Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
A class of parasitic and saprophytic microorganisms whose origins can be traced near the animal-fungal divergence. Members of the class are typically pathogens of FISHES, but there are exceptions. There are two recognized orders: Icthyophonida and Dermocystida.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins with eight transmembrane domains. They are present primarily in the KIDNEY and SMALL INTESTINE and are responsible for renal and small intestinal epithelial transport of phosphate.
Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The plasma membrane of the egg.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
A complex of antigenic proteins obtained from the brush border of kidney tubules. It contains two principal components LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-2 and LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN. The name of this complex is derived from researcher, Dr. Walter Heymann, who developed an experimental model of membranous glomerulonephritis (GLOMERULONEPHRITIS) by injecting this antigenic complex into rats to induce an autoimmune response.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (1/2805)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (2/2805)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical localization of multispecific renal organic anion transporter 1 in rat kidney. (3/2805)

Renal proximal convoluted tubules have an important role, i.e., to excrete organic anions, including numerous drugs and endogenous substances. Recently, multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) was isolated from rat kidney. In this study, the cellular and subcellular localization of OAT1 in rat kidney was investigated. Kidneys from normal rats were perfused and fixed with periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde solution and were then processed for immunohistochemical analysis using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method, preembedding horseradish peroxidase method, and immunogold method. Light microscopic examination revealed immunostaining for OAT1 in the middle portion of the proximal tubule (S2 segment), but not in the initial portion of the proximal convoluted tubule, next to the glomerulus. Nephron segments other than the S2 segment and the renal vasculature were not stained with antibody to OAT1. Electron-microscopic observation using a preembedding method revealed that OAT1 was exclusively expressed in the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules. The immunogold method showed no labeling for OAT1 in the cytoplasmic vesicles, suggesting that OAT1 may not move together with organic anions into the cells. These results are consistent with previous physiologic data showing that organic anions, including para-aminohippurate, are taken up by the basolateral Na+-independent organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger and excreted at S2 segments. In conclusion, OAT1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules in rat kidneys.  (+info)

Calcium does not inhibit iron absorption or alter iron status in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet. (4/2805)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a dietary calcium:iron ratio similar to that often consumed by premature human infants inhibits iron absorption in infant piglets adapted to a high calcium diet. Male Yorkshire piglets were randomized at 3 to 4 d of age to a high calcium diet (4.67 g/L = HC) or a normal calcium diet (2.0 g/L = NC) and fed for 2 to 2.5 wk. An iron dextran injection was administered in amounts to achieve a marginal state of iron repletion to simulate iron status of premature infants. In vivo iron absorption from the diet was determined using the radiotracers 55Fe and 59Fe and whole body counting. Calcium:iron interactions at absorption sites in piglets fed HC and NC were investigated by measurements of time-dependent 59Fe uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios in vitro in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). In vivo iron absorption from the diet did not differ between NC and HC diet groups [57 +/- 8% versus 55 +/- 17% (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Iron status and iron contencentrations in spleen, liver, intestine, kidney and heart did not differ between diet groups. Iron uptake in BBMV was significantly reduced by calcium in both HC and NC (P < 0.001); but there were no significant differences in iron uptake in response to different calcium:iron ratios between HC and NC. With feeding a HC diet for 2 wk there may be an adaptive response to counteract the inhibitory effects of calcium on iron absorption, thus resulting in similar in vivo iron absorption and iron status irrespective of the 1.3-fold difference in dietary calcium:iron ratio between piglet groups. However, future studies are needed to determine the specific sites of calcium:iron interactions and adaptation mechanisms. Since the calcium:iron ratios used in this study reflect the usual calcium:iron ratios in diets for premature infants, it is unlikely that interactive effects of calcium with iron will compromise iron status in this infant population when diets are supplemented with calcium.  (+info)

Multiplicity of the H+-dependent transport mechanism of dipeptide and anionic beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten in rat intestinal brush-border membrane. (5/2805)

To elucidate the transport characteristics of the H+/dipeptide carrier that recognizes the orally active beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten, the uptake behaviors were compared of ceftibuten and Gly-Sar by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. The results show that 1) both the uptake of ceftibuten and that of Gly-Sar were dependent on an inwardly directed H+ gradient; 2) anionic compounds such as hippurylphenyllactic acid competitively inhibited ceftibuten uptake in the presence of H+ gradient, whereas this anion did not inhibit Gly-Sar uptake; and 3) the carrier-mediated uptake of ceftibuten did not disappear even in the presence of 20 mM Gly-Sar. The results provide an evidence that several transporters with different features are potentially responsible for the uptake of beta-lactam antibiotics into the intestinal cells. It is suggested that the dianionic beta-lactam antibiotics that carry a net negative charge such as ceftibuten use multiple H+-dependent transport systems for absorption.  (+info)

Cimetidine transport in brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. (6/2805)

In previous studies, sulfoxide metabolite was observed in animal and human intestinal perfusions of cimetidine and other H2-antagonists. A sequence of follow-up studies is ongoing to assess the intestinal contributions of drug metabolism and drug and metabolite transport to variable drug absorption. An evaluation of these contributions to absorption variability is carried out in isolated fractions of the absorptive cells to uncouple the processes involved. In this report, data is presented on the drug entry step from a study on [3H]cimetidine uptake into isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. A saturable component for cimetidine uptake was characterized with a Vmax and Km (mean +/- S.E.M.) of 6.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/30s/mg protein and 8.4 +/- 2.0 mM, respectively. Initial binding, and possibly intravesicular uptake, was inhibited by other cationic compounds including ranitidine, procainamide, imipramine, erythromycin, and cysteamine but not by TEA or by the organic anion, probenecid. Initial uptake was not inhibited by amino acids methionine, cysteine, or histidine, by the metabolite cimetidine sulfoxide, or by inhibitors of cimetidine sulfoxidation, methimazole, and diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Equilibrium uptake was inhibited by ranitidine, procainamide, and cysteamine but not by erythromycin or imipramine. Initial cimetidine uptake was stimulated by an outwardly directed H+ gradient, and efflux was enhanced by an inwardly directed H+ gradient. Collapse of the H+ gradient as well as voltage-clamping potential difference to zero significantly reduced initial cimetidine uptake. The data is supportive of both a cimetidine/H+ exchange mechanism and a driving-force contribution from an inside negative proton or cation diffusion potential.  (+info)

Cyclical changes in epithelial cells of the vaginal cul-de-sac of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). (7/2805)

The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the changes that occur in cul-de-sac tissue, in particular to epithelial cells and their constituents, at specific stages of the estrous cycle in the brushtail possum. Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in cul-de-sac epithelial cells collected at four stages of the estrous cycle; the time of removal of pouch young (RPY; n = 5), of initial follicle development (n = 5), of preovulatory follicle formation (n = 5), of midluteal stage (n = 4), and again at RPY (n = 5) after completion of the experiment to examine for any effects due to season or time. Tissue was weighed and processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and stereological analysis. Cul-de-sac epithelial cell volume increased approximately 17-fold at the time of preovulatory follicle formation compared with that at the time of RPY, before declining (approximately four-fold greater than at RPY) during the midluteal phase. Epithelial cell volume enlargement was correlated strongly with the size of the preovulatory follicle present, and maximum size was coincidental with the formation of extracellular spaces and projection of cell processes between lateral cell membranes. Maximum cell volume was associated with an approximate 25-fold and six-fold increase in cytoplasmic and nuclear volume, respectively. Enlargement of the epithelial cells coincided with an increase in cytoplasmic organelle numbers, microvilli prominence, and accumulation of secretory vesicles. In the possum, the cul-de-sac epithelial cell undergoes phenomenal remodelling during the estrous cycle to accommodate an approximate 17-fold increase in volume. This increase in cell volume is coincident with morphological changes characteristic of secretory activity and appears to be under estrogen regulation.  (+info)

The meningococcal PilT protein is required for induction of intimate attachment to epithelial cells following pilus-mediated adhesion. (8/2805)

The ability of Neisseria meningitidis (MC) to interact with cellular barriers is essential to its pathogenesis. With epithelial cells, this process has been modeled in two steps. The initial stage of localized adherence is mediated by bacterial pili. After this phase, MC disperse and lose piliation, thus leading to a diffuse adherence. At this stage, microvilli have disappeared, and MC interact intimately with cells and are, in places, located on pedestals of actin, thus realizing attaching and effacing (AE) lesions. The bacterial attributes responsible for these latter phenotypes remain unidentified. Considering that bacteria are nonpiliated at this stage, pili cannot be directly responsible for this effect. However, the initial phase of pilus-mediated localized adherence is required for the occurrence of diffuse adherence, loss of microvilli, and intimate attachment, because nonpiliated bacteria are not capable of such a cellular interaction. In this work, we engineered a mutation in the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding protein PilT and showed that this mutation increased piliation and abolished the dispersal phase of bacterial clumps as well as the loss of piliation. Furthermore, no intimate attachment nor AE lesions were observed. On the other hand, PilT- MC remained adherent as piliated clumps at all times. Taken together these data demonstrate that the induction of diffuse adherence, intimate attachment, and AE lesions after pilus-mediated adhesion requires the cytoplasmic PilT protein.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Glucocorticoids increase osmotic water permeability (P,sub,f,/sub,) of neonatal rabbit renal brush border membrane vesicles. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Membrane proteins of the intestinal brush border were labelled in vivo by intraluminal injection of diazotised [125I]iodosulfanilic acid, a highly polar molecule. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of brush border membranes labelled in this manner showed 20 protein bands, 11 of which contained significant radioactivity. The most heavily labelled proteins had molecular weights greater than 150000, indicating that they were the most exposed to the intestinal lumen. Little radioactivity was detected in proteins with molecular weights of less than 94000. The majority of these smaller proteins were likely to have been brush border core proteins. The evidence that diazotised [125I]iodosulfanilic acid bound primarily to brush border membrane proteins when administered in this way, was: (a) the specific activity of brush border proteins was up to 3-fold greater than that of total cell particulate proteins (pelleted by 27000 x g from mucosal homogenates); (b) principal peaks in the gel
The shared transport system for uptake of L-cystine and L-lysine was examined in isolated rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles for the ionic requirements for activation of the system. No requirement for sodium was seen for either cystine or lysine influx. However, the efflux of lysine from the vesicle was stimulated by Na+. Therefore, the transport system appears to be asymmetric in its requirement for sodium. Two different divalent cations were used in the membrane isolations which resulted in different responses of cystine uptake to the electrogenic movement of K+ out of the vesicle. Membranes prepared by Mg-aggregation showed no stimulation of cystine influx by the imposition of a transient interior negative potential while vesicles prepared by Ca-aggregation did respond to electrogenic stimulation by an outwardly directed K-diffusion potential in the presence of valinomycin. Lysine influx was stimulated by electrogenic potassium efflux in both Mg-prepared and Ca-prepared membranes. No difference
In order to characterize peptide transport in the ovine small intestine, [14C]-glycyl-sarcosine uptake by tissue collected from five sheep was studied through the use of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Preliminary experiments determined that incubation in hyaluronidase is not necessary in order to separate mucosal tissue from the basement membrane and that the stop solution used in the uptake study needed to be buffered. Uptake was examined in proximal (denoted jejunal) and distal (denoted ileal) halves of the intestine at four times (15, 30, 45, and 60 s) and at three extravesicular pH levels (6.4, 7.0, and 7.5). An intravesicular pH of 7.5 was used throughout the study. The two tissue sites differed (P < .02), with BBMV from jejunal tissue showing greater uptake than ileal. Uptake plateaued after 45 s, resulting in a quadratic (P < .005) effect of time. The effect of changes in extravesicular pH was also quadratic (P < .04), with uptake being greatest at pH 6.4, lowest at pH 7.0 and ...
