A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Tomography using x-ray transmission.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.

Inhibition of doxorubicin toxicity in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes with elevated metallothionein levels. (1/2135)

Controversial results have been reported regarding whether metallothionein (MT) functions in doxorubicin (DOX) detoxification in the heart. To determine unequivocally the role of MT in cardiac protection against the toxicity of DOX, ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from 1- to 3-day neonatal transgenic mice with high levels of cardiac MT and from nontransgenic control animals were applied. On the 6th day of culturing, MT concentrations in the transgenic cardiomyocytes were about 2-fold higher than those in the nontransgenic cells. DOX was added directly into the cultures. Compared with nontransgenic controls, transgenic cardiomyocytes displayed a significant (p <.05) resistance to DOX cytotoxicity, as measured by morphological alterations, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. This cytoprotective effect of MT correlated with its inhibition of DOX-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate unequivocally that elevation of MT concentrations in the cardiomyocytes of 2-fold higher than normal provides efficient protection against DOX toxicity.  (+info)

Neurite outgrowth-regulating properties of GABA and the effect of serum on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. (2/2135)

Time-lapse photography was used to examine the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the outgrowth and motility of neurites in cultures from mouse spinal cord. GABA at concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 microM caused significant inhibition of neurite outgrowth and the motility of growth cones was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 and 10 microM GABA. This effect was mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen, whereas the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol had no effect. The effect of GABA on outgrowth and motility seems to be dependent on the type of serum employed. The results reported here were obtained only when heat-inactivated serum was used and not when non heat-inactivated serum was added to the culture medium. They suggest that GABA has a role in the regulation of process outgrowth within the embryonic mouse spinal cord.  (+info)

Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (3/2135)

Damnacanthal is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia and was reported to have a potent inhibitory activity towards tyrosine kinases such as Lck, Src, Lyn and EGF receptor. In the present study, we have examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-1 cells. When the cells were treated with damnacanthal prior to ultraviolet irradiation, DNA fragmentation was more pronounced as compared to the case of ultraviolet irradiation alone. The other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, also caused similar effects on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis but to a lesser extent. Serine/threonine kinase inhibitors, K252a, staurosporine and GF109203X, rather suppressed the ultraviolet-induced DNA cleavage. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases. However, the other tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases but stimulated phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases. Consequently, the ultraviolet-induced concurrent increase in both phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases after pretreatment with damnacanthal might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Protrusive growth from giant liposomes driven by actin polymerization. (4/2135)

Development of protrusions in the cell is indispensable in the process of cell motility. Membrane protrusion has long been suggested to occur as a result of actin polymerization immediately beneath the cell membrane at the leading edge, but elucidation of the mechanism is insufficient because of the complexity of the cell. To study the mechanism, we prepared giant liposomes containing monomeric actin (100 or 200 microM) and introduced KCl into individual liposomes by an electroporation technique. On the electroporation, the giant liposomes deformed. Most importantly, protrusive structure grew from the liposomes containing 200 microM actin at rates (ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 micrometer/s) similar to those obtained in the cell. The deformation occurred in a time range (30 approximately 100 s) similar to that of actin polymerization monitored in a cuvette (ca. 50 s). Concomitant with deformation, Brownian motion of micron-sized particles entrapped in the liposomes almost ceased. From these observations, we conclude that actin polymerization in the liposomes caused the protrusive formation.  (+info)

17beta-estradiol reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated LDL accumulation in the artery wall. (5/2135)

Estrogens have direct effects on the vascular wall that may prevent the development of atherosclerosis. In particular, estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), are known to have potent antioxidant activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is found in human atheroma and produces oxygen-derived free radicals. These oxygen-derived free radicals may modify low density lipoproteins (LDL) and increase LDL binding in the artery wall. We asked: 1) does TNF increase LDL accumulation in the artery wall and 2) can the TNF-mediated increase in LDL accumulation be prevented by the antioxidant activity of estradiol? Carotid arteries from ovariectomized 3-month-old rats were removed and perfused with fluorescently labeled LDL and arterial LDL flux was measured using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. In six arteries, addition of TNF (10 ng/ml) to the perfusate resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in the rate of LDL accumulation (1.50 +/- 0.37 ng/min per cm2 vs. 3.38 +/- 0.48 ng/min per cm2; P < 0.01). Estradiol (65 pg/ml) and alpha-tocopherol (6 mg/L) both attenuated TNF-mediated LDL accumulation (P < 0.05), indicating that TNF may exert its effects on LDL accumulation through cellular production of oxygen-derived free radicals. These results support an antioxidant role for estradiol in the protection against LDL accumulation in the artery wall and subsequent progression of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

The effects of age and sex steroids on the macrophage population in the ovary of the chicken, Gallus domesticus. (6/2135)

The role of macrophages in the function of the hen ovary has not yet been described, although these cells may be an important regulator of ovarian function in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the frequency of macrophages during ageing and follicular atresia, and the effects of sex steroids on the macrophage population in the hen ovary. Cryostat sections of ovarian tissues of immature, young laying and old laying hens and those of immature hens treated with or without diethylstilboestrol (DES) or progesterone were immunostained for macrophage cells using mouse anti-chicken macrophage monoclonal antibody. Macrophages were observed under a light microscope and counted using a computer assisted image analyser. The frequency of macrophages in both the stroma and theca of primary follicles was significantly greater in young laying hens than in immature and old laying hens and these cells were more frequent in old laying hens than in immature hens (P < 0.01). Macrophages were more frequent in atretic follicles than in normal follicles (P < 0.01). The number of macrophages in both the stroma and theca of primary follicles of DES-treated birds was significantly greater than in those of progesterone-treated and control birds (P < 0.01). Progesterone had no significant effect on the population of macrophages. These results suggest that macrophages in the ovary increase in association with sexual maturation of birds and atresia of follicles and decrease during ageing. Oestrogen may be one of the factors that affect the population of macrophages in the hen ovary.  (+info)

Morphologic evaluation and actin filament distribution in porcine embryos produced in vitro and in vivo. (7/2135)

Porcine embryos produced in vitro have a small number of cells and low viability. The present study was conducted to examine the morphological characteristics and the relationship between actin filament organization and morphology of porcine embryos produced in vitro and in vivo. In vitro-derived embryos were produced by in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and in vitro development. In vivo-derived embryos were collected from inseminated gilts on Days 2-6 after estrus. In experiment 1, in vitro-derived embryos (+info)

Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro. (8/2135)

