Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Cerium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Acrylic ResinsArteriovenous Anastomosis: A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.AcrylatesSerum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Tin Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Pancreatin: A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.Staphylococcal ToxoidCerium Isotopes: Stable cerium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cerium, but differ in atomic weight. Ce-136, 138, and 142 are stable cerium isotopes.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. II. Cellular distribution and effects of endocytosis. (1/3739)

The diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid (DASA) can inactivate about 80% of the total 5'-nucleotidase of viable macrophages. The remaining 20% can be inactivated if the cells are first lysed in detergent, and presumably represents an intracellular pool of 5'-nucleotidase. The bulk of this pool may represent cytoplasmic vesicles derived from plasma membrane by endocytosis. This internal compartment is expanded up to threefold immediately after the cells have ingested a large latex load. This is consistent with previous observations on the internalization of 5'-nucleotidase in latex phagosomes. In latex-filled cells this intracellular pool of enzyme is inactivated over a few hours, and the cells then slowly increase their enzyme activity to nearly normal levels. However, 24 h after latex ingestion the metabolism of 5'-nucleotidase in these recovered cells is abnormal, as the rate of enzyme degradation is about twice the normal rate, and the DASA-insensitive enzyme pool in these cells is strikingly diminished. This may reflect effects of the accumulated indigestible particles on the fate of incoming pinocytic vesicles or on newly synthesized plasma membrane precursor. Another endocytic stimulus, concanavalin A, also reduces the total cell 5'-nucleotidase activity. This effect, which is time and temperature dependent, can be prevented by the competitive sugar alpha-methyl mannose. The concanavalin A inhibition can be reversed in the absence of new protein synthesis or in cells cultivated in serum-free conditions. It is not known whether the effect of concanavalin A on 5'-nucleotidase depends upon the interiorizaiton of plasma membrane or is strictly associated with events at the cell surface.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus. (2/3739)

We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis.  (+info)

Quantitative study of polymer conformation and dynamics by single-particle tracking. (3/3739)

We present a new method for analyzing the dynamics of conformational fluctuations of individual flexible polymer molecules. In single-particle tracking (SPT), one end of the polymer molecule is tethered to an immobile substratum. A microsphere attached to the other end serves as an optical marker. The conformational fluctuations of the polymer molecule can be measured by optical microscopy via the motion of the microsphere. The bead-and-spring theory for polymer dynamics is further developed to account for the microsphere, and together the measurement and the theory yield quantitative information about molecular conformations and dynamics under nonperturbing conditions. Applying the method to measurements carried out on DNA molecules provides information complementary to recent studies of single DNA molecules under extensional force. Combining high precision measurements with the theoretical analysis presented here creates a powerful tool for studying conformational dynamics of biological and synthetic macromolecules at the single-molecule level.  (+info)

Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (4/3739)

We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (5/3739)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on distribution of blood flow and tissue oxygenation in dog skeletal muscle. (6/3739)

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is efficient in reducing allogenic blood transfusion needs during elective surgery. Tissue oxygenation is maintained by increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction and, presumably, a more homogeneous tissue perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate blood flow distribution and oxygenation of skeletal muscle. ANH from hematocrit of 36 +/- 3 to 20 +/- 1% was performed in 22 splenectomized, anesthetized beagles (17 analyzed) ventilated with room air. Normovolemia was confirmed by measurement of blood volume. Distribution of perfusion within skeletal muscle was determined by using radioactive microspheres. Tissue oxygen partial pressure was assessed with a polarographic platinum surface electrode. Cardiac index (3.69 +/- 0.79 vs. 4.79 +/- 0.73 l. min-1. m-2) and muscle perfusion (4.07 +/- 0.44 vs. 5.18 +/- 0.36 ml. 100 g-1. min-1) were increased at hematocrit of 20%. Oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle was reduced to 74% of baseline values (0.64 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.03 ml O2. 100 g-1. min-1). Nevertheless, tissue PO2 was preserved (27.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 29.9 +/- 1. 4 Torr). Heterogeneity of muscle perfusion (relative dispersion) was reduced after ANH (20.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 13.9 +/- 1.5%). We conclude that a more homogeneous distribution of perfusion is one mechanism for the preservation of tissue oxygenation after moderate ANH, despite reduced oxygen delivery.  (+info)

Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. (7/3739)

