Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A ubiquitous phosphoprotein that serves as an intracellular substrate for a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PHOSPHORYLATION of stathmin occurs during CELL CYCLE progression, and stathmin functions as a microtubule-destabilizing protein that promotes MICROTUBULE depolymerization during INTERPHASE and late MITOSIS. Stathmin is expressed at very high levels in a variety of human CANCERS.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An ansa macrolide isolated from the MAYTENUS genus of East African shrubs.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progressive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (1/7615)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

Induced expression of p16(INK4a) inhibits both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activity by reassortment of cyclin-CDK-inhibitor complexes. (2/7615)

To investigate the mode of action of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor protein, we have established U2-OS cells in which the expression of p16(INK4a) can be regulated by addition or removal of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. As expected, induction of p16(INK4a) results in a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. However, induction of p16(INK4a) also causes marked inhibition of CDK2 activity. In the case of cyclin E-CDK2, this is brought about by reassortment of cyclin, CDK, and CDK-inhibitor complexes, particularly those involving p27(KIP1). Size fractionation of the cellular lysates reveals that a substantial proportion of CDK4 participates in active kinase complexes of around 200 kDa. Upon induction of p16(INK4a), this complex is partly dissociated, and the majority of CDK4 is found in lower-molecular-weight fractions consistent with the formation of a binary complex with p16(INK4a). Sequestration of CDK4 by p16(INK4a) allows cyclin D1 to associate increasingly with CDK2, without affecting its interactions with the CIP/KIP inhibitors. Thus, upon the induction of p16(INK4a), p27(KIP1) appears to switch its allegiance from CDK4 to CDK2, and the accompanying reassortment of components leads to the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2 by p27(KIP1) and p21(CIP1). Significantly, p16(INK4a) itself does not appear to form higher-order complexes, and the overwhelming majority remains either free or forms binary associations with CDK4 and CDK6.  (+info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (3/7615)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (4/7615)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. (5/7615)

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (6/7615)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

Inducible genetic suppression of neuronal excitability. (7/7615)

Graded, reversible suppression of neuronal excitability represents a logical goal of therapy for epilepsy and intractable pain. To achieve such suppression, we have developed the means to transfer "electrical silencing" genes into neurons with sensitive control of transgene expression. An ecdysone-inducible promoter drives the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in polycistronic adenoviral vectors. Infection of superior cervical ganglion neurons did not affect normal electrical activity but suppressed excitability after the induction of gene expression. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of controlled ion channel expression after somatic gene transfer into neurons and serve as the prototype for a novel generalizable approach to modulate excitability.  (+info)

p27kip1: a multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with prognostic significance in human cancers. (8/7615)

p27kip1 (p27) is a member of the universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) family. p27 expression is regulated by cell contact inhibition and by specific growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Since the cloning of the p27 gene in 1994, a host of other functions have been associated with this cell cycle protein. In addition to its role as a CDKI, p27 is a putative tumor suppressor gene, regulator of drug resistance in solid tumors, and promoter of apoptosis; acts as a safeguard against inflammatory injury; and has a role in cell differentiation. The level of p27 protein expression decreases during tumor development and progression in some epithelial, lymphoid, and endocrine tissues. This decrease occurs mainly at the post-translational level with protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A large number of studies have characterized p27 as an independent prognostic factor in various human cancers, including breast, colon, and prostate adenocarcinomas. Here we review the role of p27 in the regulation of the cell cycle and other cell functions and as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in human neoplasms. We also review studies indicating the increasingly important roles of p27, other CDKIs, and cyclins in endocrine cell hyperplasia and tumor development.  (+info)

A Detailed, Hierarchical Study of Giardia lamblias Ventral Disc Reveals Novel Microtubule-Associated Protein Complexes Journal Article ...
The presence of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) in the brain of several species has been investigated by SDS-gel electrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. This assay had a sensitivity of...
1. Although microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B and its phosphorylation have been suggested to be important for synapse formation among cortical neurons, the localization of MAP1B in synapses has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The novel microtubule-associated cap-glycine protein cgp1 governs growth, differentiation, and virulence of cryptococcus neoformans. AU - Wanga, Li Li. AU - Lee, Kyung Tae. AU - Jung, Kwang Woo. AU - Lee, Dong Gi. AU - Bahn, Yong-Sun. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization, and several cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A number of the cytoskeletonassociated proteins (CAPs) contain the CAP-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to a-tubulin to regulate the function of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we identified five CAPGly ...
High-resolution microscopic analysis has precisely revealed the control of microtubule dynamics by individual microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of MAP cDNA into fibroblasts and subsequent analysis using microinjection of caged fluorescein-labeled tubulin and …
In a previous report, we demonstrated that ASAP/MAP9 is a novel microtubule-associated protein required for a proper cell cycle progression [22, 23]. In this paper, we detected homologs in all vertebrate species investigated and potential orthologs in different invertebrates, thus suggesting a requirement of ASAP in higher eukaryotes. The coding sequence and exon-intron structure have been conserved during vertebrate evolution, suggesting that selective constraints are exerted on this gene to maintain its function. These genes are also invariably located in regions syntenic to the human locus, demonstrating common ancestry. Invertebrate and vertebrate ASAP also likely derive from a common ancestor but which evolved independently after the separation of the two clades. This would account for the low level of homology where events such as insertion/deletion or exon shuffling shaped the ASAP gene differently.. The highly N-terminal conserved region 1-98 (Fig. 2C) corresponds to no known conserved ...
Directional cell expansion in interphase and nuclear and cell division in M-phase are mediated by four microtubule arrays, three of which are unique to plants: the interphase array, the preprophase band, and the phragmoplast. The plant microtubule-associated protein MAP65 has been identified as a ke …
In this report, we have investigated the activity of Stu2p in vitro and how this activity relates to its known function in vivo. In contrast to the commonly held belief that members of the Dis1/XMAP215 family of microtubule-associated proteins all act to stabilize microtubules, we find that Stu2p is a microtubule destabilizer. Furthermore, we show that Stu2p is to our knowledge unique among the few known microtubule end-binding proteins in recognizing and preferentially binding microtubule plus ends in vitro. Our hydrodynamic analysis shows that Stu2p, like XMAP215, is an elongated molecule. However, in contrast to XMAP215, which is a monomer in solution (Gard and Kirschner, 1987; Cassimeris et al., 2001), Stu2p seems to be a dimer in vitro and in vivo. The real molecular weight of recombinant and endogenous Stu2p is ∼200 and ∼220 kD, respectively. Given the different nature of yeast extracts and pure proteins, a difference in the derived real molecular weight of 10% is within the ...
Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
We have developed microdensitometer-computer correlation techniques to analyze the arrangement of microtubule arms and bridges (i.e., microtubule-associated proteins [MAPs]). A microdensitometer was used to scan immediately adjacent to the wall of longitudinally sectioned microtubules in positive transparency electron micrographs. Signal enhancement procedures were applied to the digitized densitometer output to produce a binary sequence representing the apparent axial spacing of MAP projections. These enhanced records were analyzed in two ways. (a) Autocorrelograms were formed for each record and correlogram peaks from a group of scans were pooled to construct a peak frequency histogram. (b) Cross-correlation was used to optimize the match between each enhanced record and templates predicted by different models of MAP organization. Seven symmetrical superlattices were considered as well as single axial repeats. The analyses were repeated with randomly generated records to establish confidence ...
An interaction between the HSV-1 UL25 capsid protein and cellular microtubule-associated protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid screen and β-D-galactosidase activity assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the UL25 protein demonstrated its co-localization with cellular microtubule-associated protein in the plasma membrane. Further investigations with deletion mutants suggest that UL25 is likely to have a function in the nucleus.
Author: Halpain, Shelley et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-06-30; Keywords: Animals; Evolution, Molecular; Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*physiology; Models, Genetic; Morphogenesis; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*physiology; Nervous System/*metabolism; Phylogeny; Title: The MAP1 family of microtubule-associated proteins
Abgent offer the microtubule-associated Protein LC3 Antibody for purchase for research use only. Order your MAP1LC3A monoclonal antibodies from the experts today!
Cytoplasmic linker protein (CLIP)-170 is a microtubule (MT) plus-end-tracking protein that regulates MT dynamics and links MT plus ends to different intracellular structures. We have shown previously that intramolecular association between the N and C termini results in autoinhibition of CLIP-170, thus altering its binding to MTs and the dynactin subunit p150Glued(J. Cell Biol. 2004: 166, 1003-1014). In this study, we demonstrate that conformational changes in CLIP-170 are regulated by phosphorylation that enhances the affinity between the N- and C-terminal domains. By using site-directed mutagenesis and phosphoproteomic analysis, we mapped the phosphorylation sites in the third serine-rich region of CLIP-170. A phosphorylation-deficient mutant of CLIP-170 displays an open conformation and a higher binding affinity for growing MT ends and p150Gluedas compared with nonmutated protein, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant confined to the folded back conformation shows decreased MT association and ...
Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a specialized group of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that preferentially localize to microtubule (MT) plus-ends. This unique localization is thought to be due to +TIP recognition of a unique structural or chemical feature found only at the plus-ends of MTs, such as the GTP- tubulin cap. End-binding proteins (EBs) are considered the master regulators of the +TIP network; however, whether EBs are regulated by other +TIP proteins is not well understood. Therefore, a study of the regulation of EB proteins by CLASPs (CLIP-associated proteins), another family of +TIPs, was undertaken. In cells lacking CLASPs, EB binding at MTs is significantly altered: both EB1 and EB3 relocalized to the MT lattice in addition to their characteristic plus-end localization. This study reveals that CLASPs likely function during MT polymerization to support efficient GTP-hydrolysis and thus promote specific EB plus-end localization. This work establishes CLASPs ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-MAP6 Antibody against Human microtubule-associated protein 6. Validated for Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot
MAP2 antibody (microtubule-associated protein 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-MAP2 pAb (GTX32712) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many biological processes including regulation of cell growth and survival, cell adhesion, integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, immune response and axon guidance. Inactive FYN is phosphorylated on its C-terminal tail within the catalytic domain. Following activation by PKA, the protein subsequently associates with PTK2/FAK1, allowing PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation, activation and targeting to focal adhesions. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and CTNND1 (delta-catenin). Regulates cytoskeletal remodeling by phosphorylating several proteins including the actin regulator WAS and the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAPT. Promotes cell survival by phosphorylating AGAP2/PIKE-A and preventing its apoptotic cleavage. Participates in signal transduction pathways that regulate the integrity of the glomerular slit diaphragm (an essential part of the
Commander MAP2K1 anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-MAP2K1 anticorps.
The Anti-MAP Therapy Support Group. Some papers on the immunodeficiency hypothesis Crohns as an immune deficiency: from apparent paradox to evolving...
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Abbkine ELISA kit for Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids.
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a 50-kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 4-5 copies per dynactin molecule. It contains three short alpha-helical coiled-coil domains that may mediate association with self or other dynactin subunits. It may interact directly with the largest subunit (p150) of dynactin and may affix p150 in place. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Special note about Community Feature Content. Any content and/or opinions uploaded, expressed or submitted through any Community Feature or any other publicly available section of the Web Site (including password-protected areas), and all articles and responses to questions, other than the content explicitly authorized by the Company, are solely the opinions and responsibility of the person or entity submitting them and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Company. By way of example, any recommended or suggested use of products or services available from the Company that is posted through a Community Feature is not a sign of approval or recommendation by the Company. If you choose to follow any such recommendation you do so at your own risk.. Links to Third Party Sites. The Web Site may contain links to other websites on the internet. The Company is not responsible for the content, products, services or practices of any third party websites, including without limitation sites linked to ...
Mouse monoclonal MAP2 antibody [HM-2]. Validated in WB, ICC and tested in Rat. Cited in 93 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 6 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to -.
TACC3 and XMAP215 levels affect each others protein stability and localization to MT plus ends. (A, B) Representative Western blots showing levels of TACC3 and
Homo sapiens microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (MAP1LC3A), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00084557-R02) - Products - Abnova
MAP6 - MAP6 (untagged)-Human microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
MAP1A - MAP1A (untagged)-ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
LC3B antibody (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-LC3B pAb (GTX127375) is tested in Human, Mouse, Pig, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Sánchez, C., P. Tompa, K. Szücs, P. Friedrich, and J. Avila, Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in the proline-rich C-terminal domain of microtubule-associated protein 2., Eur J Biochem, vol. 241, issue 3, pp. 765-71, 1996 Nov 1. ...
Plasmid pBABE-puro mCherry-EGFP-LC3B from Dr. Jayanta Debnaths lab contains the insert microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta and is published in EMBO Rep. 2009 Feb;10(2):173-9. doi: 10.1038/embor.2008.238. Epub 2009 Jan 16. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Complete information for CLASP2 gene (Protein Coding), Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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TY - JOUR. T1 - UNC-45A is a novel microtubule-associated protein and regulator of paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells. AU - Mooneyham, Ashley. AU - Iizuka, Yoshie. AU - Yang, Qing. AU - Coombes, Courtney. AU - McClellan, Mark. AU - Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi. AU - Emmings, Edith. AU - Shetty, Mihir. AU - Chen, Liqiang. AU - Ai, Teng. AU - Meints, Joyce. AU - Lee, Michael K.. AU - Gardner, Melissa. AU - Bazzaro, Martina. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - UNC-45A, a highly conserved member of the UCS (UNC45A/CRO1/SHE4P) protein family of cochaperones, plays an important role in regulating cytoskeletal-associated functions in invertebrates and mammalian cells, including cytokinesis, exocytosis, cell motility, and neuronal development. Here, for the first time, UNC-45A is demonstrated to function as a mitotic spindle-associated protein that destabilizes microtubules (MT) activity. Using in vitro biophysical reconstitution and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy analysis, we ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Processive bidirectional motion of dynein-dynactin complexes in vitro. AU - Ross, Jennifer L.. AU - Wallace, Karen. AU - Shuman, Henry. AU - Goldman, Yale E.. AU - Holzbaur, Erika L.F.. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Cytoplasmic dynein is the primary molecular motor responsible for transport of vesicles, organelles, proteins and RNA cargoes from the periphery of the cell towards the nucleus along the microtubule cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. Dynactin, a large multi-subunit activator of dynein, docks cargo to the motor and may enhance dynein processivity. Here, we show that individual fluorescently labelled dynein-dynactin complexes exhibit bidirectional and processive motility towards both the plus and minus ends of microtubules. The dependence of this activity on substrate ATP concentration, nucleotide analogues and inhibitors suggests that bidirectional motility is an active energy-transduction property of dynein-dynactin motor mechano-chemistry. The unique motility ...