BACKGROUND: Polaprezinc has been shown to exert an anti-oxidant property in a tube experiment, protect gastric mucosa from experimental ulcerations in vivo, and accelerate the healing of gastric ulcer in humans. AIM: To examine a possible protective effect of polaprezinc on oxidant-mediated injury in primary monolayer cultures of rat gastric fundic mucosa. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. Whether or not polaprezinc exerts an antioxidant property was investigated by determining the effect of this agent on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury. The effects of polaprezinc on superoxide (O2-. ) generation as well as on ethanol (EtOH)-induced injury were also examined. Generation of O2-. was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. RESULTS: H2O2 caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release. The dose-response curve of 51Cr release by H2O2 shifted to the right in the presence of polaprezinc. Polaprezinc, at submillimolar concentrations, prevented H2O2-induced 51Cr release. EtOH also caused a dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release, which was prevented by the addition of polaprezinc. The incubation of cells with EtOH caused an increase in cytochrome c reduction, as the concentrations of EtOH increased. Polaprezinc inhibited EtOH-induced cytochrome c reduction. Protection by polaprezinc was microscopically associated with the prevention of monolayer disruption. CONCLUSIONS: Polaprezinc is antioxidative and directly protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through its antioxidant properties in vitro. This finding may provide the theoretical basis for the usage of an antiulcer drug with antioxidant properties for the treatment of gastric inflammation, such as that induced by ethanol.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of the principle of optical phase-contrast microscopy to velocity phase-encoded MRI of blood flow in the aorta. AU - Dymond, R C AU - Redpath, Thomas William. AU - McKiddie, F.i.. PY - 1996/5. Y1 - 1996/5. N2 - A new method of presenting magnetic resonance phase information is described and an example of its application given in the context of velocity phase-encoded MRI of blood flow in the aorta. The method takes as its starting point Zernikes technique of phase contrast microscopy. It exploits the parallel between the transform plane in Fourier optics and k-space in MRI. In the example described two datasets are acquired, one with and the other without velocity encoding as in conventional phase-encoded velocity imaging. A dataset is formed which is corrected for unwanted phase variations caused by static field inhomogeneity. The method then effectively combines phase and magnitude information into a single image. The technique is complementary to existing methods ...
Fluorescence Microscope for sale, new Infinitive Plan Phase contrast Microscope Inverted Fluorescence Microscope CE A16.1023 of Opto-Edu (Beijing) Co., Ltd. from China.
Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) is widely used to measure fiber concentrations of air samples. Sampling for this analysis area routinely taken at asbestos abatement sites and acan be applied to environmental monitoring, personnel monitorying and clearance testing for abatement projects. An analysis by PCM indicating high fiber caounts does not necessarily indicate the presence of asbestos. Likewise, lo fiber counts by PCM cannot conclude an asbestos free envirnoment. PCM Merely provides an Index of the total airborne fibers present in a given size range. APASI Lab utilizes the current revision of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7400.. ...
Phase Contrast Microscopy Market Research Report Analysing Industry with Trend and Statistics Considering Market Demand for Investors Growth and Forecast-AlgoroReports
Automated visual-tracking systems of stem cell populations in vitro allow for high-throughput analysis of time-lapse phase-contrast microscopy. In these systems, detection of mitosis, or cell division, is critical to tracking performance as mitosis causes branching of the trajectory of a mother cell into the two trajectories of its daughter cells. Recently, one mitosis detection algorithm showed its success in detecting the time and location that two daughter cells first clearly appear as a result of mitosis. This detection result can therefore helps trajectories to correctly bifurcate and the relations between mother and daughter cells to be revealed. In this paper, we demonstrate that the functionality of this recent mitosis detection algorithm significantly improves state-of-the-art cell tracking systems through extensive experiments on 48 C2C12 myoblastic stem cell populations under four different conditions.
In all forms of optical microscopy, the specimen scatters light through processes that include diffraction, refraction, reflection, and absorption. This interactive tutorial explores diffraction of light by a diffraction grating in a phase contrast microscope.
We apply a wide-field quantitative phase microscopy technique based on parallel two-step phase-shifting on-axis interferometry to visualize live biological cells and microorganism dynamics. The parallel on-axis holographic approach is more efficient with camera spatial bandwidth consumption compared to previous off-axis approaches and thus can capture finer sample spatial details, given a limited spatial bandwidth of a specific digital camera. Additionally, due to the parallel acquisition mechanism, the approach is suitable for visualizing rapid dynamic processes, permitting an interferometric acquisition rate equal to the camera frame rate. The method is demonstrated experimentally through phase microscopy of neurons and unicellular microorganisms.. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
We present a quantitative phase microscopy method that uses a Bayer mosaic color camera to simultaneously acquire off-axis interferograms in transmission mode at two distinct wavelengths. Wrapped phase information is processed using a two-wavelength algorithm to extend the range of the optical path delay measurements that can be detected using a single temporal acquisition. We experimentally demonstrate this technique by acquiring the phase profiles of optically clear microstructures without ...
Contents. Preface.. Acknowledgements.. Laboratory Safety.. Microscope Maintenance.. The Micro Kit.. Experiments.. Chapter 1: The Stereomicroscope.. Experiment 1A: Familiarization with the Stereomicroscope.. Chapter 2: The Compound Light Microscope.. Experiment 2A: Familiarization with the Compound Light Microscope. Experiment 2B: Measurements Using the Ocular Micrometer.. Experiment 2C: Microscopic Mounting Techniques.. Experiment 2D: Determining Refractive Index.. Chapter 3: The Polarized Light Microscope.. Experiment 3A: Familiarization with the Polarized Light Microscope.. Experiment 3B: Determining Refractive Index of Anisotropic Materials.. Experiment 3C: Determining Birefringence and Sign of Elongation.. Chapter 4: The Fluorescence Microscope.. Experiment 4A: Familiarization with the Fluorescence Microscope.. Chapter 5: The Phase Contrast Microscope.. Experiment 5A: Familiarization with the Phase Contrast Microscope.. Application Experiments.. Chapter 6: Experiment 6: Physical Match ...
An etoposide-treated DU145 prostate cancer cell exploding into a cascade of apoptotic bodies. The sub images were extracted from a 61-hour time-lapse microscopy video, created using quantitative phase-contrast microscopy. The optical thickness is color-coded. With increasing thickness, color changes from gray to yellow, red, purple and finally black.[1] ...
An open chambered micro-Slide with 4 wells and an additional intermediate plate | For cell culture and brilliant phase contrast microscopy without meniscus
Meiji Techno offers the MT6800 Series Combo PLM - PCM (Polarized Light and Phase Contrast) Microscopes for Asbestos fiber identification applications. Meiji Techno manufactures these microscopes pursuant to NIOSH 9002 Reference methods and NIOSH 7400 and OSHA ID 160 Reference methods. These models use the phase contrast method for dispersion staining. Each model comes with Strain free Plan DIN brightfield POL objectives, rotatable stage with 360 degree graduations, POL/PHASE/Dispersion Staining Abbe condenser and built-in Koehler illuminator as standard equipment. The table below shows the features of each model.. ...
Methods used by OSHA for the analysis of asbestos (1332214) are described. Equipment at one laboratory is described. Phase contrast microscopes equipped with a polarizer, an analyzer, retardation plates, and rotating stage are explained. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopes with energy dispersive units are also described. Routine determinations of airborne asbestos are made by t
Meiji Techno offers the ML6500 Series PCM (Phase Contrast Microscopes) for Asbestos fiber counting applications. Meiji Techno manufactures these microscopes pursuant to MDHS 39/04 Directive (NIOSH 7400 and OSHA ID 160 Reference methods).. Each model comes with centering telescope, 1mm stage micrometer, GIF 546nm filters and built-in Koehler illuminator as standard equipment. The specifications table below shows the features of each model.. ...
Contrast: The specimens must show sufficient color contrast. Some objects, such as bacteria, are both sufficiently thin and do allow light to go through. Still, they can be quite difficult to see because they do not have enough color contrast to the background. They are as clear and colorless as the water that surrounds them. Specimens like these can be made visible by staining them. There are some more specialized microscopes (so-called phase contrast microscopes) which do allow the observation of these specimens, but they are more expensive ...
Culturing cells on a slide - posted in Cell Biology: Dear Guys ,In the beginning, I am very grateful for any one who will read my topic. Secondly, I want to buy some culture wares for visualization of my cells under fluorescence or phase contrast microscope.what I found due to reading some books and online: *There are special type of culture slide such as http://www.bdbioscie...y=4&mterms=true *It is untreated.I should treat the surface with Poly L lysine or collagenase as I am working...
Figure 1: In situ trypan blue staining of monolayer MCF-7 cell cultures before (a) and after (b) cell treatment with trypsin. Dye stained dead cells. Images were made by using inverted phase contrast microscope (scale bar: 50 m ...
This laboratory hosts all the equipment connected to medium and high magnification optical microscopy with digital cameras for snapshots. Devices at this laboratory allow the observation of samples from particular organisms or tissues that may require sophisticated instrumental techniques with epifluorescence (bacteria and other dyed tissues) or phase-contrast microscopy (small transparent organisms). All the equipment necessary for digital micro-photography snapshots is also available for different purposes (measurements, scientific papers illustration, etc.).. ...
SHALLSONS, LLC has a Nikon Diaphot 200 Inverted phase contrast microscope for sale. The unit is in excellent condition, with few signs of wear and is
Establishment of Hepatocyte Cultures. Cryopreserved hepatocytes were thawed in hepatocyte thawing medium and counted to determine yield. Viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion; only hepatocyte batches with ≥85% viability were used in this study. Isolated hepatocytes were transferred to collagen I-precoated 24-well plates, each well containing a cell density of 0.3 × 106 viable cells in 0.5 ml of hepatocyte plating medium. After 24 h, hepatocyte plating medium was removed and replaced with incubation medium (Williams E + Glutamax, 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 7 μM insulin, and 1 μM dexamethasone). After an additional 24 h of culturing, the confluence of the hepatocytes was visually assessed using phase contrast microscopy. At the time of dosing, hepatocytes were ∼90% confluent. Following the initial 2-day recovery period, the incubation medium was removed and the hepatocytes were treated daily with induction medium (Williams E + Glutamax, 1% ITS+ premix solution, and ...
The Golgi apparatus is a relatively large, membrane-bound organelle and thus one of the easiest cell structures to study in detail [2]. The organelle is located nearby the cell nucleus and is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. By observing via metallic impregnation, it can be seen through phase contrast microscopy that the Golgi has a convoluted, dense and ill-formed morphology [3]. Initial studies have shown that the organelle has great variance in its form dependent on the type of cell it is in as well as the state of activity that the cell is in. There are roughly around 40-100 Golgi apparatus stacks within a mammalian cell [4]. Overall, the Golgi apparatus is made of 4-8 flattened, membrane-bound sacs that are stacked upon one another [5]. These are known as cisternae. The Golgi also includes associated nearby vesicles. Each cisterna primarily contains products from the endoplasmic reticulum, which enter the Golgi at the cis face - the end that is closest to the ER and ...
The Golgi apparatus is a relatively large organelle and thus one of the easiest cell structures to study in detail [3]. The organelle is located nearby the cell nucleus and is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. By observing via metallic impregnation, it can be seen through phase contrast microscopy that the Golgi has a convoluted, dense and ill-formed morphology [4]. Initial studies have shown that the organelle has great variance in its form dependent on the type of cell it is in as well as the state of activity that the cell is in. There are roughly around 40-100 Golgi apparatus stacks within a mammalian cell [5]. Overall, the Golgi apparatus is made of 4-8 flattened, membrane-bound sacs that are stacked upon one another [6]. These are known as cisternae. The Golgi also includes associated nearby vesicles. Each cisterna primarily contains products from the endoplasmic reticulum, which enter the Golgi at the cis face - the end that is closest to the ER and accepts incoming ...
The Biotechnology Program of Manhattan College and the College of Mt. St. Vincent is sponsoring: A SHORT COURSE IN BASIC TISSUE CULTURE JUNE 4-8, 1990 9:00 AM-5:00 PM This short course in the culturing of mammalian cells is presented by means of hands-on procedures and demonstrations. All the essential apsects and contemporary methods of growing cells in culture will be covered. There will be lectures on the cultured cell, monolayer and suspension culture systems, contamination, contemporary methods of cell identification, and production of monoclonal antibodies. Hands-on procedures will include pipetting, media preparation and filtration, basic phase contrast microscopy, the hemocytometer method of cell counting, cryogenic preservation, culturing anchorage dependent cells, primary cell culturing, cell identification using immunohistofluorescence, karyotyping, and mycoplasma detection. Demonstrations on the use of cryogenic equipment, various types of culture vessels, DNA characterization, two ...
Non-destructive, quantitative evaluation of cell numbers in epithelial monolayers is necessary to monitor their proliferative rate in a single culture over a time period. Imaging using phase contrast microscopy is non-invasive and creates contrast in optically transparent cells; however intrinsic image artefacts mean that thresholding-based segmentation methods alone are insufficient to identify cells. The method described uses mathematical morphology to assign contrast to cells in a way that enables approximate segmentation by applying a threshold value. Kmeans clustering is subsequently applied to improve enumeration accuracy by removing segmentation artefacts. Cell numbers in images over multiple time-points may then be used to non-destructively generate growth curves. To validate this method we demonstrate a dose dependent relationship between H400 keratinocyte proliferation and concentration of foetal calf serum ...
Phase contrast microscopy of living bone marrow derived macrophages. These cells are highly motile and the snapshot catches lamella and ruffles where...
What should healthy blood look like? Healthy red blood cells are even in color, even in size and even in shape. They do NOT have white spots or white centers indicating the loss of hemoglobin and oxygen deprivation. Here is a micrograph of a live blood sample showing the rare state of healthy blood found in less than 0.5 percent of the Worlds population - Using live blood pHase contrast microscopy you can see in the first micrograph the healthy state of the red blood cells after embracing an
Bacterial cell attachment to the surfaces of self-assembled monolayers formed by the adsorption of omega-substituted alkanethiols on transparent gold films has been studied under defined bacterial culture and flow conditions. Phase contrast microscopy was used to quantify the attachment of two organ …
Scale bar: 100 μm. B. The proliferation of atypical tumor cells with osteoid formation is shown. Xenografted tumor cells resemble original tumor cells. Scale bar: 50 μm. Cell growth and morphological findings in vitro UTOS-1 cells were spindle-shaped, contained several nucleoli, and formed clumps. Two weeks after initial cultivation in primary culture, the tumor cells reached subconfluence with some Pictilisib piled-up foci selleck products of cells (Figure 4A). After the cells were serially subcultured for about 3 months, they began to grow rapidly at passage 6 (Figure 4B). Figure 4 Morphology under phase-contrast microscopy. A. In primary. culture, spindle-shaped tumor cells reach subconfluence with some piled-up foci of cells. Scale bar: 100 μm. B. At passage. 6, the tumor cells begin to grow rapidly. The configuration of tumor cells is equalized after the 6th generation. Scale bar: 100 μm. This new cell line has been maintained in vitro for more than 50 passages over more than 2 years. ...
In demyelinating or non-demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases, increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) can be observed in brain lesions. In 158N murine oligodendrocytes, 7KC triggers a complex mode of cell death defined as oxiapoptophagy, involving simultaneous oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy. In these cells, 7KC as well as 7β-OHC and 24S-OHC induce a decrease of cell proliferation evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, an alteration of mitochondrial activity quantified with the MTT test, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species revealed by staining with dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123, caspase-3 activation, PARP degradation, reduced expression of Bcl-2, and condensation and/or fragmentation of the nuclei which are typical criteria of oxidative stress and apoptosis ...
Time lapse movie of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in culture imaged at 30 second intervals by phase contrast microscopy. A micropipette is positioned n...