We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow was maintained in hindquarters, o/i ratios first increased with time (for at least 60 min) and then leveled off. The long time constant impaired detection of rapid oscillations in blood flow, especially at low blood flow rates. Contractions per se apparently decreased o/i ratios independent of blood flow. Ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios did not differ. 3H2O o/i paralleled ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios but it was significantly lower. In conclusion, differences in skeletal muscle blood flow can be detected by the microdialysis technique. However, the slow changes in o/i, in particular at low blood flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.  (+info)

DNA hybridization on microparticles: determining capture-probe density and equilibrium dissociation constants. (8/3739)

Many DNA-probe assays utilize oligonucleotide-coated microparticles for capture of complementary nucleic acids from solution. During development of these assays, as well as in other particle-based nucleic acid applications, it is useful to know both the amount of duplex formation expected under various experimental conditions and the coating density of the capture oligonucleotide on the particle surface. We examined the simplest form of a DNA-probe microparticle assay: hybridization of a particle-bound capture oligonucleotide to its solution-phase complement. Fluorescein-labeled solution-phase oligonucleotide was hybridized to varying amounts of particles, and the amount of labeled oligonucleotide remaining in solution at equilibrium was measured. We present a simple two-state, all-or-none model for bimolecular hybridization of non-self-complementary sequences that can be used to calculate the equilibrium dissociation constant ( Kd ) from hybridization data. With experimental conditions where both the Kd value and the concentration of capture probe in the reaction are small relative to the concentration of labeled complementary oligonucleotide in the reaction, density of the capture probe on the particle's surface can also be determined. Kd values for particle-based hybridization were different from those obtained from solution-phase thermodynamic parameters. At higher temperatures, hybridization on particles was more efficient than hybridization in solution.  (+info)