The transport properties of brush-border membrane vesicles isolated by a calcium-precipitation method from the renal cortex of normal and parathyrin (parathyroid hormone)-treated rats were studied by a rapid-filtration technique. Parathyrin elicited a dose-dependent decrease in the Na+-dependent phosphate uptake by the brush-border membrane vesicles, but the uptake of D-glucose, Na+ and mannitol was not affected. A maximum inhibition of 30% was observed after the application of 30 U.S.P. units intramuscularly 1 h before the animals were killed. Intravenous infusion of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.5-1.5 MG) also decreased the phosphate uptake by the brush-border vesicles. Both dibutyryl cyclic AMP and parathyrin were ineffective when added in vitro to brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from normal rats. These data suggest that parathyrin exerts its action on the phosphate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule by affecting the Na+/phosphate co-transport system in the brush-border membrane. The ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Actions of NAD+ on renal brush border transport of phosphate in vivo and in vitro. AU - Kempson, S. A.. AU - Turner, Stephen T. AU - Yusufi, A. N K. AU - Dousa, T. P.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Previous studies showed that an increase in NAD+ content in renal cortex in vivo was accompanied by specific inhibition of Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) transport across the renal brush border membrane (BBM). Further, in vitro addition of NAD+ to isolated renal BBM vesicles specifically inhibited Na+ gradient-dependent transport of P(i). The present study examined some aspects of the mechanism of this inhibition by NAD+ in vitro and in vivo. When NAD+ was increased in vivo by nicotinamide injection, the apparent V(max) was decreased, but the apparent K(m) was not different, indicating apparent noncompetitive inhibition. In the presence of 0.3 mM NAD+ added in vitro, the apparent K(m) for Na+-dependent P(i) transport by BBM vesicles was increased, whereas the apparent V(max) was ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dietary sulfate regulates the expression of the renal brush border Na/S(i) cotransporter NaS(i)-1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We have worked out a simplification of the procedure described by Schmitz et al. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1973) 323, 98--112) for the preparation of brush border membranes from small intestine. The procedure ultimately adopted is simple, rapid, does not necessarily require scraping and can be started from fresh or frozen material. It can be scaled up easily, allowing a quick production of large amounts of brush border membrane vesicles. These vesicles prove to be excellently suited for transport studies, as suggested by our measurements of D-glucose transport. Using these vesicles, the mode of choline transport across the brush border membrane was also investigated. Choline transport was found to occur by a saturable component with a Km of 83 +/- 4 micrometer (at 20 degrees C) and by a non-saturable component. It is independent of the presence of Na+ and appears to be non-electrogenic.
The isolated intestinal microvillus cytoskeleton (core) consists of four major proteins: actin, villin, fimbrin and brush border myosin-I. These proteins can assemble in vitro into structures resembling native microvillus cores. Of these components, villin and brush border myosin-I show tissue-specific expression, so they may be involved in the morphogenesis of intestinal microvilli. When introduced into cultured cells that normally lack the protein, villin induces a reorganization of the actin filaments to generate large surface microvilli. Here we examine the consequences of microinjecting brush border myosin-I either alone or together with villin into cultured fibroblasts. Injection of brush border myosin-I has no discernible effect on the overall morphology of the cells, but does become localized to either normal or villin-induced microvilli and other surface structures containing an actin cytoskeleton. Since some endogenous myosin-Is have been found associated with cytoplasmic vesicles, ...
Bestatin [(2S,3R)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl-L-leucine], a dipeptide containing an unusual amino acid, has been used clinically as an anticancer agent in p.o. dosage form. We examined the transport characteristics of [3H]bestatin by rabbit intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. Bestatin uptake was stimulated by an inward H+ gradient (overshoot phenomenon) and by an interior-negative membrane potential. About half of the apparent bestatin uptake at 1 mM by brush-border membrane vesicles was estimated as binding to the membranes. The affinity constant for the bestatin transport was 0.52 mM. The uptake of bestatin by brush-border membrane vesicles was inhibited by p.o. cephalosporins and dipeptides, but not by amino acids. In vesicles preloaded with either bestatin, cephradine or glycylsarcosine, the uptake of [3H]bestatin was stimulated markedly (countertransport effect). These results indicate that bestatin is transported via the H+/dipeptide transport system in rabbit intestinal ...
Ca2+ uptake in brush-border vesicles isolated from rat duodena was studied by a rapid-filtration technique. Ca2+ uptake showed saturation kinetics, was dependent on the pH and ionic strength of the medium and was independent of metabolic energy. Uptake activity was readily inhibited by Ruthenium Red, La3+, tetracaine, EGTA, choline chloride and Na+ or K+. The effect of variations in medium osmolarity on Ca2+ uptake and the ionophore A23187-induced efflux of the cation from preloaded vesicles indicated that the Ca2+-uptake process involved binding to membrane components, as well as transport into an osmotically active space. Scatchard-plot analyses of the binding data suggested at least two classes of Ca2+-binding sites. The high-affinity sites, Ka = (2.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(4) M-1 (mean +/- S.D.) bound 3.2 +/- 0.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein, whereas the low-affinity sites (Ka = 60 +/- 6 M-1) bound 110 +/- 17 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. In the presence of 100 mM-NaCl, 1.7 and 53 nmol of Ca2+/mg of ...
Author(s): Kaysen, GA; Chou, LY; Humphreys, MH | Abstract: The existence of a membrane-bound HCO3-stimulated ATPase in intestinal mucosa is controversial. A crude brush border fraction of rat small intestinal homogenates contained HCO3-ATPase activity which was inhibited by preincubation with 3 mM EDTA. Alkaline phosphatase activity of this preparation was also inhibited in a parallel, time-dependent fashion by preincubation with EDTA. When 5 mM ZnSO4 accompanied 3 mM EDTA in the preincubation mix, preservation of both enzyme activities occurred, demonstrating a requirement of Zn for the activity of both these phosphatases. These studies support the earlier contention that HCO3-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase activities may be different properties of the same enzyme, and raise the possibility that the ATPase could play a role in intestinal ion transport. The failure to identify a membrane-bound HCO3-ATPase by other workers could be due to the exposure of EDTA which occurred in their tissue preparation.
This study was conducted to measure the transport of zinc (Zn) into a pig intestinal brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) preparation using a radiolabeled Zn-proteinate. Fresh samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were obtained from the small intestine of five crossbred weanling pigs to produce the BBMV. We anticipated that the large molecular size of an organic Zn compound would considerably limit or prevent the uptake of Zn by intestinal vesicles when the normal processes of digestion have been bypassed. For that reason, we performed an in vitro procedure designed to simulate the digestive system of the pig (Liu et al., 1998; Tsunoda et al., 2001). Our initial trials using non-radiolabeled Zn with a cellulose carrier determined effective digestion of Zn with a sample size of 0.25 g. Based on these results, this in vitro method was used to digest 0.25 g of 65Zn-proteinate prior to performing uptake studies. We used concentrations of 480 and 960 ppm Zn as Zn-proteinate. 65Zn uptake was allowed ...
In the chronically inflamed rabbit small intestine, brush border membrane (BBM) Na-glutamine co-transport is inhibited in villus cells (mediated by B0AT1), while it is stimulated in crypt cells (mediated by SN2/SNAT5). How mast cells, known to be enhanced in the chronically inflamed intestine, may regulate B0AT1 in villus and SN2/SNAT5 in crypt cell is unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the regulation of B0AT1 and SN2/SNAT5 by mast cells during chronic enteritis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was induced in male rabbits with intra-gastric inoculation of Eimeria magna oocytes. Rabbits with chronic inflammation were treated with ketotifen (10 mg/day) or saline (Placebo) for 2 days. Villus and crypts cells were isolated from the rabbit intestine using the Ca++ chelation technique. Na/K-ATPase activity was measured as Pi from cellular homogenate. BBM vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from villus and crypt cells and uptake studies were performed using rapid filtration technique with 3H
Artist: Betty Barnett Mentor: Caroline Cencer Laboratory: Matt Tyska Collage of an intestinal brush border. A brush border is a collection of tiny protrusions on the surface of intestinal cells, which exist to optimize nutrient absorption. Made using recycled paper materials. ARTIST STATEMENT Earlier this summer, while wandering through an old cathedral, Betty noticed a…
Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body wt). After 7 d, diabetic rats were further treated with insulin or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] for an additional 5-7 d. Control, diabetic, diabetic + insulin, and diabetic + 1,25(OH)2D3 rats were then killed, their proximal small intestines were removed, and villus-tip epithelial cells were isolated and used to prepare brush-border membrane vesicles. Preparations from each of these groups were then analyzed and compared with respect to their amiloride-sensitive, electroneutral Na(+)-H+ exchange activity, using 22Na uptake as well as acridine orange techniques. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (a) H+ gradient-dependent 22Na uptake as well as Na+ gradient-dependent transmembrane H+ fluxes were significantly increased in diabetic vesicles compared to their control counterparts, (b) kinetic studies demonstrated that this enhanced 22Na uptake in diabetes was a ...
This proposal will increase understanding of acute regulation of the small intestinal brush border Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, which accounts for the majority of Na+...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is found in brush border microvilli of epithelial cells in the intestines and kidneys. The encoded protein is involved in linking protocadherins to the actin cytoskeleton and is essential for proper microvilli function. This protein aids in the accumulation of intermicrovillar adhesion components such as harmonin and ANKS4B, and this accumulation is necessary for normal brush border action. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2017 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is found in brush border microvilli of epithelial cells in the intestines and kidneys. The encoded protein is involved in linking protocadherins to the actin cytoskeleton and is essential for proper microvilli function. This protein aids in the accumulation of intermicrovillar adhesion components such as harmonin and ANKS4B, and this accumulation is necessary for normal brush border action. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2017 ...