Most conventional x-ray imaging and tomography relies on absorption contrast, however, x-rays are also refracted by the objects they pass through and by utilising this refraction we can boost image contrast for weakly absorbing materials. This talk will focus mainly on in-line phase-contrast, a phase contrast technique which can be used with many micro-CT systems without special modification.. Using in-line phase-contrast technique edges and boundaries within the image are strongly enhanced by near-field Fresnel diffraction. Phase-retrieval algorithms can be used to prepare such images prior to tomographic reconstruction resulting in a much improved signal to noise in the resulting tomographic slices. The optimal imaging conditions required to achieve phase-contrast, and practical approaches to phase-retrieval and reconstruction will be discussed ...
There are some key photo-devices in near future, such as solar cell, photocatalyst, and artificial photosynthesis, where photo-excited carriers (electrons and holes) are extracted for specific purpuses. In these devices, assembly of semiconductor particles are used as electrodes. However, most of the carriers are usually trapped to defects, and their lifetime and spatial distribution are diversified, which have not been understood well. In this study, we will develop a new method which can clarify the correlation between the arrangement of particles and the carrier properties, especially on the lifetime and the transport property.. ...
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
Phase Contrast Trinocular biological compound 40x-1600x microscope with 2MP USB Camera from MicroscopeNet, Model#: XM837PHB1C20C, quality product for labs, clinics Great selections of Compound, Stereo, Industrial Microscopes
BioTek Notas de Aplicación, 31-Oct-14, Use of Phase Contrast Imaging to Track Morphological Cellular Changes due to Apoptotic Activity
BioTek Anwendungshinweise, 04-Nov-14, Automated Hemocytometer-Based Live/Dead Cell Counting using Phase Contrast and Color Brightfield Imaging
BioTek Anwendungshinweise, 04-Nov-14, Automated Hemocytometer-Based Live/Dead Cell Counting using Phase Contrast and Color Brightfield Imaging
Fluxmedia is a research-creation network exploring the intersections of art, science and technology. The conceptual focus of Fluxmedia considers how the production and manipulation of wet-ware, life-forms and electronic media instigate cultural, philosophical, aesthetic and ethical concerns in art and culture. Fluxmedia currently supports the development and creation of wet lab work with tissue culture and digital imaging with an inverted phase microscope and HD video in its new home at the Speculative Life Laboratory at the Milieux Institute for Arts, Culture and Technology at Concordia University. Fluxmedia is a member of Milieux Institute and Hexagram. Graduate students interested in becoming involved with Fluxmedia are welcome to contact me ...
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer ...
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Define differential interference contrast microscopy: Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, sometimes called Nomarski Microscopy after ...
Refractive index (RI) and its dispersion play a major role in interaction of electromagnetic wave with matter. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has proven to be a useful tool to estimate the RI from the sample-induced phase delay measurement at high spatio-temporal resolution. Here, we introduce near-infrared dispersive quantitative phase imaging (NIRD-QPI) of microscopic objects. The setup uses a new geometry for quantitative phase microscopy by use of spatial frequency filtering in Fourier plane. High resolution refractive index spectroscopic measurement over a range from 690 to 840nm in interval of 25nm is reported. This method could prove to be very useful for characterizing wide range of nano and biomaterials ...
Even the cleanest mouth is teeming with billions of microbes, some of which support good oral-systemic health, others which are harmful. By looking at a sample of your oral flora through a phase contrast microscope, we can get quick and clear insight as to whether conditions are healthy overall or there are signs of emerging or progressing gum disease.. If bad bacteria outweigh the good, we can sharpen our understanding with advanced periodontal evaluation while also moving forward with treatment to control the disease process.. In this video, a holistic dentist in Colorado explains how phase contrast microscopy is used:. ...
A differential interference contrast (DIC) determination device and method utilizes an illumination source, a layer having a pair of two apertures that receive illumination from the illumination source, and a photodetector to receive Youngs interference from the illumination passing through the pair of two apertures. In addition, a surface wave assisted optofluidic microscope and method utilize an illumination source, a fluid channel having a layer with at least one aperture as a surface, and a photodetector that receives a signal based on the illumination passing through the aperture. The layer is corrugated (e.g., via fabrication) and parameters of the corrugation optimize the signal received on the photodetector.
Abstract: Fiber counting of asbestos using light microscopy has traditionally been performed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) techniques. The use of phase contrast for counting has several weaknesses, including difficulties with fiber detection and overlapping diffraction patterns causing the appearance of false fibers or masking fibers. It is, however, a significant improvement over ordinary brightfield microscopy. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of two other contrast techniques, Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) and Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC). Samples of three fiber types, chrysotile, amosite, and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) were used for this evaluation. DIC faired poorly in general and HMC faired reasonably well. The differences can be explained by the general aspects of contrast production in reference to phase detection and imaging of each method. Full article (PDF) ...
A bright field microscope can be used for evaluating motility if the field diaphragm is closed to enhance contrast and ability to visualize sperm. A much better choice is a phase contrast microscope or a microscope equipped for differential interference contrast (DIC). Examine the images above to appreciate the difference in these three types of microscopy - clearly, unstained sperm are difficult to observe using bright field. Manual motility estimates are easy to perform and require minimal equipment. In the hands of an experienced evaluator, manual estimates generally provide good estimates of motility. The chief limitation of this technique is its subjective nature. Samples with outstanding motility tend to be scored lower than they should be (it cant be that good ..) and poor samples tend to be scored higher than they should (it cant be that bad ..). Track motility estimates: A wet mount of diluted semen is prepared as described for a manual estimate, and sperm are photographed using ...
Reliable autofocus is required to obtain accurate measurements of fluorescent stained cellular components from a system capable of scanning multiple microscope fields. Autofocus could be performed directly with fluorescence images, but due to photobleaching and destructive fluorescence by-products, it is best to minimize fluorescence exposure for photosensitive specimens and live cells. This exposure problem could be completely avoided by using phase-contrast microscopy, implemented through the same optics as fluorescence microscopy. Functions for both phase-contrast and fluorescence autofocus were evaluated using the present invention and the suitability of phase-contrast autofocus for fluorescence microscopy was determined. The present autofocus system for scanning microscopy can be performed at least as fast as 0.25 s/field without loss of precision. The speed of autofocus can be further increased by a volume image which is obtained by observing an image object at each image plane of a plurality of
Objectives: To develop pooled size-specific asbestos fiber exposure estimates for North Carolina and South Carolina asbestos textile plants. Methods: Airborne sample data and prior exposure estimates by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) for the two cohorts were reviewed and compared. Estimates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for 160 membrane filter samples from all plant were pooled. Poiss
Effects of Sex Ratio Organism (SRO) on the development of embryonic cells of Drosophila melanogaster were studied in vitro. The single embryo culture technique and a histochemical staining method were employed to distinguish male embryo cultures from female ones. SRO-infected Zwn females were crossed to wild-type males, and their embryos were separately dissociated and cultured in vitro. Cell growth and differentiation in each culture were examined by phase contrast microscopy and described both qualitatively and quantitatively. Neurons, imaginal disk cells and plasmatocyte-like cells barely differentiated in male (Zwn/Y) cultures, whereas muscle and fatbody cells were not so severely affected. These symptoms were generally specific to male cultures. Female (Zwn/+) cultures were relatively normal. These observations are consistent with the results of mosaic analysis. The susceptibility of cells to SRO is discussed in relation to the dose of X chromosome in the cells.. ...
Transwell permeable supports are available in three membrane materials: polycarbonate, polyester (PET), and collagen-coated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Polycarbonate Transwell inserts feature thin, translucent membranes available in four pore sizes ranging from 0.4 µm to 8.0 µm. Most are treated for optimal cell attachment. They are supplied sterile and come preloaded in multiple well plates or dishes. The polycarbonate membrane is compatible with most organic fixatives and stains. Polyester (PET) Transwell-Clear inserts have microscopically transparent polyester membranes that are tissue culture-treated for optimal cell attachment and growth. Transwell-Clear inserts provide better cell visibility under phase contrast microscopy and allow assessment of cell viability and monolayer formation. Transwell-COL inserts have transparent (when wet), collagen-treated PTFE membranes that promote cell attachment and spreading and allow cells to be visualized during culture. The Transwell-COL ...
Long fixation and staining steps are not necessary anymore.. The Trumorph is based upon examination of wet preparations. of living immobilized spermatozoa, after a short 60°C incubation,. in narrow chambers and examined by negative phase contrast microscopy.. The Trumorph makes it possible to analyze spermatozoa from. the head to the tail and to detect morphological abnormalities.. The ease of preparation makes it a robust method applicable for analysis. of living unmodified spermatozoa.. ...
While LPS changes may possibly help the biofilm bacteria escape host immune system in vivo, more direct evidence of increases in virulence of the pathogen comes from investigation of its secreted proteases and cytotoxins (leucocidin). Virulence-specific azocasein and micro-culture tetrazolium (MTT) assays against both monospecies and binary biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicate significant increases in virulence potential of proteases and cytotoxins, respectively. These results were further substantiated in phase contrast microscopy images showing advanced stages of oncosis in tissue cultured mouse spleen myeloma (Sp2) cells treated with leucocidin isolated from Ps. aeruginosa treated with sub-MIC ...
If the aphorism one picture worth a thousand words . . ., attributed to Confucius, 551-478 B.C., is correct, the authors of this paperback book have succeeded in reducing the length of the text by more than one third. Illustrative material forms the basis of this book and is mainly a result of excellent use of the electron microscope. These illustrations consist of scanning electron micrographs and detailed diagrams, supplemented with a few well-placed transmission micrographs and photomicrographs obtained by light-and phase-contrast microscopy. Although most of the illustrations are excellent in quality, the text describing, explaining, and expanding on what ...
The control and mechanisms of airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction were investigated with a sequential series of lung slices from different generations of the same airway from the cardiac lobe of the mouse lung. Airway contraction was measured by monitoring the changes in airway lumen area with phase-contrast microscopy. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration of the SMCs were studied with a custom-built confocal or two-photon microscope. The distribution of the airway SMCs and the muscarinic M(3) or 5-HT(2A) receptors was determined with immunofluorescence. Methacholine and 5-HT induced a concentration-dependent airway contraction and Ca(2+) oscillations within the SMCs of each airway generation. The airway contraction in response to the same agonist concentration was greater in the middle generation compared with the distal or proximal generations of the same airway. Similarly, the Ca(2+) oscillations varied in different generations of the same airway, with a slower frequency in the SMCs
A cell disrupter has been developed which can measure the forces required to disrupt both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It operates a continuous process and will disrupt both large and small volumes. Shear forces are set up when a suspension under laminar flow conditions is released under high pressure through a short orifice. If the applied pressure is altered, the shear forces are simultaneously changed so that the amount of cell disruption can be compared under different known and repeatable conditions. The disrupter is now manufactured and supplied by Stansted Fluid Power Limited, Stansted, England. Phase-contrast microscopy has shown that the disrupter will break a variety of organisms including Chlorella, Aspergillus fumigatis, Fusarium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus zooepidermicus and Staphylococcus aureus. The cells are not all broken at one pressure but a certain ...
Cells were established and maintained in Leibowitz medium, with 20% fetal calf serum diluted to 60% with H2O at 24°C. Determinations of nuclear diameter by phase-contrast microscopy, of height by electron microscopy, and of pore frequency by freeze-etching were done on cells during the exponential growth phase (48 h after plating). For determination of nuclear size the short and long axis of 50 live cells were measured and averaged separately ...
UCH-L1 supports cell survival in H838 cells Assessment of H838 and H157 cells exhibiting reduced UCH-L1 protein levels by phase-contrast microscopy revealed morphological changes in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H838 cells compared to scrambled siRNA- treated and untreated control cells, whereas no difference was observed between UCH-L1 siRNA-treated H157 cells. and control H157 cells. Normally the parental H838 cells were rounded in shape and uniform in size, but cells with reduced UCH-L1 expression were irregular in shape, PF 2341066 variable in size, and present at a much lower density. H838 cells with low levels of UCH-L1 were also less flattened to the surface, possibly signifying they were becoming detached, a characteristic of apoptotic cells (Figure 4A). Therefore untreated and treated selleck products H838 cells were stained with H&E to compare the number of apoptotic cells. Definite apoptotic changes were observed in the UCH-L1 siRNA-treated cells (Figure 4B). To quantify the differences in ...
The use of a laser Doppler microscope, developed to measure flow and/or diffusion in living cells, is described. It analyses Doppler shifts given to the frequency of laser light scattered at a known angle from particles moving in a volume of less than 200 cubic micrometres. This scattering volume is defined in the specimen by an aperture in an image-plane and can be placed within a single cell. Specimens can be viewed and recorded continuously by video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy during experiments so that, independently of laser-Doppler measurements, sizes of individual particles in images may be measured and their displacements timed with the aid of a video-micrometer. This paper describes how ways are now needed to constrain and improve computation and analysis of the laser Doppler measurements by incorporating information from the images ...
This webpage contains Thorlabs selection of components for performing differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging in DIY Cerna systems. DIC imaging is an extremely popular method for obtaining contrast from thin unlabeled samples in vitro.When mounted to a Cerna microscope body using the WFA01
Responses of cultured mouse fibroblasts, human erythrocytes, bovine erythrocytes, and liposomes with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SPM) ratios to both natural and synthetic lytic peptides were characterized. Peptide-induced morphological alterations of the plasma membrane of cells were examined by various light microscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of natural and synthetic peptides to kill cells and cause increased permeability of liposomes was evaluated using Trypan Blue (TB) dye exclusion assay and fluorescent dye leakage assay, respectively. Differential interference contrast microscopy, SEM, and fluorescence studies revealed characteristic structural and lipid changes in the plasma membrane of lytic peptide-treated fibroblasts, and these alterations were accompanied by simultaneous changes in the cell permeability as indicated by the uptake of TB. Formation of membrane vesicles, composed primarily of lipids, was demonstrated in cells
Cell-cell adhesion is at the top of a molecular cascade of protein interactions that leads to the remodeling of epithelial cell structure and function. The earliest events that initiate this cascade are poorly understood. Using high resolution differential interference contrast microscopy and retrospective immunohistochemistry, we observed that cell-cell contact in MDCK epithelial cells consists of distinct stages that correlate with specific changes in the interaction of E-cadherin with the cytoskeleton. We show that formation of a stable contact is preceded by numerous, transient contacts. During this time and immediately following formation of a stable contact, there are no detectable changes in the distribution, relative amount, or Triton X-100 insolubility of E-cadherin at the contact. After a lag period of approximately 10 min, there is a rapid acquisition of Triton X-100 insolubility of E-cadherin localized to the stable contact. Significantly, the total amount of E-cadherin at the ...
A human malignant continuous cell line, named NG97, was recently established in our laboratory. This cell line has been serially subcultured over 100 times in standard culture media presenting no sign of cell senescence. The NG97 cell line has a doubling time of about 24 h. Immunocytochemical analysis of glial markers demonstrated that cells are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein, and negative for vimentin. Under phase-contrast microscope, cultures of NG97 showed cells with variable morphological features, such as small rounded cells, fusiform cells (fibroblastic-like cells), and dendritic-like cells. However, at confluence just small rounded and fusiform cells can be observed. At scanning electron microscopy (SEM) small rounded cells showed heterogeneous microextentions, including blebs and filopodia. Dendritic-like cells were flat and presented extensive prolongations, making several contacts with small rounded cells, while fusiform cells presented their surfaces
