Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nerve Expansion: Procedures that stimulate nerve elongation over a period of time. They are used in repairing nerve tissue.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Rotaxanes: Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). "Microtubule dynamics and motor proteins during mitosis". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ... Tubulin protein polymers are the major component of microtubules. During mitosis, microtubules form the organizing structure ... Agents that disrupt microtubules therefore inhibit mitosis through activation of this checkpoint. Moroidin and its related ... Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan (2014). "Targeting microtubules by natural agents for cancer therapy". Mol ...
Vale, R.D.; Reese, T.S.; Sheetz, M.P. (1985). "Identification of a novel force-generating protein, kinesin, in microtubule- ... Howard, J. (1997). "Molecular motors: structural adaptations to cellular functions". Nature. 389 (6651): 561-567. doi:10.1038/ ... Kinesin Plus-end-directed kinesin ATPase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... proteins in mouse genome". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94 (18): 9654-9659. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.18.9654. PMC 23244 . PMID ...
"Dynamics and cooperativity of microtubule decoration by the motor protein kinesin1". Journal of Molecular Biology. 312 (5): ... Motor proteins travel in a specific direction along a microtubule. Microtubules are polar; meaning, the heads only binds to the ... A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) ... Another type of motor protein, known as dyneins, move towards the minus end of the microtubule. Thus, they transport cargo from ...
... a large multi-subunit molecular motor. Axonemal dynein attaches to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to mediate the movement of ... Dynein heavy chain 9, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH9 gene. This gene encodes the heavy chain ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 4 (2): 141-50. ...
This family includes microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes during ... Yu W, Cook C, Sauter C, Kuriyama R, Kaplan PL, Baas PW (August 2000). "Depletion of a microtubule-associated motor protein ... This protein has been shown to cross-bridge antiparallel microtubules and drive microtubule movement in vitro. Alternate ... The role of microtubule-based motor proteins in building the mitotic spindle midzone". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 21 (3): 290-9. ...
Kinesin superfamily motor protein KIF17 and mLin-10 in NMDA receptor-containing vesicle transport. Science 288(5472): 1796-1802 ... KIF1A alternately uses two loops to bind microtubules. Science 305: 678-683, 2004. Hirokawa, N. and R. Takemura. Molecular ... The neuron-specific kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A is a unique monomeric motor for anterograde axonal transport of synaptic ... A Processive Single-Headed Motor: Kinesin Superfamily Protein KIF1A. Science 283: 1152-1157, 1999. Setou, M., T. Nakagawa, D.H ...
Kinesin-5 is a molecular motor protein that is essential in mitosis. Kinesin-5 proteins are members of kinesin superfamily, ... The motor domain or motor head is at the N-terminus and performs ATP hydrolysis and binds to microtubules. Kinesin-5 motors ... Vale RD (1996). "Switches, latches, and amplifiers: common themes of G proteins and molecular motors". J Cell Biol. 135 (2): ... Falnikar A, Tole S, Baas PW (2011). "Kinesin-5, a mitotic microtubule-associated motor protein, modulates neuronal migration". ...
This family of proteins are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes ... Kinesin-like protein KIF22 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF22 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2003). "The human chromokinesin Kid is a plus end-directed microtubule-based motor". EMBO J. 22 (5): 1067-74. doi:10.1093/emboj ... 2003). "The second microtubule-binding site of monomeric kid enhances the microtubule affinity". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): 22460 ...
Most proteins of this family are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move ... Kinesin-like protein KIF2C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF2C gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This protein acts to regulate microtubule dynamics in cells and is important for anaphase chromosome segregation and may be ... Maney T, Wagenbach M, Wordeman L (2001). "Molecular dissection of the microtubule depolymerizing activity of mitotic centromere ...
The transport of organelles requires a special class of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). One of these is the molecular ... an anchoring protein of kinesin motor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 225 (1): 69-74. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.1132. PMID 8769096 ... an anchoring protein of kinesin motor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 225 (1): 69-74. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.1132. PMID 8769096 ... "Analysis of RhoA-binding proteins reveals an interaction domain conserved in heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits and the ...
