alternative method for the quantitation of neuronal damage after experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats: analysis of behavioral deficit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Different susceptibilities to cerebral infarction in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Time Evolution of Cerebral Apoptosis in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model in Rats. (jkns.or.kr)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the time evolution and distribution of cerebral apoptosis using the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. (jkns.or.kr)
  • A total of twenty four male rats - with 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion respectively - were studied. (jkns.or.kr)
  • In the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of the rats, apoptosis is found to increase according to the occlusion time, reaching a peak after 6 hours, and the distribution of apoptosis changed from the pyriform cortex to the basal ganglia and middle cerebral artery territory cortex. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Male Wistar rats were subjected to remote middle cerebral artery occlusion, where a long filament was advanced intraluminally through a guide cannula in the common carotid artery. (edu.au)
  • No stenosis was seen in the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries or elsewhere in the intracranial vasculature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fifty-five patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction caused by occlusion of either the distal intracranial carotid artery or the proximal middle cerebral artery trunk were studied. (nih.gov)
  • We report a similar complication after distal intracranial (middle cerebral artery [MCA] M2 segment) angioplasty. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, the most proximal occlusions result in widespread effects that can lead to significant cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, loss of consciousness and could even be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertonic saline is better than mannitol, as mannitol being a diuretic will decrease the mean arterial pressure and since cerebral perfusion is mean arterial pressure minus intracranial pressure, mannitol will also cause a decrease in cerebral perfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Differentiation of large vessel occlusion caused by intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) or intracranial embolism significantly impacts the course of treatment (i.e., intravenous thrombolysis versus mechanical thrombectomy) for acute cerebral infarction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine patterns of care and outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in a contemporary national cohort. (thejns.org)
  • Anatomical variations of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are significantly less common than those of other intracranial arteries [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed a remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the rat, which enables multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling immediately prior to, during and immediately following reperfusion. (edu.au)
  • These data show for the first time that the rat remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model coupled with transcallosal stimulation provides a novel method for continuous assessment of hyperacute neurovascular coupling changes during ischaemia and reperfusion, and offers unique insight into hyperacute ischaemic pathophysiology. (edu.au)
  • Diagnosis of deep subcortical infarcts based on atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is important because this type of infarct is usually more aggressive than typical lacunar infarcts. (nih.gov)
  • Cerebral infarct size was evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are however certain features specific to middle cerebral artery infarct, and these are discussed below. (radiopaedia.org)
  • As time passes the infarct undergoes a gradual reduction in swelling and mass effect (see cerebral infarction ). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Other than demonstrating the typical distribution of affected tissue or occlusion of the vessel on MRA, appearances of a middle cerebral artery infarct are similar to those of infarcts anywhere else (see cerebral infarction ). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Early CT signs in acute middle cerebral artery infarction: predictive value for subsequent infarct locations and outcome. (radiopaedia.org)
  • This study shows that specific infarct patterns are related to cerebral arterial occlusion mechanisms and are correlated with functional outcome. (figshare.com)
  • What is large middle cerebral artery (LMCA) infarct and what do we know about the short as well as long term prognosis of LMCA? (eso-stroke.org)
  • Large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts represent 1-10% of supra-tentorial ischemic strokes, they are defined by the involvement of 2/3 of the MCA territory on brain CT or by an infarct volume on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of at least 145 cm 3 . (eso-stroke.org)
  • Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an emerging modality which produces maps of time-to- peak (TTP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV), with a computerized automated map of the infarct and penumbra. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the brain, oxygenated blood travels through an extensive and central cerebral arterial circle. (healthline.com)
  • Background and Purpose- The middle cerebral artery (MCA) "dot" sign consists of hyperdensity of an arterial structure, seen as a dot in the sylvian fissure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Knowing the basic anatomy and function of this important artery can help you understand the functional anatomy of your brain's arterial system. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Coyle P, Jokelainen PT (1982) Dorsal cerebral arterial collaterals of the rat. (springer.com)
  • Correlation of early CT signs in the deep middle cerebral artery territories with angiographically confirmed site of arterial occlusion. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Cerebral arterial occlusion develops via two distinct mechanisms: thrombosis and embolism. (figshare.com)
  • The primary end point was the recanalization of the occluded artery evaluated by the arterial occlusive lesion score. (deepdyve.com)
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler blood flow pulsatility indices (PIs) and MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) are essential variables for clinically evaluating fetal well-being. (uio.no)
  • He studied vessels on both the sides of the placenta, umbilical artery and umbilical vein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Some have measured the S/D, PI, and RI in the umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Serial Doppler measurements of the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indexs were used to calculate cerebroplacental ratio. (uib.no)