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging modality which provides good conditions for studies of flow and motion in the cardiovascular system. When using the phase contrast imaging technique, it is possible to perform velocity measurements in moving tissues and in blood. The acquired velocity data can be used for subsequent calculation of different parameters used for the assessment of cardiovascular function. These parameters rely on the accuracy and reproducibility of the velocity measurements.. This thesis includes an introduction to phase contrast imaging and how displacement artifacts may hamper the accuracy of velocity measurements using phase contrast imaging. A method for correction of this artifact was developed using the knowledge of the times at which velocity and spatial encoding are carried out in the pulse sequence. The elaboration of this correction method included modifications of a 3D phase contrast pulse sequence and development of post processing algorithms involving ...
We report a qualitative study on central nervous system (CNS) damage that demonstrates the ability of X-ray phase contrast tomography (XPCT) to confirm data obtained with standard 2D methodology and permits the description of additional features that are not detected with 2D or other 3D techniques. In contrast to magnetic resonance or computed tomography, XPCT makes possible the high-resolution 3D imaging of soft tissues classically considered
Pinzer, B R; Cacquevel, M; Modregger, P; Thuering, T; Stampanoni, M (2013). Differential X-ray phase contrast tomography of Alzheimer plaques in mouse models: perspectives for drug development and clinical imaging techniques. Journal of Instrumentation, 8(5):C05005. ...
Are there any imageJ plug ins that automate phase contrast images of neurons stained with Crystal Violet? Is it possible to just invert a phase contrast image and use that with a plug in meant for fluorescent microscopy…
Activation of MLK and c-Jun is required for the death of GDNF-deprived sympathetic neurons. (A) Quantitation of neurons with strong nuclear immunostaining for phosphorylated c-Jun expressed as a percentage of all neurons. Neurons were deprived of neurotrophic factors in the presence of caspase inhibitor BAF for 48 h and immunostained with antibodies to phosphorylated serines 63 or 73 of c-Jun. Control neurons maintained with GDNF or NGF were stained as well. The mean ± SEM of four (for P-Ser-63) or three (for P-Ser-73) independent cultures is shown. Neurotrophic factor-maintained and -deprived groups were compared by t test. (B) Typical examples of weak (GDNF-deprived neurons) or strong (NGF-deprived neurons) nuclear immunostaining. Corresponding phase-contrast images are shown on the right column. Levels of the fluorescent images were equally enhanced with Adobe Photoshop software. Bar, 10 μm. (C) GDNF- or NGF- deprived sympathetic neurons were microinjected with expression plasmid encoding ...
The Molecular Expressions DIC image gallery contains a wide spectrum of stained and unstained specimens, including transparent living and fixed cells and tissues.
Description • The Zeiss-Biorad Confocal microscope unit features the following capabilities DICM (Differential Interference Contrast Micros...
Merged fluorescence images and phase-contrast images on bright field are also shown. S1). Say an agency dealing with sensitive client information wants to add an extra layer of anonymity to their private email service. We windows server 2003 get pid in empowering you by providing a server you can manage and maintain yourself. Protein concentration was measured by BCA protein assay product is manufactured by and sold under license from OriGene Technologies and remote server reboot windows use is limited solely for research purposes. The efficiency of Gag-induced VLP budding in cells cotransfected with pK30-Gag and control vector (VLPCellular) was set to 1. This is achieved by trying 1000s of different username and password combinations, so what well do next is preventing anyone (including us) from using this approach to windows server 2003 get pid in - now we have a key pair, so no need for passwords. Essentially complete proton resonance assignments were obtained for VPS4A1-122 by using a ...
We compared the growth of three different primary fibroblast lines in media supplemented with Peak Serums FBS to their growth in media supplemented with four other commercially-available FBS samples and noticed a big difference in growth or cell morphology by phase microscopy when using Peak Serums FBS.. B.R. Duke University ...
Phase contrast images of MDA-MB-435 cells and isolated nuclei.(A) MDA-MB-435 cells. (B) Nuclei isolated in isotonic buffer A. Cytoplasm of the cell at this stag
BioTek™ Cytation™ 5 Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Reader Fluorescence, brightfield, H&E, phase contrast imaging and monochromator multi-mode detection...
Affiliation:和歌山県立医科大学,医学部,博士研究員, Research Field:Neurosurgery, Keywords:Phase-contrast MRI,Phase contrast MRI,血流評価,phase-contrast MRI,頸動脈狭窄,数値流体解析,頸動脈狭窄症, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:0
The successful imaging of living cells and tissues relies on enhancement of contrast using advanced optical techniques, such as phase and differential interference contrast (DIC), Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC), and fluorescence.
Diamond Light Source, UK - Cited by 841 - Phase contrast imaging - image reconstruction - coherent optics - phase retrieval - tomography
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Activities: Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of biological samples; Simulation of dynamics within samples irradiated by FEL pulse; Phase retrieval algorithms ...
Phase-contrast microscopy.. Main article: Basophil. Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by ... visible on light microscopy or not thus visible). The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, ...
Phase Contrast, add article. *point spread function, expand the stub. *Glass-reinforced plastic, expand ... Confocal microscopy, description of resolution improvement is a little inaccurate. *Kohler Illumination. add new article ...
Air samples are typically analyzed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM). PCM involves counting fibers on a filter using a ... asbestos was phased out of building products beginning in the 1970s with most of the remainder phased out by the 1980s. Even ... The most common methods of identifying asbestos fibers are by using polarized light microscopy (PLM) or transmission electron ... microscopy (TEM). PLM is less expensive, but TEM is more precise and can be used at lower concentrations of asbestos. If ...
Phase-bright endospores of Paenibacillus alvei imaged with phase-contrast microscopy. An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non ... After the spores were analyzed by microscopy, it was determined that the cells were very similar to Bacillus sphaericus which ... ETO is the only low-temperature sterilant to stop outbreaks on these instruments.[17] In contrast, "high level disinfection" ... once outside the host, sporulation commences upon exposure to the air and the spore forms are essentially the exclusive phase ...
"Quantitative phase contrast microscopy - label-free live cell imaging and quantification". Phase Holographic Imaging AB.. ... The sub images were extracted from a 61-hour time-lapse microscopy video, created using quantitative phase-contrast microscopy ... one can do analysis of morphology by time-lapse microscopy, flow fluorocytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. There ... In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly ...
This method usually employs a phase-contrast microscope or confocal reflection microscope. No absorption of light is necessary ... This method is essentially confocal laser scanning microscopy. It offers excitation with much lower laser powers than does two- ... In this case, the repeated reading of data may eventually serve to erase it (this also happens in phase change materials used ... This method is essentially two-photon microscopy. Linear excitation of fluorescence with confocal detection. ...
The device is similar in operation to phase-contrast microscopy. PDI systems are valuable tool to measure absolute surface ... Another downsides of Sommargren's approach is that it produces low contrast fringes and an attempt to regulate the contrast ... The phase shifting was obtained by moving the test part with a piezo electric translation stage. An unwanted side effect of ... Similarly, an arbitrary and stable phase shifts can be obtained relative to the test beam keeping the test part static. The ...
Schmidt, K. 8., "Phase Contrast Microscopy in the Particle Laboratory", Staub, Vol. 22, 1962. Su, Shu-Chun, "Dispersion ... Phase contrast dispersion staining requires that a phase contrast objective with the appropriate phase annulus in the substage ... 1948 Crossmon, Germain C., " Dispersion Staining with phase contrast microscopy accessories: the microscopic identification of ... 612-619, 1948 Crossmon, Germain C., " Dispersion Staining with phase contrast microscopy accessories: the microscopic ...
... differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) or interferometry. Zernike phase-contrast microscopy introduces a phase ... In the visual spectrum this is done using Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, ... The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests or the phase of the wave moves, which may be different from the group ... There exist several phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques to determine 2D or 3D spatial distribution of refractive index of ...
PST performs similar functionality as phase contrast microscopy but on digital images. PST is also applicable to digital images ... Phase congruency (also known as phase coherence) methods attempt to find locations in an image where all sinusoids in the ... In contrast a line (as can be extracted by a ridge detector) can be a small number of pixels of a different color on an ... The phase stretch transform or PST is a physics-inspired computational approach to signal and image processing. One of its ...
Arnim later expanded on work from Charles C. Bass related to dental plaque; he used phase-contrast microscopy and ...
When diatom testing on an organic sample scientists use phase contrast microscopy. While observing the diatoms are tallied and ...
"Observation of subnanometre-high surface topography with X-ray reflection phase-contrast microscopy". Nature Physics. 2 (10): ... Ciccariello, S.; Riello, P. (2007-04-01). "Small-angle scattering from three-phase samples: application to coal undergoing an ... and microscopy techniques for analyzing interfacial processes. One example is the demonstration of "model-independent imaging" ... as a conceptual approach for visualizing the distribution of an element near interfaces through the use of phase-sensitive ...
T. tenax can easily be detected through the use of phase-contrast microscopy. Biofilm harvested from infested areas of the ...
Phase-bright endospores of Paenibacillus alvei imaged with phase-contrast microscopy. An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non ... In contrast, "high level disinfection" does not kill endospores but is used for instruments that don't enter sterile bodily ... After the spores were analyzed by microscopy, it was determined that the cells were very similar to Bacillus sphericus which is ... once outside the host, sporulation commences upon exposure to the air and the spore forms are essentially the exclusive phase ...
"Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Phase Contrast Photomicrography Gallery - Agatized ...
... phase-contrast microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy". Polish Journal of Microbiology. 61 (2): 129-35. doi: ... Besides the white and opaque phase there is also a third one: the gray phenotype. This phenotype shows the highest ability to ... Phenotypic switching is often used to refer to white-opaque switching, which consists of two phases: one that grows as round ... A general problem is that in contrast to bacteria, fungi are often overlooked as a potential health problem. Given the fact ...
For some applications, such as phase contrast electron microscopy, defocused images can contain useful information. Multiple ... In general, defocus reduces the sharpness and contrast of the image. What should be sharp, high-contrast edges in a scene ... This is the basis of non-interferometric phase retrieval. Examples of phase retrieval algorithms that use defocused images ... and from this information the phase of the wave can be inferred. ...
Britton develops high resolution microscopy techniques, including forescatter electron imaging for topographic and phase ... Britton, T. Ben; Goran, Daniel; Tong, Vivian S. (2018). "Space rocks and optimising scanning electron channelling contrast". ... He is a specialist in micromechanics, electron microscopy and crystal plasticity. In 2014 he was awarded the Silver Medal of ... contrast. Britton has led outreach and engagement activity aimed at changing public perception about nuclear energy, and ...
CASA uses phase-contrast microscopy combined with sperm tracking software to analyze sperm motility parameters. Certain ... More advanced techniques employ fluorescent or electron microscopy methods. Fluorescein-conjugated Peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA ...
During replication, T. celer is condensed to a diploform shape as seen by phase contrast microscopy. The T. celer plasma ... Observation using electron microscopy revealed that T. celer uses a monopolar polytrichous flagellum for movement. ...
"Restoration of weak phase-contrast images recorded with a high degree of defocus: the "twin image" problem associated with CTF ... Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic ... This contrasts with electron tomography, where the viewing angles are limited due to the geometry of the sample/imaging set up ... Transmission electron microscopy images are projections of the object showing the distribution of density through the object, ...
... phase-contrast X-ray imaging, and tomography. The Ångström-scale wavelength of X-rays enables imaging well below the ... 2012-03-30). "In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries". Journal of the ... The high resolution and intensity of the synchrotron beam enables the measurement of scattering from dilute phases or the ... Such nanoprobe sources are used for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Imaging can be combined with spectroscopy ...
By phase-contrast microscopy, decoy cells show the same abnormalities described for stained specimens, namely, enlargement of ... Decoy cells can be seen in a urine sample through Papanicolaou staining or phase-contrast microscopy. By Papanicolaou stain, ...
This led Knöll to cooperate with the Zeiss factory in the development of phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy. In 1944 he ... participated in the isolation of nucleosides in living bacteria using phase contrast microscopy. In the same year this ...
Meade-Tollin, Linda C.; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF (2000). "Time lapse phase contrast video microscopy of directed migration of ...
QPI offers a significantly higher contrast than conventional phase imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast microscopy. The ... Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is particularly useful for live cell tracking. As QPI is label-free, it does not induce ... higher contrast facilitates more robust cell segmentation and tracking than achievable with conventional phase imaging. New ... Park, YongKeun; Depeursinge, Christian; Popescu, Gabriel (27 September 2018). "Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine". ...
1955 - Georges Nomarski, professor of microscopy, published the theoretical basis of differential interference contrast ... receives the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope. ... an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole ... microscopy. 1957 - Marvin Minsky, a professor at MIT, invents the confocal microscope, ...
Phase-contrast microscopy: Uses the optical aspect of light to represent the solid, liquid, and gas phase changes as brightness ... The cell cycle is divided into four distinct phases: G1, S, G2, and M. The G phase - which is the cell growth phase - makes up ... Confocal microscopy: Combines fluorescence microscopy with imaging by focusing light and snap shooting instances to form a 3-D ... Fluorescence microscopy: Fluorescent markers such as GFP, are used to label a specific component of the cell. Afterwards, a ...
1930: The Supersonic combusting ramjet - Frank Whittle 1930: The Phase-contrast microscopy is invented by Frits Zernike. 1931: ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... The response to the epidemic then moved to a second phase, as the focus shifted from slowing transmission to ending the ... By contrast, humans and other primates accumulate the virus throughout their body and specifically in their blood, but not very ... "Modern uses of electron microscopy for detection of viruses". Clinical Microbiology Reviews (Review). 22 (4): 552-63. doi ...
During the 1880s, they observed bacteria by microscopy in skin samples from people with acne. Investigators believed the ... Results of a Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study". Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 17 (3): 333-338. PMID 29537451.. ... In contrast, if the microcomedone occurs deep within the hair follicle, this causes the formation of a whitehead (known as a ... Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trials". Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 17 (9): 987-996. PMID 30235387.. ...
In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), translational Moiré fringes can be seen as parallel contrast lines formed in phase- ... Most of the Moiré contrast observations reported in the literature are obtained using high-resolution phase contrast imaging in ... Microscopy[edit]. In super-resolution microscopy, the moiré pattern can be used to obtain images with a resolution higher than ... Phase moiré effect: moiré pattern on a screen behind two transparent phase masks as the screen pulls away ...
... phase-contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy, confocal microscopy, cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, etc. have ... The cell cycle is divided into four distinct phases, G1, S, G2, and M. The G phases - which is the cell growth phase - makes up ... The G phases along with the S phase - DNA replication, damage and repair - are considered to be the interphase portion of the ... While the M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) is the cell division portion of the cycle.[14] The cell cycle is regulated by a ...
Chehrehasa F, Ekberg JA, Lineburg K, Amaya D, Mackay-Sim A, St John JA (February 2012). "Two phases of replacement replenish ... 2012). "Labelling of olfactory ensheathing cells with micron-sized particles of iron oxide and detection by MRI". Contrast ... an in vitro study using single-cell tracking and traction force microscopy". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 69 (10): ...