The Kinesin 8 Family are a subfamily of the molecular motor proteins known as kinesins. Most kinesins transport materials or ... Kinesin 8 family members KIF18A in humans and Kip3 in yeast have been shown to be in vivo plus-end directed microtubule ... Kinesin 8 is thought to play some role in this process, as knockdown of this protein via siRNA produces a phenotype of sister ... Gupta ML, Carvalho P, Roof DM, Pellman D (Sep 2006). "Plus end-specific depolymerase activity of Kip3, a kinesin-8 protein, ...
... proteins work as molecular motors within a cell and move along the surface of various cellular substrates such as microtubules ... Vesicles propelled by motor proteins have been found to have a velocity of approximately 0.00000152 m/s. According to the laws ... Motor proteins are typically powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and convert chemical energy into ... "Microtubule Motors". rpi.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Hill, David; Holzwarth, George; Bonin, Keith (2002). " ...
The motor protein dynein is responsible for concentrating the melanosomes toward the center of the cell, or the "minus end" of ... Molecular motors, when signaled, will either carry melanosomes containing pigments out to the periphery of the cell, or ... and are plus end directed motors. Because the plus ends of microtubules are oriented towards the periphery, kinesin will carry ... microtubules. Conversely, the protein kinesin is responsible for dispersing the melanosomes to the periphery of the cell, ...
... these mutant protein aggregates damage the retrograde transport of important cargoes such as BDNF by damaging molecular motors ... as well as microtubules. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) is a disease in which motor neurons are ... Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that ... Mutant Huntingtin is an aggregate-prone protein. During the cells' natural clearance process, these proteins are retrogradely ...
... cytoskeleton acts as a scaffolding for various protein complexes and provides binding sites for molecular motor proteins such ... of single microtubules. Besides the microtubules, the axoneme contains many proteins and protein complexes necessary for its ... Each dynein arm is anchored to a doublet microtubule; by "walking" along an adjacent microtubule, the dynein motors can cause ... that help carry proteins up and down the microtubules. The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is ...
... cytoskeleton acts as a scaffolding for various protein complexes and provides binding sites for molecular motor proteins such ... When ATP activates the motor domain of dynein, it attempts to walk along the adjoining microtubule doublet. This would force ... According to the Gene Ontology, the following proteins localize to the ciliary rootlet: amyloid precursor protein, rootletin, ... Biological machines Flagellum Kinocilium Mucociliary clearance Protein domain dynamics Protein flexibility Stereocilia ...
"The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins". Science 288 (5463): 88-95. April 2000. Bibcode: ... "Identification of a novel force-generating protein, kinesin, involved in microtubule-based motility". Cell 42 (1): 39-50. PMC ... Proteinski motor. Reference[uredi , uredi izvor]. *^ Vale RD (2003). "The molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport ... Hirokawa N, Noda Y, Tanaka Y, Niwa S (2009). "Kinesin superfamily motor proteins and intracellular transport". Nat. Rev. Mol. ...
Kinesins are molecular motors involved in the transport of cargo along microtubules, and are composed of two kinesin heavy ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Kinesin light chain 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLC3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the kinesin light ... Yang J, Liu X, Yue G, Adamian M, Bulgakov O, Li T (Nov 2002). "Rootletin, a novel coiled-coil protein, is a structural ...
Dyneins, one of the three major classes of motor protein, are AAA proteins which couple their ATPase activity to molecular ... AAA proteins are involved in protein degradation, membrane fusion, DNA replication, microtubule dynamics, intracellular ... These proteins produce a molecular motor that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in conformational states that can ... motion along microtubules. The AAA-type ATPase Cdc48p/p97 is perhaps the best-studied AAA protein. Misfolded secretory proteins ...
... other proteins such as protein kinase A to drive molecular motors carrying pigment containing vesicles along both microtubules ... forms complexes with molecular motors on organelles". Current Biology. 14 (20): 1877-81. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.10.003. PMID ... When this protein is defective, no melanin can be generated resulting in certain types of albinism. In some amphibian species ... If these proteins are defective, chromatophores may be regionally or entirely absent, resulting in a leucistic disorder. ...
Molecular and cellular biology portal Microtubule Cytoskeleton Motor protein Kinesin Dynein FtsZ Gunning PW, Ghoshdastider U, ... Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member ... Katanin is a protein complex that severs microtubules at β-tubulin subunits, and is necessary for rapid microtubule transport ... Each has a molecular weight of approximately 50 kDa. To form microtubules, the dimers of α- and β-tubulin bind to GTP and ...