RAB GTPases help to maintain the fidelity of membrane trafficking events by recruiting cytosolic tethering and motility factors to vesicle and organelle membranes. In the case of Rab6, it recruits the dynein-dynaction complex to Golgi-associated vesicles via an adaptor protein of the Bicaudal-D family. Here we describe methods for the identification of Rab6-binding partners in cell extracts. We then focus on the biochemical analysis of interactions with the dynein-dynactin complex and the adaptor proteins Bicaudal-D1 and -D2. Standard protocols for yeast two-hybrid analysis, and biochemical assays for the analysis of the interactions between Rab6, Bicaudal-D, and the subunits of the dynein-dynactin complex are outlined.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autophagy-mediated stress response in motor neuron after transient ischemia in rabbits. AU - Baba, Hironori. AU - Sakurai, Masahiro. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Tominaga, Ryuji. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Objective: Spinal cord injury is considered to be related to a vulnerability of spinal motor neurons to ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this vulnerability are not fully understood. We investigated the role of autophagy, which is an intracellular bulk degradation process, at motor neuron as a potential mechanism of neuronal death by immunohistochemical analysis for microtubule-associated protein light chain3 (LC3) and γ-aminobutyric-acid type-A-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) which are considered as markers of autophagy. Methods: We used a rabbit spinal cord ischemia model with the use of a balloon catheter. The spinal cord was removed at 8 hours, 1, 2, or 7 days after 15 minutes of transient ischemia, and histologic changes were examined with hematoxylin-eosin ...
Controlling microtubule dynamics and spatial organization is a fundamental requirement of eukaryotic cell function. Members of the ORBIT/MAST/CLASP family of microtubule-associated proteins associate with the plus ends of microtubules, where they promote the addition of tubulin subunits into attached kinetochore fibers during mitosis and stabilize microtubules in the vicinity of the plasma membrane during interphase. To date, nothing is known about their function in plants. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana CLASP protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is involved in both cell division and cell expansion. Green fluorescent protein-CLASP localizes along the full length of microtubules and shows enrichment at growing plus ends. Our analysis suggests that CLASP promotes microtubule stability. clasp-1 T-DNA insertion mutants are hypersensitive to microtubule-destabilizing drugs and exhibit more sparsely populated, yet well ordered, root cortical microtubule arrays. Overexpression ...
During animal development cellular differentiation is often preceded by an asymmetric cell division whose polarity is determined by the orientation of the mitotic spindle. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the oocyte differentiates in a 16-cell syncytium that arises from a cystoblast which undergoes 4 synchronous divisions with incomplete cytokinesis. During these divisions, spindle orientation is highly ordered and is thought to impart a polarity to the cyst that is necessary for the subsequent differentiation of the oocyte. Using mutations in the Drosophila cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain gene, Dhc64C, we show that cytoplasmic dynein is required at two stages of oogenesis. Early in oogenesis, dynein mutations disrupt spindle orientation in dividing cysts and block oocyte determination. The localization of dynein in mitotic cysts suggests spindle orientation is mediated by the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein. Later in oogenesis, dynein function is necessary for proper ...
Autophagy has been referred to as a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Emerging evidence suggests that pharmacological modulation of autophagy is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. However, few autophagy-modulating compounds are currently approved for clinical use in humans. Matrine is a natural compound extracted from traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for treatment of a variety of diseases without any obvious side effects. Recently, matrine has been reported to induce autophagy and autophagic cell death in cancer cells, although the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Here, we systematically examined the autophagic events induced by matrine in SGC7901 cells. The accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in matrine-treated cells was verified by the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 as well as confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that matrine blocked autophagic degradation by ...
The divergence in the relative importance of EB1 compared with EB3 and in their role in microtubule stabilization might then be at least partially reconciled by considering experimental differences: the isolation of permanently knocked down cell lines (this work) compared with transient transfections (Straube and Merdes, 2007). Given the usual timeline of C2 culture and differentiation (2 days in GM and then switch to FM), transient transfection might not be able to knock down EB1 fast enough to prevent any effect it might have in early differentiation. Microtubule stabilization, in particular, is an early event in muscle differentiation (Gundersen et al., 1989) and could become immune to EB knockdown if it initiates an irreversible cascade of events (Eng et al., 2006; Ciani and Salinas, 2007; Onishi et al., 2007). Consistently with this explanation, when we overexpressed EB1 constructs transiently, we did not observe any effects on glu-tubulin levels (data not shown).. Elongation of myoblasts, ...
Get this from a library! Analyse des tumorrelevanten proteins survivin : molekulare charakterisierung der dimerisierung. [Cecilia Vallet; Shirley Knauer] -- Cecilia Vallet untersucht, wie der Wechsel zwischen der monomeren und der dimeren Form des Proteins Survivin reguliert ist. Survivin ist in nahezu allen malignen Tumorerkrankungen überexprimiert und ...
The apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin is overexpressed in many tumors, making it a candidate target molecule for various forms of immunotherapy. To explore survivin as a target antigen for adoptive T cell therapy using lymphocytes expressing survivin-specific transgenic T cell receptors (Tg-TCRs), we isolated HLA-A2-allorestricted survivin-specific T cells with high functional avidity. Lymphocytes expressing Tg-TCRs were derived from these T cells and specifically recognized HLA-A2+ survivin+ tumor cells. Surprisingly, HLA-A2+ but not HLA-A2- lymphocytes expressing Tg-TCRs underwent extensive apoptosis over time. This demise was caused by HLA-A2-restricted fratricide that occurred due to survivin expression in lymphocytes, which created ligands for Tg-TCR recognition. Therefore, survivin-specific TCR gene therapy would be limited to application in HLA-A2-mismatched stem cell transplantation. We also noted that lymphocytes that expressed survivin-specific Tg-TCRs killed T cell clones of ...
Microtubules (MTs) are filamentous structures found throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are polymers of tubulin that are involved in maintaining the structural integrity and plasticity of cells as well as the internal structures of cilia and flagella. Microtubules are also essential in several key cellular processes such as cell division and intracellular transport.. Proteins that accumulate at the ends of growing microtubules, known as MT plus end-tracking proteins, play an important role in regulating the dynamics and organization of the organelle. The SLAIN2 gene encodes one such MT plus end-tracking protein. This protein is targeted to microtubule tips by interacting with End-Binding proteins through its C-terminal domain. It is involved in cytoplasmic microtubule organization and nucleation. Through its N-terminal domain, it binds with the polymerase ch-TOG, recruiting it to the microtubule plus ends and thus ensuring microtubule elongation. ...
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The faithful segregation of duplicated sister chromatids rely on the remarkable ability of kinetochores to sustain stable load bearing attachments with the dynamic plus ends of kinetochore-microtubules (kMTs). The outer layer of the kinetochore recruits several motor and non-motor microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that help the kinetochores establish and maintain a load bearing dynamic attachment with kMTs. The primary kMT-binding protein, the Ndc80 complex (Ndc80c), which is highly conserved among diverse organisms from yeast to humans, performs this essential function with assistance from other MAPs. These MAPs are not an integral part of the kinetochore, but they localize to the kinetochore periodically throughout mitosis and regulate the strength of the kinetochore microtubule attachments. Here, we attempt to summarize the recent advances that have been made toward furthering our understanding of this co-operation between the Ndc80c and these MAPs, focusing on the spindle and ...
In this study, we have positioned the survivin pathway as a novel regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Secondly, we have shown that targeting survivin exerts anticancer activity by combining enhanced tumor cell apoptosis with suppression of tumor-associated angiogenesis in vivo.. Despite the considerable interest in survivin for its bifunctional role in cell viability and regulation of mitosis (10) and the dramatic exploitation of this pathway in human tumors (12) , critical aspects of the survivin pathway have remained elusive. In particular, how survivin couples to the cell death machinery has not been conclusively elucidated. Earlier claims that this may involve suppression of caspase catalytic activity (30) , similar to other antiapoptotic IAP proteins (9) , were disputed on both functional (31) and structural grounds (32) . More recent arguments favored an indirect model of survivin-mediated cell viability, in which interference with survivin expression/function ...
Jetzt Anti-phospho-Tau, (Ser400) (Tau Protein, Microtubule-associated Protein, MAP), Artikelnummer: T1032-68A.40 von United States Biological bei Biomol kaufen!
A polymorphism in the autophagy gene Atg16l1 is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is essential for maintenance of balanced CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. Selective deletion of Atg16l1 in T cells in mice resulted in spontaneous intestinal inflammation that was characterized by aberrant type 2 responses to dietary and microbiota antigens, and by a loss of Foxp3(+) Treg cells. Specific ablation of Atg16l1 in Foxp3(+) Treg cells in mice demonstrated that autophagy directly promotes their survival and metabolic adaptation in the intestine. Moreover, we also identify an unexpected role for autophagy in directly limiting mucosal TH2 cell expansion. These findings provide new insights into the reciprocal control of distinct intestinal TH cell responses by autophagy, with important implications for understanding and treatment of chronic
Tau, the most studied microtubule-associated protein (MAP), is involved in both physiological and pathological (tauopathies) cellular functions as it stimulates microtubule assembly and stabilizes microtubules through binding at the inter-dimer interfaces via an interaction with tubulin heterodimers which links the dimers, and coupled with a fast (40 millisecond) on-off rate, and heterogeneous binding in the form of condensates or islands of tau, selectively regulates binding of motile (kinesin and dynein motors) and non-motile (microtubule severing enzymes spastin and katanin, as well as MAP6 and MAP7) MAPs and thus MAP functions as condensates form a permissive barrier which impairs kinesin-1 and kinesin-3 motility, allows kinesin-8 and dynein motility, and also protect microtubules from enzyme-mediated cleavage.
目的 系统评价卵巢癌组织中 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌的相关性。 方法 计算机检索 PubMed、The Cochrane Library(2016 年 11 期)、CBM、CNKI、VIP 和 WanFang Data 数据库,搜集公开发表的所有关于 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌临床病理特征关系的病例-对照研究,检索时限均为从建库至 2016 年 11 月。由 2 位评价员独立筛选文献、提取资料并评价纳入研究的偏倚风险后,采用 RevMan 5.2 软件进行 Meta 分析。 结果 共纳入 10 个病例-对照研究。Meta 分析结果显示:Survivin mRNA 表达在卵巢癌组高于对照组[OR=24.63,95% CI(13.44,45.15),P|0.000 01],其在低分化组表达高于高分化组[OR=3.69,95% CI(2.29,5.93),P|0.000 01],在临床 Ⅲ~Ⅳ 期组表达高于临床 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 期组[OR=4.76,95% CI(2.99,7.57),P|0.000 01]。但其表达与有无淋巴结转移
目的 系统评价卵巢癌组织中 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌的相关性。 方法 计算机检索 PubMed、The Cochrane Library(2016 年 11 期)、CBM、CNKI、VIP 和 WanFang Data 数据库,搜集公开发表的所有关于 Survivin mRNA 表达与卵巢癌临床病理特征关系的病例-对照研究,检索时限均为从建库至 2016 年 11 月。由 2 位评价员独立筛选文献、提取资料并评价纳入研究的偏倚风险后,采用 RevMan 5.2 软件进行 Meta 分析。 结果 共纳入 10 个病例-对照研究。Meta 分析结果显示:Survivin mRNA 表达在卵巢癌组高于对照组[OR=24.63,95% CI(13.44,45.15),P|0.000 01],其在低分化组表达高于高分化组[OR=3.69,95% CI(2.29,5.93),P|0.000 01],在临床 Ⅲ~Ⅳ 期组表达高于临床 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 期组[OR=4.76,95% CI(2.99,7.57),P|0.000 01]。但其表达与有无淋巴结转移
Survivin is a novel member of the IAP family of proteins with a potential dual role in apoptosis inhibition and regulation of mitosis. In addition, survivin is implicated in the regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint and the promotion of angiogenesis, and chemoresistance. Survivin is up-regulated in almost all cancers, including colon cancer, but has low or no expression in most normal, differentiated adult tissues. Expression of survivin in cancer cells has been shown to promote tumorigenesis. Besides, the expression levels of survivin strongly correlate with the proliferative activity of the tumours indicating a possible role in cell cycle regulation and cancer progression.. However, the effect of a novel chemotherapy such as oxaliplatin and vinflunine on survivin expression has been not well characterized yet. Therefore, the effects of oxaliplatin and vinflunine treatment on survivin protein expression in lymphocytes from colon cancer patients against healthy volunteers were ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Upregulation of autophagy-related gene 5 protects dopaminergic neurons in a zebrafish model of Parkinsons disease.
Microtubules are an essential feature of eukaryotic cells as they divide, change shape, and transport organelles. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play crucial roles in organizing microtubules. MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION 1 (MOR1) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) belongs to the MAP215/Dis1 family of MAPs (Whittington et al., 2001), a highly conserved group of MAPs found in all eukaryotes examined to date (Gard et al., 2004). MOR1 was initially discovered through the isolation of two mutants that both undergo temperature-dependent cortical microtubule disorganization, which leads to the left-handed twisting and eventual radial swelling of organs. Both mutations substitute single amino acids (mor1-1L174F and mor1-2E195K) in an N-terminal HEAT repeat, one of many such motifs found extensively along the length of MOR1 and other MAP215/Dis1 family proteins (Whittington et al., 2001). Another mor1 allele, rid5, has a similar morphological phenotype to the mor1 mutants. The rid5 mutation has a ...