In contrast, a solar thermal collector supplies heat by absorbing sunlight, for the purpose of either direct heating or ... typically using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Each layer has a different band gap energy to allow it to absorb ... "Characterising degradation of perovskite solar cells through in-situ and operando electron microscopy". Nano Energy. 47: 243- ... "Evolution of microstructure and phase in amorphous, protocrystalline, and microcrystalline silicon studied by real time ...
All the 25 people participated in this phase 1 trial developed strong immune responses.[62] As of 2015, a phase 2 trial was ... Cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of Chikungunya virus. From EMDB entry EMD-5577[33] ... In contrast to dengue fever, Chikungunya fever very rarely causes hemorrhagic complications. Symptoms of bleeding should lead ... Information gained during recent epidemics suggests that chikungunya fever may result in a chronic phase as well as the phase ...
In the case of atomic force microscopy, it may also be hard to discriminate the interaction of the tip with the studied ... Therefore, magnetic tweezers are passive force clamps due to the nature of their construction in contrast to optical tweezers, ... tweezers has the advantage that the field strength and direction can be changed just by adjusting the amplitude and the phase ... optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. The magnetic interaction is highly specific to the used superparamagnetic ...
In contrast, in natural fertilization sperm compete and when the first sperm penetrates the oolemma, the oolemma hardens to ... Van Der Linden, M.; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J. A. M.; Metwally, M. (2012). "Luteal phase support in assisted ... microscopy can still detect the few sperm cells that have a "normal" morphology, allowing for optimal success rate.[13] ...
Two healthy mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue as shown by electron microscopy ... in contrast to mitochondrial DNA's maternal pattern of inheritance. Leigh syndrome caused by nuclear DNA mutations is inherited ... Advanced sleep phase disorder. *Delayed sleep phase disorder. *Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder ... "Light and electron microscopy characteristics of the muscle of patients with SURF1 gene mutations associated with Leigh ...
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a PTCDA molecule, in which the five six-carbon rings are visible.[1] ... Philosophically, therefore, a molecule is not a fundamental entity (in contrast, for instance, to an elementary particle); ... The theme of repeated unit-cellular-structure also holds for most condensed phases with metallic bonding, which means that ... A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings.[2] ...
By contrast, in vivo experiments can provide information about the physiological role of a protein in the context of a cell or ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... Yuste R (December 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID ... In contrast, eukaryotes make mRNA in the cell nucleus and then translocate it across the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm, ...
These make it especially useful for wide-angle camera lenses, microscopy, and the core part of optical fibers.[62][63] It has ... Due to the similarity between silica (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2), the silica stationary phase in some gas ... All four dihalides are known and in contrast to the tetrahalides are polymeric solids.[33] Additionally Ge2Cl6 and some higher ... GeSbTe is a phase change material used for its optic properties, such as that used in rewritable DVDs.[65] ...
Bright-field microscopy. *Köhler illumination. *Dark field microscopy. *Phase contrast. *Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy ... The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Microscopy.. online. *^ a b c Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And ... Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ...
However, Nick Higham seems to agree with Bede, who identified three phases of settlement: an exploration phase, when ... In contemporary Anglophone cultures outside Britain, "Anglo-Saxon" may be contrasted with "Celtic" as a socioeconomic ... pigment identification by Raman microscopy." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 35.1 (2004): 4-12. ... In this phase of the war the West Saxons conquered land by building and holding burhs from which to threaten and dominate ...
Thus, a phase-shift Θ = 2πx(1/λ − 1/λ') appears. For Θ = π, the scattered amplitudes are opposite, so that the Raman scattered ... In contrast to IR spectroscopy, where there is a requirement for a change in dipole moment for vibrational excitation to take ... Fifth Conference on Frontiers of Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy. 203: 60-67. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2018.12.006. ISSN ... A selection rule relevant only to ordered solid materials states that only phonons with zero phase angle can be observed by IR ...
In contrast to the rash in smallpox, the rash in chickenpox occurs mostly on the torso, spreading less to the limbs. ... In the initial growth phase, the virus seemed to move from cell to cell, but by around the 12th day, lysis of many infected ... All orthopoxviruses exhibit identical brick-shaped virions by electron microscopy.[24] If particles with the characteristic ... Malignant smallpox was accompanied by a severe prodromal phase that lasted 3-4 days, prolonged high fever, and severe symptoms ...
"DNA Base Identification by Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of ... Emulsion PCR[46] isolates individual DNA molecules along with primer-coated beads in aqueous droplets within an oil phase. A ... In contrast, solid-state nanopore sequencing utilizes synthetic materials such as silicon nitride and aluminum oxide and it is ... and microscopy-based techniques, such as atomic force microscopy or transmission electron microscopy that are used to identify ...
In contrast to MRI, structural biology studies do not directly generate an image, but rely on complex computer calculations to ... Structure determination by NMR spectroscopy usually consists of several phases, each using a separate set of highly specialized ...
Microscopy[edit]. Another principal tool in the diagnosis of infectious disease is microscopy. Virtually all of the culture ... In contrast, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) kills its victims very slowly by attacking their immune system.[17] As a ... The host harbouring an agent that is in a mature or sexually active stage phase is called the definitive host. The intermediate ... In contrast, a secondary infection is a sequela or complication of a root cause. For example, pulmonary tuberculosis is often a ...
Schemes for dynamic mode operation include frequency modulation where a phase-locked loop is used to track the cantilever's ... Samples that contain regions of varying stiffness or with different adhesion properties can give a contrast in this channel ... Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy ( ... Atomic force microscopy[1] (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of ...
Solid argon hydride (Ar(H2)2) has the same crystal structure as the MgZn2 Laves phase. It forms at pressures between 4.3 and ... Argon is preferred for the sputter coating of specimens for scanning electron microscopy. Argon gas is also commonly used for ... This contrasts with the low abundance of primordial 36. Ar in Earth's atmosphere, which is only 31.5 ppmv (= 9340 ppmv × 0.337 ... Two-phase detectors containing argon gas are used to detect the ionized electrons produced during the WIMP-nucleus scattering. ...
Morchella elata asci viewed with phase contrast microscopy. A hymenium is a layer of microscopic spore-bearing cells that ...
ContrastEdit. Main article: Contrast CT. Contrast media used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called ... However, increased dosage raises the adverse side effects, including the risk of radiation induced cancer - a four-phase ... "The Reconstruction of a Three-Dimensional Structure from Projections and its Application to Electron Microscopy". Proc. Roy. ... The contrast agent may induce contrast-induced nephropathy.[13] This occurs in 2 to 7% of people who receive these agents, with ...
Terminal phase. If a person will die soon from a disease, regardless of whether that disease typically causes death, then the ... By contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually ... Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For ... This measure of sickness is contrasted with the mortality rate of a condition, which is the proportion of people dying during a ...
If the goal is to maximize contrast with phase contrast illumination, a dedicated phase contrast lens should be purchased. ... Phase Contrast Microscopy, Molecular Expressions, Optical Microscopy Primer, 2003. [2] Circular Oblique Lighting (COL), ... For instance, phase contrast (PC) microscopy can be used to produce high-contrast images of transparent specimens, such as ... Phase Contrast Objective Used for Brightfield. In the last paragraph, we look at the performance of a phase contrast objective ...
Phase contrast is a technique useful for increasing visibility and contrast, especially in unstained objects and living ... The phase contrast technique has hailed as the greatest advance in microscopy in a century. Phase contrast, by "converting" ... The accessories needed for phase contrast work are a substage phase contrast condenser equipped with annuli and a set of phase ... now known as Phase Contrast microscopy--for making unstained, phase objects yield contrast images as if they were amplitude ...
... is a contrast-enhancing optical technique that can be utilized to produce high-contrast images of transparent specimens such as ... Phase contrast microscopy, first described in 1934 by Dutch physicist Frits Zernike, ... Introduction to Phase Contrast Microscopy. Phase contrast microscopy, first described in 1934 by Dutch physicist Frits Zernike ... and dark halos bright in negative phase contrast.. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase- ...
This page contains a phase contrast photomicrograph of a human lung tissue stained thin section that has been diagnosed with ... As evidenced by the micrograph, combining phase contrast microscopy with classical histological staining techniques in ... BACK TO THE PHASE CONTRAST GALLERY. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1998-2019 by Michael W. Davidson and The ... Phase Contrast Image Gallery. Pulmonary Emphysema. A stained thin section of human lung tissue exhibiting damage from pulmonary ...
This protocol highlights the principles and practical applications of Phase and Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) ... the phase-contrast microscopy is claimed to have been invented in 194². This is incorrect. The origins of phase-contrast date ... Centonze Frohlich, V. Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy. J. Vis. Exp. (18), e844, doi: ... Phase-contrast microscopy is often used to produce contrast for transparent, non light-absorbing, biological specimens. The ...
Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) microscopy can be used to image samples that only cause a phase shift to the incident light. The ... 3: X-ray microscopy images of a 200 nm high Nickel test structure in Absorption contrast and in Zernike phase contrast. The ... I. Vartiainen, R. Mokso, M. Stampanoni, and C. David, Halo suppression in full field X-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy, ... Artifact characterization and reduction in scanning X-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy, Optics Express 23 (2015) p. 13278 ...
High impact information on Microscopy, Phase-Contrast. *Under phase-contrast microscopy, PAF caused contraction of mesangial ... Anatomical context of Microscopy, Phase-Contrast. *Endothelial cells were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy, electron ... Phase-Contrast. *Cultures were analysed from day 1-12 by phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (s.e.m.). ... as measured by phase-contrast microscopy [2].. *Evaluation of cellular damage during hypoxia using phase-contrast microscopy, ...
Trends in phase contrast microscope (PCM) asbestos (1332214) fiber counting reported by the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT ... Phase contrast microscopy asbestos fiber counting performance in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program.. ... Trends in phase contrast microscope (PCM) asbestos (1332214) fiber counting reported by the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT ...
Optical Microscopy Primer - Phase Contrast Microscopy by Florida State University Phase contrast and dark field microscopes ( ... Live cell imaging Phase-contrast imaging Phase-contrast X-ray imaging "The phase contrast microscope". Nobel Media AB. Zernike ... Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent ... Yet, phase changes often convey important information. Phase-contrast microscopy is particularly important in biology. It ...
Plant specific samples were used to express impinger dust concentrations as fibre concentrations by phase contract microscopy ( ... Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy in North Carolina USA asbestos textile ... Plant specific samples were used to express impinger dust concentrations as fibre concentrations by phase contract microscopy ( ... Archived membrane filter samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/ ...
... induce a phase shift that can be observed using a phase contrast microscope. Conventional phase contrast microscopy and related ... Quantitative phase contrast microscopy or quantitative phase imaging are the collective names for a group of microscopy methods ... Cytometry Digital holographic microscopy Holographic interference microscopy Live cell imaging Phase-contrast microscopy ... Quantitative phase contrast microscopy is primarily used to observed unstained living cells. Measuring the phase delay images ...
... von Hofsten, Olov KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, ... Since only beta is used in absorption contrast, phase-contrast imaging techniques which give access to delta are very important ... differential-interference contrast and Zemike phase contrast.. sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider. 2009. Vol. 186 Emneord [en] ... In this paper we present two different implementations of phase contrast in our compact soft x-ray microscope, ...
Nondestructive Multiscale X-Ray Tomography by Combining Microtomography and High-Energy Phase-Contrast Nanotomography - Volume ... Microscopy and Microanalysis. *ISSN: 1431-9276* *EISSN: 1435-8115* *URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis* ... Nondestructive Multiscale X-Ray Tomography by Combining Microtomography and High-Energy Phase-Contrast Nanotomography ... Nondestructive Multiscale X-Ray Tomography by Combining Microtomography and High-Energy Phase-Contrast Nanotomography ...
Phase contrast microscopy is a well-established tool to enhance image contrast of unstained samples. However, most techniques ... a) Measured en-face phase map, (b) en-face phase map after subtracting the phase introduced by the AOMs, (c) en-face phase map ... Phase contrast coherence microscopy based on transverse scanning. Michael Pircher,* Bernhard Baumann, Erich Götzinger, Harald ... we obtain a phase difference consisting only of the phase of the first line and the phase of the third line (phase of the ...
Cellular-Resolution Imaging of Microstructures in Rat Bone using Laboratory Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast X-ray Tomography ... Microscopy and Microanalysis. *ISSN: 1431-9276* *EISSN: 1435-8115* *URL: /core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis* ... Cellular-Resolution Imaging of Microstructures in Rat Bone using Laboratory Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast X-ray Tomography ... Cellular-Resolution Imaging of Microstructures in Rat Bone using Laboratory Propagation-Based Phase-Contrast X-ray Tomography ...
Computer-aided approach to slit phase contrast microscopy Author(s): Dariusz Litwin ... Properties and new possible applications of the slit phase contrast technique are presented. They are tested by an advanced ... A composition of phase objects (e.g. , circles, rectangles, gratings, fibers) is transformed into its Fourier form, multiplied ... by the transmittance of the phase strip, and finally retransformed. According to the simulation results, several soot filters ...
... phase image. The produced quantitative phase image may have sufficient contrast for label-free auto-segmentation of cell bodies ... images with various relative phase shifts between light diffracted by a sample and light not diffracted by the sample to ... Systems and methods described herein employ multiple phase-contrast ... After the phase shift element is positioned for zero relative phase shift (step 72), a phase-contrast image at zero phase shift ...
J. Ndop et al., "Mechanical Characterisation of Graded Materials by Ultrasonic Microscopy with Phase Contrast", Materials ... Mechanical Characterisation of Graded Materials by Ultrasonic Microscopy with Phase Contrast p.873 ...
Phase-contrast microscopy is one of the most common and convenient imaging modalities for observing cell motility because it ... Automatic extraction and tracking of high-resolution cell outlines from phase-contrast images, however, is difficult due to ... method based on refined level-set segmentation for accurate extraction of cell outlines from high-resolution phase-contrast ... Accurate extraction of cell outlines from microscopy images is essential for analysing the dynamics of migrating cells. ...
Quantitative phase-contrast imaging of cells with phase-sensitive optical coherence microscopy Christopher G. Rylander, Digant ... Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging Chulmin Joo, Taner Akkin, Barry ... "Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2131-2133 (2005) ... We describe a novel microscopy technique for quantitative phase-contrast imaging of a transparent specimen. The technique is ...
Dynamics of optically trapped red blood cells by phase contrast microscopy. Title. Dynamics of optically trapped red blood ...
... phase contrast imaging, and the new spiral phase contrast method. Compared to the dark-field and the phase contrast method, we ... 1. Simulation of the imaging of a circular phase step for the phase contrast and for the spiral phase contrast method. Image A ... 1. Simulation of the imaging of a circular phase step for the phase contrast and for the spiral phase contrast method. Image A ... Mapping of phase singularities with spiral phase contrast microscopy. Ruth Steiger, et al.. Opt. Express 21(14) 16282-16289 ( ...
What is Microscopy, phase-contrast? Meaning of Microscopy, phase-contrast medical term. What does Microscopy, phase-contrast ... phase-contrast in the Medical Dictionary? Microscopy, phase-contrast explanation free. ... phase contrast microscope. (redirected from Microscopy, phase-contrast). Also found in: Dictionary. phase contrast microscope. ... Microscopy, phase-contrast , definition of Microscopy, phase-contrast by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a titanium pattern with nanometer ... Precision phase-contrast imaging has been achieved with in-line phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy. The complex ... Jeon Woong Kang, Chung-Ki Hong, "Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a ... Jeon Woong Kang, Chung-Ki Hong, "Phase-contrast microscopy by in-line phase-shifting digital holography: shape measurement of a ...