  • The middle cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the internal carotid arteries . (wikipedia.org)
  • The MCA arises from the internal carotid and continues into the lateral sulcus where it then branches and projects to many parts of the lateral cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left and right MCAs rise from trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries and thus are connected to the anterior cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating arteries , which connect to the posterior cerebral arteries . (wikipedia.org)
  • From Internal Carotid Bifurcation to Anterior Communicating Artery. (luc.edu)
  • An immediate carotid angiogram to assess cerebral artery occlusion appears to be the best and least time-consuming approach. (ahajournals.org)
  • At the base of the brain, the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries form a circle of communicating arteries known as the Circle of Willis. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Instead of endarterectomy of the ECA, angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for ECA was performed to ensure adequate blood flow in the STA, due to the history of myocardial infarction and bifurcation of the common carotid artery at a high level (C2 level). (eurekamag.com)
  • The presence of equal diameters of branches of the DMCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) could be recorded as trifurcation of the carotid internal artery (ICA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extensive cortical-subcortical damage of the left hemisphere, most likely due to prenatal infarction of the left middle cerebral artery, was accidentally detected in a 12-year-old left-handed girl. (iospress.com)
  • The M1 segment perforates the brain with numerous anterolateral central (lateral lenticulostriate) arteries, which irrigate the basal ganglia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Medial Lenticulostriate Arteries (supply basal ganglia, anterior limb of internal capsule). (luc.edu)
  • These arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the basal ganglia. (healthline.com)
  • This MCA segment perforates parts of the brain with numerous small arteries and irrigates the basal ganglia. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The apoptotic ratio was calculated and the distribution of apoptosis was inspected in the pyriform cortex, basal ganglia and middle cerebral artery territory cortex. (jkns.or.kr)
  • The distribution of apoptosis differed in the pyriform cortex, basal ganglia and middle cerebral artery territory cortex according to the duration of time of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. (jkns.or.kr)
  • This pattern of collateralization associated with isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis and the natural history of this entity have not been well described. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report three patients with isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion associated with moyamoya pattern collateralization in Caucasian patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conducted a chronological and comparative analysis of the levels of the electrogenic Na+/HCO3-cotransporter (eNBC) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) on ischemic penumbra, using the rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). (koreamed.org)
  • Acute Cerebral Infarction and Changes of rCBF Following Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. (jkns.or.kr)
  • All cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a rete pattern of collateralization were included in this series. (frontiersin.org)
  • There were three cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a moyamoya pattern of collateralization. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe an unusual pattern of anastomosis associated with isolated severe middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in Caucasians. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome with hemorrhage after angioplasty for middle cerebral artery stenosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The etiology of isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis in young patients and that of moyamoya disease remain unclear. (neurology.org)
  • Becker VU, Eckert B, Thie A. Isolated symptomatic stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in younger adults. (neurology.org)
  • The following clinical data were collected: initial revascularization procedure, symptoms (presence or recurrence), pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) changes, posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stenosis, PCA-related and nonrelated symptoms, and latest follow-up. (thejns.org)
  • Temporal view transcranial Doppler imaging maternal middle cerebral artery is used to examine blood flow indices namely pulsat i lity index and resistiv e index. (scirp.org)
  • Evaluation of fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction: A cross-sectional study. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Aims and Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate the role of color Doppler velocimetry of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity waveforms, systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies in II and III trimesters. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Serial Doppler measurements of the middle cerebral artery were available in 207 participants and cerebroplacental ratio in 205. (uib.no)
  • Doppler examination of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) is considered highly reliable in detecting severe fetal anaemia. (journals.co.za)
  • Effects of GSM 900 MHz on middle cerebral artery blood flow assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography. (emf-portal.org)
  • Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: screening by uterine artery Doppler at 11-13 weeks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography. (escholarship.org)
  • Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. (escholarship.org)
  • The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. (escholarship.org)
  • The posterior pericallosal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the arteries serving the brain. (healthline.com)