No additional onset symptoms distinguishable from other CDDs are usu- Join the Microvillus Inclusion Disease community. 1 The prognosis is generally poor, with most patients dying by the second decade of life as a result of complications of parenteral alimentation including liver failure or sepsis. Symptoms usually develop in the first few days of life; however, late-onset MID has been described with symptoms developing after the neonatal period. It usually starts soon after birth and is one of a group of disorders termed congenital diarrheas. Which are the symptoms of Microvillus Inclusion Disease? Also called congenital or familial microvillous atrophy Disorder of intestinal brush border that causes intractable watery diarrhea with steatorrhea in infants Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare congenital severe malabsorptive and secretory diarrheal disease characterized by blunted or absent microvilli with accumulation of secretory granules and inclusion bodies in enterocytes. Most ...
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Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2 ...
PubMed journal article: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and cholesterol modify desaturase activities and fatty acyl constituents of rat intestinal brush border and microsomal membranes of diabetic rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of microvilli of the small intestine. Magnification is 18,000x at 5.5 x 6.25 . - Stock Image C014/4358
The terminal web is a zone or a region located at the base of the microvilli in certain specialized epithelial cells (such as intestinal epithelial cells). The name is derived from the web (meshwork) of microfilaments that compose this region. The web of microfilaments is from the bundles of apical filaments at the core of a microvillus as well as from adherens junctions in myosin and in other proteins characteristic of an actomyosin motor system. The actin filaments in the terminal web are stabilized by spectrin. They anchor the terminal web to the apical cell membrane. The contractile ability of the terminal web is due to the presence of myosin II and tropomyosin. It is observed that the contraction at the terminal web results in the decrease in the diameter of the apex of the cell. This, in turn, causes the microvilli to spread apart, which is essential during absorption.1,2,3 ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Crosssection Through The Wall Of The Epididymis Showing Long Microvilli On The Surface Of The Pseudostratified Epithelium And The Underlying Layer Of Smooth Muscle. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
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Microvilli of HeLa cells cultured in vitro were preserved for electron microscopic examination at different stages of routine cultivation procedures. By a double-embedding technique, vertical sectioning for electron microscopy was possible. It revealed that, although the microvilli were present on all sides of the cell in the dispersed stage and in the attached stage, they were not present on the bottom of the cell when it was stretched on the surface of the dish. When the cells were grown in dense colonies, they were found on top of each other, and microvilli were present on all sides, except on the bottom surface of those cells in contact with the dish. We achieved a more dramatic demonstration of the microvilli by developing a surface-replica technique which retains their spatial arrangement and permits characterization of the distribution of their number, length, and diameter.. ...
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Specialized cells devoid of brush border which belong to the follicle-associated epithelium(FEA) that covers the lymph nodes associated with the mucosa. It spares the microbe the need to dissolve the mucus, resist intestinal peristaltism, invade epithelial cells through their apical brush border, or penetrate between cells by opening their tight junctions;The major Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogens, Shigella, Salmonella, and Yersinia, primarily use the FAE as their entry route. ...
This gene encodes a type 1 transmembrane protein that is important for trafficking amino acid transporters to the apical brush border of proximal tubules. The encoded protein binds to amino acid transporters and regulates their expression on the plasma membrane. It also plays a role in controlling insulin exocytosis by regulating formation of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor) complex in pancreatic beta cells. The extracellular domain of the encoded protein may be cleaved and shed from the plasma membrane specifically in pancreatic beta cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013 ...
Microvilli are microscopic protrusions on the surface of certain cells of the body. Humans have microvilli in the inner ear, the...
In order to characterize peptide transport in the ovine small intestine, [14C]-glycyl-sarcosine uptake by tissue collected from five sheep was studied through the use of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Preliminary experiments determined that incubation in hyaluronidase is not necessary in order to separate mucosal tissue from the basement membrane and that the stop solution used in the uptake study needed to be buffered. Uptake was examined in proximal (denoted jejunal) and distal (denoted ileal) halves of the intestine at four times (15, 30, 45, and 60 s) and at three extravesicular pH levels (6.4, 7.0, and 7.5). An intravesicular pH of 7.5 was used throughout the study. The two tissue sites differed (P < .02), with BBMV from jejunal tissue showing greater uptake than ileal. Uptake plateaued after 45 s, resulting in a quadratic (P < .005) effect of time. The effect of changes in extravesicular pH was also quadratic (P < .04), with uptake being greatest at pH 6.4, lowest at pH 7.0 and ...
Gengoux P, Montplaisir S, Pelletier M, Lachapelle JM (1980) Significance of renal brush border antibody in sera of patients with renal or skin immune related diseases and in immune diseases. J Invest Dermatol (abstract) 74: ...
Microvilli are projections on the apical (free) membrane of the Absorptive cells. Microvilli form a brush border appearance extending into the lumen of the small intestine. Because the microvilli greatly increase the surface area of the plasma membrane, larger amounts of digested nutrients can diffuse into absorptive cells in a given period ...
Colour enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing microvilli. Magnification 21,000x. Microvilli, any of the small, finger-like projections of the surface of an epithelial cell. Epithelium, any animal tissue that covers a surface, or lines a cavity or the like, and that, in addition, performs any of various secretory, transporting, or regulatory functions. - Stock Image C028/3570
Microvillus inclusion disease (also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known disease of the intestinal epithelium causing intractable diarrhea of infancy, and a leading cause of secretory diarrhea in the first weeks of life. A group of infants with a familial enteropathy characterized by protrac...
Microvillus inclusion disease (also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known disease of the intestinal epithelium causing intractable diarrhea of infancy, and a leading cause of secretory diarrhea in the first weeks of life. A group of infants with a familial enteropathy characterized by protrac...
Actin-bundling protein found in intestinal microvilli, hair cell stereocilia, and fibroblast filopodia. May play a role in the regulation of bone development.
The structure of the villus is very specific. Firstly there is a great number of them so this increases the surface area for absorption in the small intestine. In addition the villi also have their own projections which are called microvilli. The many microvilli increase the surface area for absorption further. These microvilli have protein channels and pumps in their membranes to allow the rapid absorption of food by facilitated diffusion and active transport ...
The structure of the villus is very specific. Firstly there is a great number of them so this increases the surface area for absorption in the small intestine. In addition the villi also have their own projections which are called microvilli. The many microvilli increase the surface area for absorption further. These microvilli have protein channels and pumps in their membranes to allow the rapid absorption of food by facilitated diffusion and active transport ...
The brush (1) includes a core (2) formed from a metal wire bent into a U and the branches of which are twisted to trap radial bristles (3) between them, the core (2) being fixed to the end of a wand (6). The branches of the core are twisted, turning to the left, to form turns which turn in the clockwise direction about the axis (X) of the core when progressing from the wand towards the end of the brush, whereas the bristles (3) of the brush form helical layers (S) rising from left to right in the area located between the core and an observer who holds the brush substantially vertical in front of him/her with its tip pointing upwards.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis and transport of proline-containing peptides in renal brush-border membrane vesicles from dipeptidyl peptidase IV-positive and dipeptidyl peptidase IV-negative rat strains. AU - Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy. AU - Miyamoto, Yusei. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. AU - Roesel, R. August. AU - Whitford, Gary M.. AU - Leibach, Frederick H.. PY - 1990/1/25. Y1 - 1990/1/25. N2 - In this investigation, we have demonstrated that the renal brush-border membrane of Fischer 344 rats from the Japanese Charles River Inc. specifically lacks dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity, whereas the renal brush-border membrane of Fischer 344 rats from three different sources within the United States possesses normal levels of DPP IV activity. Comparison of the brush-border proteins between Charles River (U. S. A.) Fischer 344 rats (DPP IV positive) and Japanese Charles River Fischer 344 rats (DPP IV negative) revealed that a protein band (Mr = 100,000), apparently identical with DPP IV, was absent in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective removal of alkaline phosphatase from renal brush-border membrane and sodium-dependent brush-border membrane transport. AU - Yusufi, A. N.K.. AU - Low, M. G.. AU - Turner, S. T.. AU - Dousa, T. P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Na+-gradient-dependent transport of phosphate (P(i), glucose, and proline was studied in renal brush-border membranes (BBM) from which alkaline phosphatase was released by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. BBM were prepared from rabbit kidney cortex in the form of large brush-border membrane sheets (BBMS). Incubation of BBMS with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C resulted in selective release (up to 90%) of the alkaline phosphatase from BBM; in contrast, activities of leucine aminopeptidase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, and maltase were not affected. Polytron homogenization of BBMS leads to the formation of brush-border membrane ...
Electron microscopy was used to measure microvillous surface area in seven small intestinal biopsies showing secondary disaccharidase deficiency and in five biopsies having normal disaccharidase levels. There were significant reductions in microvillous surface area in the enzyme deficient group, although the microvilli were not severely damaged. Histological abnormality was not always present with disaccharidase deficiency. There was no significant difference in intraepithelial lymphocyte counts between the two groups.. ...
Microvillus inclusion disease, also known as Davidsons disease, congenital microvillus atrophy and, less specifically, microvillus atrophy (note: microvillus is often misspelled as microvillous), is a rare genetic disorder of the small intestine that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It is characterized by chronic, intractable diarrhea in new-born infants, starting in the first few days of life. This results in metabolic acidosis and severe dehydration.[citation needed] Pregnancy and birth are usually normal. It is caused by a congenital atrophy of apical microvilli and intracellular accumulation of apical enzymes in the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Prenatal screening in utero is currently offered by several medical centers since the gene(s) involved in the disease were recently discovered to be MYO5B; Diagnosis is typically made by biopsy of the small intestine. The appearance of microvillous inclusion disease on light microscopy is similar to celiac sprue; however, ...
1. Alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, Na + , K + -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase specific activities of crude membrane fractions, prepared from duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic mucosa, have been estimated in three types of hypertensive rats: the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the DOCA-saline-treated rat and the renovascular rat (Goldblatt one-kidney, one-clip rat; 1K-1C). Alkaline phosphatase and sucrase specific activities have also been measured in purified jejunal brush-border membranes. 2. When compared with its normotensive age-matched control (WKY rat), the SHR has a lower activity of alkaline phosphatase in duodenal and jejunal crude membrane fractions, whereas a higher activity in colonic Na + , K + -ATPase is recorded. In purified jejunal brush-border membranes, lower alkaline phosphatase activity and higher sucrase activity were found. These differences occur in the young prehypertensive SHR as well as in the adult animal. 3. In the DOCA-treated rat, the only significant alteration in ...
