Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/4283)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (2/4283)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (3/4283)

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (4/4283)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (5/4283)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

Impaired lysosomal processing of beta2-microglobulin by infiltrating macrophages in dialysis amyloidosis. (6/4283)

BACKGROUND: Macrophages may participate in amyloid fibril formation by processing the protein precursor. Although this theory seems to apply for amyloidosis, in which proteolytic cleavage is a prerequisite for amyloid fibril formation, it has not been demonstrated for beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) amyloidosis. We aimed to establish the role played by macrophages in beta2m amyloidosis. METHODS: We used a double immunogold electron microscopy technique, including mouse antihuman CD68, rabbit antihuman beta2m, amyloid P component, and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP-1) antibodies. Differential density labeling studies of beta2m and amyloid P component were performed extra- and intracellularly to assess protein processing by macrophages. RESULTS: The cells surrounding amyloid fibrils were found to be mostly CD68 positive, suggesting that they were of monocyte-macrophage lineage. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid fibrils was also observed; these fibrils were constantly surrounded by LAMP-1-linked gold particles, demonstrating that intracellular beta2m was almost exclusively lysosomal. The rough-surface endoplasmic reticulum was not labeled by beta2m antibody, suggesting that there was no active synthesis of beta2m by the cells. As a marker of endocytosis, protruded cytoplasmic processes in close relation with the intracellular accumulations of beta2m amyloid fibrils were observed. No difference in density labeling (extracellular vs. intracellular) was observed for beta2m, whereas intracellular P component labeling was significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: All of these data are strongly suggestive of phagocytosis and not synthesis of amyloid fibrils by macrophages. Further, they demonstrate an impaired lysosomal processing specific for beta2m, as other compounds of the amyloid fibrils (P component) are significantly cleared.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (7/4283)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Presence of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic terminal boutons. (8/4283)

The characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-47 gene recently allowed the identification of a mammalian (gamma)-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter, presumed to be located in the synaptic vesicle membrane. In situ hybridization data in rat brain suggested that it might also take up glycine and thus represent a general Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter (VIAAT). In the present study, we have investigated the localization of VIAAT in neurons by using a polyclonal antibody raised against the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of the protein. Light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in primary cultures or tissue sections of the rat spinal cord revealed that VIAAT was localized in a subset (63-65%) of synaptophysin-immunoreactive terminal boutons; among the VIAAT-positive terminals around motoneuronal somata, 32.9% of them were also immunoreactive for GAD65, a marker of GABAergic presynaptic endings. Labelling was also found apposed to clusters positive for the glycine receptor or for its associated protein gephyrin. At the ultrastructural level, VIAAT immunoreactivity was restricted to presynaptic boutons exhibiting classical inhibitory features and, within the boutons, concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters. Pre-embedding detection of VIAAT followed by post-embedding detection of GABA or glycine on serial sections of the spinal cord or cerebellar cortex indicated that VIAAT was present in glycine-, GABA- or GABA- and glycine-containing boutons. Taken together, these data further support the view of a common vesicular transporter for these two inhibitory transmitters, which would be responsible for their costorage in the same synaptic vesicle and subsequent corelease at mixed GABA-and-glycine synapses.  (+info)

This thesis considers the possible mechanisms of haematuria in cases of thin basement membrane disease and mild forms of IgA nephropathy. The absence of inflammation in both diseases makes it difficult to explain the passage of erythrocytes to the urinary space.;Two main approaches were used. The composition of glomerular basement membrane was evaluated using quantitative immuno-electron microscopy; this was successfully achieved with antibodies against collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin and collagen VI. Possible changes in degradation by proteolytic enzymes were assessed using quantitative in situ zymography, a novel technique where the ability of tissue sections to digest gelatin in a layer of photographic emulsion is measured.;Initial experiments were performed to establish the techniques and to assess sources of variation in the final measurements. Reproducibility studies for immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography demonstrated a considerable amount of variation if processing of ...