Phase-contrast microscopy in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in the outpatient setting: A diagnostic validity study ... Inicio Atención Primaria Phase-contrast microscopy in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in the ou... ... it was found that phase-contrast microscopy presented a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. However, these results ... The microscopic examination was carried out by phase-contrast microscope at a magnification of 400× of an unspun drop of urine ...
Methods Airborne sample data and prior exposure estimates by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) for the two cohorts were reviewed ... Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy for pooled exposure-response analyses ... Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy for pooled exposure-response analyses ... Estimates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for 160 membrane filter samples from all plant were pooled. Poisson ...
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) provides label-free quantitative phase contrast with low demands on sample preparation. ... Nevertheless, for DHM measurements on fixed cells the mounting medium has to be considered while the phase contrast of living ... To quantify these effects, the maximum cell caused phase contrast and the visibility of the nucleoli were analyzed. A second ... The obtained results demonstrate exemplarily for two tumor cell lines that from DHM phase contrast images of fixed cells in ...
To investigate the contrast mechanisms in phase imaging, this study extends, for the first time, phase imaging to the rodent ... The contrast of the phase images depended in part on the orientation of anatomical structures relative to the magnetic field, ... Phase images revealed, often more clearly than the corresponding magnitude images, hippocampal fields, cortical layers (e. g. ... Recent studies at high magnetic fields using the phase of gradient-echo MR images have shown the ability to unveil cortical ...
Contrast phase imaging at infrared wavelengths is achieved through an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity in optical fiber. The micro- ... This information is entangled in the contrast phase image obtained. In this work we review the system proposed in [19] in order ... 18] M. Farina, et al., "Algorithm for reduction of noise in ultramicroscopyand application to near-field microwave microscopy, ... 20] S. O. Isikman et al., "Lensfree On-Chip Microscopy and Tomographyfor Bio-Medical Applications", IEEE Journal of ...
... using phase-contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The discovered ... using phase-contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The discovered ... Ultrastructure of Candida albicans pleomorphic forms: phase-contrast microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. ... phase-contrast microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.}, author={Monika Staniszewska and Małgorzata Bondaryk ...
  • A schematic illustration of the basic phase contrast microscope configuration is illustrated in Figure 1. (fsu.edu)
  • Presented in Figure 1 is a cut-away diagram of a modern upright phase contrast microscope, including a schematic illustration of the phase contrast optical train. (microscopyu.com)
  • The addition of phase contrast optical accessories to a standard brightfield microscope can be employed as a technique to render a contrast-enhancing effect in transparent specimens that is reminiscent of optical staining (see Figure 2 ). (microscopyu.com)
  • Trends in phase contrast microscope (PCM) asbestos (1332214) fiber counting reported by the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) program over a 20 year period were evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • The phase-contrast microscope made it possible for biologists to study living cells and how they proliferate through cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a phase-contrast microscope, image contrast is increased in two ways: by generating constructive interference between scattered and background light rays in regions of the field of view that contain the specimen, and by reducing the amount of background light that reaches the image plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The success of the phase-contrast microscope has led to a number of subsequent phase-imaging methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such objects do, however, induce a phase shift that can be observed using a phase contrast microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper we present two different implementations of phase contrast in our compact soft x-ray microscope, differential-interference contrast and Zemike phase contrast. (diva-portal.org)
  • A microscope that uses the differences in the phase of light transmitted or reflected by a specimen to form distinct, contrasting images of different parts of the specimen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Examine the light pathways through a phase contrast microscope and learn how these systems dissect the incident electromagnetic wave into a surround (S), diffracted (D), and resultant particle (P) component. (mioozix.com)
  • However the various organelles show wide variation in refractive index, that is, the tendency of the materials to bend light, providing an opportunity for phase contrast microscope to distinguish them. (wordpress.com)
  • A phase contrast microscope does not require to kill the cells by staining. (wordpress.com)
  • The picture was taken with a Tucsen 3.0 MP CMOS microscope camera from Nexcope CM501 with phase contrast kit. (wordpress.com)
  • In a phase contrast microscope, these phase shifts are converted into changes in amplitude, which can be observed as differences in image contrast. (microbenotes.com)
  • Phase-contrast microscopy is basically a specially designed light microscope with all the basic parts in addition to which an annular phase plate and n annular diaphragm are fitted. (microbenotes.com)
  • With the help of the annular diaphragm and the phase plate, the phase contrast is obtained in this microscope. (microbenotes.com)
  • No special preparation of fixation or staining, etc. is needed for study an object under phase contrast microscope which saves a lot of time. (microbenotes.com)
  • Phase contrast optical components can be added to virtually any brightfield microscope, provided the specialized phase objectives conform to the tube length parameters, and the condenser will accept an annular phase ring of the correct size. (microbenotes.com)
  • Phase contrast condensers and objective lenses add considerable cost to a microscope, and so phase contrast is often not used in teaching labs except perhaps in classes in the health professions. (microbenotes.com)
  • in which types of bacteria is obligate using the contrast phase of microscope? (microbehunter.com)
  • I wonder is phase contrast microscope similar to differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. (microbehunter.com)
  • Cheap 'n cheerful phase contrast with a LOMO Biolam or similar student microscope. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • For the microscopy enthusiast on a limited budget a dedicated phase contrast microscope can be expensive and a maker's phase upgrade outfit can also be pricey even for student microscopes like the author's LOMO Biolam. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • However, as other enthusiasts have also shown, it is often straightforward to adapt a student microscope to limited but workable phase at modest expense. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • When I owned a dedicated phase microscope with four phase objectives, there was only two, the 20x and 40x that I used regularly, the 10x and 95x I rarely used. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Although transparent specimens usually induce phase shifts to interacting light beams through scattering and diffraction, these objects remain invisible in the microscope because the human eye cannot detect differences in phase. (microscopyu.com)
  • Control of image contrast in the microscope optical system is dependent upon several factors, including proper setting of aperture diaphragms, degree of optical aberration, the contrast mechanism employed, the type of specimen, and the characteristics of the detector. (microscopyu.com)
  • Aside from specialized contrast-enhancing accessories, there are several locations in the microscope that enable the operator to adjust contrast. (microscopyu.com)
  • The phase contrast microscope is used as an adjunct in High Resolution Blood Morphology. (medical-library.net)
  • Every tissue culture microscope is equipped with phase contrast. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The optical microscope is sub-segmented as inverted microscope, stereo microscope, phase contrast, fluorescence microscope, confocal microscope and near field scanning. (sbwire.com)
  • Thorlabs' Optical Microscopy Course Educational Kit takes students through a quarter- or semester-long microscopy course covering optical properties, imaging techniques, and microscope design. (thorlabs.com)
  • Optics are provided to enable these lessons, including a zero-order blocking mask, a Nikon 10X phase contrast objective, and a set of fluorescent calibration microscope slides. (thorlabs.com)
  • On treatment with 10, 50 and 100 μM dose of bakuchiol for 48 h, phase contrast microscope revealed that the cells got detached from one another making clusters of small number of cells floating in the medium. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Therefore, comparative investigations using bright field imaging, DHM and fluorescence microscopy with 4',6- Diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI) staining were performed. (spie.org)
  • The higher the numerical aperture, the greater the resolution and the brighter the image (brightness is important in fluorescence microscopy). (jic.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data showed the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane integrity and loss of MMP in ADP extract treated HCC cells (Fig.?6). (lunararchives.com)
  • histochemical detection in fluorescence microscopy. (wsl.ch)
  • The course also introduces students to several imaging techniques such as darkfield, phase contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. (thorlabs.com)
  • In the later labs of the course, students investigate darkfield, phase contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. (thorlabs.com)
  • One additional feature of the system is that OCT and confocal scanning laser microscopy (cSLM) images can be recorded simultaneously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Scanning confocal microscopy has been used for this purpose, but the process of the three-dimensional scanning is rather time-consuming. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Electron microscopy of conditionally immortalized glomerular endothelial cells revealed a 200-nm thick glycocalyx over the plasma membrane, which was also demonstrated by confocal microscopy. (asnjournals.org)
  • Optical microscopes are further segmented into inverted microscopes, stereomicroscopes, phase contrast microscopes, confocal scanning microscopes, near field scanning microscopes and other optical microscopes. (prnewswire.com)
  • Fig. 2: Confocal-laser microscopy showing the localization of DNA and RNA within the intracytoplasmic membrane structure. (nature.com)
  • Morphology of DCs can be visualized by conventional light microscopy after staining or phase-contrast inverted microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy . (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that confocal laser scanning microscopy yielded DCs images with greater details but the operating cost for such a technique is high. (bvsalud.org)
  • Observations with laser confocal microscopy and a green fluorescent protein-based reporter system demonstrated that the CwlB protein localizes to the cell envelope. (asm.org)
  • Most of the detail of living cells is undetectable in bright field microscopy because there is too little contrast between structures with similar transparency and there is insufficient natural pigmentation. (wordpress.com)
  • Bacteria are transparent and therefore difficult to see using regular bright-field microscopy. (microbehunter.com)
  • Research by Frits Zernike during this period uncovered phase and amplitude differences between zeroth order and deviated light that can be altered to produce favorable conditions for interference and contrast enhancement. (fsu.edu)
  • This diffracted light, lagging behind by approximately 1/4 wavelength, arrives at the image plane out of step (also termed out of phase ) with the undeviated light but, in interference, essentially undiminished in intensity. (fsu.edu)
  • At the image plane, the phase of the diffracted light would be out of phase with the direct light, but the amplitude of their interference would be almost the same as that of the direct light. (fsu.edu)
  • Modern phase contrast objectives , designed and produced by Nikon and other optical manufacturers, are capable of operating in combination with auxiliary contrast-enhancing techniques, such as differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and polarized light. (microscopyu.com)
  • In 1952, Georges Nomarski patented what is today known as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional phase contrast microscopy and related methods, such as differential interference contrast microscopy, visualize phase shifts by transforming phase shift gradients into intensity variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal methods for measuring and visualizing phase shifts include ptychography and various types of holographic microscopy methods such as digital holographic microscopy, holographic interference microscopy and digital in-line holographic microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the recorded interference pattern, the intensity and the phase shift image is numerically created by a computer algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, high precision instruments utilizing Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) techniques have been introduced, which showed an excellent phase stability, because interference between two interfaces (top and bottom surfaces of a microscopic coverslip) is observed [ 5 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Deconvolved Spatial Light Interference Microscopy for Live Cell Imaging", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 58, Issue 9, Sep. (patentgenius.com)
  • Label-Free High-Resolution Imaging of Live Cells With Deconvolved Spatial Light Interference Microscopy",Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 3382-3385, 2010. (patentgenius.com)
  • Label-Free Intracellular Transport Measured by Spatial Light Interference Microscopy", Journal of Biomedical Optics,vol. 16, Issue 2, Feb. 2011. (patentgenius.com)
  • Figure 1 illustrates a series of three digital images captured in transmitted light mode of the same viewfield containing a transparent, almost colorless Zygnema filamentous algae under differing contrast modes: brightfield, phase contrast, and differential interference contrast. (microscopyu.com)
  • The filament illustrated in Figure 1(c) was imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy with a small degree of bias applied through a de Sénarmont compensator. (microscopyu.com)
  • Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast (DIC), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). (zeiss.com)
  • A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in differential interference contrast image in Figure 1(c). (zeiss.com)
  • A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding an adjustable offset phase determining the interference at zero optical path difference in the sample, the contrast is proportional to the path length gradient along the shear direction, giving the appearance of a three-dimensional physical relief corresponding to the variation of optical density of the sample, emphasising lines and edges though not providing a topographically accurate image. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the images do not quite line up because of the offset in illumination - this means that instead of interference occurring between 2 rays of light that passed through the same point in the specimen, interference occurs between rays of light that went through adjacent points which therefore have a slightly different phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • As explained above, the image is generated from two identical bright field images being overlaid slightly offset from each other (typically around 0.2 μm), and the subsequent interference due to phase difference converting changes in phase (and so optical path length) to a visible change in darkness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automated visual-tracking systems of stem cell populations in vitro allow for high-throughput analysis of time-lapse phase-contrast microscopy. (mst.edu)
  • Automated mitotic detection in time-lapse phase-contrast microscopy provides us much information for cell behavior analysis, and thus several mitosis detection methods have been proposed. (elsevier.com)
  • KonTEM has developed an innovative phase contrast system for transmission electron microscopes (TEM). (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • On the basis of mechanism of operation or functioning, the microscopy market can be segmented as optical microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning probe microscopes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, electron microscopes are expected to outpace this segment in terms of value owing to rising demand for advanced microscopy instruments from the end user market consisting of academic research institution and universities, pharma and biotech companies, and government owned research institutions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Deerfield Beach, FL -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 02/08/2017 -- Zion Research has published a new report titled "Microscopy Devices (Scanning Probe Microscopes, Electron Microscopes, Optical Microscopes, and Others) Market for Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Semiconductors, Material Sciences and Others Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 - 2020. (sbwire.com)