A plant phospholipase D (PLDα1) is activated by salt stress, and the produced lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) binds to a microtubule-associated protein MAP65-1. The PA and MAP65-1 interaction is essential for the regulation of microtubule organization and salt tolerance. This finding couples lipid signaling to the cytoskeleton and reveals a lipid-mediated signaling pathway that responds to stress. ...
The microtubule cytoskeleton is crucial for the internal organization of eukaryotic cells. Several microtubule-associated proteins link microtubules to subcellular structures. A subclass of these proteins, the plus end-binding proteins (+TIPs), selectively binds to the growing plus ends of microtubules. Here, we reconstitute a vertebrate plus end tracking system composed of the most prominent +TIPs, end-binding protein 1 (EB1) and CLIP-170, in vitro and dissect their end-tracking mechanism. We find that EB1 autonomously recognizes specific binding sites present at growing microtubule ends. In contrast, CLIP-170 does not end-track by itself but requires EB1. CLIP-170 recognizes and turns over rapidly on composite binding sites constituted by end-accumulated EB1 and tyrosinated α-tubulin. In contrast to its fission yeast orthologue Tip1, dynamic end tracking of CLIP-170 does not require the activity of a molecular motor. Our results demonstrate evolutionary diversity of the plus end recognition ...
Purified anti-4R Tau Antibody - Tau proteins are microtubule-associated protein (MAPs) which are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and elsewhere.
Purified anti-0N Tau Antibody - Tau proteins are microtubule-associated protein (MAPs) which are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and elsewhere.
The microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Excess tau can be released into the extracellular medium in a physiological or pathological manner to be internalized by surrounding neurons-a proc
Cell culture. Hippocampus dissected from embryonic day 18 Wistar rats was digested for 15 min at 37°C with 0.25% (w/v) trypsin in HBSS, washed twice in HBSS, placed in DMEM supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum, and mechanically dissociated by trituration (Goslin and Banker, 1998). The cells were plated at low density (600 cells/mm2) on poly-l-lysine-coated (Sigma, St. Louis) glass-bottomed microwells (MatTek, Ashland, MA). After 2 hr, when neurons had attached to the substrate, 2 ml of medium containing Neurobasal, N2 supplements (1:100 dilution), B27 supplements (1:50 dilution), and 5% (v/v) Gentamicin was added, and the cells were incubated at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2. The medium was replaced every other day. All reagents were from Life Technologies (Rockville, MD), except where noted otherwise. The cells were identified as neurons by microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2 immunostaining and their morphology, and excluded as oligodendrocytes or astrocytes by their lack of ...
Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved cellular factors that accumulate at the ends of growing microtubules. They form dynamic networks through the interaction of a limited set of protein modules, repeat sequences and linear motifs that bind to each other with moderate affinities. +TIPs regulate different aspects of cell architecture by controlling microtubule dynamics, microtubule interactions with cellular structures and signalling factors, and the forces that are exerted on microtubule networks.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fyn phosphorylates human MAP-2c on tyrosine 67. AU - Zamora-Leon, S. Pilar. AU - Bresnick, Anne. AU - Backer, Jonathan M.. AU - Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget. PY - 2005/1/21. Y1 - 2005/1/21. N2 - The Src homology 3 (SH3)domain of Fyn binds to a conserved PXXP motif on microtubule-associated protein-2. Co-transfections into COS7 cells and in vitro kinase assays performed with Fyn and wild-type, or mutant MAP-2c, determined that Fyn phosphorylated MAP-2c on tyrosine 67. The phosphorylation generated a consensus sequence for the binding of the SH2 domain of Grb2 (pYSN). Pull-down assays with SH2-Grb2 from human fetal brain homogenates, and co-immunoprecipitation of Grb2 and MAP-2 confirmed the interaction in vivo, and demonstrated that MAP-2c is tyrosine-phosphorylateti in human fetal brain. Filter overlay assays confirmed that the SH2 domain of Grb2 binds to human MAP-2c following incubation with active Fyn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays confirmed the interaction between the SH2 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The product of this gene is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in cells of epithelial origin. Microtubule-associated proteins are thought to be involved in microtubule dynamics, which is essential for cell polarization and differentiation. This protein has been shown to be able to stabilize microtubules, and may serve to modulate microtubule functions. Studies of the related mouse protein also suggested an essential role in microtubule function required for spermatogenesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010 ...
The range of tumor cell types expressing elevated levels of survivin supports the contention that this gene product may represent a bona fide target for novel anticancer therapeutics. In this study, we have ectopically expressed the transcription factor IRF-1 using an Ad delivery system. From our previously performed screening of cDNA microarray analysis of Ad-IRF-1-infected versus control MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, we observed a 15-fold down-regulation of the survivin mRNA compared with uninfected cells. Our current in vitro studies confirmed that survivin protein expression was similarly decreased in MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma cell lines after infection with Ad-IRF-1.. Our results further suggest that the down-regulation of survivin is independent of wild-type p53 because both the MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 cell lines harbor mutations in p53. Our results are in contrast to other studies that show a reduction in survivin mRNA levels when human cell lines are infected with ...
The principle role of the company is to identify, to verify the validity and ultimately to offer a range of biochemical assays each of which will provide unique and informative results to the condition of an individual patient from which the physician can
Autophagy is a conserved constitutive cellular process, responsible for the degradation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles. Autophagy plays a role in many diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer; however, to date, conventional autophagy detection techniques are not suitable for clinical samples. We have developed a high throughput, statistically robust technique that quantitates autophagy in primary human leukocytes using the Image stream, an imaging flow cytometer. We validate this method on cell lines and primary cells knocked down for essential autophagy genes. Also, using this method we show that T cells have higher autophagic activity than B cells. Furthermore our results indicate that healthy primary senescent CD8(+) T cells have decreased autophagic levels correlating with increased DNA damage, which may explain features of the senescent immune system and its declining function with age. This technique will allow us, for the first time, to measure autophagy levels in diseases with a
out autophagy, and that this promotes their survival. In several human cancer cell lines, hypoxia increased transcription of the essential autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3beta (MAP1LC3B ...
Mammalian cytoplasmic linker associated protein 1 and -2 (CLASP1 and -2) are microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking proteins that selectively stabilize MTs at the edge of cells and that promote MT nucleation and growth at the Golgi, thereby sustaining cell polarity. In vitro analysis has shown that CLASPs are MT growth promoting factors. To date, a single CLASP1 isoform (called CLASP1α) has been described, whereas three CLASP2 isoforms are known (CLASP2α, -β, and -γ). Although CLASP2β/γ are enriched in neurons, suggesting isoform-specific functions, it has been proposed that during neurite outgrowth CLASP1 and -2 act in a redundant fashion by modulating MT dynamics downstream of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Here, we show that in differentiating N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells CLASP1 and CLASP2 differ in their accumulation at MT plus-ends and display different sensitivity to GSK3-mediated phosphorylation, and hence regulation. More specifically, western blot (WB) analysis suggests that
Survivin expression becomes gradually restricted to β-cells after birth. A: Survivin expression in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from E15.5 to P21, a
ID: Type: Label: DCTN2 Synonyms: DCTN2, DCTN50, DYNAMITIN, HEL-S-77, RBP50, dynactin subunit 2, 50 kDa dynein-associated polypeptide, dynactin 2 (p50), dynactin complex 50 kDa subunit, epididymis secretory protein Li 77, p50 dynamitin Alternative IDs: als API: GO SPARQL: GO ...
Phenotype data for mouse gene Map9. Discover Map9s significant phenotypes, expression, images, histopathology and more. Data for gene Map9 is all freely available for download.
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Butzlaff, M.; Hannan, S. B.; Karsten, P.; Lenz, S.; Ng, J.; Vossfeldt, H.; Prüssing, K.; Pflanz, R.; Schulz, J. B.; Rasse, T. et al.; Voigt, A.: Impaired retrograde transport by the Dynein/Dynactin complex contributes to Tau-induced toxicity. Human Molecular Genetics 24 (13), S. 3623 - 3637 (2015 ...
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with microtubules by binding to their tubulin subunits and ... Microtubule plus end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are MAPs that accumulates in the plus end of microtubules. In neurotubules, + ... Microtubule Neurofilament Tubulin Microtubule associated protein Neuronal migration "Medical Definition of NEUROTUBULE". www. ... Mandelkow E, Mandelkow EM (February 1995). "Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 7 (1): 72 ...
Tubulin protein polymers are the major component of microtubules. During mitosis, microtubules form the organizing structure ... Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). "Microtubule dynamics and motor proteins during mitosis". Molecular Cell Biology (4th ... Agents that disrupt microtubules therefore inhibit mitosis through activation of this checkpoint. Moroidin and its related ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan (2014). "Targeting microtubules by ...
Brain Microtubule Associated Proteins: Modifications in Disease. Amsterdam: Harwood Acad. Publ. pp. 185-241. ISBN 978-90-5702- ... The company's protein aggregation inhibitors target the underlying pathology of dementia, with the aim of modifying or halting ... Their lead compound, LMTX, targets aggregation of tau and is believed to act on synuclein, TDP-43 and huntingtin protein. Its ... Wischik CM, Lai RY, Harrington CR (1997). "Modelling prion-like processing of tau protein in Alzheimer's disease for ...
"Application of novel vectors for GFP-tagging of proteins to study microtubule-associated proteins". Gene. 173: 107-111. doi: ... Kaech S, Ludin B, Matus A (1996). "Cytoskeletal plasticity in cells expressing neuronal microtubule-associated proteins". ... First use of green fluorescent protein-tagged proteins in transfected cells and for live imaging in neurons. Description of ... Development of Western blotting technique to detect proteins. Publication of two protocols for plant transgenesis, which were ...
Kinesin-like protein KIF2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF2A gene. Kinesins, such as KIF2, are microtubule- ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00139 (Human Kinesin-like protein KIF2A) at the ... 2007). "The kinesin-13 proteins Kif2a, Kif2b, and Kif2c/MCAK have distinct roles during mitosis in human cells". Mol. Biol. ... Ganem NJ, Upton K, Compton DA (2006). "Efficient mitosis in human cells lacking poleward microtubule flux". Curr. Biol. 15 (20 ...
Hamada, Takahiro (2014-01-01). Microtubule Organization and Microtubule-Associated Proteins in Plant Cells. International ... "Interaction of Antiparallel Microtubules in the Phragmoplast Is Mediated by the Microtubule-Associated Protein MAP65-3 in ... Many microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) have been localized to the phragmoplast, including both constitutively expressed ... "Microtubule-Associated Kinase-like Protein RUNKEL Needed for Cell Plate Expansion in Arabidopsis Cytokinesis". Current Biology ...
Alteration in a microtubule-associated protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (2): 1071-8. PMID 7054166. Gupta, R.S ... Podophyllotoxin destabilizes microtubules by binding tubulin and thus preventing cell division. In contrast, some of its ... Jindal S, Dudani AK, Singh B, Harley CB, Gupta RS (May 1989). "Primary structure of a human mitochondrial protein homologous to ... Mutant Chinese hamster cells resistant to podophyllotoxin are affected in a protein P1 that was later identified as the ...
microtubule-associated protein). W chorobie Alzheimera rzeczone białko przechodzi modyfikacje chemiczne, podlega ... Roles of proteolysis and lipid rafts in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein and prion protein. „Biochem. Soc. Trans ... a b Ohnishi S, Takano K. Amyloid fibrils from the viewpoint of protein folding. „Cell. Mol. Life Sci.". 61 (5), s. 511-24, 03 ... amyloid precursor protein, prekursorowe białko amyloidu) na chromosomie 21. Informacja ta wiąże się z prawie pewnym ...
Motor proteins travel in a specific direction along a microtubule. Microtubules are polar; meaning, the heads only bind to the ... A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) ... Most kinesins walk towards the plus end of a microtubule, which, in most cells, entails transporting cargo such as protein and ... Kinesins are motor proteins that transport such cargo by walking unidirectionally along microtubule tracks hydrolysing one ...
"RASSF1A interacts with microtubule-associated proteins and modulates microtubule dynamics". Cancer Research. 64 (12): 4112-6. ... The encoded protein was found to interact with DNA repair protein XPA. The protein was also shown to inhibit the accumulation ... Ras association domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASSF1 gene. This gene encodes a ... RASSF1 has been shown to interact with: CNKSR1, Death associated protein 6 HRAS, MAP1B, MAP1S, and RASSF5. Cervical cancer is ...
Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAPRE1 gene. The protein ... EB1 proteins situate on the microtubule plus ends, which is why EB1 is categorized as a microtubule plus end tracking protein(+ ... "The microtubule plus-end proteins EB1 and dynactin have differential effects on microtubule polymerization". Mol. Biol. Cell. ... "Entrez Gene: MAPRE1 microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB family, member 1". Su LK, Burrell M, Hill DE, Gyuris J, Brent R, ...
Ensconsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP7 gene. The product of this gene is a microtubule-associated protein ... This protein has been shown to be able to stabilize microtubules, and may serve to modulate microtubule functions. Studies of ... Microtubule-associated proteins are thought to be involved in microtubule dynamics, which is essential for cell polarization ... "Entrez Gene: MAP7 microtubule-associated protein 7". Suzuki M, Hirao A, Mizuno A (December 2003). "Microtubule-associated [ ...
This protein complex has microtubule-binding domains. HEC is one of several proteins involved in spindle checkpoint signaling. ... Kinetochore protein NDC80 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDC80 gene. Ndc80 is one of the proteins of ... "Identification of the substrates and interaction proteins of aurora kinases from a protein-protein interaction model". ... Chen Y, Riley DJ, Chen PL, Lee WH (October 1997). "HEC, a novel nuclear protein rich in leucine heptad repeats specifically ...