Read Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of HCMV gpUL73 (gN) localization, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The dentate gyrus has been shown to receive a laminated and target selective GABAergic input (Han et al., 1993; Halasy and Somogyi, 1993), but the numerical parameters of this innervation are not known. In order to establish the relative weight of GABAergic inputs to the dendritic versus somatic regions of granule cells the numerical density and proportion of GABA-immunopositive and immunonegative synaptic boutons and their postsynaptic targets were determined in the molecular and granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus using the postembedding immunogold method. The granule cell layer contained 9% of all synapses with the remaining 91% being in the molecular layer. Altogether 17% of all synaptic boutons were GABA-immunoreactive, and they formed either type 1 or type 2 synaptic junctions. About 88% of synaptic boutons in the granule cell layer and 7-8% in the molecular layer were GABA-positive. However, the numerical density (number of synapses per unit volume) of GABA-immunoreactive type 2 ...
Immunogold EM was employed to compare the distribution of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) on the surface of agonist-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with that of control, unactivated cells. As previously observed, (Schleef, R.R., T.J. Podor, E. Dunne, J. Mimuro, and D.J. Loskutoff. J. Cell Biol. 110:155-163), analysis of cross-sections of nonpermeabilized control HUVEC monolayers stained first with affinity-purified rabbit antibodies to PAI-1 and then with gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, revealed the presence of relatively few gold particles (less than 1-2% of the total) on the apical cell surface. The majority of gold particles were detected primarily in the extracellular matrix between the culture substratum and the cell membrane. In contrast, treatment of HUVECs with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha; 200 U/ml, 24 h) or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 micrograms/ml, 24 h) resulted in an increased staining of PAI-1 not only in the ...
While several methods are available for characterizing ligand localization (e. g. labeling with radioactive or electrondense tracers), receptor molecules themselves can only be localized in situ by...
Kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP11) is present in a wide range of trypanosomatids. In the present paper, we show that the T. cruzi KMP11 gene is organized in a cluster formed by four gene units arranged in a head-to-tail tandem manner located on a chromosome of about 1900 kb. Northern blot analyses indicated that the steady-state level of mature KMP11 transcripts of 0.52 kb is high and similar in the three forms of the parasite. The KMP11 mRNAs have a half-life of about 16 h whose steady-state level is strongly downregulated when the parasites reach the stationary growth phase. The T. cruzi KMP11 sequence presents a significant homology with the amino-terminal third of the cytoskeleton-associated protein CIP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy studies showed that KMP11 is present in the cytoskeleton structure. Because the strong downregulation observed in the de novo synthesis of KMP11 protein in parasites treated with vinblastine is not accompanied by a ...
Specific molecular forms of GST are known to be expressed in preneoplastic cells, and have been known to participate in their resistance to drugs. GST-pi are present in most epithelial tissues of the human gastrointestinal tract. Significant amounts of the class pi GST was expressed in the majority of human tumors and human tumor cell lines. Studies have shown that GST-pi expressed highly in neoplasm and could be regarded as a tumor marker. However the immunohistochemical and the immunoelectron microscopical localization of GST-pi, in human polyps, are not clear. ...
The membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of CD4 and CD8 were replaced by those of TGN38. After transient expression in HeLa cells, the location of the hybrid proteins was determined using immunofluorescence and quantitative immuno-electron microscopy, FACS analysis and metabolic labeling. The membrane-spanning domain was found to contain a signal that localized hybrid proteins to the TGN. This was in addition to the signal previously identified in the cytoplasmic domain (Bos, K., C. Wraight, and K. Stanley. 1993. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ) J. 12:2219-2228. Humphrey, J. S., P. J. Peters, L. C. Yuan, and J. S. Bonifacino. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:1123-1135. Wong, S. H., and W. Hong. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:22853-22862). The different properties of these two signals suggest that each operates by a different mechanism. ...
Noradrenergic innervation of rat liver was studied immunohistochemically using antibody to noradrenaline at the electron-microscopic level. Noradrenaline-immunoreactive nerve fibres were located in the portal tract and some were in close contact with
Power Block™: This is a blocking reagent for reducing nonspecific background in immunoassays. A truly universal block, it is suitable for use in immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, ELISA methods, and immunogold techniques. The Power Block reagent contains buffer, casein ...