  • This vessel anastamoses with the posterior cerebral artery and may exist as one or two arteries, 67% or 33% of the time, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this circle, other arteries - the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the middle cerebral artery, the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) - arise and travel to all parts of the brain. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The M2 and M3 segments may each split into 2 or 3 main trunks (terminal branches) with an upper trunk , lower trunk and occasionally a middle trunk . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral frontobasal (orbitiofrontal): This artery branches out anteriorly, superiorly and laterally to vascularize the inferior frontal gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near the superior frontal gyrus these arteries anastamose with branches from the pericallosal artery of the anterior cerebral artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This artery branches once or twice and is relatively invariant across anatomies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases it branches from the rolandic artery or from the posterior parietal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branches include lateral lentciulostriate arteries. (luc.edu)
  • Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement and interventions (ie. (aapc.com)
  • This segment "burrows into" the brain tissue via branches called the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. (healthline.com)
  • NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • PURPOSE Our goal was to analyze the anatomic similarity between the duplicated middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the accessory MCA and their relationship to the early branches of the MCA. (ajnr.org)
  • The MCA dot sign has been proposed to indicate thrombosis of M2 or M3 MCA branches, analogous to the hyperdense middle cerebral artery (HMCA) sign indicating M1 thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • More recently, the term MCA dot sign was introduced to particularly label unilateral hyperdense circles in the sylvian fissure, suggested to represent intraluminal thrombus visualized en face in distal M2 or M3 MCA branches. (ahajournals.org)
  • It should also be noted that middle cerebral artery infarcts are often incomplete affecting only perforator branches or one or more distal branches. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Background: Due to anatomic features, including wide necks and incorporation of important branches, endovascular coiling of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms has proved challenging. (elsevier.com)
  • The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlate peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to establish regression prediction model of MCA-PSV for our population. (ajol.info)
  • Surgical clipping as the preferred treatment for aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Management of complex thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is challenging. (minervamedica.it)
  • Bouley J, Fisher M, Henninger N (2007) Comparison between coated vs. uncoated suture middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat as assessed by perfusion/diffusion weighted imaging. (springer.com)
  • After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm) 3 or nano-CT at 500 nm 3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This modality provides a better evaluation of the extent of infarction, making it a potential method for assessing patients suffering from large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Treatment of middle cerebral artery infarcts is the same as infarcts anywhere else (see cerebral infarction ) except that due to the size of the involved territory the degree of mass effect resulting from infarction can be marked and life threatening. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Recurrent Artery of Heubner (supplies head of caudate and anteroinferior internal capsule). (luc.edu)
  • METHODS We reviewed stereoscopic angiograms of duplicated MCAs in four patients and accessory MCAs in four patients with reference to the origin, size, and cortical supply of these anomalous vessels, along with the presence of perforating arteries and the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH). (ajnr.org)
  • Elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has been reported in nonanemic fetuses following fetal transfusion, and has been attributed to a major population of red blood cells (RBCs) with an adult mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the fetal circulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has become the mainstay for the detection of fetal anemia. (hindawi.com)
  • Foetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity demonstrated simple continues increase and strong positive correlation with gestational age. (ajol.info)
  • The relationship between colloid transfusion during surgical decompression hemicraniectomy period and post-operative pneumonia or long-term outcome after space-occupying cerebral infarction: A retrospective study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • AIM To investigate the relation between lesion volume, lesion location, and clinical outcome in children with infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). (bmj.com)
  • Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) may be used as a proxy measure of cerebral blood flow. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. (escholarship.org)
  • Methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction caused by middle cerebral artery M1 segment occlusion were retrospectively included based on angiographic findings to distinguish ICAS from embolic occlusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • METHODS: Atherosclerotic middle cerebral arteries from 15 cadavers who died of natural causes and corresponding nonatherosclerotic arteries from 4 otherwise healthy trauma victims were examined. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Transcallosal stimulation evoked increases in blood flow, tissue oxygenation and neuronal activity, which were diminished by middle cerebral artery occlusion and partially restored during reperfusion. (edu.au)
  • Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Middle cerebral artery lesions mostly affect the dominant hemisphere i.e. the left cerebral hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The middle cerebral arteries supply the majority of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, except the superior portion of the parietal lobe (via the ACA) and the inferior portion of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe (via the PCA ). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an old watershed infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere. (eurekamag.com)
  • Although this operation significantly reduces mortality and improves functional outcomes, the conventional technique involves a reverse question mark incision starting anterior to the tragus that can injure the scalp's major blood supply, the superficial temporal artery (STA), which increases the risk of postoperative complications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The authors retrospectively identified 9 patients with PMMD who had undergone OA-MCA bypass between March 2013 and December 2017, and who had received a previous superficial temporal artery-MCA bypass. (thejns.org)
  • We decided to perform emergency superficial temporal artery ( STA)-MCA bypass to prevent further damage. (curehunter.com)