A proposed branch of research is the integration of molecular motor proteins found in living cells into molecular motors ... via protein dynamics, similarly to how kinesin moves various molecules along tracks of microtubules inside cells. Starting and ... portal Carbon nanotube Electrostatic motor Molecular motor Nanocar Nanomechanics Protein dynamics Synthetic molecular motors ... stopping the movement of such motor proteins would involve caging the ATP in molecular structures sensitive to UV light. Pulses ...
... damage the retrograde transport of important cargoes such as BDNF by damaging molecular motors as well as microtubules.[18] ... Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that ... ubiquitin-proteasome: protein ubiquitin along with enzymes is key for the degradation of many proteins that cause ... Protein degradation offers therapeutic options both in preventing the synthesis and degradation of irregular proteins. There is ...
Molecular Motor Proteins Part 2: Molecular Motor Proteins: The Mechanism of Dynein Motility Part 3: Molecular Motor Proteins: ... Gibbons for their discovery of microtubule-associated motor proteins "Vale Lab". Retrieved 24 September 2012. "Ronald D. Vale, ... Shaw prize laureate 2017 Vale Lab Website HHMI Bio UCSF Bio "Molecular Motor Search" by Ron Vale "Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins" ... "Molecular Motor Search". iBioMagazine.org. Vale, RD; Schnapp, BJ; Reese, TS; Sheetz, MP (February 1985). "Movement of ...
... the cell a molecular approach). Each type of membrane vesicle is specifically bound to its own kinesin motor protein via ... and this process is propelled by motor proteins such as dynein. Microtubules are cytoskeletal fibers that have an important ... Transport by multiple-motor proteins Kinesin Adaptor protein Leelamine Dynactin MCOLN2 KIF6, KIF5A, involved in intracellular ... to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin ...
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Molecular biology[edit]. Autophagy is executed by autophagy-related (Atg) genes. The first autophagy genes were identified by ... The Dynamic Interaction of Ambra1 with the Dynein Motor Complex Regulates Mammalian Autophagy', J Cell Biol, 191 (2010), 155-68 ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
... molecular model. Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo around the cell along microtubules ... molecular, molecular model, molecular structure, molecule, motor protein, no-one, nobody, protein, proteomics, research, strand ... Caption: Kinesin motor protein, molecular model. Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo ... kinesin molecular motor protein, medical, medical illustration, medicine, model, ...
... and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and provides the scaffolding along which motor proteins involved in axonal transport ... The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins. Science. 2000;288:88-95. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Detailed studies have previously shown that motor proteins and their associated cargo travel along the surface of microtubules ... Microtubule-associated proteins regulate microtubule function as the track for intracellular membrane organelle transports. ...
Molecular motor, Model, Mechanochemistry, Processivity Introduction. Kinesin is a motor protein that transports cargo across ... Kinesin molecules are motor proteins capable of moving along microtubule by hydrolyzing ATP. They generally have several forms ... The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins. Science. 2000;288:88-95 ... Protein friction limits diffusive and directed movements of kinesin motors on microtubules. Science. 2009;325:870-873 ...
Binding of both motors to S-microtubules, like their binding to normal microtubules, was ATP-dependent. In addition, direct ... It has been previously shown that a class of microtubule proteins, the so-called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), binds ... N2 - It has been previously shown that a class of microtubule proteins, the so-called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), ... AB - It has been previously shown that a class of microtubule proteins, the so-called microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), ...
Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic ... Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism * Microtubules / metabolism* * Molecular Motor Proteins / metabolism* * Protein ... indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. To understand the mechanisms of specific motor ... Plus- and minus-end directed microtubule motors bind simultaneously to herpes simplex virus capsids using different inner ...
Cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are transported along axons in the slow components of axonal transport at average rates of ... Microtubules / physiology* * Molecular Motor Proteins / physiology* * Movement * Photochemistry * Rats * Rhodamines / radiation ... the subunit protein of microtubules, but attempts to observe the movement of this protein in cultured nerve cells have been ... These observations indicate that microtubules are propelled along axons by fast motors. We propose that the overall rate of ...