Page contains details about SiO2-PEG4-24-Tf bionanoparticles labeled with immunogold . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Terada, T.; Kono, N.; Nakanuma, Y., 1992: Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses of alpha-amylase isozymes in human intrahepatic biliary epithelium and hepatocytes
Immunoelectron microscopy identifying avidin (8-nm gold) and cathepsin L (15-nm gold) immunoreactivity in organelles from late endosome, lysosome, and hybrid
Definition: applying immunohistochemistry or immunocytochemistry method to localize antigens or proteins at sub-cellular level using an electron microscope.. General Methods & Techniques. Antigen Retrieval Methods. Multiple Labeling Methods. Antigen-Antibody Specific Applications. Tissue-Cell Specific Applications. Virological Applications. Tumor, Disease & Diagnostic Applications. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Pre-embedding Method (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Post-embedding Method-1 (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Post-embedding Method-2 (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in brain and is selectively expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytic endfoot membranes exhibit tenfold higher densities of AQP4 than non-endfoot membranes, making AQP4 an excellent marker of astrocyte polarization. Loss of astrocyte polarization is known to compromise astrocytic function and to be associated with impaired water and K+ homeostasis. Here we investigate by a combination of light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry whether amyloid deposition is associated with a loss of astrocyte polarization, using AQP4 as a marker. We used the tg-ArcSwe mouse model of Alzheimers disease, as this model displays perivascular plaques as well as plaques confined to the neuropil. 3D reconstructions were done to establish the spatial relation between plaques and astrocytic endfeet, the latter known to contain the perivascular pool of AQP4. Changes in AQP4 expression emerge just after the appearance of the first plaques. Typically, there is a loss ...
The Escherichia coli 23 S and 5 S rRNA molecules have been fitted helix by helix to a cryo-electron microscopic (EM) reconstruction of the 50 S ribosomal subunit, using an unfiltered version of the recently published 50 S reconstruction at 7.5 A resolution. At this resolution, the EM density shows a well-defined network of fine structural elements, in which the major and minor grooves of the rRNA helices can be discerned at many locations. The 3D folding of the rRNA molecules within this EM density is constrained by their well-established secondary structures, and further constraints are provided by intra and inter-rRNA crosslinking data, as well as by tertiary interactions and pseudoknots. RNA-protein cross-link and foot-print sites on the 23 S and 5 S rRNA were used to position the rRNA elements concerned in relation to the known arrangement of the ribosomal proteins as determined by immuno-electron microscopy. The published X-ray or NMR structures of seven 50 S ribosomal proteins or ...
Immunoblot analysis with this mAb revealed prominent expression of the approximately 250-kDa SAP-1 protein in the intestine, and a low level of the expression in testis. The amount of SAP-1 in the duodenum or jejunum was markedly greater than that in the stomach or colon. Immunohistofluorescence with the mAb to SAP-1 showed that SAP-1 was localized at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells, similar to ezrin or alkaline phosphatase, both of which are known to be localized at the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 immunoreactivity was detected immediately above the prominent staining of F-actin revealed by phalloidin, and this may correspond to the terminal web, at the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. For immunoelectron microscopic studies, mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sodium pentobarbital at 25 mg/kg of weight, then perfused transcardially with 2% PFA and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4). Tissues ...
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Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: HCV an infection induces mitochondrial harm and perinuclear clustering. the increased loss of mitochondrial cristae in HCV-infected cells. Organelle marker: N, nucleus; M, mitochondria. Range club?=?200 nM. (D) Confocal pictures displaying Huh7 cells contaminated with HCVcc for immuno-EM from the -panel (C). Cells had been immunostained with anti-HCV primary antibody (crimson). Nuclei had been stained with DAPI (blue).(PDF) ppat.1003285.s001.pdf (291K) GUID:?AC8D8C80-C43B-478F-93EF-B00E8690D991 Amount S2: CCCP induces the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin in individual hepatoma Huh7 cells. Confocal microscopy displaying Parkin aggregates over the mitochondrial perinuclear clusters of CCCP-treated cells. Huh7 cells had been treated with CCCP (10 M). At 12 h post-treatment, cells prestained with MitoTracker (Mito, crimson) had been immunostained with anti-Parkin (green) antibody. Nuclei had been stained with DAPI (blue). Within the zoomed pictures, the ...