Dear Group: I am trying to start a thesis in which I study the receptor binding properties of the insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One assay for Bt toxicity is to measure increases in amino acid premeability of midgut brush border membrane vesicles from susceptible insects (Bt acts by binding and inserting into the cell membrane of midgut epithelial cells, forming pores, and killing the cells by osmotic lysis . . . or that is a good-enough description). An alternative assay for Bt toxicity is to prepare brush border membrane vesicles and shrink them by placing them into hyperosmotic solutions. After osmotic shrinkage, vesicles that have been permeabilized by Bt activity will re-swell as pores are formed. This change in vesicle volume is measured by 90 degree light scattering. A nicer way to do the job compared to measuring leakage of [3H]-amino acids. My question is: I dont really have access to equipment for 90 degree light scattering. Is there some other way to detect ...
sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor: a protein cofactor that mediates protein kinase A regulation of the renal brush border membrane Na+-H+ exchanger; 358 amino acids, MW 55 kDa; partial amino acid sequence given in first source
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton-coupled erythromycin antiport at rat blood-placenta barrier. AU - Sai, Yoshimichi. AU - Nishimura, Tomohiro. AU - Ochi, Kaori. AU - Tanaka, Noriaki. AU - Takagi, Akinori. AU - Tomi, Masatoshi. AU - Kose, Noriko. AU - Kobayashi, Yasuna. AU - Miyakoshi, Naoki. AU - Kitagaki, Shinji. AU - Mukai, Chisato. AU - Nakashima, Emi. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - The aim of the present study was to characterize the mechanism of erythromycin transport at the blood-placenta barrier, using TR-TBT 18d-1 cells as a model of rat syncytiotrophoblasts. [14C]Erythromycin was taken up by TR-TBT 18d-1 cells with a Michaelis constant of 466 μM. Although the uptake was not dependent on extracellular Na+ or Cl-, it was increased at weakly alkaline pH. Significant overshoot of [ 14C]erythromycin uptake by placental brush-border membrane vesicles was observed in the presence of an outwardly directed proton gradient. These results indicate that erythromycin is transferred by the H+-coupled transport ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of myosin Vb promotes apical bulk endocytosis in neonatal enterocytes. AU - Engevik, Amy C.. AU - Kaji, Izumi. AU - Postema, Meagan M.. AU - Faust, James J.. AU - Meyer, Anne R.. AU - Williams, Janice A.. AU - Fitz, Gillian N.. AU - Tyska, Matthew J.. AU - Wilson, Jean M.. AU - Goldenring, James R.. PY - 2019/11/4. Y1 - 2019/11/4. N2 - In patients with inactivating mutations in myosin Vb (Myo5B), enterocytes show large inclusions lined by microvilli. The origin of inclusions in small-intestinal enterocytes in microvillus inclusion disease is currently unclear. We postulated that inclusions in Myo5b KO mouse enterocytes form through invagination of the apical brush border membrane. 70-kD FITC-dextran added apically to Myo5b KO intestinal explants accumulated in intracellular inclusions. Live imaging of Myo5b KO-derived enteroids confirmed the formation of inclusions from the apical membrane. Treatment of intestinal explants and enteroids with Dyngo resulted in accumulation of ...
Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset of kinases that phosphorylate ezrin closely co-distributes with apical recycling endosome marker rab11a in the subapical domain. Expression of dominant-negative rab11a mutant or depletion of the rab11a-binding motor protein myosin Vb prevents the subapical enrichment of rab11a and these kinases and inhibits ezrin phosphorylation and microvilli development, without affecting the polarized distribution of ezrin itself. We observe a similar loss of the subapical enrichment of rab11a and the kinases and reduced phosphorylation of ezrin in Microvillus inclusion disease, which is associated with MYO5B mutations, intestinal microvilli atrophy and mal-absorption. Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Na+-H+ exchanger isoforms NHE1 and NHE3 in kidney and blood cells of rabbit and rat. AU - Rutherford, P. A.. AU - Pizzonia, J. H.. AU - Biemesderfer, D.. AU - Abu-Alfa, A.. AU - Reilly, R.. AU - Aronson, P. S.. PY - 1997/11. Y1 - 1997/11. N2 - Increased peripheral blood cell Na-H exchange (NHE) and erythrocyte Na- Li countertransport activity have been reported in hypertension and diabetic nephropathy and correlated with increased activity of the renal brush border Na-H exchanger. A relationship between cation exchange activities of blood cells and renal brush border membranes might exist if both were mediated by the same NHE isoform. We generated isoform-specific antibodies to compare the expression of NHE1 and NHE3 in peripheral blood cell membranes and renal cortical membrane vesicles. An NHE1-specific monoclonal antibody reacted with a 199- to 110-kD protein in basolateral membrane fractions isolated from rabbit and rat kidney. NHE1 protein expression was also ...
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms finger-like projections called villi that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms finger-like projections called villi that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms fingerlike projections called villi.. that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
Organic substrates (sugars, amino acids, carboxylic acids and neutrotransmitters) are actively transported into eukaryotic cells by Na+ co-transport. Some of the transport proteins have been identified--for example, intestinal brush border Na+/glucose and Na+/proline transporters and the brain Na+/C …
This family consists of sodium-dependent phosphate transport proteins of the solute carrier family SLC34A [(PUBMED:12750889)]. It includes mammalian type II renal Na+/Pi-cotransporters and other proteins from lower eukaryotes and bacteria, some of which are also Na+/Pi-cotransporters. In kidneys these proteins may be involved in actively transporting phosphate into cells via Na+ cotransport in the renal brush border membrane [(PUBMED:8327470 ...
Liu, C., Comparison of structural characteristics of major membrane-bound mucins from porcine milk and intestinal brush borders. (2003). Dairy Science Publication Database. 336 ...
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The principal digestive proteinases of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval midgut were identified, and the subcellular distribution of the enzyme activities was determined. Proteinase activities of fifth-instar larvae were largely attributed to two luminal serine proteinases, a trypsin-like enz …
Proximal small intestinal and colonoscopic mucosal biopsies from two children with the intractable diarrhea of infancy syndrome were examined by electron microscopy. Microvillous involutions were found in the small and large bowel of both patients. We suggest that this is a specific diagnostic finding for congenital microvillous atrophy, a distinct disorder within the intractable diarrhoea syndrome which has an extremely poor prognosis.. ...
phospholipase B-lipase: a rat intestinal enzyme associated with brush border membranes; has PLA2, lysophospholipase & lipase activities; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank D63648
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On top of everything else, histology of the INSIDE of the respiratory trees shows internal tissues that you might expect to find in a gut: such as microvilli (tiny finger like doodahs that serve to absorb or secrete. We have these in our intestine) as well as certain kinds of cells in the stomach lining that are recognized in other animals for digesting food ...
On top of everything else, histology of the INSIDE of the respiratory trees shows internal tissues that you might expect to find in a gut: such as microvilli (tiny finger like doodahs that serve to absorb or secrete. We have these in our intestine) as well as certain kinds of cells in the stomach lining that are recognized in other animals for digesting food ...
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distortion of microvilli. *loosening of intercellular attachments. *mitochondrial changes. *dilation of the endoplasmic ...
Desmosomes and microvilli are present. The histological differential diagnosis includes Carcinosarcoma Biphasic synovial ...
Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
The cell layers have interlocking microvilli. The study found that the outer cell layer resembled smooth muscle cells, with ...
"Microvillus inclusion disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2020-08-02. "Congenital chloride diarrhea , Genetic and Rare ... "Microvillus Inclusion Disease , Boston Children's Hospital". www.childrenshospital.org. Retrieved 2020-08-02. Reference, ...
It has an indistinct stalk and the anterior surface is lined with microvilli. Some portion of the tegument has interconnected ... It is lined with syncytial epidermis and numerous microvilli. Beneath the apical membrane are many vacuoles and dense bodies. ... The surface is profusely covered with microvilli. It is used for symbiotic association with fishes. Parasitic roundworms such ...
... which contains microvilli and glycocalyxes. The microvilli are used to absorb nutrients. The glycocalyx is a fuzzy coat that ...
The apical plasma membrane bears long microvilli extending into a mass of granular material containing electron-lucid cavities ... The apical plasma membrane bears short microvilli. The inner, dense epicuticle forms a complex ramifying system. These ...
Non-ciliated epithelium can also possess microvilli. Some tissues contain goblet cells and are referred to as simple glandular ...
The luminal surface is covered with microvilli. The proteins and serosal fluid trapped by the microvilli provide a slippery ...
HOXA2 Microvillus inclusion disease; 251850; MYO5B Migraine, familial basilar; 602481; ATP1A2 Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 2 ...
"p56Lck anchors CD4 to distinct microdomains on microvilli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
Each ciliated cell has many cilia and microvilli. The outermost layer rests on a thickened basement membrane, the dermis. Next ...
... is covered with microvilli. The microvilli absorb fats and nutrients from the chyme. The circular folds are also called the ...
The microvilli are about 40-150 nm in diameter.[19] Blood[edit]. The blood of horseshoe crabs (as well as that of most mollusks ... Microvilli are composed of a double layer, 7 nm each and with 3.5 nm space of two electron-deficient boundaries in between. ... Where the microvilli meet, these outer borders fuse and yield five membranes about 15 nm thick. In all arthropods, there is ... This forms the rhabdom, which contains the dendrite of the eccentric cell, and may also contribute some microvilli. The only ...
Microvilli on the apical surface increase its surface area. This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the ...
The apical side is covered in cilia and microvilli. Lining the CSF-filled ventricles, and spinal canal, the ependymal cells ... Their apical surfaces are also covered with microvilli, which absorb CSF. Within the ventricles of the brain, a population of ...
The epithelial cells which line these villi have microvilli. The transport of nutrients across epithelial cells through the ...
The nodes are encapsulated by microvilli stemming from the outer aspect of the Schwann cell membrane in the PNS, or by ... The PNS nodes are surrounded by Schwann cell microvilli, which contain ERMs and EBP50 that may provide a connection to actin ... At CNS nodes, the axonal proteins also include contactin; however, Schwann cell microvilli are replaced by astrocyte perinodal ... In the CNS, oligodendrocytes do not possess microvilli, but appear capable to initiate the clustering of some axonal proteins ...
This hypertrophy coincides with a drastic depletion of the microvilli. The junction zone along with the underlying cell extends ...
These skins are also covered with microvilli between the cilia. They have many glands, usually submerged in the muscle layers ...
Miura S, Sato K, Kato-Negishi M, Teshima T, Takeuchi S (November 2015). "Fluid shear triggers microvilli formation via ... is known to induce a TRPV6-mediated Ca2+ influx and promote microvilli formation through a mechanism involving Ezrin and Akt- ...
When contracted, the terminal web causes a decrease in diameter of the apex of the cell, causing the microvilli, which are ... The terminal web is a filamentous structure found at the apical surface of epithelial cells that possess microvilli. It is ... This spreading apart of the microvilli aids cells in absorption. Hirokawa N, Tilney LG, Fujiwara K, Heuser JE (1982). " ...
Every cell in the taste bud forms microvilli at the ends. In humans, the sense of taste is conveyed via three of the twelve ... Based on their findings, dygeusia results from loss of microvilli and the reduction of Type III intracellular vesicles, all of ... it has been observed that patients suffering from this taste disorder have fewer microvilli than normal. In addition, the ...