"Microtubule-associated protein 1S, a short and ubiquitously expressed member of the microtubule-associated protein 1 family". J ... "Identification and characterization of human VCY2-interacting protein: VCY2IP-1, a microtubule-associated protein-like protein ... Microtubule-associated protein 1S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP1S gene. MAP1S has been shown to interact ... "Microtubule-associated protein 8 contains two microtubule binding sites". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 339 (1): 172-9. doi: ...
... is a microtubule-severing AAA protein. It is named after the Japanese sword, katana. Katanin is a heterodimeric protein ... protective microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), and the p80 subunit (p60 severs microtubules much better in the presence of ... Using antibodies, these two proteins were found to localize at the ends of microtubules in the meiotic spindle, and, when ... Katanin is believed to be regulated by the phosphorylation of other proteins. Microtubules break into fibroblasts after slight ...
2006). "RGS14 is a microtubule-associated protein". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 953-60. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1787. PMID 15917656. Rual JF ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS14 gene. RGS14 is a member of the ... This protein contains one RGS domain, two Raf-like Ras-binding domains (RBDs), and one GoLoco motif. The protein attenuates the ... Acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), the protein increases the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis ...
At Princeton, his early work on microtubules established their unusual molecular assembly from tubulin proteins and identified ... The first step in spindle formation is the nucleation of microtubules by microtubule-organizing centers, which then grow in all ... "A protein factor essential for microtubule assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... of the dynamic instability of microtubules, In mitosis, for example, microtubules form the spindle that separates the ...
Microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) or stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP or STOP protein) is a protein that in humans is ... This gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). The encoded protein is a calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated ... "Entrez Gene: MAP6 microtubule-associated protein 6". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bosc C, Cronk JD, Pirollet F, et ... Cuveillier C, Denarier E, Andrieux A, Delphin C (2020). "MAP6 is an intraluminal protein that induces neuronal microtubules to ...
2004). "The Bardet-Biedl protein BBS4 targets cargo to the pericentriolar region and is required for microtubule anchoring and ... Dammermann A, Merdes A (2002). "Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1". J. Cell Biol. ... Dammermann, A.; Merdes, A. (2002). "Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1". The ... Pericentriolar material 1, also known as PCM1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PCM1 gene. The PCM1 protein was ...
... binds several proteins, including vinculin, DES, actin., fodrin, microtubule-associating proteins, nuclear laminin B., ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (Jan 1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (Jan 1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and ... Foisner R, Traub P, Wiche G (May 1991). "Protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-regulated interaction of plectin with lamin B ...
AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein expressed in ... AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein expressed in ... Like most microtubule-associated proteins, tau is normally regulated by phosphorylation; however, in Alzheimer's disease, ... Like most microtubule-associated proteins, tau is normally regulated by phosphorylation; however, in AD patients, ...
2006). "HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization". Retrovirology. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-5. PMC 549075. ... Tubulin beta-4A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB4A gene. Two tubulin beta-4 chain proteins are encoded ... 2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S, Zhou Q (2004). "HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro- ...
Microtubules are composed of tubulin protein dimer subunits. The dimers each have hydrophobic pockets that are 8 nm apart and ... "Atomic water channel controlling remarkable properties of a single brain microtubule: correlating single protein to its ... But if you go down to the level of the microtubules, then there's an extremely good chance that you can get quantum-level ... For my picture, I need this quantum-level activity in the microtubules; the activity has to be a large scale thing that goes ...
2006). "HIV-1 Tat protein enhances Microtubule polymerization". Retrovirology. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-5. PMC 549075. ... Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S, Zhou Q (2004). "HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro- ... 2005). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197-204 ... TUBB1 is a gene that codes for the protein Tubulin beta-1 chain in humans. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101162 - ...
2006). "HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization". Retrovirology. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-5. PMC 549075. ... Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S, Zhou Q (2004). "HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro- ... 2005). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ... Tubulin alpha-1C chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA1C gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167553 ...
2006). "HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization". Retrovirology. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-5. PMC 549075. ... 2000). "Paxillin localizes to the lymphocyte microtubule organizing center and associates with the microtubule cytoskeleton". J ... Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S, Zhou Q (2004). "HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro- ... 1995). "The N-terminal domain of c-Myc associates with alpha-tubulin and microtubules in vivo and in vitro". Mol. Cell. Biol. ...
"MARK4 is a novel microtubule-associated proteins/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase that binds to the cellular microtubule ... 2006). "HIV-1 Tat protein enhances Microtubule polymerization". Retrovirology. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-5. PMC 549075. ... Tubulin beta-4B chain formerly known as tubulin beta-2C chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB4B gene. GRCh38 ... Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S, Zhou Q (2004). "HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro- ...
In the second step, the centrosomes are separated via microtubule motor proteins. Centrosome disorientation refers to the loss ... 23] In early mitosis, several motor proteins drive the separation of centrosomes. With the onset of prophase, the motor protein ... These proteins have been found to cause detrimental alterations in the centrosome of various tumor cells. There are two main ... Since the centrosome organizes the microtubules of a cell, it has to do with the formation of the mitotic spindle, polarity and ...
Another member of this protein family binds to microtubules. Since these family members can form heterodimers, this suggests ... that these proteins may serve as a link between titin kinase and microtubule-dependent signal pathways in muscle. The protein ... "Transient association of titin and myosin with microtubules in nascent myofibrils directed by the MURF2 RING-finger protein". J ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM63, also known as "MuRF1" is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TRIM63 gene. This gene ...
establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. · endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ... sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus. · regulation of apoptotic process. · cellular protein metabolic ...
... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... microtubule cytoskeleton. • septin complex. • septin filament array. العمليات الحيوية. • دورة الخلية. • regulation of synaptic ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ... Hsu SC، Hazuka CD، Roth R، Foletti DL، Heuser J، Scheller RH (June 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and ...
This is supported by a microtubule from the flagellar bases; two other tubules support the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the ... A Kingdom-level phylogeny of Eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290 (5493): 972-977. [1] ... In addition to the normal supporting microtubules, each contains a rod (called paraxonemal), which has a tubular structure in ... During mitosis, the nuclear membrane remains intact, and the spindle microtubules form inside of it.[2] ...
IgLON perekond koosneb neljast liikmest: LSAMP (limbic system-associated membrane protein), Neurotrimin(Ntm)/CEPU-1 (vastavalt ... Joshi, H. C. (1994). Microtubule organizing centers and γ-tubulin. Cytoskeleton 6 (1): 55-62. ... 10,0 10,1 10,2 Reed, J., McNamee, C., Rackstraw, S., Jenkins, J., Moss, D. (2004). Diglons are heterodimeric proteins composed ... 15,0 15,1 Lajtha, A. (2007). Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology: Neural protein metabolism and function, 2nd ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... microtubule organizing center. • nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ... Protein domains in homologous recombination-related proteins are conserved across the three main groups of life: archaea, ...
... virus particles are gathered by the microtubule-dependent aggregation of toxic or misfolded protein near the microtubule ... At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... An aggresome is a perinuclear site where misfolded proteins are transported and stored by the cell components for their ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ... of peroxisomal matrix proteins signals them to be imported into the organelle. There are at least 32 known peroxisomal proteins ... Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PEX10, PEX11A, PEX11B, PEX11G, PEX12, ...
The microtubules diverge at 90 degree angles. The dentinal tubules contain the cytoplasmic extensions of odontoblasts that once ... which includes dentine-specific proteins), and 10% water (which is adsorbed on the surface of the minerals or between the ...
These include dendritic protein microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) [137,138], brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) [ ... Temporal protein biomarkers in tracking different phases of TBIEdit. A continuum of protein biomarkers in tracking different ... Post-injury neurodegeneration/tauopathy such as Tau protein and phospho-tau protein. There are also autoantibodies as ... Astroglial biomarkers include S100B protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), There are also αII-spectrin breakdown ...
identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ... 2003). "A new member of the LIM protein family binds to filamin B and localizes at stress fibers". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (14): ...
Two examples of adaptor proteins are AP180[3] and epsin.[4][5][6] AP180 is used in synaptic vesicle formation. It recruits ... The stabilization of kinetochore fibers requires the trimeric structure of clathrin in order to crosslink microtubules.[7][8] ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ...
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ... This allows unneeded proteins to be degraded and the amino acids recycled for the synthesis of proteins that are essential for ... Combinational Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Proteins Vamp8 and Vti1b Mediate Fusion of ...
... of the resulting peptide and polyketide products are determined by the number and order of modules on each NRPS and PKS protein ...
"Cdc42-interacting protein 4 mediates binding of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to microtubules". The Journal of ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ...
microtubule binding. • ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ... in the prion protein. Others insert additional amino acids into the protein or cause an abnormally short protein to be made. ...
Kampers T. et al (1996). "RNA stimulates aggregation of microtubule-associated protein tau into Alzheimer-like paired helical ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... Genes code for proteins in bits called exons. The bits can be joined together in different ways to make different mRNAs. Thus, ... from one gene many proteins can be made. This is the process of alternative splicing. Any unwanted versions of the protein get ...
... matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase ... It is known that virions converge to the microtubule organizing center, interact with acidic endosomes and finally enter the ... protein).[63] For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: ... These core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
Instances are collagen[3] family of proteins, tendon, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many ... Biological fibers also known as fibrous proteins or protein filaments consist largely of biologically relevant and biologically ... Animal fibers consist largely of particular proteins. Instances are silkworm silk, spider silk, sinew, catgut, wool, sea silk ... unlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein.[6] ...
Cellular Effects of Curcumin on Plasmodium falciparum Include Disruption of Microtubules, 7. märts 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal. ... inhibition by protein-free media (vaadatud 12.06.2013) ...
"Localization of postsynaptic density-93 to dendritic microtubules and interaction with microtubule-associated protein 1A". The ... protein binding. • protein complex scaffold activity. • protein kinase binding. • L27 domain binding. • ligand-gated ion ... SAP97 is a mammalian MAGUK-family member protein that is similar to the Drosophila protein Dlg1 (the protein is alternatively ... Discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), also known as synapse-associated protein 97 or SAP97, is a scaffold protein that in humans is ...
Several different proteins can be affected, and the specific protein that is absent or defective identifies the specific type ... Among the proteins affected in LGMD are α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycanopathies could be possibly amenable to gene ... Protein MYOT (also known as TTID one of the many genes whose mutations are responsible for this condition). ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Anaphase: Kinetochore microtubules pull the two sets of chromosomes apart, and lengthening polar microtubules push the halves ... The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule ... A number of polar microtubules find and interact with corresponding polar microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the ...
This causes the receptor to activate multiple G-proteins. This in turn causes the Ga-subunit of the protein to activate a ... Microtubules. *(rarely: mitochondria). Hypo-reflective No [25][26] 11. Ellipsoid zone (EZ). The outermost portion of the ... Retinal development begins with the establishment of the eye fields mediated by the SHH and SIX3 proteins, with subsequent ... The photon causes the retinal bound to the receptor protein to isomerise to trans-retinal. ...
Male mice - reversible regulation of the KATNAL1 gene in the Sertoli cell microtubule dynamics of the testes.[18] ... which gives the proteins that regulate how genes act access to the genetic material[13] ... "KATNAL1 Regulation of Sertoli Cell Microtubule Dynamics is Essential for Spermiogenesis and Male Fertility". PLOS Genetics. 8 ...
Protein binding. 92-94%. Metabolism. Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4-mediated). Biological half-life. 3 hours. ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... microtubule cytoskeleton organization. • axon development. • synapse maturation. • postsynaptic intermediate filament ... Neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is ... protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process controlling balance. • neurofilament ...
Microtubules are an important cellular structure composed of two proteins; α-tubulin and β-tubulin. They are hollow rod shaped ... Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ... Anti-microtubule agents are plant-derived chemicals that block cell division by preventing microtubule function. ... The vinca alkaloids prevent the formation of the microtubules, whereas the taxanes prevent the microtubule disassembly. By ...
protein transport. • suckling behavior. • fatty acid alpha-oxidation. • microtubule-based peroxisome localization. • locomotory ... protein import into peroxisome matrix, docking. • neuron migration. • نقل. • protein targeting to peroxisome. • protein ... "Identification of a human PTS1 receptor docking protein directly required for peroxisomal protein import". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... 1997). "Pex14p, a peroxisomal membrane protein binding both receptors of the two PTS-dependent import pathways". Cell. 89 (1): ...
This process is propelled by motor proteins such as dynein. Motor proteins connect the transport vesicles to microtubules and ... Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins ... microtubules assist the transport of chromosomes towards the spindle poles by utilizing the dynein motor proteins during ... This fusion event allows for the delivery of the vesicles contents mediated by proteins such as SNARE proteins. SNAREs are ...
The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins,[1] principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ... These proteins are thought to provide the cellular scaffolding necessary for the actin-myosin complex to undergo contraction. ... Elastic filaments, 1 nm in diameter, are made of titin, a large springy protein. They run through the core of each thick ...
... move across the microtubule, transporting cellular cargo within the cell. They are responsible for ... Kinesin motor proteins. There are two major classes of motor protein associated with movement along microtubules: the kinesins ... Section 19.5, Microtubule Dynamics and Motor Proteins during Mitosis.. *Wordeman, L. 2010. How Kinesin Motor Proteins Drive ... Both classes of microtubule motor protein display ATPase activity, with the energy required for moving proteins across the ...
Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins.. Mandelkow E1, Mandelkow EM.. Author information. 1. Max Planck Unit for ... microtubule motor proteins (their structures, stepping modes, and forces); microtubule nucleation (the roles of centrosomes and ... reflecting the many isoforms and modifications of tubulin and the many proteins with which microtubules interact. Recent ... and the expanding list of microtubule-associated proteins, knowledge of their phosphorylation states, and information on their ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Janus kinase and microtubule interacting proteins (JAKMIPs) are predominantly expressed in neural tissues and lymphoid organs. ... Jamip1 (marlin-1) defines a family of proteins interacting with janus kinases and microtubules.. J. Biol. Chem. 279 43168-77 ...