  • Doctors search for acute middle cerebral thrombosis - a blood clot in the vessel -because this is a very sound indicator of thromboembolic middle cerebral artery obstruction, blockage of the middle cerebral artery that is caused by a clot or particle that came from somewhere else. (healthline.com)
  • Does intrathecal midazolam can dampen vascular indices of maternal middle cerebral artery in ladies with severe preeclampsia? (scirp.org)
  • These arteries fan out over the insula and exit to the cortex via the medial surface of the frontal operculum . (wikipedia.org)
  • The thalamus is located deep within the brain in the cerebral cortex, adjacent to the hypothalamus. (healthline.com)
  • It "competes" in size with the frontal polar branch of the anterior cerebral artery Prefrontal arteries: These arteries fan out over the insula and exit to the cortex via the medial surface of the frontal operculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • and sensory cortex, which controls sensation from right head, neck, trunk, and arm are also supplied by the middle cerebral artery. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The accessory MCAs supplied the cortical territory of the orbitofrontal and/or prefrontal arteries. (ajnr.org)
  • Patients with pediatric moyamoya disease (PMMD) showing recurrent symptoms or decreased cerebral blood flow after initial revascularization therapy may require additional revascularization to improve their clinical condition. (thejns.org)
  • The middle cerebral artery can be classified into 4 parts: M1: The sphenoidal segment (stem), so named due to its origin and loose lateral tracking of the sphenoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Middle cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the lateral aspects of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, the corona radiata, globus pallidus, caudate and putamen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background The purpose of our work is to quantitatively assess clinically relevant geometric properties of proximal middle cerebral arteries (pMCA), to investigate the degree of their lateral symmetry, and to evaluate whether the pMCA can be modeled by using state-of-the-art deformable image registration of the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres. (eur.nl)
  • In sepiapterin-treated arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxations to calcium ionophore A23187 and intracellular cGMP levels were significantly reduced. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, when arteries were incubated with superoxide dismutase plus sepiapterin, endothelium-dependent relaxations to A23187, as well as cGMP production, were significantly augmented. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 A NO synthase inhibitor, N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester, reduced these relaxations, suggesting that tetrahydrobiopterin may activate NO synthase and increase production of NO. 7 In contrast, our previous study on canine cerebral arteries demonstrated that exogenous tetrahydrobiopterin causes endothelium-dependent contractions, mediated by auto-oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin and subsequent generation of superoxide anions. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study was designed to determine the effect of an increase in endogenous BH 4 on endothelium-dependent relaxations in canine middle cerebral arteries. (elsevier.com)
  • Tsutsui, M, Milstien, S & Katusic, ZS 1996, ' Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) synergistically augment endothelium-dependent relaxations in canine middle cerebral artery ', FASEB Journal , vol. 10, no. 3. (elsevier.com)
  • Middle cerebral artery intraplaque hemorrhage: prevalence and clinical relevance. (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about the composition of middle cerebral artery (MCA) plaques and how they relate to clinical status. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical course of patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction, defined by computed tomography and vascular imaging, was evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • In a clinical series of 1314 consecutive patients with cerebral aneurysms, from a catchment area in Finland with a population of 870,000, MCAAs were present in 561(43%), (Rinne et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The authors evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic benefits of an occipital artery (OA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for patients with PMMD who have undergone an initial revascularization procedure. (thejns.org)
  • The middle cerebral artery ( MCA ) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Anderson CS, Huang Y, Wang JG, Arima H, Neal B, Peng B. Intensive blood pressure reduction in acute cerebral haemorrhage trial (INTERACT): a randomised pilot trial. (medscape.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. (healthline.com)
  • The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh blood. (healthline.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery (also known as MCA) is the main blood vessel that brings oxygen and nutrients to important areas of your brain. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The Circle of Willis creates a network of arteries in your brain that allow blood to flow from one side to the other. (verywellhealth.com)
  • If there is a blockage in one artery near the Circle of Willis, blood can be diverted around the blockage and continue to nourish the brain. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery travels to important structures in your brain, bringing blood and nutrients to these areas. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery is a large artery that travels to various parts of your brain, bringing in blood and nutrients and removing carbon dioxide and waste. (verywellhealth.com)
  • In gestational weeks 30 and 36, we observed a postprandial influence that was apparently specific to fetal cerebral blood flow. (uio.no)
  • Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , 34 (3), 450 - 459. (monash.edu)
  • Hyperacute changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion are important determinants of injury. (edu.au)
  • Cerebral blood flow is regulated by neurovascular coupling, and disruption of neurovascular coupling contributes to brain plasticity and repair problems. (edu.au)
  • Evoked cerebral blood flow responses were fully restored at 24 h post middle cerebral artery occlusion indicating that neurovascular dysfunction was not sustained. (edu.au)
  • Currently, there is no objective evidence to indicate ICAS-related middle cerebral artery M1 segment occlusion before treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The colloid transfusion during surgical decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) after space-occupying cerebral infarction induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA), is controversial. (bioportfolio.com)