They are coated by microvilli which emerge to the perisinusoidal space. These surfaces are the place where the exchange of ...
Ezrin, a component of the undercoat of the microvilli plasma membrane. Moesin, which is probably involved in binding major ...
The released sporozoites subsequently attach to the microvilli of the epithelial cells of the small intestine. From there they ... These species possess a number of unusual features: an endogenous phase of development in microvilli of epithelial surfaces two ... Thus, they are "intracellular but extracytoplasmic". The parasite can cause damage to the microvilli where it attaches. The ...
This adhering activity is by microvilli that are on the trophoblast. The trophoblast have binding fiber connections, laminin, ...
On the surfaces of the epithelial cells are microridges and microvilli. Lubrication of the vocal folds through adequate ... hydration is essential for normal phonation to avoid excessive abrasion, and the microridges and microvilli help to spread and ...
microvillus* One of a number of minute finger-like projections on the free surfaces of epithelial cells. Microvilli are covered ... microvillus One of a number of minute finger-like projections on the free surfaces of epithelial cells. Microvilli are covered ... microvillus A small, finger-like projection. Microvilli are found in large numbers on the free surfaces of many cells. They ... microvillus A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Microvillus inclusion disease is a condition characterized by chronic, watery, life-threatening diarrhea typically beginning in ... Inside affected enterocytes, small clumps of abnormal microvilli mix with misplaced digestive proteins to form microvillus ... Mutations in the MYO5B gene cause microvillus inclusion disease. The MYO5B gene provides instructions for making a protein ... The prevalence of microvillus inclusion disease is unknown. At least 200 cases have been reported in Europe, although this ...
Microvilli should not be confused with intestinal villi, which are made of many cells. Each of these cells has many microvilli ... Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion ... It can be another location for functional enzymes to be localized.microvillus The destruction of microvilli can occur in ... Though these are cellular extensions, there are little or no cellular organelles present in the microvilli. Each microvillus ...
... also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known disease of the intestinal ... encoded search term (Microvillus Inclusion Disease) and Microvillus Inclusion Disease What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Microvillus Inclusion Disease Medication. Updated: Oct 06, 2017 * Author: Stefano Guandalini, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari ... Chen CP, Su YN, Chern SR, Wu PC, Wang W. Prenatal diagnosis of microvillus inclusion disease. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep ...
Humans have microvilli in the inner ear, the... ... Microvilli are microscopic protrusions on the surface of ... These papillae contain the taste buds, which are made up of specialized microvilli. Each microvillus absorbs the taste - bitter ... Disorders involving the microvilli in the ears may cause an increase or decrease in a persons sensitivity to loud noises.. ... Microvilli appear in the proximal tubule of the kidney as a "brush border," so-called because this close clustering of tiny ...
Find microvilli Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the ... Microvilli stock photos. 375 Microvilli stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See microvilli ... Microvilli. Detail of the small intestine. Structure of Villi and microvilli showing arteries, veins, nerve and lymph vessel. ... The microvilli of this small intestine cell are tightly packed and have a very regular shape. ...
... also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known disease of the intestinal ... encoded search term (Microvillus%20Inclusion%20Disease) and Microvillus Inclusion Disease What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Microvillus inclusion disease (also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known ... Three variants of the disease have been identified: Microvillus inclusion disease, late-onset microvillus inclusion disease, ...
A definition of the medical term "microvillus" is presented. Microvillus refers to a microscopic fold of the free surface of a ...
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All microvilli greeting cards ship within 48 hours and include a 30-day money-back guarantee. ... Choose your favorite microvilli greeting cards from thousands of available designs. ... microvillus microvilli biology biological cell medicine medical disease blebs cancerous oncology nobody malignant condition ...
RPE Microvilli Isolation-. A schematic overview of the microvilli isolation method is presented in Fig. 1. The procedure relies ... 2, A and B). Some cells, however, retained their apical microvilli, demonstrating that not all the microvilli were extracted ... Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels of RPE microvilli-enriched fraction. RPE microvilli fraction and total RPE lysates were ... Isolation and Protein Identification of Intact RPE Apical Microvilli-. RPE microvilli were isolated using the protocol ...
Magnification 21,000x. Microvilli, any of the small, finger-like projections of the surface of an epithelial cell. Epithelium, ... Caption: Colour enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing microvilli. Magnification 21,000x. Microvilli, any of the small, ... microvillus, organelle, physiology, scanning electron, sem Licence fees: A licence fee will be charged for any media (low or ... Colour enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing microvilli. ... Microvilli, SEM. C028/3570 Rights Managed. Request low-res file ...
Microvillus inclusion disease is a rare genetic disease of the intestine that causes severe diarrhea and an inability to absorb ... Microvillus Inclusion Disease. What is microvillus inclusion disease? Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare genetic ... What causes microvillus inclusion disease?. MVID is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. This means that both ... What are the symptoms of microvillus inclusion disease?. Signs of MVID usually show up within hours or days after birth. ...
... of microvilli of the small intestine. Magnification is 18,000x at 5.5 x 6.25 . - Stock Image C014/4358 ... Keywords: alimentary canal, digestive system, digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract, histology, intestinal microvilli, ... Caption: Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of microvilli of the small intestine. Magnification is 18,000x ... intestine, micrograph, micrography, microscopy, microvilli, mitochondria, small intestine, tem, transmission electron ...
This retrospective study found that a decrease in conjunctival microvilli may be an early indicator of cell damage in eyes ... This retrospective study found that a decrease in conjunctival microvilli may be an early indicator of cell damage in eyes ... although it was significantly correlated with microvilli count (P = 0.01). The mean ferning test, impression cytology with ... its retrospective nature and the lack of a study arm examining the effect of preservative-free glaucoma therapy on microvilli ...
These data indicate that food grade TiO2 exposure resulted in the loss of microvilli from the Caco-2BBe1 cell system due to a ... Bretscher A, Weber K. Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cystoskeleton which binds both G and F actin in a calcium- ... Bretscher A, Weber K. Fimbrin, a new microfilament-associated protein present in microvilli and other cell surface structures. ... One such epithelium responsible for nutrient absorption is the small intestine, whose constituent cells contain microvilli to ...
Microvilli of HeLa cells cultured in vitro were preserved for electron microscopic examination at different stages of routine ... When the cells were grown in dense colonies, they were found on top of each other, and microvilli were present on all sides, ... It revealed that, although the microvilli were present on all sides of the cell in the dispersed stage and in the attached ... ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF THE MICROVILLI OF HELA CELLS. Harold W. Fisher, T. W. Cooper ...
... * Biology. What cell structure/organelle would be especially common in i)cells ... Role of microvilli of cells of kidney tubules?? Role of cilia in cells lining trachaea? ...
Microvillus inclusion disease usually occurs days or hours after birth, in the form of malabsorption. Learn about the symptoms ... Microvillus Inclusion (MVID) Disease. What Is Microvillus Inclusion Disease?. Microvillus inclusion (MVID) disease is an ... Familial enteropathy, microvillus. Microvillus Inclusion Disease Symptoms. Signs of microvillus inclusion disease usually show ... Microvillus Inclusion Disease Diagnosis. If the doctors think your child might have microvillus inclusion disease, they will ...
Voir cette photo intitulée Goblet Cell With Microvilli Sem. Trouver des images haute résolution de qualité dans la banque ... Goblet cell with microvilli. SEM. The job of the goblet cell is to secret mucous. Goblet cells are found in higher numbers in ... The role of microvilli are to increase surface area which in turn increases absorption of the cell. ...
Lipid composition of the isolated rat intestinal microvillus membrane. G. G. Forstner, K. Tanaka, K. J. Isselbacher ... Lipid composition of the isolated rat intestinal microvillus membrane Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... 1. Rat intestinal microvillus plasma membranes were prepared from previously isolated brush borders and the lipid composition ... 5. In contrast with other plasma membranes in the rat, the polar lipids of the microvillus membrane were rich in glycolipid. ...
Espin cross-links cause the elongation of microvillus-type parallel actin bundles in vivo.. [Patricia A Loomis, Lili Zheng, ... concentration-dependent lengthening of LLC-PK1-CL4 cell microvilli and their parallel actin bundles. Espin level was also ...
... cells play any role in microvilli maintenance using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal ... We have investigated whether raft lipids of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells play any role in microvilli maintenance ... resulted in monolayers devoid of full length microvilli. Significantly, smaller spikes were observed on the surface of the ... subsequent extraction of cholesterol from cells grown in the presence of inhibitors led to a further reduction in microvilli on ...
2⇑D). At early time points, projections had the appearance of elongated microvilli (Fig. 2⇑B), while at later time points ... ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes ... First, we found that the endothelium rapidly extended ICAM-1-enriched microvilli-like vertical projections in response to LFA-1 ... ICAM-1 clusters represent vertical ICAM-1-enriched microvilli-like membrane projections. CHO-IC1-GFP monolayers were incubated ...
This does not apply to children with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). MVID is a very rare and severe malfunctioning of the ... Phd Ceremony H. Dhekne: Pathogenic mechanisms in microvillus inclusion disease. Focus on brush border atrophy.. ...
... and we show that efflux activity is established after ABCB1a translocates to the tips of the microvilli. Inhibition of actin ... of transporters at the cell surface regulates multidrug efflux activity and highlight the multifaceted roles of microvilli in ... controls the activation of multidrug efflux at fertilization by translocation and fine-scale positioning of ABCB1 on microvilli ...
The importance of HNF4α in microvillus formation is supported by the observation that microvilli are absent in the bile ... in which well-developed microvilli are observed, it may also be involved in microvillus organization in these cells. ... Arrows indicate microvilli. Bars (a and c), 5 μm; (b and d), 1 μm. (B) WT F9 cells were treated for 48 h with either the ... indicating their important roles in microvillus development. Thus, although molecular constituents of microvilli and their ...
View Stock Photo of Crosssection Of Microvilli And A Goblet Cell In The Human Digestive Tract Mucosa Tem X6000. Find premium, ... Cross-section of microvilli and a goblet cell in the human digestive tract mucosa. TEM X6000.. The job of the goblet cell is to ... The role of microvilli are to increase surface area which in turn increases absorption of the cell. ...
Microvilli in Rab11aΔIEC mouse duodenum also showed a significant increase in microvillus width. WT, wild type. Results are ... For quantification of microvillus length and width, TEM images were evaluated for 100 microvilli using an AMT Image Capture ... 2B). In areas with microvilli, the microvilli length in Rab8a‐KO mouse enterocytes was markedly reduced compared to the ... loss of microvilli and development of microvillus inclusions only occur in the upper half of the villus. It is unclear from ...
The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile ... The cell shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile ... The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile ... The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). These features are characteristic of highly mobile ...