  • Aerosols of biodegradable polymeric microspheres containing antitubercular agents may be delivered to the lungs to improve the treatment of tuberculosis. (rti.org)
  • Objectives: The efficacy of rifampicin-loaded polymeric microspheres (RPLGA) delivered to guinea pigs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv) was compared with a daily dose of nebulized rifampicin suspension. (rti.org)
  • For the continuous experiments, the utilization of a stirred cell was successful, where the microspheres were in the form of latex with good dispersion of particles. (elsevier.com)
  • PLA/PLGA microspheres have been incorporated into a multitude of pharmaceutical products used for the treatment of a wide array of indications, including cancer, psychiatric disorders, endocrine disorders and periodontal disease. (pharmamanufacturing.com)
  • The complexity of manufacturing PLA/PLGA microspheres creates a similar challenge when planning to develop new extended-release therapies or generic versions of branded products. (pharmamanufacturing.com)
  • Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing rifampicin were prepared using solvent evaporation and spray drying methods. (rti.org)
  • Respirable rifampicin loaded PLGA microspheres were produced by both solvent evaporation and spray drying methods. (rti.org)
  • Methods: Aerosol-infected animals were subjected to multiple dose or single dose treatment with RPLGA, PLGA microspheres or micronized rifampicin suspension aerosols. (rti.org)
  • Embosphere Microspheres exhibit a consistent cross-sectional diameter for targeted delivery. (merit.com)
  • abstract = "Submicron microspheres were used directly without ligand coupling for the batch and continuous separations of proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • This study also highlighted the challenge in finding manufacturing assays that even enable comparative evaluation of in vitro drug release profiles for establishing equivalence among various microsphere formulations. (pharmamanufacturing.com)
  • A novel magnetic anticancer drug carrier based on cellulose, guar gum, and Fe3O4 hydrogel microspheres was synthesized by chemical crosslinking. (ncsu.edu)
  • The magnetic hydrogel microspheres were characterized via an optical microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling behavior analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. (ncsu.edu)
  • 2009). In recent years, much attention has been focused on hydrogel microspheres for the delivery of water-solution drugs due to their outstanding characteristics such as excellent water-absorption, water-retention, and slow-release (Korsmeyer et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • Now however, fluorescent microsphere immunoassays (FMIA) are able to measure multiple cytokines in a single sample. (sruc.ac.uk)
  • For the purpose of this review article, microsphere resonators are divided according to their constituting materials, namely silicone, silica, compound glass, and liquid droplet. (mdpi.com)
  • Albumin microspheres of this type are readily dispersed in aqueous media for injection without the need for surfactants. (eurekamag.com)
  • The great innovation in this field relies on the formulation of microspheres and nanoparticles to encapsulate the peptide in order to enhance its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. (bachem.com)
  • To discover more on how Bachem is part of this technology in achieving successful formulation of APIs, please join our webinar on the benefits and challenges of microspheres and nanoparticles for peptide delivery. (bachem.com)
  • Its prominent role in the treatment paradigm is largely attributed to improved compliance with treatment derived from the administration of the long-acting, injectable PLGA microsphere formulation every two weeks in a physician's office - compared with self-administration of the oral formulation on a daily or every-other-day basis. (pharmamanufacturing.com)
  • 31. A method according to claim 1, wherein a desired size of the microspheres is achieved by controlling the nucleation and particle growth process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 33. A method according to claim 31, wherein the control of the nucleation and particle growth process is intended to avoid aggregation of the microspheres. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 36. A method for screening of chemical libraries, for catalysis, for facilitating synthesis, for analyte determination using ligand binding assays and/or agglutination assays, for therapeutic purposes, or for controlled release comprising using the molecularly imprinted microspheres according to claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Temperature monitoring relies mainly on the thermo-optic/thermal expansion of the microspheres and on the fluorescence of the doped ions. (mdpi.com)
  • These microspheres can be obtained by a method comprising polymerising functional monomers and crosslinkers in a reaction solvent in the presence of print molecules as templates in a surfactant-free precipitation polymerisation process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method of producing molecularly imprinted microspheres comprising specific binding sites, comprising polymerising functional monomers and crosslinkers in a reaction solvent in the presence of print molecules as templates in a surfactant-free precipitation polymerisation process, which print molecules are capable of forming non-covalent or reversible covalent interactions with said functional monomers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A new method for preparing glutaraldehyde cross-linked human serum albumin microspheres was developed. (eurekamag.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres are indicated for use in embolization of arteriovenous malformations, hypervascular tumors, symptomatic uterine fibroids, and the prostate arteries for relief of symptoms related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). (merit.com)
  • QuiremSpheres® is based on Holmium-166 microspheres, which were developed in the clinic as an alternative to Yttrium-90 microspheres for treating unresectable liver tumors with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). (terumo-europe.com)
  • Sirtex's expansion into Latin America is a pivotal step in our strategy to bring the SIR-Spheres microspheres treatment to more patients who will benefit from this technology," said Michael Mangano, president of Sirtex Medical Inc. "In the past, patients with inoperable liver tumors in Latin America have had few options and Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) has not been available. (mdtmag.com)