Based on its early recruitment to the satellite SPB and its requirement for SPB localization of multiple SPB components, we propose that Ppc89 functions as a platform for assembly of a new SPB (Fig. 7 A). The C terminus of Ppc89 has previously been shown to interact with Sid4 (Rosenberg et al., 2006), and our SPA-SIM data show that this end of Ppc89 extends away from the NE to function in assembly of an outer module that includes Sid4, Cdc11, and Mto1. The N terminus of Ppc89 is located near the C terminus of Pcp1, which would facilitate assembly of a central module, which contains Cam1 in addition to Pcp1 (Fig. 7 B). The idea that Pcp89 connects SPB submodules makes it functionally analogous to Spc42 in budding yeast. Like Ppc89, Spc42 is also the first component recruited to the bridge, and its C and N terminus interact with orthologues of Sid4 (Cnm67) and Pcp1 (Spc110; Muller et al., 2005; Burns et al., 2015). Although SPA-SIM and immuno-EM data suggest that fluorophores on the N terminus of ...
Application: To determine the ultrastructure of tissues and cells at 2nm resolution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).. Method: Tissues or cells are chemically fixed, dehydrated, embedded in resin and stained. Thin slices are cut from the resin block using an ultramicrotome and imaged at room temperature by TEM. Immuno-EM is possible before the embedding or after the sectioning steps.. ...
313 Immunochemical Techniques BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE Biochemistry Notes zImmunoassay zCompetitive binding zOther methods - includes immunofluoroscence, immunoelectron microscopy, etc. We make use of diverse chromatographic techniques including affinity, ion exchange, reverse phase, and size exclusion chromatography. Medlars. Each chapter contains suggestions for further reading for those in need of a follow-up. University of Texas at Arlington. 6 Suggestions for further reading4 Microscopy 100. 24.4.2.1 Agglutination Agglutination (from Latin, agglutino - to glue/ attach) is a process of formation of clumping of cells; it occurs due to reaction of antibody on a particulate antigen The series is published in hardbound … January 2013; Edition: 1st Edition ; Authors: Ioannis Patrikios. Many graduates also undertake further postgraduate study. This new structure can then be analyzed using different techniques to see if the proteins connected, how many connected, or other desired information. Export ...
Distribution of TRP1 in the Golgi and associated vesicles. (A) Ultrathin cryosections of MNT-1 cells were labeled with anti-TRP1 and PAG 5. TRP1 is often enrich
This strain is tentatively placed in this genus because the cells superficially resemble members of Spongomonas based upon features discernable at the light microscopical level.The strain will probably be assigned to a new genus.
Abstract: We have developed a new standardized method for the post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using the same fixation, antigen retrieval and image contrasting procedures. Tissues were fixed with 4% formaldehyde containing 2.5 mM CaCl2, 1.25 mM MgCl2 in a 0.1 M 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) for 2 h and then with the same fixative composition in 0.1 M HEPES buffer (pH 8.5) overnight at room temperature. Vehicle osmolarity of fixatives was adjusted to 300-330 mOsm by adding glucose. The specimens were dehydrated with dimethylformamide on ice and embedded in LR-White resin. Ultrathin sections were heated in a 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) for 1-2 h at 95°C. After immuno-gold labeling, the sections were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde containing 0.05% tannic acid in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) for 5 min and with a 1% OsO4/0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 5 min, and then they were double stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycoproteins of coated pits, cell junctions, and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy.. AU - Murphy, T. L.. AU - Decker, G.. AU - August, Thomas. PY - 1983/8. Y1 - 1983/8. N2 - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. AB - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. UR - ...