Protein concentrations were determined by BC assay (Uptima Interchim, Montluçon, France). The microtubule proteins (1 mg of ... Rat brain cytosol contains a PREG-binding protein, which is identified as the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and PREG ... Preparation of Microtubules and Assay of Microtubule Assembly.. Microtubules were prepared from the brains of 50 adult rats by ... The quantity of microtubule formed is proportional to the increase of OD (ΔOD). (a) Microtubule proteins purified from rat ...
Microtubules, tubulin, and microtubule-associated proteins of trypanosomes.. Robinson D, Beattie P, Sherwin T, Gull K. ...
In cell biology, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with the microtubules of the cellular ... There are many other proteins which affect microtubule behavior, such as catastrophin, which destabilizes microtubules, katanin ... Mandelkow E, Mandelkow EM (February 1995). "Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 7 (1): 72 ... cross-linking microtubules and mediating the interactions of microtubules with other proteins in the cell.[1] Within the cell, ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase, domain (IPR015022). Short name: MA_Ser/Thr_Kinase_dom ... GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation Molecular Function. GO:0005524 ATP binding GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding GO:0004674 ...
High-resolution microscopic analysis has precisely revealed the control of microtubule dynamics by individual microtubule- ... associated proteins (MAPs) in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of MAP cDNA into fibroblasts and subsequent analysis using ... Microtubule organization and dynamics dependent on microtubule-associated proteins Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994 Feb;6(1):74-81. ... microscopic analysis has precisely revealed the control of microtubule dynamics by individual microtubule-associated proteins ( ...
Microtubule-associated protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ... MAP2 microtubule-associated protein 2". Lim RW, Halpain S (July 2000). "Regulated association of microtubule-associated protein ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 ... human microtubule-associated protein tau and chromosomal localization of the genes for tau and microtubule-associated protein 2 ...
Non-motor microtubule-associated protein in maintaining synaptic plasticity. University of Tsukuba ... a molecule known as MAP1A connects NMDA glutamate receptors as they are being transported to the synapses to the microtubules, ...
Mammalian Septins Regulate Microtubule Stability through Interaction with the Microtubule-binding Protein MAP4 ... Regulation of microtubule dynamics by the neuronal growth-associated protein SCG10. Beat M. Riederer, Véronique Pellier, Bruno ... Regulation of microtubule dynamics by the neuronal growth-associated protein SCG10. Beat M. Riederer, Véronique Pellier, Bruno ... Regulation of microtubule dynamics by the neuronal growth-associated protein SCG10 Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... Summary. Summary: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal ... microtubules*tau proteins*mitosis*neoplasm proteins*neurons*tubulin*tumor cell line*mitotic spindle apparatus*hippocampus* ... STUDIES ON MICROTUBULE BINDING PROTEINS. Ronald A Milligan; Fiscal Year: 2010. ..Additional work on microtubule associated ... Visualization of microtubule growth in cultured neurons via the use of EB3-GFP (end-binding protein 3-green fluorescent protein ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP." Retrieved ...,XMAP,/a,. ... ...
... yet little is known about the proteins with which they associate. Information... ... Microtubules (MTs) participate in several processes of fundamental importance to growth and development in higher plants, ... non-tubulin proteins which bind to and affect microtubules (MTs) in vitro. These proteins were isolated using taxol-stabilized ... Vallee, R.B., Bloom, G.S. (1984) High molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Mod. Cell Biol. 3, 21-75Google ...
... dynamic instability is driven by GTP hydrolysis and regulated by microtubule-associated proteins, including the plus-end ... tracking end-binding protein (EB) family. We report six cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of MTs, at 3.5 Å or ... Microtubule (MT) dynamic instability is driven by GTP hydrolysis and regulated by microtubule-associated proteins, including ... Mechanistic Origin of Microtubule Dynamic Instability and Its Modulation by EB Proteins Cell. 2015 Aug 13;162(4):849-59. doi: ...
The presence of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) in the brain of several species has been investigated by SDS-gel ... of the porcine brain microtubule protein and 1% of the protein from a brain extract. Taking porcine MAP2 as a reference, we ... The presence of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) in the brain of several species has been investigated by SDS-gel ... 10 ng and it was capable of measuring the protein either in purified microtubules or in crude brain extracts. As determined ...
1 Microtubule-binding Proteins *1.1 Polymerization/Depolymerization Proteins. *1.2 MT Organization Proteins (MAPS) *1.2.1 ... Microtubule-binding Proteins[edit , edit source]. Polymerization/Depolymerization Proteins[edit , edit source]. Tubulin binding ... I-type kinesis have their motor domain in the internal of the protein sequence and do not move along microtubules. Instead, ... Nucleating proteins nucleate MT assembly at the centrosome (i.e. γTURC). End-binding proteins bind the (+) end of filaments and ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q2UZW7. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3. MOUSE ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q2UZW7. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3. MOUSE ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q2UZW7. Isoform 2 of Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Microtubule-associated protein tau. Microtubule-associated protein tau (Neurofibrillary tangle protein) (Paired helical ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Microtubule-associated protein tauImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,B1AQW4,B1AQW4_MOUSE Microtubule-associated protein tau (Fragment) OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Mapt PE=1 SV=1 ...
The N1-RP1 protein (80 kDa), which contains the DCX domains, co-sediments with the microtubule pellets. The N2-RP1 protein (53 ... As shown in Figure 3C, the N1 protein bound to and sedimented with microtubules. In contrast, the N2-RP1 protein lost its ... The Retinitis Pigmentosa 1 Protein Is a Photoreceptor Microtubule-Associated Protein. Qin Liu, Jian Zuo and Eric A. Pierce ... Microtubule polymerization assay. To generate purified recombinant Rp1 proteins for use in microtubule polymerization assays, ...
Dystrophin is a microtubule-associated protein. Kurt W. Prins, Jill L. Humston, Amisha Mehta, Victoria Tate, Evelyn Ralston, ... Dystrophin is a microtubule-associated protein. Kurt W. Prins, Jill L. Humston, Amisha Mehta, Victoria Tate, Evelyn Ralston, ... Altered microtubule organization in small-calibre axons of mice lacking tau protein. Nature. 369:488-491. ... Cytolinkers are giant proteins that can stabilize cells by linking actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules ( ...
Microtubule-Associated Protein) Ab-2, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody.. Microtubule Associated Protein 2 exists in two high molecular ... Immunogen: Bovine brain microtubule associated protein 2. Molecular Weight: ~280kDa Doublet. Positive Control: Human ... Thermo Scientific Lab Vision MAP 2a,b (Microtubule-Associated Protein) Ab-2, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ... Thermo Scientific Lab Vision MAP 2a,b (Microtubule-Associated Protein) Ab-2, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ...
Microtubule protein level predicts drugs effectiveness against brain cancer cells Lab study shows that drugs like paclitaxel ... different levels of microtubule proteins in these cells affects their susceptibility to MTAs (ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci. 2019 ... Microtubules contain polymerized tubulin dimers made of an α-tubulin and a β-tubulin, each of which comes in several forms. ... Such microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are promising drug candidates against glioblastoma, an aggressive brain cancer, but ...
What is microtubule-associated proteins? Meaning of microtubule-associated proteins medical term. What does microtubule- ... Looking for online definition of microtubule-associated proteins in the Medical Dictionary? microtubule-associated proteins ... microtubule-associated proteins. Also found in: Encyclopedia. mi·cro·tu·bu·le-·as·so·ci·at·ed pro·teins (MAPs), proteins that ... Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 and to the 240-kilodalton ...
Colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 1A and microtubule-associated protein 2 on neuronal microtubules in situ ... Arc interacts with microtubules/microtubule-associated protein 2 and attenuates microtubule-associated protein 2 ... Colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 1A and microtubule-associated protein 2 on neuronal microtubules in situ ... a uniquely phosphatase-sensitive protein kinase A site in microtubule-associated protein MAP2c, regulates microtubule binding ...
Synonyms: APC-binding protein EB2, EB1, EB2, End-binding protein 2, Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 2, ... ... EB1 family proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that bind microtubule plus-ends and centrosomes and regulate the ... MLL is fused to EB1 (MAPRE1), which encodes a microtubule-associated protein, in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ... Regulation of microtubule assembly by human EB1 family proteins. Bu, W., Su, L.K. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed] ...
The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization. ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization ... The Autism Protein Ube3A/E6AP Remodels Neuronal Dendritic Arborization via Caspase-Dependent Microtubule Destabilization ...
Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ...
Microtubule-severing protein Katanin regulates neuromuscular junction development and dendritic elaboration in Drosophila.. [ ... Microtubules (MTs) are crucial for diverse biological processes including cell division, cell growth and motility, ... Among many MT regulators, katanin was the first identified MT-severing protein, but its neuronal functions have not yet been ...
... via motor proteins along microtubule tracks, or else through interactions with moving microtubules (39, 40). Our finding that ... though REEP1 and the closely related protein REEP2 interact with microtubules and redistribute ER tubules along the microtubule ... A truncated REEP1 protein resulting from a pathogenic SPG31 mutation does not bind microtubules, and it disrupts the ER network ... MIT, present in microtubule-interacting and transport proteins. (B) REEP1 (green) was coexpressed with Myc-tagged M87 (top; red ...
  • The proteins may have a role in Jak signalling and regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton rearrangements. (
  • Microtubules are major structural components of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and they have an essential role in the elaboration of axons and dendrites ( 7 ). (
  • In cell biology, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with the microtubules of the cellular cytoskeleton. (
  • 3] While the C termini of these MAPs bind the microtubules, the N termini bind other parts of the cytoskeleton or the plasma membrane to control spacing of the microtubule within the cell. (
  • Delivery of proteins to axons or dendrites depends on interactions between molecular motors and the cytoskeleton. (
  • REEP proteins were required for ER network formation in vitro, and REEP1 also bound microtubules and promoted ER alignment along the microtubule cytoskeleton in COS7 cells. (
  • Thus, defects in tubular ER shaping and network interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton seem to be the predominant pathogenic mechanism of HSP. (
  • The targeting of the movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus to plasmodesmata involves the actin/endoplasmic reticulum network and does not require an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. (
  • Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. (
  • Polarization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is an early event in establishment of anterior-posterior polarity for the Drosophila oocyte. (
  • The fusion protein also suggests a polarity to the microtubule cytoskeleton of dendrites and muscle fibers, as it accumulates at the ends of dendrites in the embryonic PNS and is excluded from terminal cytoplasm in embryonic muscle. (
  • Since 1993 Cytoskeleton has provided purified tubulin proteins to the scientific community. (
  • The protein of focus, CAP-Gly, short for "cytoskeleton-associated protein-glycine-rich domains," is a component of dynactin, which binds with the motor protein dynein to move cargoes of essential proteins along the microtubule tracks. (
  • Kinetics of Microtubule Polymerization in Vitro . (
  • High-resolution microscopic analysis has precisely revealed the control of microtubule dynamics by individual microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in vitro. (
  • As a first step in gaining insight into this problem, we have isolated, from suspension-cultured cells of carrot ( Daucus carota L.), non-tubulin proteins which bind to and affect microtubules (MTs) in vitro. (
  • The bundled MTs formed in vitro share similarities with those seen in situ in a variety of plant cells, including a center-center spacing of 34 nm, cold stability, resistance to anti-microtubule drugs, and sensitivity to calcium. (
  • Bates, W.R., Kidder, G.M. (1984) Synthesis of putative microtubule-associated proteins by mouse blastocysts during early outgrowth in vitro. (
  • Cyr, R.J., Palevitz, B.A. (1987) Isolation of carrot proteins which promote the assembly of both neuronal and carrot tubulins in vitro. (
  • The N-terminal portion of RP1 stimulates the formation of microtubules in vitro and stabilizes cytoplasmic microtubules in heterologous cells. (
  • LMBD1 specifically accelerates microtubule assembly dynamics in vitro and antagonizes the microtubule-disruptive effect of vinblastine. (
  • Here, we have used a variety of in vivo and in vitro assays to determine that the MP functions as a genuine microtubule-associated protein that binds microtubules directly and modulates microtubule stability. (
  • In addition, we found that MP interferes with kinesin motor activity in vitro, suggesting that microtubule-associated MP may interfere with kinesin-driven transport processes during infection. (
  • Chlorpromazine at concentrations which approximate apparent physiological concentrations interacts reversibly with brain microtubule subunit protein in vitro and, in so doing, inhibits the rate of reassembly of microtubules and the binding of colchicine by the protein. (
  • These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug. (
  • I'm trying to bind a protein of mine to cytoskeletal proteins e.g. vimentin, actin, desmin etc in vitro. (
  • We also measured [H] 3 Taxol binding to microtubules in the presence and absence of Tau in an in vitro polymerization assay. (
  • Preincubation of tubulin with Tau decreased the amount of [H] 3 Taxol binding to microtubules in vitro. (
  • The two proteins colocalize and interact in vivo as well as in vitro and exhibit mutual functional interference. (
  • The microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking protein CLASP2 is a potent MT growth promoting factor in vitro, and has been shown to selectively stabilize MTs in regions of cells where GSK3 is locally inactivated. (
  • Microtubules isolated from brain extracts by in vitro assembly (1, 19, 23) are composed principally of two tubulins and two high molecular weight proteins (microtubule-associated proteins [MAPS] 1 and 2) (2,5,7,20). (
  • Recently, it was demonstrated that in vitro-assembled brain microtubules (neurotubules) are coated with filaments (5, 7) which are similar to the filaments attached to neurotubules in situ (4, 15, 21, 24, 25), and it was suggested that the filaments are composed of the higher molecular weight MAPs (5, 7, 12). (
  • G-1 dose dependently (10-50 μM) stimulated microtubule assembly in vitro. (
  • A the 110K protein is accessible to protease in intact vesicles in vitro, it is presumably located on the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi membrane in vivo. (
  • The 110K protein was able to interact specifically with taxol-polymerized microtubules in vitro. (
  • Msps protein binds to microtubules in vitro. (