  • About Selective Internal Radiation Therapy using SIR-Spheres microspheres Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT), also known as radioembolization, is a proven technology for inoperable liver cancer that delivers doses of radiation directly to the site of tumors. (mdtmag.com)
  • Seza A. Gulec, M.D., F.A.C.S., director of the Goshen Cancer Institute Hepatic Oncology Program at Goshen Health System, and Yuman Fong, M.D., chief of gastric and mixed tumor service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, partnered to discuss the basic concepts involved in development of Yttrium 90 (Y-90) microsphere Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) and review clinical data pertaining to its application. (redorbit.com)
  • Silicon microspheres enable new applications where silica microspheres fall short. (slideshare.net)
  • We demonstrate the quality factor Q = (0.8 ± 0.1) × 10 10 of whispering-gallery modes in fused-silica microspheres at 633 nm, close to the ultimate level determined by fundamental material attenuation as measured in optical fibers. (osapublishing.org)
  • Microspheres made of high quality optical glass, can be produced for research on the field of optical resonators or cavities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keywords: excimer, MDR, microcavity, microsphere, resonators, silicon photonics, WGM I. Introduction The need for low-cost photonic devices has stimulated a significant amount of research in silicon photonics. (slideshare.net)
  • The experimentally measured quality factors are limited by the sensitivity of the experimental setup, however, the microsphere quality factor is several orders of magnitude higher than current micro-ring resonators. (slideshare.net)
  • In recent years, many temperature sensing devices based on microsphere resonators have emerged, attracting an increasing research interest. (mdpi.com)
  • For the purpose of this review article, microsphere resonators are divided according to their constituting materials, namely silicone, silica, compound glass, and liquid droplet. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang, P. Temperature Sensing Performance of Microsphere Resonators. (mdpi.com)
  • Yu J, Lewis E, Brambilla G, Wang P. Temperature Sensing Performance of Microsphere Resonators. (mdpi.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres are the most clinically studied and clinically proven round embolic, providing consistent and predictable results for effective embolization. (merit.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres are indicated for use in embolization of arteriovenous malformations, hypervascular tumors, symptomatic uterine fibroids, and the prostate arteries for relief of symptoms related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). (merit.com)
  • Because they are non-aggregating, Embosphere Microspheres distribute predictably after embolization. (merit.com)
  • Spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Versus Trisacryl Gelatin Microspheres for Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomas: Results of a Limited Randomized Comparative Study. (merit.com)
  • Angiographies of hypervascularized tumor pre- and post-embolization illustrate the ability of QuadraSphere Microspheres to perform a targeted embolization. (merit.com)
  • QuadraSphere Microspheres are a recognized and accepted platform for targeted liver embolization. (merit.com)
  • Lead product, OCL 500 embolization microspheres is the first biodegradable embolic agent cleared by the US FDA. (businesswire.com)
  • The Global Polystyrene Microsphere market 2017 is further analyzed on the basis of product pricing, Polystyrene Microsphere production volume, data pertaining to demand and Polystyrene Microsphere supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. (openpr.com)
  • Portland, OR -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 08/01/2017 -- The methods used for the preparation of microspheres include spray drying, solvent evaporation, single emulsion technique, double emulsion technique, phase separation concertation technique, spray drying and spray congealing, solvent extraction, quassi emulsion solvent diffusion. (sbwire.com)
  • Pune, India -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 01/18/2018 -- The Global Microspheres Market accounted to USD 840.1 Millionin 2016 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 7.8% during the forecast period of 2017 to 2024.e upcoming market report contains data for historic year 2015, the base year of calculation is 2016 and the forecast period is 2017 to 2024. (sbwire.com)
  • The research report studies the global United states hollow microspheres market report 2017 market on the basis of several criteria, including type, application, and geography to provide a better understanding to the readers. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also sheds light on the current trends related to the demand, supply, and sales of United states hollow microspheres market report 2017, along with the recent developments in the field. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report takes into consideration the drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities of the global United states hollow microspheres market report 2017 market in order to identify the future of the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also provides an estimation of the overall market size in terms of both value and volume and offers qualitative and quantitative insights into the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the United states hollow microspheres market report 2017 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • According to the report, equipment and raw material are two primary components of the manufacturing process of United states hollow microspheres market report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Therefore, the report provides a 360-degree view of the global United states hollow microspheres market report 2017 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also performs a methodical examination of the vendor landscape of the global United states hollow microspheres market report 2017 market by analyzing the company profiles of prominent companies operating in the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Sodium depletion has also allowed hollow glass microspheres to be used in chemically sensitive resin systems, such as long pot life epoxies or non-blown polyurethane composites Additional functionalities, such as silane coatings, are commonly added to the surface of hollow glass microspheres to increase the matrix/microspheres interfacial strength (the common failure point when stressed in a tensile manner). (wikipedia.org)
  • Formulators may be able to extend resin in their formulation by adding 3M ceramic microspheres and potentially reduce cost. (3m.com)
  • This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of porous metal oxide microsphere from metal loaded ion exchange resin. (springer.com)