We generated transgenic (Thy1alpha6) mice in which the GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit, whose expression is usually confined to granule cells of cerebellum and cochlear nuclei, is ectopically expressed under the control of the pan-neuronal Thy-1.2 promoter. Strong Thy1alpha6 subunit expression occurs, for example, in deep cerebellar nuclei, layer V iscocortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells. Ligand binding and protein biochemistry show that most forebrain alpha6 subunits assemble as alpha6betagamma2-type receptors, and some as alpha1alpha6betagamma2 and alpha3alpha6betagamma2 receptors. Electron microscopic immunogold labeling shows that most Thy1-derived alpha6 immunoreactivity is in the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of dendrites and spines in both layer V isocortical and CA1pyramidal cells. Synaptic immunolabeling is rare. Consistent with the alpha6 subunits extrasynaptic localization, Thy1alpha6 CA1 pyramidal neurons have a five-fold increased tonic GABA(A) receptor
The Entamoeba transmembrane mitosomal protein of 30 kDa (ETMP30) of 260 aas and 5 equally distantly spaced TMSs. Its loss results in a defect in growth and partial elongation of mitosomes (Santos et al. 2019). The aerobic mitochondrion had undergone evolutionary diversification, most notable among lineages of anaerobic protists. Entamoeba is one of the genera of parasitic protozoans that lack canonical mitochondria, and instead possess mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), specifically, mitosomes. Entamoeba mitosomes exhibit functional reduction and divergence, most exemplified by the organelles inability to produce ATP and synthesize iron-sulfur clusters. Instead, this organelle is capable of sulfate activation, which has been linked to amoebic stage conversion (Santos et al. 2019). Colocalization of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged ETMP30 with the mitosomal marker, adenosine-5-phosphosulfate kinase. Mitosomal membrane localization was indicated by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. ...
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro. Additionally, renin expression was triggered in cultured kidney pericytes by cyclic AMP as confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, and secretion of enzymatically functional renin, capable of generating angiotensin I. Pericytes derived from second trimester human placenta also expressed renin in an inducible fashion although the renin activity
Principal Investigator:ISHIKO Akira, Project Period (FY):2006 - 2007, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Dermatology
Here, we provide an easy, low-cost, and time-efficient protocol to chemically fix primate brain tissue with acrolein fixative, allowing ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
Researchers at the MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, The Netherlands, are developing a method of detecting and treating tumors with the help of gold particles with dimensions ...
(PhysOrg.com) -- It has long been known that heat is an effective weapon against tumor cells. However, its difficult to heat patients tumors without damaging nearby tissues.
Find out why Stony Brook University has become an internationally recognized research institution that is changing the world. Explore programs and degrees offered for endless career opportunities. Start your journey in education today!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane of isolated rat adipocytes and masking of the carboxyl-terminal epitope of intracellular GLUT4. AU - Smith, Robert M.. AU - Charron, Maureen J.. AU - Shah, Neelima. AU - Lodish, Harvey F.. AU - Jarett, Leonard. PY - 1991/8/1. Y1 - 1991/8/1. N2 - Polyclonal antibodies to the amino- or carboxyl-terminal peptide sequences of the GLUT4 transporter protein were used in immunoelectron microscopic studies to demonstrate the location and insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in intact isolated rat adipocytes. Labeling of untreated adipocytes with the amino-terminal antibody revealed 95% of GLUT4 was intracellular, associated with plasma membrane invaginations or vesicles contiguous with or within 75 nm of the cell membrane. Insulin treatment increased plasma membrane labeling ≈13-fold, to 52% of the total transporters, and decreased intracellular labeling ...
Human melanoma cells (M21) actively attach and spread on a fibronectin substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence assays with specific monoclonal antibodies directed to the disialoganglioside GD2, the major ganglioside expressed on M21 melanoma cells, indicate that during the cell attachment process this molecule redistributes into microprocesses that make direct contact with the fibronectin substrate. Scanning and transmission immunoelectron microscopic studies with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and immuno-gold staining demonstrate that GD2 preferentially localizes into substrate-associated microprocesses that emanate from the plasma membrane of the M21 cells. Staining with monoclonal antibodies directed to other melanoma surface antigens fails to demonstrate a similar distribution pattern on these cells. Direct evidence is provided that GD2 is involved in M21 cell attachment to fibronectin, since treatment of these cells with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies causes cell rounding and detachment from ...