  • Consistent with their sequence similarity, Msps protein also associates with microtubules in vitro. (
  • article{3965a8a0-d884-4df6-8f8b-104c7b29b865, abstract = {The G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor GPER1, also known as GPR30, has been implicated in oestrogen signalling, but the physiological importance of GPER1 is not fully understood. (
  • The neurosteroid pregnenolone (PREG) and its chemically synthesized analog 3β-methoxypregnenolone (MePREG) bind to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and stimulate the polymerization of microtubules. (
  • Rat brain cytosol contains a PREG-binding protein, which is identified as the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and PREG stimulates MAP2-driven microtubule assembly ( 6 ). (
  • Progesterone (PROG), which also binds to MAP2, does not stimulate microtubule polymerization, but counteracts the effect of PREG (as do competitive antagonists). (
  • MAP2 is present in PC12 cells during differentiation ( 10 , 11 ), and there is a direct correlation between the increase of neurite length and the rate of microtubule assembly ( 12 ). (
  • The numerous identified MAPs have been largely divided into two categories: Type I including MAP1 proteins and type II including MAP2, MAP4 and tau proteins. (
  • MAP2 and tau stabilize microtubules, and thus shift the reaction kinetics in favor of addition of new subunits, accelerating microtubule growth. (
  • Both MAP2 and tau have been shown to stabilize microtubules by binding to the outer surface of the microtubule protofilaments. (
  • 5][6] A single study has suggested that MAP2 and tau bind on the inner microtubule surface on the same site in tubulin monomers as the drug Taxol, which is used in treating cancer,[7] but this study has not been confirmed. (
  • MAP2 binds in a cooperative manner, with many MAP2 proteins binding a single microtubule to promote stabilization. (
  • Like MAP2 and tau, MAP4 is responsible for stabilization of microtubules. (
  • Microtubule-associated protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAP2 gene. (
  • Brain extracts are rich in several of these proteins, MAP2 being one of these. (
  • The single MAP2 gene produces four major transcripts producing four proteins, MAP2A, MAP2B, MAP2C and MAP2D. (
  • All forms of MAP2 share a common core sequence which includes MT binding domains, 18 amino acid sequences which are found in other MT associated proteins such as MAP Tau and MAP1B. (
  • MAP2 isoforms are neuron-specific cytoskeletal proteins enriched in dendrites and perikarya, implicating a role in determining and stabilizing neuronal morphology during neuron development. (
  • MAP2 and Tau are responsible for organizing microtubules in neuronal axons and dendrites. (
  • Phosphorylation determines the binding of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) to microtubules in living cells. (
  • These polymers contain a variety of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), including MAP2 and the closely related protein family, tau (Borisy et al. (
  • Molecular characterization of microtubule-associated proteins tau and MAP2. (
  • Microtubule Associated Protein 2 (MAP2) Antibody from MYBIOSOURCE INC. (
  • Microtubules are associated with a family of proteins called microtubule associated proteins (MAPs), which includes the protein tau and a group of proteins referred to as MAP1, MAP2, MAP3, MAP4 and MAP5. (
  • All these MAP2 forms are derived from a single gene by alternate transcription, and all share a C-terminal sequence which includes either three or four microtubule binding peptide sequences, which are very similar to those found in the related microtubule binding protein tau. (
  • Since the NF-H protein is largely expressed in neuronal axons, while the MAP2 is only found in neuronal dendrites and perikarya, there is little overlap between these two staining patterns. (
  • MAP2 constitutes 70% of the total protein (see Figure 1). (
  • Since the projection domain of MAP2 is longer, the spacing between microtubules is greater in the MAP2 expressing cells. (
  • and the expanding list of microtubule-associated proteins, knowledge of their phosphorylation states, and information on their effects on microtubule dynamics. (
  • MAP-microtubule binding is regulated through MAP phosphorylation. (
  • Phosphorylation of the MAP by the MARK causes the MAP to detach from any bound microtubules. (
  • In this way the stabilization of microtubules by MAPs is regulated within the cell through phosphorylation. (
  • As described above, phosphorylation of MAPs causes them to detach from microtubules. (
  • This is partly due to phosphorylation of XMAP215, which makes catastrophes (rapid depolymerization of microtubules) more likely. (
  • 1997) Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau by stress-activated protein kinases. (
  • The C-terminal tail is required for phosphorylation by GSK3B and for microtubule-binding. (
  • All the results presented that both inhibition of the activity and expression of UCH-L1 induced the decreased microtubule-binding ability and increased phosphorylation of tau protein. (
  • These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. (
  • The roles of microtubule-associated kinases and phosphatases have yet to be fully described, but may afford insight into how tau phosphorylation at the distal end of the axon regulates cytoskeletal-membrane interactions. (
  • Growth factor-induced activation of a kinase activity which causes regulatory phosphorylation of p42/microtubule-associated protein kinase. (
  • p42/microtubule-associated protein kinase (p42mapk) is activated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation, and its regulatory phosphorylation is likely to be important in signalling pathways involved in growth control, secretion, and differentiation. (
  • Phosphorylation on these sites reduces the ability of a given Tau species to promote microtubule self-assembly. (
  • These results indicate that in vascular smooth muscle cells Ang II activates two species of MBP/microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases mainly through the protein kinase C-signaling pathway and suggest that tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation may be involved in this process. (
  • Phosphorylation of DMD or UTRN may modulate their affinities for associated proteins. (
  • Microtubule associated protein (MAP)-Tau promotes tubulin assembly and stabilizes microtubules in a physiological manner. (
  • RASSF1A stabilizes microtubules and regulates mitotic events. (
  • The dual-specificity phosphatase CDC14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules. (
  • The multidomain protooncogenic protein c-Cbl binds to tubulin and stabilizes microtubules. (
  • It promotes tubulin polymerization and stabilizes microtubules. (
  • Tau, also known as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), is a protein that stabilizes microtubules. (
  • When this protein is defective, and no longer stabilizes microtubules properly, it can result in dementias, such as Alzheimer s disease. (
  • Tucker JB, Mogensen MM, Henderson CG, Doxsey SJ, Wright M, Stearns T. Nucleation and capture of large cell surface-associated microtubule arrays that are not located near centrosomes in certain cochlear epithelial cells. (
  • While the MP acts like a microtubule-associated protein able to stabilize microtubules during late infection stages, the protein was also shown to cause the inactivation of the centrosome upon expression in mammalian cells, thus suggesting that MP may interact with factors involved in microtubule attachment, nucleation, or polymerization. (
  • This leads to decreased microtubule nucleation from centrosomes, a defect that can be rescued by dominant-negative Rab5. (
  • 1) stabilize MTs by binding to their sides and inhibiting disassembly (2) enhance assembly by stabilizing nuclei and thus facilitating nucleation (3) organize MTs into bundles in various cellular structures (4) mediate MT interactions with other proteins in the cell, including intermediate filaments and actin. (
  • Moreover, defects in AnPcpA significantly disrupted the microtubule organization and nucleation, suggesting that AnPcpA may affect nucleus positioning by influencing microtubule organization. (
  • The microtubule-associated protein tau favors microtubule nucleation and stabilization and plays a role in the elongation of axons. (
  • BACKGROUND Many types of differentiated eukaryotic cells display microtubule distributions consistent with nucleation from noncentrosomal intracellular microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), although such structures remain poorly characterized. (
  • Nucleation of microtubules from centrosomes, metaphase alignment of chromosomes, or the focusing of spindle poles appears much less affected. (
  • Mitosis requires the trafficking of proteins along microtubules to produce two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. (
  • Motor proteins therefore have important roles in protein transport along the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during mitosis. (
  • The rearrangement of microtubule subunits is fundamental for the formation of the mitotic spindle during mitosis. (
  • The anaphase stage of mitosis is also driven by motor proteins. (
  • Kinesins also have a role in mitosis by promoting proper spindle length and aiding microtubule movement during metaphase. (
  • During mitosis the dynamic instability of microtubules has been observed to rise approximately tenfold. (
  • Members of the ORBIT/MAST/CLASP family of microtubule-associated proteins associate with the plus ends of microtubules, where they promote the addition of tubulin subunits into attached kinetochore fibers during mitosis and stabilize microtubules in the vicinity of the plasma membrane during interphase. (
  • Berlin V, Styles CA, Fink GR. BIK1, a protein required for microtubule function during mating and mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, colocalizes with tubulin. (
  • Earnshaw WC, Mackay AM. Role of nonhistone proteins in the chromosomal events of mitosis. (
  • ASAP localizes to microtubules in interphase, associates with the mitotic spindle during mitosis, localizes to the central body during cytokinesis and directly binds to purified microtubules by its COOH-terminal domain. (
  • Overexpression of ASAP induces profound bundling of cytoplasmic microtubules in interphase cells and aberrant monopolar spindles in mitosis. (
  • As with human ASAP, the mouse and Xenopus proteins localize to the microtubule network in interphase and to the mitotic spindle during mitosis. (
  • ASAP associates to the mitotic spindle and cytoplasmic microtubules, and represents a key factor of mitosis with possible involvement in other cell cycle processes. (
  • It is thought that characteristic microtubule configurations during mitosis and cytokinesis are dictated by the coordinated action of microtubule-stabilizing and -destabilizing factors. (
  • Recombinant Human Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau 383 a.a. (
  • Here we show that SCG10 binds to microtubules, inhibits their assembly, and can induce microtubule disassembly. (
  • Isoform 2: F-actin-binding protein which plays a role in cross-linking actin to other cytoskeletal proteins and also binds to microtubules (PubMed:15265687, PubMed:20937854). (
  • In axons, one of the main cytoskeletal components is the microtubule (MT), which is oriented with its plus end toward the growth cone. (
  • High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. (
  • Its morphogenesis is a multiscale process in which nanometer-scale cytoskeletal protein complexes, individual cells, and groups of cells pattern growth and define macroscopic leaf traits. (
  • Understanding how signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins pattern cell walls during this form of tissue morphogenesis is an important research challenge. (
  • In most cases, these diseases are also associated with changes in cytoskeletal proteins and microtubule stability. (
  • This thesis investigates the levels and localisation of cytoskeletal proteins in mouse cortical neurons following 26S proteasome dysfunction (Psmc1fl/fl;CaMKIIα-Cre). (
  • This study provides new insights into the role of the UPS in maintain cytoskeletal proteins that may be important in neurodegenerative disease. (
  • Structural microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) stabilize microtubules, a property that was thought to be essential for development, maintenance and function of neuronal circuits. (
  • Kinesin structures vary, but all contain two globular heads formed from heavy chains that make up the motor domain, with separate binding sites for ATP and the microtubule. (
  • The stalks of two kinesin heavy chains produce a protein dimer that binds two light chains where most transported cargo attaches. (
  • Kinesin motion is thought to be produced by either a hand-over-hand mechanism, where the globular heads alternate in step across the microtubule, or by an inchworm mechanism, in which one globular head leads and the other catches up. (
  • For example, the Eg5 kinesin is involved in pushing the spindle poles in opposite directions by binding to antiparallel microtubules in the middle of the mitotic spindle. (
  • Recently, it was shown that different tau isoforms including the ones carrying various types of mutations affect microtubule (MT)-kinesin binding and velocity in an isoform specific manner. (
  • Anastral meiotic spindle morphogenesis: role of the non-claret disjunctional kinesin-like protein. (
  • We recently identified dynamin as a third nucleotide-sensitive microtubule-associated protein in brain tissue, in addition to kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. (
  • The kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) is a new member of the kinesin superfamily that appears to be present only in plants. (
  • Kinesins and kinesin-like proteins (KLPs), a family of microtubule motor proteins, are involved in many dynamic cellular processes, such as transport of vesicles and organelles, nuclear fusion, spindle formation, and chromosome movement during cell division ( Bloom and Endow, 1994 ). (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the motor domains of kinesin proteins has shown that most members of the kinesin superfamily can be placed into one of eight subfamilies ( Moore and Endow, 1996 ). (
  • During stages 8-9 of oogenesis, when oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, a fusion protein consisting of the plus-end-directed microtubule motor kinesin and beta-galactosidase (Kin:beta gal) similarly localizes to the posterior pole, thereby suggesting that plus ends of microtubules are pointed to the posterior. (
  • In this paper, we have substituted the motor domain of Kin:beta gal with the putative motor domain (head) from the kinesin-related protein Nod. (
  • 1995 ) DNA-binding and meiotic chromosomal localization of the Drosophila nod kinesin-like protein. (
  • 1995 ) Identification of the chromosome localization domain of the Drosophila nod kinesin-like protein. (
  • 1994 ) Transient posterior localization of a kinesin fusion protein reflects anteroposterior polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. (
  • KinI kinesins , proteins that share sequence similarity with the MT motor protein kinesin, promotes MT depolymerization at the (+) end by binding to and inducing protofilament curling. (
  • The kinesin heavy chain and the ncd (non-claret disjunctional) gene product of Drosophila are microtubule-associated motor proteins related by sequence similarity within an ≈340-aa domain. (
  • Despite the sequence similarity, the kinesin heavy chain and ncd protein move in opposite directions on microtubules. (
  • To investigate the molecular basis for direction of movement, we created a series of truncated kinesin heavy chain and ncd proteins. (
  • Jamip1 (marlin-1) defines a family of proteins interacting with janus kinases and microtubules. (
  • This domain is found in microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinases. (
  • The Mob family is a group of highly conserved proteins in eukaryotes, described as binding partners as well as co-activators of protein kinases of the Ndr family, and as members of the Hippo pathway. (
  • Angiotensin II stimulates two myelin basic protein/microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Microtubule-associated protein 2 also served as a substrate for both the kinases. (
  • Nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent, induces a major retraction of neurites in control cultures, but pretreatment with PREG/MePREG is protective. (
  • Purification of tau, a microtubule-associated protein that induces assembly of microtubules from purified tubulin. (
  • More unexpectedly, MAP6 localizes in the lumen of microtubules, induces the microtubules to coil into a left-handed helix, and forms apertures in the lattice, likely to relieve mechanical stress. (