  • Their application concerns the fabrication of uranium-americium oxide pellets using the powder-free process called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). (springer.com)
  • 4. The pavement marking of claim 1 which comprises sheeting having a binder film wherein the binder is a thermoplastic resin containing the ceramic microspheres both within the body of the binder and exposed at the sheeting surface. (google.ca)
  • By using fewer quantity of resin, it involves low budget which invites makers to use ceramic microspheres as an alternative for non-soluble extracts in process of paints & coatings production. (pr.com)
  • In single-screw extruders, the iM30K microspheres should be added at a downstream feed port after the resin has been melted, just before the beginning of the metering zone, to minimize potential breakage of the spheres. (ptonline.com)
  • The glass microspheres within the molten resin are apt to break when exposed to excessive injection speed and pressure. (ptonline.com)
  • Microspheres are resin spheres that each contains millions of radioactive atoms, or 'beads' (yttrium-90). (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
  • This research registry studies Yttrium Y 90 resin microspheres in collecting data from patients with liver cancer not capable of being removed by surgery (unresectable) for the radiation-emitting Selective Internal Radiation-Spheres (SIR-spheres) in non-resectable (RESIN) liver tumor registry. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients receiving Yttrium Y90 resin microspheres treatment as part of their overall oncologic management are added in the RESIN registry database to collect and document information including: patient demographics (gender/age), previous oncologic treatments, details of Yttrium Y90 resin microspheres treatment, and to track outcomes and complications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • com)-- A new report has been added to the database of the Market Research Hub (MRH), titled "Global Ceramic Microsphere Industry 2016, Trends and Forecast Report. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ceramic microsphere industry report is a professional and in-depth research report on the regional market conditions of the Ceramic Microsphere industry, focusing on the key regions including North America, Europe and Asia. (pr.com)
  • Then research estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of ceramic microsphere industry for the future growth. (pr.com)
  • In this report, the global Sodium Alginate Microspheres market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • All sodium alginate microspheres wholesalers & sodium alginate microspheres manufacturers come from members. (podcastellano.com)
  • We doesn't provide sodium alginate microspheres products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (podcastellano.com)
  • According to the research, growing fiberglass demand is higher due to its durability, light-weighted and non-corrosive components in construction industry which is projected to increase ceramic microspheres demand during forecast period of 2016-2020. (pr.com)
  • CeloNova BioSciences out of Newnan, Georgia has received FDA clearance for the firm's Embozene Color-Advanced Microspheres for treatment of hypervascularized tumors. (medgadget.com)
  • The HEPAR study is aimed at determining the safety of radioactive holmium containing microspheres for the treatment of tumors in the liver. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1 "The radioactive microspheres are a powerful resource for treating unresectable primary and secondary tumors," said Dr. Ricardo García-Mónaco, Head of Angiography and Endovascular Therapy, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. (mdtmag.com)
  • In a minimally invasive treatment, millions of radioactive SIR-Spheres microspheres are infused via a catheter into the liver where they selectively target liver tumors with a dose of internal radiation up to 40 times higher than conventional radiotherapy, while sparing healthy tissue. (mdtmag.com)
  • Internal radiation therapy, also called (90)Y radioembolization ((90)Y-RE), consists in delivering implantable microspheres labeled with (90)Y into the arteries that feed liver tumors in order to provide a high dose of radiation to tumor nodules irrespective of their number, size and location, while preserving the non-tumoral liver tissue from receiving a harmful level of radiation. (cun.es)
  • Because TheraSphere has high activity per sphere, fewer microspheres are needed to achieve the desired dose. (bostonscientific.com)
  • The great innovation in this field relies on the formulation of microspheres and nanoparticles to encapsulate the peptide in order to enhance its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. (bachem.com)
  • In the present study, investigation reports the formulation of microspheres of levofloxacin using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit L100 in order to mask the bitter taste of drug. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The report "Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Microspheres Market by Application (Displays, Coatings, Cosmetics, Medical, 3D Printing Inks, and Films), & Size (0 To 30 Microns, Above 30 Microns) - Global Forecast to 2020" , The global PMMA microsphere market is projected to reach USD 191.7 Million by 2020 from USD 118.1 Million in 2014, at a CAGR of 8.5% during the period 2015 to 2020. (pitchengine.com)
  • Radioembolization with 166 Ho microspheres induced a tumor response with an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with liver metastases. (terumo-europe.com)
  • According to the review, the use of SIR-Spheres microspheres is effective in improving response rates and extending survival times in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. (redorbit.com)
  • AkzoNobel is opening a new Expancel microsphere production line within its paint and coatings complex in Jundiai, Sao Paulo State, with the aim of serving both the Brazilian and regional market demand. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microsphere Technology coats borosilicate glass microspheres and aluminosilicate ceramic cenospheres with coatings based on metals, metal oxides, pigments, and dyes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The growth of the market is largely attributed toward the increasing demand for flat panel display, architectural coatings, and medical applications in which PMMA microspheres are majorly used. (pitchengine.com)
  • These microspheres are used in formulators for paints & coatings because of higher viscidness, Shrinkage, reduced costs and volatile organic compounds emissions. (pr.com)