... in the absence of cargo or other microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). This report shows that molecular motors can form a ... The slowing provides direct evidence for motor-motor interactions on the microtubule lattice. Further evidence for motor-motor ... Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules. Cécile Leduc, Kathrin Padberg-Gehle, Vladimír Varga ...
Since it has been shown that microtubule association of MAP2 and Tau proteins are inhibitory to molecular motor activity, both ... The Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-1: molecular analysis of its microtubule bundling activity. Plant Cell ... Effects of MP MAP activity on molecular motor transport. (A to D) The microtubule association of MP does not inhibit Golgi ... Competition between motor molecules (kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein) and fibrous microtubule-associated proteins in binding to ...
Molecular control of microtubule dynamics by kinesin-like motor proteins Contact Information. Email: [email protected] Phone: 802- ... The structural-functional relationship of the microtubule associated protein Tau Contact Information. Email: [email protected] ... The effect of phosphorylation on the structure and function of the microtubule associated protein Tau Contact Information. ... Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences (CMB). *Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences (CMB) ...
Molecular motor proteins. 1. Dynenin - retrograde to microtubule. 2. Kinesin - anterograde to microtubule ... barrel-shaped protein complex that degrades damaged or unnecessary proteins tagged for destruction w/ ubiqutin ... 1. synthesis of secretory proteins and N-linked oligosaccharide addition to proteins. ... Decreased metabolic activity b/c of decrease proteins, autophagy, increased protein degradation. ...
Rab GTPases and microtubule motors Biochem Soc Trans (September,2011). Co-operative transport by molecular motors Biochem Soc ... RNA-protein interactions in the ϕ29 molecular motor J.P. A. Wood; J.P. A. Wood ... J.P. A. Wood, S. Capaldi, N. J. Stonehouse; RNA-protein interactions in the ϕ29 molecular motor. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February ... Endocytosis and retrograde axonal traffic in motor neurons. Biochem Soc Symp (January,2005) ...
Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells ... The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. ... In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We ... The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo ...
Protein microtubules organize space, support morphology and guide molecular motors in all eukaryotic cells. These roles are ... Tuesday, October 24th: DNA microtubules: progress and prospects in de novo designed macromolecular machinery Event Date: ... I will describe our recent and ongoing efforts to build microtubules out of DNA and discuss the implications for improved ... Being thus a relatively primitive example of biomolecular machinery, microtubules are an excellent target for mimicry via de ...
Microtubule cytoskeleton. microtubule-associated proteins. molecular motors. dynein. kinesin. neuronal development. single- ... Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics. Research focus. cytoskeleton. microtubules. motor proteins. self-organization. ... microtubule-binding proteins. microtubule-based motors. membrane transport. cell migration. Competing interests statement. Anna ... protein translocation. endoplasmic reticulum. quality control. protein degradation. membrane protein insertion. protein ...
1.9 Microfilaments and Microtubules *1.9.1 microfilaments. *1.9.2 Microtubules. *1.9.3 Molecular Motors ... Modifies and packages proteins, especially those for excretion.. Microtubules and Microfillaments. Protein fibers (actin) and ... Molecular Motors[edit]. Mollecular motors move cargo around within cells. They are ATPases. They attach their cargo to their ... Cell Membrane Proteins[edit]. Cell membrane proteins may be functionally classified into four groups: *Structural Proteins: On ...
Tubulin, Microtubules and Microtubule-Associated Structures in Toxoplasma gondii 28. Molecular Motors 29. Actin Dynamics and ... Protein Targeting to the Apicoplast 22. The Metabolic Functions of the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast 23. Microneme Protein ...
Delivery of proteins to axons or dendrites depends on interactions between molecular motors and the cytoskeleton. ... Delivery of proteins to axons or dendrites depends on interactions between molecular motors and the cytoskeleton. ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ...
It is now clear that kinesin-like-proteins (KLP), generally thought to be responsible for the transport of cellular cargoes, ... Green Fluorescent Protein as a Tag for Molecular Motor Proteins Sharyn A. Endow ... and characterization of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule-dependent motors. The methods range from the most basic to the ... The Use of Dominant Negative Mutants to Study the Function of Mitotic Motors in the In Vitro Spindle Assembly Assay in Xenopus ...