  • Our results unveiled a previously unknown mechanism through which disruption of protein homeostasis induces caspase-8 oligomerization, activation, and apoptosis. (
  • Overexpression of the mouse protein induces mitotic defects similar to those observed in human. (
  • The dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) is largely controlled by a protein complex at the MT plus end. (
  • The research group has ascertained that a molecule known as MAP1A connects NMDA glutamate receptors as they are being transported to the synapses to the microtubules, stabilizing the receptors and preventing them from becoming "derailed," and playing a role in improving the overall efficiency and stability of the transport process. (
  • MAPs bind to the tubulin subunits that make up microtubules to regulate their stability. (
  • Thus, the hyperphosphorylation of tau leads to massive detachment, which in turn greatly reduces the stability of microtubules in nerve cells. (
  • Evaluation of photoreceptor axonemes from mice with targeted disruptions of the Rp1 gene shows that Rp1 proteins that contain the DCX domains also help control axoneme length and stability in vivo . (
  • Our findings indicate that human Mob1 proteins are involved in the regulation of microtubule stability at the midbody. (
  • Furthermore, we show that upon Mob1 downregulation, centrioles fail to rejoin at the end of cytokinesis, cells acquire increased motility, and microtubule stability is increased. (
  • Vinca alkaloids, such as vincristine and vinblastine, are a group of natural product antimitotic drugs that disrupt microtubule stability and induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis ( 5 ). (
  • This stability is somehow maintained by various microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), but little is known about how these proteins work. (
  • Here, we show that MAP6, previously known to confer cold stability to microtubules, promotes growth. (
  • Our analysis suggests that CLASP promotes microtubule stability. (
  • also named as C16orf63, FLJ31153 or PHSECRG2] can regulate the assembly and stability of microtubules. (
  • before obvious changes in microtubule stability. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining also showed the colocalization of LMBD1 with microtubule in both interphase and mitotic cells. (
  • In this study, we observed that LMP1 expression in human epithelial cells could induce aberrant mitotic spindles, disorganized interphase microtubules and aneuploidy. (
  • The aberrant mitotic spindles and interphase microtubule organization induced by LMP1 could be rescued by transfecting RASSF1A expression plasmid into cells. (
  • The overexpression of FOR20 depolymerized interphase microtubules and the depletion of FOR20 prevented nocodazole-induced depolymerization of microtubules in HeLa cells. (
  • The absence of centrosomal staining in interphase of the cellularized embryos suggests that the interactions between Msps protein and microtubules or centrosomes may be regulated during the cell cycle. (
  • The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). (
  • Other kinesins power movements towards the minus ends of microtubules and are utilized during anaphase along with dyneins. (
  • In stage 8-10 oocytes, the Nod fusion localizes to the anterior margin, thus supporting the hypothesis that minus ends of microtubules at these stages are primarily at the anterior margin of the oocyte. (
  • This binding can occur with either polymerized or depolymerized tubulin, and in most cases leads to the stabilization of microtubule structure, further encouraging polymerization. (
  • The proteins of this family were originally isolated since they copurify with tubulin in polymerization experiments: tubulin in cell extracts can be made to polymerize to produce microtubules (MT) under the influence of heat and the addition of GTP, and the MT can then be collected by centrifugation. (
  • A microtubule associated protein (MAP) fraction has been isolated from porcine brain by temperature induced tubulin polymerization followed by ionic exchange chromatography over a phosphocellulose matrix and salt elution (1, 2). (
  • Stringent quality control ensures that the MAP fraction protein will stimulate tubulin polymerization at least five fold when compared to tubulin polymerization without MAP fraction. (
  • Tubulin polymerization in the presence and absence of microtubule associated protein fraction. (
  • Kits range from the basic tubulin protein and buffers version, BK015 , to the Microtubule Binding Assay, BK029 , and the polymerization assays described below. (
  • Isoform 1 associates with microtubules. (
  • Finally, we also show that depolymerization of microtubules is a prerequisite for abscission, and that Mob1 proteins are involved in the regulation of this process. (
  • Nucleating proteins nucleate MT assembly at the centrosome (i.e. γTURC). (
  • In animal cells, the centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules (MT), forming their radial array. (
  • They are transported to the centrosome along MTs by the motor protein dynein in a complex with its cofactor dynactin. (
  • Different classes of microtubule motor protein provide motion through their interaction with tubulin subunits. (
  • End-binding proteins bind the (+) end of filaments and mediates chromosome/membrane interaction (i.e. (
  • Amino acids 28-228 of RP1, which share limited homology with the microtubule-binding domains of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein (MAP) doublecortin, mediate the interaction between RP1 and microtubules, indicating that the putative doublecortin (DCX) domains in RP1 are functional. (
  • Interaction with CAMSAP3 at the minus ends of non-centrosomal microtubules tethers microtubules minus-ends to actin filaments, regulating focal adhesion size and cell migration (PubMed:27693509). (
  • May play role in delivery of transport vesicles containing GPI -linked proteins from the trans-Golgi network through its interaction with GOLGA4 (PubMed:15265687). (
  • Previous studies in our laboratory have provided evidence that the vRNA movement process is correlated with the ability of the MP to interact with microtubules, although the exact role of this interaction during infection is not known. (
  • NMR Investigation of the Interaction between the Neuronal Protein Tau and the Microtubules. (
  • Whereas the interaction between Tau and the microtubules has been studied in great detail both by macroscopic techniques (cosedimentation, cryo-electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy) using the full-length protein or by peptide mapping assays, no detailed view at the level of individual amino acids has been presented when using the full-length protein. (
  • Here, we present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the interaction between the full-length neuronal protein Tau and paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules (MTs). (
  • To study the interaction of the KCBP with microtubules, we expressed different regions of the Arabidopsis KCBP and used the purified proteins in cosedimentation assays with microtubules. (
  • However, the interaction of the N-terminal tail region of the KCBP with microtubules was insensitive to ATP. (
  • These data on the interaction of the KCBP with microtubules provide new insights into the functioning of the KCBP in plants. (
  • These findings suggest that MP interacts with EB1 and that this interaction may play a role in the associations of MP with the microtubule system during infection. (
  • This enhanced caspase-8 oligomerization and activation are promoted through its interaction with the ubiquitin-binding protein SQSTM1/p62 and the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), which are enriched at intracellular membranes in response to proteotoxic stress. (
  • Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. (
  • The protein contains MAP, MIT-like and THY domains in the C-terminal part indicative of microtubule interaction, while the N-terminal part is more divergent. (
  • Interaction of the Aspergillus nidulans microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) component ApsB with gamma-tubulin and evidence for a role of a subclass of peroxisomes in the formation of septal MTOCs. (
  • Required for efficient upward migration of bulge cells in response to wounding and this function is primarily rooted in its ability to coordinate microtubule dynamics and polarize hair follicle stem cells. (
  • The results suggested that the centrosomal protein FOR20 is a new member of the microtubule-associated protein family and that it regulates the assembly and dynamics of microtubules. (
  • Tau is a relatively low molecular weight member of the microtubule associated protein or MAP. (
  • Chromosome movement is aided by the positioning of astral spindle microtubules through minus ended dynein motor proteins with cortical sliding of astral microtubules along stationary dynein possibly taking place during anaphase B. (
  • We determined that REEP1 is structurally related to the DP1/Yop1p family of ER-shaping proteins and localizes to the ER in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, where it colocalizes with spastin and atlastin-1. (
  • Cokel1p was localized on cortical and spindle microtubules in vegetative hyphae. (
  • Auxin gradients were proposed to function across cell boundaries to encode stable offset patterns of cortical microtubules and actin filaments between adjacent cells. (
  • clasp-1 T-DNA insertion mutants are hypersensitive to microtubule-destabilizing drugs and exhibit more sparsely populated, yet well ordered, root cortical microtubule arrays. (
  • Microtubule research is becoming increasingly diverse, reflecting the many isoforms and modifications of tubulin and the many proteins with which microtubules interact. (
  • corresponding to the shortest version of the 8 human tau proteins, so the antibody is expected to bind to all 8 isoforms. (
  • Tau protein is expressed as up to 8 different isoforms of different molecular weight and so appears as multiple closely spaced bands covering the region of the blot from 50kDa to 70kDa. (
  • Tau proteins constitute a family of six isoforms, which ranging from 352 to 441 amino acids. (
  • 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. (
  • Protein concentration was determined by Bio-Rad protein assay with bovine serum albumin as standard. (
  • After LDN and UCH-L1 siRNA treatment, we used immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and tau-microtubule binding assay to measure the microtubule-binding ability and post-translational modifications of tau protein. (
  • A colchicine-binding assay and quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis have been used to determine the changes which occur in microtubule protein (tubulin) concentrations in the particulate and soluble fractions of mouse oviduct homogenates during that period of development when centriole formation and cilium formation are at a maximum. (
  • The Microtubule Binding Spin-down Assay, BK029 , uses pre-formed microtubules as a substrate to bind the protein or compound of interest, the bound and non-bound fractions are separated by centrifugation to produce a pellet (bound) and supernatant (non-bound) fractions. (
  • MBS9319573 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 3 (EML3) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (
  • In certain familial forms of FTD and in PSP the microtubule-binding four repeat tau isoform principally accumulates in neuropathological lesions. (
  • Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. (
  • Furthermore, transfection of MAP cDNA into fibroblasts and subsequent analysis using microinjection of caged fluorescein-labeled tubulin and photoactivation have enabled the function of MAPs in microtubule dynamics to be studied in detail in vivo. (
  • Systematic, quantitative studies using transfection of various kinds of MAP cDNA deletion mutants have demonstrated the complex mechanism for microtubule bundling in vivo, and have shown the involvement in microtubule bundling of both microtubule binding and projection regions of MAPs. (
  • Bajer, A.S., Mole-Bajer, J. (1986) Reorganization of microtubules in endosperm cells and cell fragments of the higher plant Haemanthus in vivo. (
  • Here we demonstrate that the CD64-directed human cytolytic fusion protein H22(scFv)-MAP kills ex vivo 15-50% of CD64+ leukemic blasts derived from seven myeloid leukemia patients. (
  • In cells with defined microtubule polarity, the Nod:beta gal fusion protein is an in vivo minus-end reporter for microtubules. (
  • A similar approach, combined with detailed structural analysis, has indicated clearly that differences in the amino-terminal projection region of MAPs can determine differential organization of MT bundles, and thus influence the characteristic organization of microtubule domains in dendrites and axons. (
  • PCM-1 (PeriCentriolar Matrix 1) protein, which participates in the organization of the primary cilium, is a part of pericentiolar satellites. (
  • Dammermann A, Merdes A (2002) Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1. (
  • Controlling microtubule dynamics and spatial organization is a fundamental requirement of eukaryotic cell function. (
  • Proteins that influence MT organization (Microtubule Associated Proteins or MAPS). (
  • We suggest that G-1-promoted endothelial cell anti-proliferation is due in part to alteration of microtubule organization through a mechanism independent of GPER1. (
  • Mto2p, a novel fission yeast protein required for cytoplasmic microtubule organization and anchoring of the cytokinetic actin ring. (
  • JAKMIP1 has also been shown to interact with GABA(B) receptor R1 subunits [ PMID: 14718537 ], and may be involved in microtubule-dependent transport of the GABA-B receptor [ PMID: 17532644 ]. (
  • A SPG31 mutant REEP1 lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic region did not interact with microtubules and disrupted the ER network. (
  • These data indicate that the HSP proteins atlastin-1, spastin, and REEP1 interact within the tubular ER membrane in corticospinal neurons to coordinate ER shaping and microtubule dynamics. (
  • Different assumptions on how the microtubules interact with the cell's cytoplasm (the fluidic interior) and its periphery give very different predictions for this dynamics. (
  • We know from our prior studies that CAP-Gly is dynamic on timescales from nano- to milliseconds, and this mobility is essential for the protein's ability to interact with microtubules and with multiple other binding partners. (
  • Previously, we showed that SLK/LOSK phosphorylated the p150 Glued subunit of dynactin, thus promoting its centrosomal targeting followed by its participation in the retention of microtubules. (
  • In the embryonic division cycles, Msps protein localizes to centrosomal regions at all mitotic stages, and spreads over the spindles during metaphase and anaphase. (
  • Bovine MAP 2 appeared closely related to the porcine protein whereas the rat antigen showed low cross-reaction and chicken MAP 2 appeared immunologically unrelated to porcine MAP 2 . (
  • High molecular MAP protein preparation derived from bovine brain. (
  • Usually, it is the C-terminal domain of the MAP that interacts with tubulin, while the N-terminal domain can bind with cellular vesicles, intermediate filaments or other microtubules. (
  • The atlastin-1 GTPase interacts with spastin, a microtubule-severing ATPase, as well as with the DP1/Yop1p and reticulon families of ER-shaping proteins, and SPG3A caused by atlastin-1 mutations has been linked pathogenically to abnormal ER morphology. (
  • Like other plant viruses, TMV encodes a movement protein (MP) that interacts with Pd and facilitates the intercellular passage of its genome ( 28 , 39 , 64 ). (
  • These structures reveal how the protein interacts with microtubules, predominantly through its loop regions, which adopt specific conformations upon binding. (
  • 1988 ) Polarity orientation of microtubules in hippocampal neurons: Uniformity in the axon and non-uniformity in the dendrite. (
  • 1988 ) Dendrites of mitral cell neurons contain microtubules of opposite polarity. (
  • associated with neurodegeneration and the formation of intraneuronal protein inclusions in surviving neurons. (
  • Taken together, our novel data contributes to our understanding of molecular and cellular events underlying neurodegeneration and suggest that control of microtubule changes may help to slow or restore pathology of neurons. (
  • Ensure accurate, reproducible results in immunohistochemistry and western blotting experiments with Thermo Scientific MAP 2a,b (Microtubule-Associated Protein) Ab-2, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • F. Western blot analysis of E10.5 heads (or whole body for Miro DKO embryos) showing the specificity of the different bands recognised by the antibody (anti‐Miro1 from Atlas) and the complete depletion of Miro1 and Miro2 proteins in Miro DKO embryos. (