  • Quantitative phase contrast microscopy or quantitative phase imaging are the collective names for a group of microscopy methods that quantify the phase shift that occurs when light waves pass through a more optically dense object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative phase contrast methods are distinguished from conventional phase contrast methods in that they create a second so-called phase shift image or phase image, independent of the intensity (bright field) image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative phase contrast microscopy is primarily used to observed unstained living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring the phase delay images of biological cells provides quantitative information about the morphology and the drymass of individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has led to the development of non-invasive live cell imaging and automated cell culture analysis systems based on quantitative phase contrast microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most techniques do not directly provide quantitative information on these phase changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Label-Free Classification of Cell Types by Imaging of Cell Membrane Fluctuations using Low Coherent Full-Field Quantitative Phase Microscopy", Proceedings of SPIE--New Developments in Microscopy, vol. 7500, 2010, San Francisco,California, USA. (patentgenius.com)
  • Systems and methods described herein employ multiple phase-contrast images with various relative phase shifts between light diffracted by a sample and light not diffracted by the sample to produce a quantitative phase image. (patentgenius.com)
  • The produced quantitative phase image may have sufficient contrast for label-free auto-segmentation of cell bodies and nuclei. (patentgenius.com)
  • Chulmin Joo, Taner Akkin, Barry Cense, Boris H. Park, and Johannes F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • We describe a novel microscopy technique for quantitative phase-contrast imaging of a transparent specimen. (osapublishing.org)
  • Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) provides label-free quantitative phase contrast with low demands on sample preparation. (spie.org)
  • New innovative tools such as quantitative intravital microscopy have provided indirect evidence for a much thicker layer in the systemic microvasculature measuring up to 500 nm and known as endothelial surface layer. (asnjournals.org)
  • In MICRO, different qualitative and quantitative approaches in transmitted light, fluorescent and electron microscopy are combined. (wsl.ch)
  • Phase contrast microscopy was invented in 1934 by Dutch physicist Frits (Frederik) Zernike (1888 - 1966). (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • One of the major advantages of phase contrast microscopy is that living cells can be examined in their natural state without previously being killed, fixed, and stained. (microscopyu.com)
  • As of 2009, the Latin American region contributes to approximately 4.3% of the global microscopy instruments market. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Life sciences applications segment was the largest segment of global microscopy devices market and accounted for more than 30% share of the entire market in 2014. (sbwire.com)
  • Morphological changes were monitored via phase-contrast microscopy for 48 hours post infection. (igem.org)
  • The instrument is based on transverse scanning or en-face optical coherence tomography. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The technique is based on depth-resolved phase information provided by common path spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and can measure minute phase variations caused by changes in refractive index and thickness inside the specimen. (osapublishing.org)
  • X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. (mdpi.com)
  • In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies. (mdpi.com)
  • The performance of modern phase contrast microscopes is so refined that it enables specimens containing very small internal structures, or even just a few protein molecules, to be detected when the technology is coupled to electronic enhancement and post-acquisition image processing. (microscopyu.com)
  • During the Second World War, the Zeiss Optical Works in Jena, Germany, was the first manufacturer to incorporate practical phase contrast optics into their microscopes. (microscopyu.com)
  • The optical systems contained in modern microscopes may be capable of producing high resolution images at high magnifications, but such a capability is worthless without sufficient contrast in the image. (microscopyu.com)
  • Forensic Microscopy: A Laboratory Manual will provide the student with a practical overview and understanding of the various microscopes and microscopic techniques employed within the field of forensic science. (wiley.com)
  • Optical microscopes lead the microscopy device market and accounted over 35% share of the overall market revenue generated in 2014. (sbwire.com)
  • Traditional phase-contrast methods enhance contrast optically, blending brightness and phase information in a single image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase unwrapping methods are generally applied to the phase shift image to give absolute phase shift values in each pixel, as exemplified by Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods Airborne sample data and prior exposure estimates by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) for the two cohorts were reviewed and compared. (bmj.com)
  • For example, current methods for characterizing dry material using microscopy can reveal general morphology and particle size, but cannot determine whether material consists of solid particles or clusters, or whether material will deagglomerate in liquids such as lung surfactant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The technique is complementary to existing methods of displaying phase information. (elsevier.com)
  • The contrast-enhancing techniques described in this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for observation and imaging. (zeiss.com)
  • For instance, phase contrast (PC) microscopy can be used to produce high-contrast images of transparent specimens, such as living epithelial cells. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • However, this reduction in the condenser's NA does in no way diminish the benefit of phase contrast illumination for transparent specimens that mainly change the phase of the diffracted light beam rather than its amplitude. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Unstained specimens that do not absorb light are called phase objects because they slightly alter the phase of the light diffracted by the specimen, usually by retarding such light approximately 1/4 wavelength as compared to the undeviated direct light passing through or around the specimen unaffected. (fsu.edu)
  • In phase specimens, the direct zeroth order light passes through or around the specimen undeviated. (fsu.edu)
  • Phase contrast, by "converting" phase specimens such as living material into amplitude specimens, allowed scientists to see details in unstained and/or living objects with a clarity and resolution never before achieved. (fsu.edu)
  • Prior to the invention of phase contrast techniques, transmitted brightfield illumination was one of the most commonly utilized observation modes in optical microscopy, especially for fixed, stained specimens or other types of samples having high natural absorption of visible light. (microscopyu.com)
  • Large, extended specimens are also easily visualized with phase contrast optics due to diffraction and scattering phenomena that occur at the edges of these objects. (microscopyu.com)
  • Phase-contrast microscopy is often used to produce contrast for transparent, non light-absorbing, biological specimens. (jove.com)
  • DIC microscopy, introduced in the late 1960s, has been popular in biomedical research because it highlights edges of specimen structural detail, provides high-resolution optical sections of thick specimens including tissue cells, eggs, and embryos and does not suffer from the phase halos typical of phase-contrast images. (jove.com)
  • When observing an unstained biological specimen, the scattered light is weak and typically phase-shifted by −90° (due to both the typical thickness of specimens and the refractive index difference between biological tissue and the surrounding medium) relative to the background light. (wikipedia.org)
  • High resolution optical microscopy of living organisms and similar transparent, unstained specimens typically suffers from a lack of contrast, rendering these specimens nearly invisible in brightfield illumination mode. (microscopyu.com)
  • Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and adherent live cells, rely on specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. (zeiss.com)
  • Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in polarized light. (zeiss.com)
  • However, the general lack of contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. (zeiss.com)
  • Precision phase-contrast imaging has been achieved with in-line phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Presented in Figure 2 is a comparison of living cells in culture imaged in both brightfield and phase contrast illumination. (microscopyu.com)
  • Contrary to conventional phase contrast images[citation needed], phase shift images of living cells are suitable to be processed by image analysis software. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The optical system of claim 1, wherein the system is configured for label-free, high-contrast imaging of samples including one or more cells. (patentgenius.com)
  • Accurate extraction of cell outlines from microscopy images is essential for analysing the dynamics of migrating cells. (epfl.ch)
  • We demonstrate subnanometer level path-length sensitivity and present images obtained on reflection from a known phase object and human epithelial cheek cells. (osapublishing.org)
  • Nevertheless, for DHM measurements on fixed cells the mounting medium has to be considered while the phase contrast of living cells may be influenced by the used buffer solution. (spie.org)
  • The obtained results demonstrate exemplarily for two tumor cell lines that from DHM phase contrast images of fixed cells in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) cell thickness values are obtained which are comparable to living cells. (spie.org)
  • In many biological experiments, conditions that produce a shrinking or swelling of cells or organelles can result in significant contrast variations. (mioozix.com)
  • When light passes through cells, small phase shifts occur, which are invisible to the human eye. (microbenotes.com)
  • We capture bacterial cells directly from samples with low bacterial counts (10 4 cfu/mL) using a custom-designed microfluidic chip and monitor their individual growth rates using microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • The bacterial cells will appear just as bright as the surrounding medium and there is no color contrast. (microbehunter.com)
  • Phase contrast optics convert the differences in optical density (i.e. the refractive index) of the bacterial cells into different shades of brightness. (microbehunter.com)
  • Phase contrast optics therefore work only if the cells have a different refractive index compared to the medium. (microbehunter.com)
  • Treatment of BC3H1 cells at their exponential growth phase causes atypical nuclear alterations and formation of giant cells with multiple nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • Electron microscopy of treated BC3H1 cells reveal uncondensed chromatin and cells with double nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address the low-contrast boundaries in cellular images, an adaptive kernel-based technique is applied to detect cells in each frame. (ucf.edu)
  • To track cells with complex motion, a novel matching gain measure is introduced to cope with the challenges, particularly the presence of low-contrast boundary, the variations of appearance, and the frequent overlapping and occlusion. (ucf.edu)
  • In contrast, Akt1 down-regulation in IGF-IR-stimulated cells promoted dramatic neomorphic effects characteristic of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced cell migration induced by IGF-I or EGF stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Several of these techniques are limited by light originating in regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to a significant degree in animal cells) to generate contrast. (zeiss.com)
  • Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. (zeiss.com)
  • We demonstrate efficient and specific killing of tumor cells by enzymatic cytotoxicity assays, flow cytometry, as well as phase contrast microscopy. (igem.org)
  • In contrast, transduced cells expressing the guanylate kinase - thymidine kinase fusion protein showed significant cell death after incubation with ganciclovir for 48 hours post infection. (igem.org)
  • This is particularly important for different types of cancer cells when using phase contrast microscopy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • View of cultured teratocarcinoma cells using phase-contrast microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Zernike succeeded in devising a method--now known as Phase Contrast microscopy--for making unstained, phase objects yield contrast images as if they were amplitude objects. (fsu.edu)
  • Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module - 1 Microscopy Lecture - 3 Dark-field and Phase Contrast Microscopy In previous two lectures, we have discussed about the various concepts in the basic microscopy. (mioozix.com)
  • Within WPI's Life Sciences and Bioengineering Center, the Microscopy Core provides the opportunity to image live, fixed, and fluorescently-labeled samples using one of several available core instruments. (wpi.edu)
  • The portfolio of the advanced microscopy technologies covered in this report is limited to application of microscopy instruments in life sciences sector. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Semiconductors, life sciences, nanotechnology, material sciences are the key products involved in the microscopy devices market. (sbwire.com)
  • As a result, the dynamics of ongoing biological processes can be observed and recorded in high contrast with sharp clarity of minute specimen detail. (microscopyu.com)
  • As a drawback, the absorption contrast is low, especially when imaging biological samples with hard x rays. (psi.ch)
  • Applications of phase contrast microscopy in biological research are numerous. (microbenotes.com)
  • The new technology enables scientists to achieve better contrast and high object resolution at the same time, opening up new potential for the testing of biological samples. (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • Investigations on Label-Free Identification of Subcellular Tumor Cell Structures by Digital Holographic Phase Contrast Microscopy",DGaO-Proceedings, 2009. (patentgenius.com)
  • The method is based on holographic Fourier plane filtering of the microscopic image with a spiral phase element (also called vortex phase or helical phase filter) displayed as an off-axis hologram at a computer controlled high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) in the optical imaging pathway. (osapublishing.org)
  • The complex object field on the CCD plane can be measured in an in-line digital holographic system using the phase-shifting method. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • abstract = "A new method of presenting magnetic resonance phase information is described and an example of its application given in the context of velocity phase-encoded MRI of blood flow in the aorta. (elsevier.com)
  • The main aspect of this invention is to convert phase differences into amplitude variations that can easily be detected. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Amplitude objects show excellent contrast when the diffracted and direct light are out of step (display a phase difference) by 1/2 of a wavelength. (fsu.edu)
  • In effect, the phase contrast technique employs an optical mechanism to translate minute variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. (microscopyu.com)
  • Light waves that are diffracted and shifted in phase by the specimen (termed a phase object ) can be transformed by phase contrast into amplitude differences that are observable in the eyepieces. (microscopyu.com)
  • When light waves travel through a medium other than a vacuum, interaction with the medium causes the wave amplitude and phase to change in a manner dependent on properties of the medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amplitude and phase of the signal are recovered using the Hilbert transformation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The complex amplitude of the object field on the charge-coupled device plane is measured by the phase-shifting method with a self-calibration algorithm, and the magnified object image is reconstructed with a plane wave expansion method. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Archived membrane filter samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres by plant and operation. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for 160 membrane filter samples from all plant were pooled. (bmj.com)
  • After its invention in the early 1930s, phase-contrast microscopy proved to be such an advancement in microscopy that its inventor Frits Zernike was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase shifts themselves are invisible, but become visible when shown as brightness variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contrast of the phase images depended in part on the orientation of anatomical structures relative to the magnetic field, consistent with bulk susceptibility variations between tissues. (epfl.ch)
  • A dataset is formed which is corrected for unwanted phase variations caused by static field inhomogeneity. (elsevier.com)
  • Note the series of ribbed, ring-like structures that appear to be ordered in groups of two and the high-contrast spherical shapes that are revealed to be chloroplasts in Figure 1(a) . (microscopyu.com)
  • It controls the phase of the scattered electrons and the object is consequently depicted in sharp focus and high contrast. (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • When observed using phase contrast optical accessories, the same field of view reveals significantly more structural detail ( Figure 2(b) ). (microscopyu.com)
  • Zernike's development of phase contrast optical theory is an excellent example of how research results from a highly specialized field (in this case, theoretical physics) can yield innovative new developments in seemingly unrelated disciplines, such as biology and medicine. (microscopyu.com)
  • Graphics & Web Programming Team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory . (fsu.edu)
  • Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, phase changes caused by the varying optical path lengths within the sample arm occur with high frequency in the fast scanning direction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrate an optical method for edge contrast enhancement in light microscopy. (osapublishing.org)
  • Contrast phase imaging at infrared wavelengths is achieved through an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity in optical fiber. (edu.pl)
  • Asbestos fibre air monitoring using Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy (PCOM) is used to detect the level of asbestos fibres within the atmosphere. (hbi.co.uk)
  • In the positive phase contrast optical configuration (upper row of images in Figure 6), the surround (S) wavefront is advanced in phase by a quarter-wavelength when traversing the phase plate to produce a net phase shift of 180 degrees (one half wavelength). (mioozix.com)