  • This is seen in infections caused by EPEC subgroup Escherichia coli, in celiac disease, and microvillus inclusion disease (an inherited disease characterized by defective microvilli and presence of cytoplasmic inclusions of the cell membrane other than the apical surface). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is a condition characterized by chronic, watery, life-threatening diarrhea typically beginning in the first hours to days of life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease prevents the absorption of nutrients from food during digestion, resulting in malnutrition and dehydration. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In individuals with microvillus inclusion disease, lifelong nutritional support is needed and given through intravenous feedings (parenteral nutrition). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A variant of microvillus inclusion disease with milder diarrhea often does not require full-time parenteral nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of microvillus inclusion disease is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the MYO5B gene cause microvillus inclusion disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MYO5B gene mutations that cause microvillus inclusion disease result in a decrease or absence of myosin Vb function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The inability to absorb nutrients and fluids during digestion leads to recurrent diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in individuals with microvillus inclusion disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with the signs and symptoms of microvillus inclusion disease do not have mutations in the MYO5B gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These cases may be variants of microvillus inclusion disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Autophagocytosis of the apical membrane in microvillus inclusion disease. (medscape.com)
  • Loss of Syntaxin 3 Causes Variant Microvillus Inclusion Disease. (medscape.com)
  • An overview and online registry of microvillus inclusion disease patients and their MYO5B mutations. (medscape.com)
  • Successful intestinal transplantation for microvillus inclusion disease. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple hepatic adenomas in a child with microvillus inclusion disease. (medscape.com)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease (also referred to as congenital microvillus atrophy) is, with Tuft enteropathy, the best known disease of the intestinal epithelium causing intractable diarrhea of infancy, and a leading cause of secretory diarrhea in the first weeks of life. (medscape.com)
  • Three variants of the disease have been identified: Microvillus inclusion disease, late-onset microvillus inclusion disease, and atypical microvillus inclusion disease. (medscape.com)
  • In microvillus inclusion disease, diarrhea starts in the first few days of life and is immediately life threatening. (medscape.com)
  • In late-onset microvillus inclusion disease, diarrhea starts later in life, usually in the second month. (medscape.com)
  • A few cases have been termed atypical microvillus inclusion disease, in which the onset can be congenital or late, but the histologic picture is different. (medscape.com)
  • Biopsy samples from the small intestine of 2 infants with congenital microvillus inclusion disease were examined to analyze the membrane protein of the brush border. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] that the mild variant of microvillus inclusion disease appears to be caused by loss of function of syntaxin 3 (STX3), an apical receptor involved in membrane fusion of apical vesicles in enterocytes. (medscape.com)
  • and in addition, patient-derived organoid cultures and overexpression of truncated STX3 in CaCo2 cells recapitulated most characteristics of variant microvillus inclusion disease. (medscape.com)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare genetic disease of the intestine that causes severe diarrhea and an inability to absorb nutrients. (childrenshospital.org)
  • What are the symptoms of microvillus inclusion disease? (childrenshospital.org)
  • The Boston Children's Hospital Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Program specializes in diagnosing and treating children with complex intestinal disorders, like microvillus inclusion disease. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. (chp.edu)
  • People who have a family history of microvillus inclusion disease can benefit from genetic counseling when they begin to plan for children, but there is currently no way to predict or prevent microvillus inclusion disease. (chp.edu)
  • If the doctors think your child might have microvillus inclusion disease, they will act quickly to diagnose it or rule it out. (chp.edu)
  • They might first test your child's bowel movements for levels of different nutrients that would not be absorbed in the intestine due to microvillus inclusion disease. (chp.edu)
  • The only way to tell for sure if a child has microvillus inclusion disease is by examining a tiny portion of his or her small intestine under a microscope (electron microscopy). (chp.edu)
  • The part of the intestine doctors usually look at to find signs of microvillus inclusion disease is called the duodenum, which the first section after the stomach. (chp.edu)
  • Using electron microscopy, doctors can detect the main features of microvillus inclusion disease, which are tiny but distinct differences in the cells of the small intestine. (chp.edu)
  • Babies with microvillus inclusion disease rely on nutritionally balanced formulas given directly into the veins (intravenously) - known as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) - to get enough nourishment. (chp.edu)
  • Phd Ceremony H. Dhekne: Pathogenic mechanisms in microvillus inclusion disease. (rug.nl)
  • This does not apply to children with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). (rug.nl)
  • Mutations in the myosin 5β, syntaxin-binding protein 2, and syntaxin 3 genes lead to microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), an autosomal recessive congenital enteropathy. (aappublications.org)
  • No additional onset symptoms distinguishable from other CDDs are usu- Join the Microvillus Inclusion Disease community. (junebees.com)
  • Also called congenital or familial microvillous atrophy Disorder of intestinal brush border that causes intractable watery diarrhea with steatorrhea in infants Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare congenital severe malabsorptive and secretory diarrheal disease characterized by blunted or absent microvilli with accumulation of secretory granules and inclusion bodies in enterocytes. (junebees.com)
  • Diagnosing microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) involves a number of steps. (junebees.com)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a disorder of intestinal epithelial differentiation characterized by life-threatening intractable diarrhea. (junebees.com)
  • Full free text: Lysophosphatidic Acid Increases Maturation of Brush Borders and SGLT1 Activity in MYO5B-deficient Mice, a Model of Microvillus Inclusion Disease Key finding: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)partially restored the brush border height and the localization of SGLT1 and NHE3 in small intestine of MYO5B-knockout mice and … 1 INTRODUCTION. (junebees.com)
  • How is microvillus inclusion disease diagnosed? (junebees.com)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is characterized by severe, large amounts of watery diarrhea appearing at birth or within seventy-two hours. (junebees.com)
  • World map of Microvillus Inclusion Disease Find people with Microvillus Inclusion Disease through the map. (junebees.com)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is very rare and has to be genetically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (junebees.com)
  • Microvillus Inclusion disease is a life-threatening disease caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that affects people of Navajo descent. (asu.edu)
  • Inherited MYO5B mutations have recently been associated with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intractable, life-threatening, watery diarrhea appearing shortly after birth. (cibbim.eu)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is an intestinal disorder characterized by severe, watery diarrhea and an inability of the intestines to absorb nutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] Children with microvillus inclusion disease are totally dependent on parenteral nutrition for nourishment. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] [2] Children with microvillus inclusion disease should be followed by experienced health care providers in a center which specializes in pediatric gastrointestinal disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Microvillus inclusion disease as a cause of severe protracted diarrhea in infants. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article reports a case of microvillus inclusion disease in a Thai patient . (bvsalud.org)
  • After extensive investigation, the diagnosis of microvillus inclusion disease was made, based on the ultrastructural findings of microvillus inclusions in the cytoplasm of the enterocyte on electron microscopic study. (bvsalud.org)
  • These particular congenital diarrheal disorders (CDD ENT ) include microvillus inclusion disease and congenital tufting enteropathy, and can feature in other diseases, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 and trichohepatoenteric syndrome. (biologists.org)
  • Microvilli are covered with plasma membrane and their cytoplasm is continuous with the main cell cytoplasm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are covered in plasma membrane, which encloses cytoplasm and microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the enterocyte microvillus, the structural core is attached to the plasma membrane along its length by lateral arms made of myosin 1a and Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned, microvilli are formed as cell extensions from the plasma membrane surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microvilli are covered with glycocalyx, consisting of peripheral glycoproteins that can attach themselves to a plasma membrane via transmembrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark of the disease is the electron microscopic finding of disrupted enterocyte microvilli (ie, digitations of the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cell protruding into the lumen) and the appearance of characteristic inclusion vacuoles, the inner surfaces of which are lined by typical microvilli. (medscape.com)
  • Microvillus refers to a microscopic fold of the free surface of a cell membrane. (ebscohost.com)
  • The apical surface of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells commonly faces a luminal cavity and is characterized by the presence of numerous surface membrane elaborations referred to as microvilli. (mcponline.org)
  • 5. In contrast with other plasma membranes in the rat, the polar lipids of the microvillus membrane were rich in glycolipid. (biochemj.org)
  • The cholesterol:polar lipid (phospholipid+glycolipid) ratio was about 1:3 for the microvillus membrane. (biochemj.org)
  • ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together our results show that actin-mediated, short-range traffic and positioning of transporters at the cell surface regulates multidrug efflux activity and highlight the multifaceted roles of microvilli in the spatial distribution of membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These data affirm the role of Rab11a in apical membrane trafficking and the maintenance of apical microvilli in enterocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Prominin is a recently identified polytopic membrane protein expressed in various epithelial cells, where it is selectively associated with microvilli. (biologists.org)
  • This raises the question of whether the selective association of prominin with microvilli in epithelial cells is solely due to its preference for, and stabilization in, plasma membrane protrusions, or is due to both sorting to the apical plasma membrane domain and subsequent enrichment in plasma membrane protrusions. (biologists.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that prominin was confined to microvilli rather than the planar region of the apical plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ). Presentation of integrins on leukocyte microvilli: a role for the extracellular domain in determining membrane localization. (biologists.org)
  • InCK and TP groups, there were a few microvilli sloughed but with whole intrinsic structure and distinct intrinsic morphous, nuclear membrane integrity, have normal cell-cell junction, which showed the ultrastructures were improved markedly after treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These cells present a highly specialized photosensitive membrane consisting of thousands of microvilli forming a prominent structure termed a rhabdomere. (conicyt.cl)
  • This process takes place in a specialized, prominent and segregated membrane structure of each photoreceptor cell termed rhabdomeres, which consists of a tight arrangement of ~50,000 microvilli (Wang and Montell, 2007). (conicyt.cl)
  • In every villus, there are smaller folds called microvilli, which have their own plasma membrane covering them. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Microvilli store membrane and microfilament materials. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • It is important to notice that during microvilli formation a large amount of membrane and membrane proteins is needed, which is supplied by an intense exocytosis. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli are spine-like protrusions that increase enormously the plasma membrane surface and therefore the membrane protein content. (uvigo.es)
  • Both cilia and microvilli are the projections of the plasma membrane, and they are found only in certain cells. (differencebetween.com)
  • Microvilli are the minute finger- like elongated projections of the plasma membrane which exhibit a core of thin microfilaments. (differencebetween.com)
  • There are an estimated 200 million microvilli per square millimeter of small intestine, greatly expanding the surface area of the plasma membrane and thus greatly enhancing absorption. (jobilize.com)
  • In this study, we show that Myo1c is abundantly expressed in murine B lymphocytes and is preferentially located at the plasma membrane, especially in peripheral processes such as microvilli. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gold particle density was highest on microvilli plasma membranes of RPE, where it was twice that of glial endfoot and Müller microvilli membranes and four times that of other glial membrane domains. (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopy showed elongation and fusion of microvilli with degenerative membrane lesions and/or notable atrophy. (ehu.es)