  • A monoclonal antibody (M3A5), raised against microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), recognized an antigen associated with the Golgi complex in a variety of non-neuronal tissue culture cells. (
  • These data identify SCG10 as a key regulator of neurite extension through regulation of microtubule instability. (
  • We also speculate about their function in microtubule regulation and highlight how the studies of EMLs in human diseases may open up novel avenues for patient therapy. (
  • Here we report that human Mob1A and Mob1B proteins are involved in the regulation of abscission of the intercellular bridge. (
  • This Ca 2 -calmodulin regulation of motor domain interactions with microtubules was abolished in the presence of antibodies specific to the calmodulin binding region. (
  • Dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules is essential for cell division, cell movements, and intracellular transport. (
  • Microtubules (MTs) are crucial for diverse biological processes including cell division, cell growth and motility, intracellular transport and the maintenance of cell shape. (
  • The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis by degrading unwanted proteins. (
  • Like other kinesins and KLPs, the KCBP contains three distinct domains: a highly conserved motor domain with ATP and microtubule binding sites, a coiled-coil stalk region involved in heavy chain dimerization, and a globular tail region. (
  • Pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. (
  • A) Two TOG domains, eight HEAT repeats, and a coiled-coil region were identified, which are common to all class three members, including S. pombe Alp14 and Dis1, which is the Dis1/XMAP215 family-founding protein, and S. cerevisiae Stu2. (
  • This dissertation describes the role of a novel microtubule-destabilizing factor termed CCDC69 (coiled-coil domain-containing protein 69) in controlling the assembly of central spindles and the recruitment of midzone components. (
  • Recent work ( 8 ) has identified the soluble and ubiquitous protein stathmin as a factor that destabilizes MTs by increasing the catastrophe rate (the transition from growing to shrinking) during cell division ( 9 ). (
  • Interestingly, stathmin is enriched in the developing nervous system ( 10 , 11 ), but the protein is not detectable in growth cones (unpublished data). (
  • SCG10 has sequence homology with stathmin, but the protein is encoded by a different gene ( 12 ). (
  • Expression levels of the microtubule-depolymerizing protein stathmin were significantly increased in BE/VCR10 cells. (
  • Tubulin dimer binding proteins: Stathmin/Op18 binds tubulin heterodimers, promotes catastrophe and depolymerization. (
  • They contain an N-terminal region that targets the protein to microtubule polymers and a C-terminal region that is able to associate with Janus kinase (Jak) family members, such as Tyk2 or Jak1 [ PMID: 15277531 ]. (
  • 1] Within the cell, MAPs bind directly to the tubulin dimers of microtubules. (
  • They bind to microtubules through charge interactions, a different mechanism to many other MAPs. (
  • 11] Besides the classic MAP groups, novel MAPs have been identified that bind the length of the microtubules. (
  • In addition, plus end tracking proteins, which bind to the very tip of growing microtubules, have also been identified. (
  • Instead, they bind to microtubule ends and promote depolymerization and peeling. (
  • Vinca alkaloids bind to β-tubulin on the α/β-tubulin heterodimer and disrupt microtubule dynamics, leading to cell death. (
  • In PC12 cells, within 12-24 h of NGF-treatment expression of SCG10 mRNA is induced, and by 24-48 h, the amount of SCG10 protein is increased about 6-fold to maximal levels which are maintained in the continuous presence of NGF ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • Our results indicate the important role of autophagy in starvation response and the quality control of proteins and organelles in quiescent cells. (
  • Bloom, G.S., Luca, F.C., Vallee, R.B. (1985) Identification of high molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins in anterior pituitary tissue and cells using taxol-dependent purification combined with microtubule-associated protein specific antibodies. (
  • Carter, J.V., Wick, S.M. (1984) Trreversible microtubule depolymerization associated with freezing injury in Allium cepa root tip cells. (
  • Cytolinkers are giant proteins that can stabilize cells by linking actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules (MTs) to transmembrane complexes. (
  • Some cancer drugs target the microtubules in cells (shown) and thus interfere with cell division. (
  • Upon overexpression in COS7 cells, REEP1 formed protein complexes with atlastin-1 and spastin within the tubular ER, and these interactions required hydrophobic hairpin domains in each of these proteins. (
  • Since microinjected MP spreads rapidly between cells ( 77 , 103 ) and plants themselves encode proteins thought to be functionally analogous to viral MPs ( 65 , 108 ), the function of MP may directly reflect mechanisms of macromolecular Pd transport in normal plants which are exploited by viruses for the movement of their genomes. (
  • The completion of cytokinesis requires abscission of the midbody, a microtubule-rich cytoplasmic bridge that connects the daughter cells before their final separation. (
  • Microtubules (MT) outline and maintain the overall shape of cells and can reorganize cellular membranes to serve as sites of RNA virus replication. (
  • A marked decrease in the neuronal protein, MAP2c, was identified in the vincristine-selected cells and, to a lesser extent, in the colchicine-selected cells. (
  • This is the first report describing specific microtubule alterations in neuroblastoma cells resistant to tubulin-targeted agents. (
  • Neuroblastoma is believed to arise in the embryonal neural crest, and as a result, microtubules in neuroblastoma cells consist of high levels of neuronal-specific tubulin isotypes and microtubule-associated proteins. (
  • The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an oncoprotein encoded by the EBV and is believed to play a role in transforming premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells into cancer cells. (
  • LMP1 expression could also suppress microtubule dynamics as exemplified by tracking movements of the growing tips of microtubules in live cells by transfecting EGFP-tagged EB1 into cells. (
  • Members of the L6 family of membrane proteins, a branch of the tetraspanin superfamily, are overexpressed in tumor cells from many types of cancers. (
  • In fields of lobing cells, anticlinal microtubules are not correlated with cell shape and are unstable at the time scales of cell expansion. (
  • Our analyses indicate that anticlinal microtubules have multiple functions in pavement cells, and that lobe initiation is likely controlled by complex interactions among cell geometry, cell wall stress patterns, and transient microtubule networks that span the anticlinal and periclinal walls. (
  • In addition, the depletion of FOR20 suppressed the dynamics of individual microtubules in live HeLa cells. (
  • The accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins, if unresolved, can lead to a detrimental consequence within cells termed proteotoxicity. (
  • Since cancerous cells often display elevated protein synthesis and by-product disposal, inhibition of the protein degradation pathways is an emerging approach for cancer therapy. (
  • Cancer cells, owing to their aberrant transcription/translation activity and protein disposal, may become more vulnerable to proteotoxicity. (
  • In many eucaryotic cells, the midzone of the mitotic spindle forms a distinct structure containing a specific set of proteins. (
  • Restin: a novel intermediate filament-associated protein highly expressed in the Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease. (
  • Here, we report that this substance, besides acting via GPER1, affects the microtubule network in endothelial cells. (
  • Disruption of microtubules by 3 μM G-1 was observed in aortic smooth muscle cells obtained from both GPER1 knockout and wild-type mice, suggesting that G-1 influences microtubules through a mechanism independent of GPER1. (
  • In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulated a cytosolic protein kinase activity toward myelin basic protein (MBP) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • Downregulation of protein kinase C by prolonged treatment of the cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate markedly attenuated the Ang II- and PMA-induced MBP kinase activation. (
  • The localization of VP4 was not modified in cells transfected with a plasmid allowing the expression of a fusion protein consisting of VP4 and the green fluorescent protein. (
  • Tau-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells developed processes containing microtubule bundles after cytochalasin treatment, but a significant reduction in the number of cells harboring processes was observed in tau/GSK-3beta-co-transfected cells. (
  • Exogenous expression of CCDC69 in HeLa cells destabilized microtubules and disrupted the formation of bipolar mitotic spindles. (
  • A latticework of tiny tubes called microtubules gives your cells their shape and also acts like a railroad track that essential proteins travel on. (
  • The localization of MP with ER membranes is consistent with results of several studies indicating that ER membranes act as sites for virus replication and virus protein synthesis ( 6 , 42 , 76 ). (
  • Arn EA, Cha BJ, Theurkauf WE, Macdonald PM. Recognition of a bicoid mRNA localization signal by a protein complex containing Swallow, Nod, and RNA binding proteins. (
  • Here, we found that under the repression of SLK/LOSK activity, the PCM-1 protein lost its pericentrosomal localization and was being dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. (
  • 1993 ) Transport and localization of exogenous myelin basic protein mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of CCDC69 led to the formation of aberrant central spindles and interfered with the localization of midzone components such as aurora B kinase, protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), MgcRacGAP/HsCYK-4, and pololike kinase 1 (Plk1) at the central spindle. (
  • This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (
  • MAP2A and MAP2B are very high molecular weight proteins, with apparent molecular weight on SDS-PAGE about 250kDa, while MAP2C and MAP2D are much lower molecular weight forms with apparent SDS-PAGE size about 70kDa. (
  • Certain chemotherapy drugs, including paclitaxel (Taxol), block cancer cell division by targeting microtubules-structural polymers that are critical for cell division and other functions. (
  • There are two major classes of motor protein associated with movement along microtubules: the kinesins and dyneins. (
  • Both classes of microtubule motor protein display ATPase activity, with the energy required for moving proteins across the microtubule derived from the hydrolysis of ATP. (
  • 1993 ) Structural and functional domains of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein. (
  • As determined with this radioimmunoassay, MAP 2 accounted for about 10% of the porcine brain microtubule protein and 1% of the protein from a brain extract. (
  • Our results suggest a higher variability of the MAP 2 sequences as compared to that reported by other authors for the brain microtubule protein, tubulin. (
  • Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 and to the 240-kilodalton subunit of spectrin. (
  • We also provide a kit for producing fluorescent microtubules, BK007R, and one for measuring the ratio of microtubules to subunit tubulin in cell extracts BK038 . (
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (
  • A panel of epitope-specific antibodies detects protein domains distributed throughout human alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (
  • Interferon-inducible protein 9 (CXCL11)-induced cell motility in keratinocytes requires calcium flux-dependent activation of μ-calpain. (
  • UBE3A gene copy number variation and the resulting overexpression of the protein E6AP is directly linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Copy number variation of the UBE3A gene and aberrant overexpression of the gene product E6AP protein is a common cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (
  • Overexpression of CLASP promotes microtubule bundles that are resistant to depolymerization with oryzalin. (
  • 2000c , 2007 ), suggesting that interactions with the microtubule system specifically contribute to the transport of vRNA. (
  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the microtubule-associated protein family. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • Dynamin is also homologous to the Mx proteins, involved in interferon-induced viral resistance, and the product of the yeast VPS1 gene, involved in vacuolar protein sorting. (
  • We isolated the gene CoKEL1 , encoding a novel kelch repeat protein, from Colletotrichum orbiculare . (
  • In the present work we analyze the structure and evolution of the ASAP gene, as well as the domain composition of the encoded protein. (
  • The human gene is strongly expressed in brain and testis as a 2.6 Kb transcript encoding a ~110 KDa protein. (
  • The extended haplotype of the microtubule associated protein tau gene is not associated with Pick's disease. (
  • mini spindles: A gene encoding a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for the integrity of the mitotic spindle in Drosophila. (
  • The msps gene encodes a 227-kD protein with high similarity to the vertebrate microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), human TOGp and Xenopus XMAP215, and with limited similarity to the Dis1 and STU2 proteins from fission yeast and budding yeast. (
  • Microtubules contain polymerized tubulin dimers made of an α-tubulin and a β-tubulin, each of which comes in several forms. (
  • The microtubule binding domain binds several tubulin dimers at once and thus helps to stabilize the polymer. (
  • Recently, it was shown nicely in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that the Dis1/XMAP215 protein Stu2 binds to tubulin heterodimers and associates to the MT plus end, where it appears to be responsible for the loading of α,β-tubulin dimers to the growing end ( 1 ). (
  • In addition, since both the proteasome and autophagolysosome pathways function as a safeguard system to degrade misfolded or unwanted proteins, a failure within either degradation pathway leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ( 16 ), which can induce apoptosis through upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim ( 44 , 46 ). (
  • 1995 ) A new role for motor proteins as couplers to depolymerizing microtubules. (
  • XMAP215 has generally been linked to microtubule stabilization. (
  • Plays an important role in ERBB2 -dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex (PubMed:20937854). (
  • We show that depletion of Mob1A and Mob1B by RNAi causes abscission failure as a consequence of hyper-stabilization of microtubules in the midbody region. (
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed for the cytotoxic activity of proteasome inhibition, including stabilization of p53 ( 23 ) and the BH3-only proteins ( 37 ), cleavage of Mcl-1 ( 42 ), downregulation of XIAP and survivin ( 51 ), inhibition of NF-κB activity ( 3 ), and downregulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway ( 13 ). (
  • EML3: May modify the assembly dynamics of microtubules, such that microtubules are slightly longer, but more dynamic. (
  • Kinesins have a wide range of functions including transporting structures such as chromosomes and regulating microtubule dynamics. (
  • Tubulin heterodimers assemble to form microtubules, which are dynamic structures that are constantly growing and shortening. (
  • These data further suggest that centriole precursor structures are conveniently packaged aggregates of microtubule protein actively synthesized between 3 and 5 days, and maintained at a maximum during the most active period of organelle assembly. (
  • The 3-D structures of CAP-Gly, which show the spatial arrangement of atoms in the protein molecule, are different between the free state of the protein and its bound state to the microtubule. (
  • However, static structures of CAP-Gly do not tell the whole story about the protein. (
  • Microtubule Associated Protein 2 exists in two high molecular weight forms (2a & 2b) and a low molecular weight form. (
  • The results show that the filaments only occur on microtubules assembled in the presence of the MAPs and it is therefore concluded that the filaments are composed of the high molecular weight MAP's. (