  • Dymond, RC , Redpath, TW & McKiddie, FI 1996, ' Application of the principle of optical phase-contrast microscopy to velocity phase-encoded MRI of blood flow in the aorta ', British Journal of Radiology , vol. 69, no. 821, pp. 410-414. (elsevier.com)
  • Contrast is not an inherent property of the specimen, but is dependent upon interaction of the specimen with light and the efficiency of the optical system coupled to its ability to reliably record the image information with a suitable detector. (microscopyu.com)
  • The most critical to the optical system are the field and condenser aperture diaphragm settings, but contrast can also be manipulated by varying electronic camera (or traditional emulsion film) gamma, altering the magnification for video detectors, processing images in real time, as well as specimen staining. (microscopyu.com)
  • Because the human eye perceives an object by the contrast generated in its image, a certain degree of confusion can result unless there is prior knowledge of the optical events that occur to produce contrast in the image. (microscopyu.com)
  • The term transmitted light, when used in optical microscopy, refers to any imaging modality where light is passed from the illumination source on the opposite side of the specimen to the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). (zeiss.com)
  • One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. (zeiss.com)
  • As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and focused by the objective. (zeiss.com)
  • In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. (zeiss.com)
  • Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. (zeiss.com)
  • The Optical Microscopy Course Kit takes students through 10 lab units, covering various topics in imaging and microscopy. (thorlabs.com)
  • The Optical Microscopy Course Kit contains components, documentation, and software for a full undergraduate course in optical microscopy. (thorlabs.com)
  • To investigate the structure and function of the cell and its molecular components, it is necessary to integrate imaging techniques using optical, transmission, and scanning microscopy. (els.net)
  • Because the difference in phase is due to the difference in optical path length, this recombination of light causes "optical differentiation" of the optical path length, generating the image seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illumination in Microscopy. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Phase Contrast Illumination. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • The purpose of this paper is not to write another introduction to phase contrast illumination. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • A practical implementation of PC illumination consists of a phase ring (located in a conjugated aperture plane somewhere behind the front lens element of the objective) and a matching annular ring, which is located in the primary aperture plane (location of the condenser's aperture). (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Only through correctly centering the two elements, phase contrast illumination can be established. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • To get a better understanding of how phase contrast illumination works, we study two wave fronts (see the figure to the right). (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Providing suitable illumination of the sample is one of the key issues in Zernike x-ray microscopy. (psi.ch)
  • A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an oblique illumination technique. (zeiss.com)
  • The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is shown in Figure 1(e) using an Obelia hydroid specimen. (zeiss.com)
  • The students use this setup for the majority of the course to investigate coherent and incoherent illumination, aberrations, and the effects of exposure and gain settings on the quality of the final image, especially on image contrast and resolution. (thorlabs.com)
  • Phase contrast microscopy asbestos fiber counting performance in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy in North Carolina USA asbestos textile plants. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] In many parts of the industrialized world, particularly the European Union, asbestos was phased out of building products beginning in the 1970s with most of the remainder phased out by the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to assess the effect on cell cycle phase distribution. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To illustrate different influences on the phase of the signal we performed measurements on an RTT. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mitosis Detection for Stem Cell Tracking in Phase-Contrast Microscopy " by Seungil Huh, Sungeun Eom et al. (mst.edu)
  • Mitosis Detection for Stem Cell Tracking in Phase-Contrast Microscopy Images," Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2011, Chicago, IL) , pp. 2121-2127, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Mar 2011. (mst.edu)
  • Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic techniques were used to study the effect of the compound on cellular morphology and apoptosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Fig. 1: Schematic view of a beam shaping condenser for Zernike x-ray microscopy. (psi.ch)
  • The search was still on in the 1930's to find a way of using both direct and diffracted light from all azimuths to yield good contrast images of unstained objects that do not absorb light. (fsu.edu)
  • Fig. 2: SEM images of a Zernike phase shifting structures etched into a Silicon membrane. (psi.ch)
  • Fig. 3: X-ray microscopy images of a 200 nm high Nickel test structure in Absorption contrast and in Zernike phase contrast. (psi.ch)
  • Figure 3 shows x-ray images of a test object revealing the greatly enhanced contrast when using the Zernike method. (psi.ch)
  • However, the acquisition speeds of en-face images of these systems are rather low because 3D volumes have to be recorded to extract this information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Automatic extraction and tracking of high-resolution cell outlines from phase-contrast images, however, is difficult due to complex and non-uniform edge intensity. (epfl.ch)
  • We present a novel image-processing method based on refined level-set segmentation for accurate extraction of cell outlines from high-resolution phase-contrast images. (epfl.ch)
  • 6 , 7 , 8 The object image reconstructed from this complex field is free from zero-order and the twin images and can have better phase resolution than can be obtained with an off-axis system. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, an in-line phase-shifting digital holography system can be more useful in the precision shape measurement of transparent objects whose thickness or height profiles are proportional to the phase profiles of their complex images. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A second aim of the study was to identify subcellular components in DHM phase contrast images. (spie.org)
  • Recent studies at high magnetic fields using the phase of gradient-echo MR images have shown the ability to unveil cortical substructure in the human brain. (epfl.ch)
  • Phase images revealed, often more clearly than the corresponding magnitude images, hippocampal fields, cortical layers (e. g. layer 4), cerebellar layers (molecular and granule cell layers) and small white matter structures present in the striatum and septal nucleus. (epfl.ch)
  • Find and compare the best bioinformatics software for tracking animal behaviors on time series phase contrast microscopy acquired images. (omictools.com)
  • On the other hand , the images obtained through light microscopy after appropriate staining or phase contrast microscopy were acceptable for identification purpose. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the growing use of polarizing plastic containers in cell biology, DIC microscopy is increasingly replaced by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy, invented by Robert Hoffman in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • To complete the phase setup, a phase plate is positioned inside the back focal plane in such a way that it lines up nicely with the condenser annulus. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Since this figure shows the condenser annulus and the phase plate from the side, the circular shape of the phase ring and condenser annulus is not easily recognized. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • The figure below shows the condenser annulus (left) and the phase plate (right) from a more appropriate angle. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • What is important is that the phase plate and the condenser annular are located in conjugated aperture planes. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • Phase contrast microscopy requires special phase contrast objectives and a special phase contrast condenser. (mioozix.com)
  • It just needs one (or two) cheaper examples of phase objectives that can often be picked up on eBay and the centering annular rings can be homemade for an Abbe condenser filter tray (see footnote below). (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • The phase ring in the LOMO Abbe condenser filter tray. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • The only downside cf using a proper phase condenser with centering screws is to avoid jogging the filter when in use. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • For example, the Nikon lineup includes five types of phase contrast objectives. (mioozix.com)
  • These objectives are termed apodized phase contrast objectives, and enable structures of phase objects having large phase differences to be viewed and photographed with outstanding clarity and definition of detail. (mioozix.com)
  • I avoided modern big name objectives and bought an older Zeiss Winkel phase objective off eBay with a very slight but inconsequential mark on the front element which kept the price very reasonable. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • This unique, forensic focused, microscopy laboratory manual provides objectives for each topic covered with experiments designed to reinforce what has been learnt along with end of chapter questions, report requirements and numerous references for further reading. (wiley.com)
  • It is impossible to distinguish between high and low refractive index components in a phase contrast image without information pertaining to the relative thickness of the components. (mioozix.com)
  • In contrast, when the refractive index of the surrounding medium exceeds that of the specimen, the wave is advanced in phase upon exiting the specimen. (mioozix.com)
  • Colorless microcrystals, powders, particulate solids, and crystalline polymers, having a refractive index that differs only slightly from that of the surround immersion liquid, are often easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. (mioozix.com)
  • Contrast is modulated by varying the properties of the phase plate, including the absorption of the metallic film (or anti-reflective coatings), the refractive index of the phase retarding material, and the thickness of the phase plate. (mioozix.com)
  • Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color. (zeiss.com)
  • Unfortunately, our eyes as well as camera film, are unable to detect these phase differences. (fsu.edu)
  • It should be noted that in reflected light phase contrast microscopy, phase differences arise from relief on the specimen surfaces, rather than phase gradients within the specimen. (mioozix.com)
  • 2013 Report on the International Microscopy Devices Market - Trends And Forecast to 2018', estimates the global market for microscopy devices in terms of revenue (USD million) for the period 2012 - 2018, keeping 2011 as the base year. (prnewswire.com)
  • The report provides market estimates and forecasts for the microscopy technologies market in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Rest of Latin America (RoLA). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Zernike's method was to speed up the direct light by 1/4 wavelength so that the difference in wavelength between the direct and deviated light for a phase specimen would now be 1/2 wavelength. (fsu.edu)
  • Phase contrast microscopy was very successful and ultimately gained widespread application, resulting in Zernike's award of the prestigeous Nobel prize in physics in 1953. (fsu.edu)
  • The method takes as its starting point Zernike's technique of phase contrast microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Ultrastructure of Candida albicans pleomorphic forms: phase-contrast microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A modified method of glutaraldeyde-osmium tetroxide fixation was adjusted to characterize the ultrastructure of Candida albicans pleomorphic forms, using phase-contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transmission elec- tron microscopy. (wsl.ch)
  • Transmission electron microscopy. (wsl.ch)
  • Both morphologic and ultrastructural changes were evaluated by reverse phase contrast microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2. The system of claim 1, wherein the plurality of selected relative phase-shifts comprise zero, .pi. (patentgenius.com)
  • This would result in very little specimen contrast. (fsu.edu)
  • Some Scandinavian countries have used microscopy to detect bacteriuria for several decades, but to date no study has validated its use in current practice. (elsevier.es)
  • Secondary screens consisted of light microscopy to detect mature and immature spores and DAPI staining to monitor the progress of meiotic nuclear divisions. (nih.gov)
  • Wavefronts passing through the annulus illuminate the specimen and either pass through undeviated or are diffracted and retarded in phase by structures and phase gradients present in the specimen. (microscopyu.com)
  • This electron microscopic image of a mouse retina demonstrates that using the KonTEM phase contrast system (right) makes previously invisible structures visible. (max-planck-innovation.de)
  • As evidenced by the micrograph, combining phase contrast microscopy with classical histological staining techniques in pathological research often yields enhancement of cellular features. (fsu.edu)
  • This protocol highlights the principles and practical applications of these microscopy techniques. (jove.com)
  • Since only beta is used in absorption contrast, phase-contrast imaging techniques which give access to delta are very important. (diva-portal.org)
  • Observation of phase objects requires special imaging techniques. (mioozix.com)
  • Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. (zeiss.com)
  • This collection of articles describe how the development of microscopy and the implementation of new developments in microscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized biology. (els.net)
  • Play media The basic principle to making phase changes visible in phase-contrast microscopy is to separate the illuminating (background) light from the specimen-scattered light (which makes up the foreground details) and to manipulate these differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. (mdpi.com)
  • The result is that the image at the eyepiece level is so lacking in contrast as to make the details almost invisible. (fsu.edu)
  • This arrangement results in a bright image of the details of the specimen on a darker background, and is called negative or bright contrast . (fsu.edu)
  • Undeviated and diffracted light collected by the objective is segregated at the rear focal plane by a phase plate and focused at the intermediate image plane to form the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. (microscopyu.com)
  • Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) microscopy can be used to image samples that only cause a phase shift to the incident light. (psi.ch)
  • This leads to the foreground (blue vector) and background (red vector) having nearly the same intensity, resulting in low image contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the light is then focused on the image plane (where a camera or eyepiece is placed), this phase shift causes background and scattered light rays originating from regions of the field of view that contain the sample (i.e., the foreground) to constructively interfere, resulting in an increase in the brightness of these areas compared to regions that do not contain the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase contrast microscopy is a well-established tool to enhance image contrast of unstained samples. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We used telescopes to image the pivot point of one scanner onto the pivot point of the other scanner to reduce additional influences to the phase of the signal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The phase fluctuation in the blank image without sample is 1.30 deg and the three-dimensional shape of a titanium phase test pattern is measured with an accuracy of 5.51 nm (corresponding to the phase resolution of 3.63 deg), which are better than those of off-axis systems. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This information is entangled in the contrast phase image obtained. (edu.pl)
  • No phase information in perfect image! (mioozix.com)
  • The border of the cell wall is barely visible under the bright field while image observed in phase contrast has very clear borders. (wordpress.com)
  • Comparison of brightfield (left) and phase contrast (right) - Click on Image to enlarge. (wordpress.com)
  • The method then effectively combines phase and magnitude information into a single image. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the green chloroplasts can be distinguished within the ribs of the filament, the image generally suffers from an overall lack of contrast. (microscopyu.com)
  • In general, the image displays dark regions surrounded by halos, which are a common artifact in phase contrast microscopy. (microscopyu.com)
  • In effect, contrast is defined as the difference in light intensity between the specimen image and the adjacent background relative to the overall background intensity. (microscopyu.com)
  • In transmitted light microscopy, the specimen quality does not always lend itself to easy observation and image recording with excellent contrast in simple brightfield imaging mode. (zeiss.com)
  • Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. (mdpi.com)
  • This image is similar to that obtained by phase contrast microscopy but without the bright diffraction halo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light also carries information about the image invisible to the human eye, the phase of the light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase-contrast microscopy is one of the most common and convenient imaging modalities for observing cell motility because it does not require exogenous labelling and uses only moderate light levels with generally negligible phototoxicity effects. (epfl.ch)
  • To quantify these effects, the maximum cell caused phase contrast and the visibility of the nucleoli were analyzed. (spie.org)
  • Depending upon the different refractive indices of different cell components, the object to be studied shows different degree of contrast in this micro-scope. (microbenotes.com)
  • The thin tissue section in Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and hematoxylin to generate color contrast in brightfield imaging mode. (zeiss.com)