... actin filaments and microtubules. Together with molecular motors and a large number of regulatory proteins, the cytoskeleton ... Movements of organelles are powered by molecular motors. Microtubule motors(kinesins and dyneins) move along microtubules and ... The motors responsible for the various types of motility. *The accessory proteins that modulate microtubule and actin stability ... Molecular motors that move along microfilaments (myosin) and microtubules (dynein) power these movements. Our goal is to ...
However, although the filaments, many associated proteins, and most of the molecular motors participating in the spindle have ... Motor movement. All interactions between motors while bound to the same microtubule are neglected. Motors pass or cross each ... For example, microtubules can produce forces without motors (Holy et al., 1997), and some motors might influence microtubule ... How motor proteins influence microtubule polymerization dynamics. J. Cell Sci. 113(Pt. 24):4379-4389. ...
Kinesin molecular motor protein is involved axonal transport along microtubules. Tau protein is a major constituent of ... key players involved are the microtubules stabilized by tau proteins, the motor proteins that transport the cargo- vesicle ... Tau protein, the major component of tangles, is well-established as regulating axonal traffic through its microtubule-binding ... possibly by way of serving as a binding partner for the anterograde motor protein kinesin. A slowdown of axonal traffic, so the ...
The neck-linker is a structurally conserved region among most members of the kinesin superfamily of molecular motor proteins ... of molecular motor proteins that is critical for kinesins processive transport of intracellular cargo along the microtubule ... of molecular motor proteins that is critical for kinesins processive transport of intracellular cargo along the microtubule ... of molecular motor proteins that is critical for kinesins processive transport of intracellular cargo along the microtubule ...
Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). "Microtubule dynamics and motor proteins during mitosis". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ... Tubulin protein polymers are the major component of microtubules. During mitosis, microtubules form the organizing structure ... Agents that disrupt microtubules therefore inhibit mitosis through activation of this checkpoint. Moroidin and its related ... Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan (2014). "Targeting microtubules by natural agents for cancer therapy". Mol ...
... and microtubule-associated proteins, and SCb, which transports cytoplasmic proteins, such as glycolytic enzymes and actin, ... Molecular motors and polyglutamylated tubulin were increased in the dorsal root shortly after a peripheral lesion. As these ... Increased levels of molecular motors and of polyglutamylated tubulin can underlie the early increase in axonal transport ... Increased levels of molecular motors and of polyglutamylated and tyrosinated tubulin are elicited following conditioning lesion ...
Vale, R.D.; Reese, T.S.; Sheetz, M.P. (1985). "Identification of a novel force-generating protein, kinesin, in microtubule- ... Howard, J. (1997). "Molecular motors: structural adaptations to cellular functions". Nature. 389 (6651): 561-567. doi:10.1038/ ... Kinesin Plus-end-directed kinesin ATPase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... proteins in mouse genome". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94 (18): 9654-9659. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.18.9654. PMC 23244 . PMID ...
  • Among the approaches discussed are methods to express and purify kinesins in different systems, to characterize microtubule-enhanced ATPase activity and motility properties, and to test microtubule destabilizing activity. (springer.com)
  • We are pursuing signal transduction studies to understand the physiologically important pathways that regulate cell motility and biophysical studies such as in vitro motility assays to understand how these molecular motors function at the molecular level. (northwestern.edu)
  • We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to observe single-molecule motility from different kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 neck-linker chimeras stepping along microtubules in the absence or presence of two Tau isoforms, 3RS-Tau and 4RL-Tau, both of which are MAPs that are known to differentially affect kinesin-1 motility. (elsevier.com)
  • The level of information in all chapters is suitable both for active researchers and for advanced students in courses involving bacterial or archaeal physiology, molecular microbiology, structural cell biology, molecular motility or evolution. (springer.com)
  • The latter structure indicates how tension between the two motor domains keeps their cycles out of phase in order to stimulate directional motility. (elifesciences.org)
  • During motility, kinesin-1 homodimer takes eight nanometer steps through head-over-head movements, advancing its two motor domains alternatively along a single protofilament ( Gennerich and Vale, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Such inter-head coordination is critical for effective motility, in part because premature ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the leading head would be futile or could generate tension between the two heads and cause the kinesin dimer to fall off the microtubule. (elifesciences.org)
  • The two groups are therefore both assigned to the C-terminal motor subfamily on the basis of their sequence similarity, domain organization and motility properties. (biologists.org)
  • KHC consists of three regions: a N-terminal globular motor domain (head) that contains the ATP and microtubule binding sites, a central elongated coiled-coil (stalk) responsible for dimerization, and a C-terminal unstructured region (tail) that regulates motor motility and recruits cargos. (plos.org)
  • Has a microtubule plus end-directed motility. (nih.gov)