  • At two times post-confluency (DPC) cells exhibited sparse microvilli which were extremely variable long with some protrusions showing up only as little buds in the apical membrane (Fig. 1A DPC2 arrows). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • At eight DPC (Fig. 1A DPC8) many cells demonstrated large well-organized clusters (50-80 microvilli) separated by parts of apical membrane which were free from protrusions. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • The utilization of lattice light-sheet microscopy has yielded important insights into structures called microvilli, which are small membrane protrusions on T cells that seem likely to have a large impact on T cell recognition and activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • microvillus One of a number of minute finger-like projections on the free surfaces of epithelial cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thousands of microvilli form a structure called the brush border that is found on the apical surface of some epithelial cells, such as the small intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utilizing conditional Rab11a‐knockout specific to intestinal epithelial cells, and human colonic epithelial CaCo2‐BBE cells with stable Rab11a knockdown, we examined the molecular and pathological impact of Rab11a deficiency on the establishment of apical cell polarity and microvillus morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • The maintenance of polarity in epithelial cells requires the establishment of specialized apical structures including apical microvilli and primary cilia ( Rodriguez‐Boulan and Powell, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Sometimes their arrangement is orderly, as in the striated (brushlike) edges of the epithelial cells of the small intestine, where the microvilli are about 20 nm from each other. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microvilli - They are abundant in the columnar epithelial cells of the tubules of the kidneys and small intestines. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • T here are many cell types bearing microvilli, but they are more frequently found in epithelial cells, like gut enterocytes, convoluted duct epithelium of kidneys and epididymus. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli are located on the surfaces of the columnar epithelial cells of the small intestine and kidney tubule. (differencebetween.com)
  • One of the best studied roles of class I myosins is in stabilizing microvilli, most extensively analyzed in enteric epithelial cells where Myo1a mediates stabilization and protein sorting functions ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 19, 2019- Live cell imaging studies have revealed that microvilli - finger-like protrusions on the surface of epithelial cells - move and collide as they form the brush border. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Congenital lack of microvilli in the intestinal tract causes microvillous atrophy, a rare, usually fatal condition found in new-born babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several drugs, including epidermal growth factor, octreotide, glutamine, and chlorpromazine, have been tried to counteract the massive secretory diarrhea in patients with microvillus atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The term microvillus atrophy was first used to identify the disease in 1982. (medscape.com)
  • In one patient with late-onset microvillus atrophy, the molecular defect involved a different protein, supposedly identified as vinculin. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical response to the long acting somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in a child with congenital microvillus atrophy. (bmj.com)
  • A 27 month old girl with congenital microvillus atrophy received two courses of SMS 201-995, a synthetic long acting analogue of native somatostatin, in an attempt to decrease profuse secretory diarrhoea. (bmj.com)
  • These findings suggest that SMS 201-995 may be useful therapy in infants with high output diarrhoea as a result of congenital microvillus atrophy. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, in transmission electron preparations, we observed microvillus atrophy and the presence of microvillus inclusion bodies. (cibbim.eu)
  • Conclusions: The initial microvilli elongation reported in non ascitic cirrhosis develops into atrophy in rats with advanced cirrhosis and nutrient transports (monosaccharides and amino acids) are progressively reduced. (ehu.es)
  • From the Greek for "tiny" and the Latin for "shaggy hair," the term microvilli refers to microscopic protrusions on the surface of certain cells of the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Microvilli of HeLa cells cultured in vitro were preserved for electron microscopic examination at different stages of routine cultivation procedures. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopic observations revealed thick and short microvilli with long rootlets of microfilaments. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Microvilli, in the most simplistic terms, are tiny little microscopic projections that exist in, on, and around cells. (microbenotes.com)
  • The microscopic microvilli effectively increase the surface area of the cell and are useful for absorption and secretion functions. (microbenotes.com)
  • From a microscopic observation, you'll see microvilli as bundles of cross-linked actin fibers. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • These data indicate that food grade TiO 2 exposure resulted in the loss of microvilli from the Caco-2 BBe1 cell system due to a biological response, and not simply a physical artifact of in vitro exposure. (springer.com)
  • MVID can be diagnosed based on loss of microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of subapical vesicles. (junebees.com)
  • A number of steps on loss of microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of vesicles. (junebees.com)
  • Inside affected enterocytes, small clumps of abnormal microvilli mix with misplaced digestive proteins to form microvillus inclusions, which contribute to the dysfunction of enterocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Disorganized enterocytes with poorly formed microvilli reduce the intestine's ability to take in nutrients. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This rare disease is characterized by lack of microvilli on the surface of enterocytes in the small intestine, the presence of pathognomonic intracellular microvillus inclusions, and vesicular bodies within these enterocytes. (aappublications.org)
  • Below, we are dealing with the features of microvilli of enterocytes of the small intestine epithelium. (uvigo.es)
  • Enterocytes exhibit two applicant intermicrovillar adhesion substances Our discovering that microvilli are bodily linked by Ca2+-reliant protein complexes instantly suggested cadherins as is possible molecular constituents of intermicrovillar links (Brasch et al. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • 1. Rat intestinal microvillus plasma membranes were prepared from previously isolated brush borders and the lipid composition was analysed. (biochemj.org)
  • Microvilli are actin-based organelles found on apical plasma membranes that are involved in nutrient uptake and signal transduction. (rupress.org)
  • In epithelia of the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule, closely packed microvilli known as the brush border are observed on their apical plasma membranes. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that loss of Rab11a induced alterations in enterocyte polarity, shortened microvillar length and affected the formation of microvilli along the lateral membranes. (biologists.org)
  • the apical membranes carry long slender microvilli devoid of glycocalyx (b), and cytoplasmic vacuoles, so called neolumina (c), can be seen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membranes of microvilli are packed with enzymes that help in breaking down complex nutrients into simpler compounds so that they can be easily absorbed by the body. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Fixed to the surface of the microvilli membranes are enzymes that finish digesting carbohydrates and proteins. (jobilize.com)
  • During 2 hours' incubation with oleate (45 to 55 μg/ml), the HeLa cells regularly manifested abnormal blebbing of their plasma membranes (ordinary light and interference microscopy), marked degeneration of their microvilli (scanning electron microscopy), and conspicuous cytoplasmic lipidosis (ordinary high microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Microvillus inclusion (MVID) disease is an extremely rare intestinal disorder. (chp.edu)
  • We have exploited a method for isolating microvilli from the mouse eye using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-agarose beads to begin to understand the specific molecular composition of apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and expand our knowledge of the potential function of this interface. (mcponline.org)
  • Microvilli function as the primary surface of nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, microvilli not only increase the cellular surface area for absorption, they also increase the number of digestive enzymes that can be present on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • goldensky - I'm not an expert in the scientific field but if my memory serves me correctly the function of the microvilli is to maximize the organ for absorption such as the stomach or intestines. (wisegeek.com)
  • One such epithelium responsible for nutrient absorption is the small intestine, whose constituent cells contain microvilli to increase the total surface area of the gut. (springer.com)
  • The role of microvilli are to increase surface area which in turn increases absorption of the cell. (gettyimages.fr)
  • Microvilli - They are primarily involved in absorption. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • The main function of the microvilli is the absorption of certain substances. (differencebetween.com)
  • Cells produce microvilli, mainly, to increase the surface area for absorption (intestine surface), to transport absorbed materials, and to participate in the digestion of carbohydrates. (differencebetween.com)
  • Cilia are used to move the cell bodies and other sweeping processes, whereas microvilli are used in the absorption process. (differencebetween.com)
  • The effect of raft lipid depletion on microvilli formation in MDCK cells, visualized by atomic force microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have investigated whether raft lipids of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells play any role in microvilli maintenance using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we used three-dimensional superresolution fluorescence microscopy to resolve the fine-scale movements of the transporter along polymerizing actin filaments, and we show that efflux activity is established after ABCB1a translocates to the tips of the microvilli. (nih.gov)
  • Using super-resolution microscopy and live cell imaging, Matthew Tyska , PhD, and colleagues show that a protein called insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) promotes microvilli elongation. (vumc.org)
  • Peropsin immunoreactivity, visualized by light and electron microscopy, localizes the protein to the apical face of the RPE, and most prominently to the microvilli that surround the photoreceptor outer segments. (elsevier.com)
  • Small intestinal epithelium at light microscopy (image on the left) and at scanning electron microscopy (image on the right) showing microvilli at the free surface of the cells. (uvigo.es)
  • We use super-resolution microscopy to show that ≥90% of T cell receptor (TCR) complex molecules TCRαβ and TCRζ, as well as the co-receptor CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) and the co-stimulatory molecule CD2, reside on microvilli of resting human T cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using electron microscopy, it was shown that the probiotic significantly increases microvilli density in the gut. (thefishsite.com)
  • Jejunal microvilli were studied by electron microscopy. (ehu.es)
  • The proximal convoluted tubule cells have microvilli , contain numerous mitochondria, few lysosomes in their cytoplasm and centrally located spherical nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inside the microvilli is a cytoplasm or cellular fluid and microfilaments giving microvilli the structure it needs. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • The plus end of actin filaments extend into the cytoplasm and there the actin filaments of different microvilli intermingle between each other and form a web with a hexagonal pattern. (uvigo.es)
  • 20 to 30 tightly bundled actin filaments are cross-linked by bundling proteins fimbrin (or plastin-1), villin and espin to form the core of the microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plus ends of the actin filaments are located at the tip of the microvillus and are capped, possibly by capZ proteins, while the minus ends are anchored in the terminal web composed of a complicated set of proteins including spectrin and myosin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 200 proteins were identified, including a number of proteins previously known to be localized to RPE microvilli, as well as others not known to be present at this surface. (mcponline.org)
  • Microvilli greatly increase the apical surface area and, consequently, the number of transport and signaling proteins it contains, thereby enhancing the epithelial functional capacity. (mcponline.org)
  • The espin actin-bundling proteins, which are the target of the jerker deafness mutation, caused a dramatic, concentration-dependent lengthening of LLC-PK1-CL4 cell microvilli and their parallel actin bundles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Numerous components, including ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, have been identified that link filamentous actins to transmembrane proteins, but the signals driving microvillus biogenesis are not known. (rupress.org)
  • These microvilli encompass the phototransduction proteins, most of which are transmembrane and exclusively rhabdomeric. (conicyt.cl)
  • Notably, phosphorylated proteins of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) family colocalize with TCRαβ as well as with actin filaments, implying a role for one or more ERMs in linking the TCR complex to the actin cytoskeleton within microvilli. (pasteur.fr)
  • Home Blog Publications Myo5b knockout mice as a model of microvillus. (cibbim.eu)
  • Among the landmarks for apicobasal cell polarity, microvilli are actin-based protrusions on the apical surfaces of epithelial and sensory cells. (rupress.org)
  • Many different cell types have dynamic protrusions, called microvilli, on their surface. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Your intestinal lining contains tiny microvilli , which are brush-like protrusions that stick out from cells along the intestinal wall. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • T cell surfaces are covered with microvilli, actin-rich and flexible protrusions. (pasteur.fr)