  • Advantages such as coating with uniform thickness without defects or thick edges drives the demand of polyurethane microspheres in the paints & coatings industry. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The European region is a major consumer for wood coatings, architectural coatings, and plastic coatings for automotive underbody coatings, and hence commands the major share of the PU microspheres market by value. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Industry players like 3M, AkzoNobel are investing and conducting advanced research in the field of microspheres to support end-use industries such healthcare and coatings and others. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Four design features distinguish Embozene(TM) Microspheres from other spherical embolics: biocompatibility, precise calibration, stable suspension, and structural stability. (medgadget.com)
  • The hydrophilic surface and spherical shape of Embosphere Microspheres prevent aggregation in the catheter lumen and vasculature. (merit.com)
  • Microsphere refers to a spherical microparticle between 1 and 1,000 microns (μm) in diameter (see Figure 1 ). (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • spherical microspheres of theophylline (TP) using sodium alginate as the hydrophilic carrier were prepared to prolong the release. (podcastellano.com)
  • The albumin microspheres sonicated preparation contains very small gas-filled albumin microspheres that reflect the sound waves and help create a better picture. (mayoclinic.org)
  • British Library EThOS: Development and pharmacology of mitomycin C albumin microspheres. (bl.uk)
  • Unlike embolic microspheres currently on the market that remain in the patient's body for life, OCL 500 microspheres are designed to completely biodegrade over time. (businesswire.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres exhibit a consistent cross-sectional diameter for targeted delivery. (merit.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres are biocompatible and nonresorbable with cell adhesion properties for complete and durable mechanical occlusion. (merit.com)
  • Embosphere Microspheres are available in six size ranges to allow physicians to target the microvasculature of the tumor and shut down the feeder network while maintaining patency of the major artery feeding the organ. (merit.com)
  • MMSI ), a leading manufacturer and marketer of proprietary disposable devices used in interventional, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, particularly in cardiology, radiology and endoscopy, today announced that it has received 513(f)(2) (de novo) classification from the FDA to expand indication for Merit's Embosphere® Microspheres. (globenewswire.com)
  • 1 The PAE procedure is performed through a tiny incision in the patient's upper thigh or wrist, and uses Embosphere Microspheres to occlude the prostatic arteries, reducing their blood supply and causing the prostate to shrink and improve symptoms. (globenewswire.com)
  • A use of nanojets produced by transparent microspheres in order to excite optical active materials, under upconversion processes with different numbers of excitation photons, has been analyzed as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention relates to the field of pavement markings containing transparent microspheres for reflectorizing the markings. (google.ca)
  • The transparent microspheres now most widely used for pavement markings are made of certain glasses, which are amorphous vitreous materials. (google.ca)
  • In this study, novel polyurethane microspheres containing curcumin (Cur-PUMs) were prepared using carboxymethyl cellulose sodium to improve the bioavailability and prolong the retention time of curcumin. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyurethane microspheres finds its largest application as an encapsulating agent for various end use industries which include pharmaceutical, paints & coating, and agro chemical industries. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Controlled release of chemicals of interest from encapsulants increases the effectiveness of delivery which drives the demand of polyurethane microspheres in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Stainless steel hollow microsphere H1 was a promising mediator for AEH for its high efficiency in heating tumor region and killing cancer cells as well as good biocompatibility. (springer.com)
  • After being injected into a vessel supplying the tumor, the microspheres form a platelet-rich clot interrupting its blood supply. (medgadget.com)
  • Given the known risk of recurrence in patients with persistent tumor enhancement after UAE, it is concluded that tris-acryl gelatin microspheres should be the preferred agent for UAE at this time. (merit.com)
  • Clinical studies have confirmed that patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with SIR-Spheres microspheres have response rates higher than with other forms of treatment, resulting in increased life expectancy, greater periods without tumor activity and improved quality of life. (mdtmag.com)
  • TheraSphere glass microspheres take advantage of a tumor's hypervascularity and prioritize microsphere flow to the tumor. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Pulmonary toxicity of Expancel microspheres in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • Expancel microspheres are thermoplastic microspheres enclosing hydrocarbon. (cdc.gov)
  • Because they have unknown biological persistence and toxicity, we investigated the toxicity of two unexpanded (11.1 and 15.4 m mean diameter) and two expanded (3.1 and 5.5 m mass median aerodynamic diameter) Expancel microspheres in intratracheally-instilled, male, Sprague-Dawley rats. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, alveolar macrophage activation, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, LDH and albumin in bronchoalveolar laveage fluid were initially elevated but returned to near control levels at 28 days, and did not reflect the persistent granulomatous bronchopneumonia caused by Expancel microspheres. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings emphasize the importance of histopathology for evaluating pulmonary toxicity, suggest that Expancel microspheres are a potential occupational hazard, and indicate a need for additional studies on their potential pulmonary toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific, through its legacy IDC, Dynal, Molecular Probes, and Quantum Dot Corporation businesses, is an industry-leading provider of microspheres and nanocrystals for commercial use, with more than 35 years of expertise. (thermofisher.com)
  • The construction industry is expected to be the fastest growing sector owing to the ability of microspheres to impart superior capabilities in construction composites. (grandviewresearch.com)