  • It is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. (rupress.org)
  • Baas and his research team decided to use electron tomography -- the most rigorous imaging method available -- to see, first, whether some microtubules might actually be detached from the centrosome, and if so, how that detachment might contribute to neuron migration. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers found that a small group of microtubules were not attached to the centrosome, and that motor proteins can actually slide these unattached microtubules within the neuron as it migrates. (news-medical.net)
  • By manipulating levels of protein, the researchers now know that even the smallest alterations can greatly change the morphology and migratory behavior of a neuron, which can translate to developmental problems. (news-medical.net)
  • Instead, the microtubules of the neuron are utilized for the formation of elongated processes termed axons and dendrites. (drexel.edu)
  • There his research was focused on motor neuron diseases and the characterisation of mitochondrial axonal transport defects in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (De Vos et al. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • also known as motor neuron disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig disease) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Might other motor proteins generate forces on microtubules in the neuron, and if so, might such forces be relevant to axonal and dendritic differentiation? (jneurosci.org)
  • Motor proteins transporting a range of cargos in a neuron. (u-tokyo.ac.jp)
  • mGlu1, SNARE, kinesin, neuron, traffic Introduction Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1-mGlu8) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that are located at brain excitatory synapses to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. (deepdyve.com)
  • Physiological functioning of Katanin and the resulting microtubule fragmentation is now reported to be important underlying mechanism in cell division, neuron development, cell migration, and locomotory organelle formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Several common GTPase families like Rac and Rho promote microtubule assembly indirectly by facilitating GDP/GTP exchange on regulatory members that effect assembly and disassembly of tubulin dimers. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These distinct microtubule patterns are essential for defining the cytoplasmic composition of each type of process, as well as for regulating morphological characteristics such as their relative lengths. (drexel.edu)
  • Within these types, CMT type 2F (CMT2F) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy 2B (dHMN2B) are caused by heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 ( HSPB1 , also known as HSP27 ) mutation in chromosome 7q11.23 [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • KIF2C protein is important for anaphase chromosome segregation and may be required to co-ordinate sister centromere separation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dr. Zeynep Ökten from the Chair of Molecular Biophysics at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Erwin Frey, Professor of Statistical and Biological Physics at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München - with their teams - have now for the first time identified a molecular mechanism by the example of change of color among animals which explains the communication between both network systems, and revealed potential evolutionary paths. (tum.de)
  • In this work, we have used two-color total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy ( 19 ) to simultaneously measure the speed of individual kinesin motors moving on microtubules while monitoring the local motor density. (pnas.org)
  • Initial findings from "MitoTag" mice identify mitochondrial proteins unique to different neuronal subtypes and to glia. (alzforum.org)
  • The motor may also play a role in the proper development of mammalian neuronal processes, including growth cone navigation and elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is compelling to contemplate that the growth of a neuronal process might be modulated by antagonistic and complementary forces generated by a variety of motor proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuitry ranging from molecular to systemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, this analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state. (sdbonline.org)
  • We propose that the overall rate of movement is slow because the microtubules spend only a small proportion of their time moving. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies in our laboratory have provided evidence that the vRNA movement process is correlated with the ability of the MP to interact with microtubules, although the exact role of this interaction during infection is not known. (asm.org)
  • Like other plant viruses, TMV encodes a movement protein (MP) that interacts with Pd and facilitates the intercellular passage of its genome ( 28 , 39 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Our goal is to understand how these motors produce movement and are regulated. (northwestern.edu)
  • The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. (jove.com)
  • Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. (jove.com)
  • Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. (jove.com)
  • The protein forms cohesive rafts along microtubules, protecting them from digestion and regulating movement of molecular motors. (alzforum.org)
  • Recent biochemical and biophysical studies of several kinesins make it possible to identify structural elements responsible for the different directionality, suggesting that reversal of the motor movement can be achieved through small, local changes in the protein structure. (mendeley.com)
  • This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. (jove.com)