  • At four DPC (Fig. 1A DPC4) cells shown numerous clusters which were disorganized Olopatadine hydrochloride but included even more protrusions than early period factors (10-20 microvilli per Olopatadine hydrochloride cluster). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • Each microvillus has a dense bundle of cross-linked actin filaments, which serves as its structural core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are essentially bundles of cross-linked actin fibers. (microbenotes.com)
  • Espin cross-links cause the elongation of microvillus-type parallel actin bundles in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. (pasteur.fr)
  • Microvilli - They consist of microfilaments. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • The core of microvilli is made up of microfilaments while that of cilia is made up of microtubules, arranged in a (9+2) pattern. (differencebetween.com)
  • Chen, SC, Wu, C-H & Fujiwara, T 2002, ' Hepatic Impariment with Cholestasis Induced by Total Parenteral Nutrition in Rats-Pathological Changes in Microvilli and Microfilaments ', New Taipei Journal of Medicine , pp. 44-50. (elsevier.com)
  • Villi are folds in the small intestine while on a villis, there are lots of microvilli that increase the surface area. (wisegeek.com)
  • Absorptive epithelia such as kidney and intestine have their apical surface decorated with highly organized apical microvilli of uniform length and width. (mcponline.org)
  • Color enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of microvilli of the small intestine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Microvilli are most often found in the small intestine, on the surface of egg cells, as well as on white blood cells. (microbenotes.com)
  • Intestine lined with microvilli. (cdc.gov)
  • Microvilli, any of the small, finger-like projections of the surface of an epithelial cell. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Microvilli are hairlike projections on the outer-surface of cells. (ivyroses.com)
  • In the cells, you will find tiny little projections called microvilli. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Colour enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing microvilli. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Microvilli appear in the proximal tubule of the kidney as a "brush border," so-called because this close clustering of tiny outpocketings resemble the tip of a paintbrush under a light microscope. (wisegeek.com)
  • In intestinal epithelia, which do not possess primary cilia, the apical microvilli are organized into a tightly packed brush border structure that provides for an amplified absorptive surface. (biologists.org)
  • In some cases (certain areas within the organism), microvilli form dense coverings known as "brush borders" on the free surfaces of cells. (ivyroses.com)
  • Microvilli are usually dense and tightly packed like a brush border. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli are packed in large numbers and make the surfaces called brush boarders. (differencebetween.com)
  • For example, enzymes that digest carbohydrates called glycosidases are present at high concentrations on the surface of enterocyte microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be another location for functional enzymes to be localized.microvillus The destruction of microvilli can occur in certain diseases because of the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • we detected glucose transporter GLUT3 in rat and toad ( Caudiverbera caudiverbera ) OSN cilia, SC microvilli, and glycolytic enzymes in rat cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, these typical microvilli are seen only in better-differentiated lumens within epithelial areas of malignant mesotheliomas. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • First more numerous microvilli will increase the surface area so the host can acquire more nutrients from the feed. (thefishsite.com)
  • These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. (pasteur.fr)
  • Microvilli are found in large numbers on the free surfaces of many cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Microvilli should not be confused with intestinal villi, which are made of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these cells has many microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are observed on the plasma surface of eggs, aiding in the anchoring of sperm cells that have penetrated the extracellular coat of egg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the length and composition of microvilli is consistent within a certain group of homogenous cells, it can differ slightly in a different part of the same organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of microvilli can actually be beneficial sometimes, as in the case of elimination of microvilli on white blood cells which can be used to combat auto immune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nose, olfactory receptor cells covered with microvilli absorb minute amounts of scent-laden moisture and transmit the information to the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the intestines, microvilli increase the surface area of digestive cells to help the intestines absorb every bit of nutrition gleaned from ingested food. (wisegeek.com)
  • Since both microvilli and cilia are both located in our digestive cells what makes them different from each other? (wisegeek.com)
  • When the cells were grown in dense colonies, they were found on top of each other, and microvilli were present on all sides, except on the bottom surface of those cells in contact with the dish. (rupress.org)
  • Role of microvilli of cells of kidney tubules? (jiskha.com)
  • It was observed that inhibition of either sphingolipid or cholesterol biosynthesis led to a reduction in the number of microvilli on the surface of MDCK cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The subsequent extraction of cholesterol from cells grown in the presence of inhibitors led to a further reduction in microvilli on the surface of the cells and, in some cases, resulted in monolayers devoid of full length microvilli. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cells shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). (masterfile.com)
  • Cross-section of columnar epithelium cells of the mammal gallbladder, with microvilli on their surfaces. (gettyimages.ca)
  • From this simple model we calculate the distribution function of microvilli heights for several cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both the apical-specific localization of prominin and its selective retention in microvilli were maintained when MDCK cells were cultured in low-calcium medium, i.e. in the absence of tight junctions. (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ). Purification of an 80,000-dalton protein that is a component of isolated microvillus cytoskeleton, and its localization in nonmuscle cells. (biologists.org)
  • In mammals, peropsin is present in the apical microvilli of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In white blood cells, the microvilli act as an anchoring point. (microbenotes.com)
  • Not all cells have microvilli. (ivyroses.com)
  • The T cells palpated all spots on a surface within about 1 min through rapid movements of their microvilli. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the egg cells, microvilli help anchor the sperm to the egg cell enabling the fertilization process to occur easily. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Microvilli function the same way in white blood cells. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Microvilli can also be found in some specialized sensory cells like olfactory receptor neurons, organ of Corti's receptor cells, placenta cells, and in cells which are moving. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli disappear in cells entering mitosis. (uvigo.es)
  • Furthermore, TCR proximal signaling molecules involved in the initial stages of the immune response, including the protein tyrosine kinase Lck (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) and the key adaptor LAT (linker for activation of T cells), are also enriched on microvilli. (pasteur.fr)
  • The olfactory epithelium is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. (jneurosci.org)
  • The presence of long, slender, often branching microvilli on cell surfaces is a characteristic feature of malignant and benign mesothelial cells. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • These cells are lined with microvilli. (thefishsite.com)
  • The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. (pasteur.fr)
  • A possible explanation of the findings is that sodium oleate's detergency might alter the microvilli of metabolizing HeLa cells, thus interfering with assimilation of essential bicarbonate and/or disposal of carbonic acid. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Dynamics and morphology of microvilli driven by actin polymerization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Gov2006DynamicsAM, title={Dynamics and morphology of microvilli driven by actin polymerization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The short cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1 interacts with the actin cytoskeleton via α-actinin, ezrin, and moesin, localizing it to cell surface microvilli ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The basis of this morphological heterogeneity is poorly understood and is likely to be related to the specialized function and specific molecular composition of the microvilli in each epithelial cell type. (mcponline.org)
  • This retrospective study found that a decrease in conjunctival microvilli may be an early indicator of cell damage in eyes undergoing glaucoma therapy with preservative-containing formulas. (aao.org)
  • Bretscher A, Weber K. Fimbrin, a new microfilament-associated protein present in microvilli and other cell surface structures. (springer.com)
  • It revealed that, although the microvilli were present on all sides of the cell in the dispersed stage and in the attached stage, they were not present on the bottom of the cell when it was stretched on the surface of the dish. (rupress.org)
  • Cross-section of microvilli and a goblet cell in the human digestive tract mucosa. (gettyimages.ca)
  • The cell shows numerous processes and microvilli (fine surface extensions). (masterfile.com)
  • We further describe the phase diagram and the resulting morphology of the microvilli aggregates on the cell surface. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Truncation of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of prominin impaired neither its apical cell surface expression nor its selective retention in microvilli. (biologists.org)
  • The microvilli on the cell surface may sweep unwanted materials toward a resorptive area of the cell. (microbenotes.com)
  • There are several thousand microvilli in a single cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microvilli increase the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ultrastructural analysis also suggested an integral endothelial layer with tight cell junction and microvilli , which are critical structure for endothelium cell to form a boundary and pump water from corneal stroma into aqueous humor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although microvilli show similar external morphology in different cell types, they contain distinct molecular composition and show some differences in their internal structure. (uvigo.es)
  • A second phase of microvilli formation includes reaching the final length and the distribution on the cell surface as hexagons. (uvigo.es)
  • This web is known as terminal web, and it spreads through the cell periphery under the microvilli. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli may be completely disorganized and disappear after an increase in calcium concentration, for example under cell stress. (uvigo.es)
  • Unlike microvilli, cilia extend slightly into the cell and are anchored via a special structure called basal body, which is made of microtubules. (differencebetween.com)
  • ERM-Dependent Assembly of T Cell Receptor Signaling and Co-stimulatory Molecules on Microvilli prior to Activation. (pasteur.fr)
  • microvillus A small, finger-like projection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, the microvilli in the small and large intestines in mice are slightly different in length and amount of surface coat covering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microvilli - It comes from the Greek word mikros which means small and villus, a Latin word which means hair. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • First, villin facilitates the formation of bundles of actin filaments and stabilizes their distal ends inhibiting the filament grow, so villin may be important to establish the length of microvilli. (uvigo.es)
  • Microvilli form a rather polymorphic class of surface protuberances that are regularly packed in some tissues and loosely positioned in oth-ers. (microbenotes.com)
  • Microvilli are polymorphic class protuberances surface found in some tissues and are loosely positioned in others. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Body 1 Enterocyte BB microvilli cluster during differentiation and so are linked by thread-like links Higher magnification imaging unexpectedly uncovered LAMA3 that clustering microvilli had been bodily connected by little thread-like links (Fig. 1B). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • In the inner ear , microvilli - called stereocilia - in the cochlea are instrumental in hearing. (wisegeek.com)
  • At this surface, the microvilli interact with the tips of cylindrical photoreceptor outer segments extending from the outer retinal surface. (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we show that the conditional and/or ectopic expression of a nuclear receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), triggers microvillus morphogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Their apical surfaces frequently elaborate microvilli, which vary in structure according to the specific type and function of each epithelium. (mcponline.org)
  • The space between microvilli at a cell's surface is called the intermicrovillous space. (wikipedia.org)
  • We achieved a more dramatic demonstration of the microvilli by developing a surface-replica technique which retains their spatial arrangement and permits characterization of the distribution of their number, length, and diameter. (rupress.org)
  • Their apical surface bears a few short microvilli and in the supranuclear region there is a prominent Golgi apparatus with granular endoplasmic reticulum more basally situated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the intestines, microvilli work with villi to absorb all the essential nutrients by expanding the intestines' surface area. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Cross-section through the wall of the epididymis showing long microvilli on the surface of the pseudostratified epithelium and the underlying layer of smooth muscle. (gettyimages.be)