Electron microscopic localization of acetylcholinesterase in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. In: Kolligátum. pp. 274-285. (1967 ...
in European Journal of Cell Biology (1988), 47(2), 346-57. In order to investigate the DNA localization within Ehrlich tumor cell nucleoli during mitosis, two recent immunocytochemical methods using either an anti-DNA or an anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU ... [more ▼]. In order to investigate the DNA localization within Ehrlich tumor cell nucleoli during mitosis, two recent immunocytochemical methods using either an anti-DNA or an anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) monoclonal antibody have been applied. In both cases, the immunogold labeling has been performed on ultrathin sections of cells embedded either in Lowicryl K4M or in Epon, respectively. Identical results are observed with both immunocytochemical approaches. In the interphase nucleolus, besides the labeling of the perinucleolar chromatin shell and of its intranucleolar invaginations which penetrate into the nucleolar body and often terminate at the fibrillar centers, a few gold particles are also preferentially found towards the peripheral ...
Localization of cross-linking proteins in fibroblast cytoskeleton. Immuno-EM of the cell edge or interior (CIL 34928) of cytochalasin D-treated Xenop...
The rapid growth of nanotechnology and its industries has elevated the need to understand the risks associated with handling, using, and disposing of nanomaterials
The rapid growth of nanotechnology and its industries has elevated the need to understand the risks associated with handling, using, and disposing of nanomaterials
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. (Endocrine Pathology) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal human atrial tissue by immunoelectron microscopy. AU - Wei, Chi Ming. AU - Hukee, Margaret. AU - McGregor, Christopher G.A.. AU - Burnett, John C.. PY - 1993/12/1. Y1 - 1993/12/1. N2 - The study shows that atrial matriuretic peptide (ANP) is localized to secretory granules in normal human atrial tissue. This extends our understanding to the normal human of the biology of atrial regulation of this significant peptide of cardiac origin.. AB - The study shows that atrial matriuretic peptide (ANP) is localized to secretory granules in normal human atrial tissue. This extends our understanding to the normal human of the biology of atrial regulation of this significant peptide of cardiac origin.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027705543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027705543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference article. AN - SCOPUS:0027705543. SP - 316. EP - 317. JO - ...
In this study we investigated the regulation of the activity of the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and VMAT2 by heterotrimeric G-proteins. In the human neuroendocrine cell line BON both transporters are expressed. They colocalize in these cells with the a-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein Go2 predominantely on Large Dense Core Vesicles (LDCVs). The activity of both VMAT1 and VMAT2 is regulated by Gao2. G-protein activation results in a down-regulation of vesicular monoamine uptake. VMAT2 appears to be more sensitive towards the observed G-protein regulation than VMAT1. Serotonergic raphe neurons in primary culture express VMAT2 as the neuronal form of the transporter. In these neurons VMAT2 predominantely localizes to Small Synaptic Vesicles (SSVs). Here, VMAT2 colocalizes with Gao2 on SSVs. In these neurons Gao2-dependent down-regulation of VMAT2 activity was observed, too. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis confirmed a localization of VMAT2 and Gao2 on SSVs from serotonergic ...
Two mammalian proteins, vti1a and vti1b, are homologous to the yeast Q-SNARE Vti1p which is part of several SNARE complexes in different transport steps. In vitro experiments suggest distinct functions for vti1a and vti1b. Here we compared the subcellular localization of endogenous vti1a and vti1b by immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Both proteins had a distinct but overlapping localization. vti1a was found predominantly on the Golgi and the TGN, vti1b mostly on tubules and vesicles in the TGN area and on endosomes. vti1a coimmunoprecipitated with VAMP-4, syntaxin 6, and syntaxin 16. These four SNAREs could assemble into a SNARE complex of conserved structure because one SNARE motif of each subgroup is present. vtila-beta, VAMP-4, syntaxin 6, and syntaxin 16 are coenriched with small synaptic vesicles and with clathrin- coated vesicles isolated from rat brain synaptosomes. Therefore, this SNARE complex may have a role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis or recycling. ...
Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy ...
Part of the prestigious Max Planck Society based in Germany, MPFI is the first and only institute of its kind in North America. Situated in the new biosciences cluster in scenic Palm Beach County in South Florida, MPFI provides a vibrant, collaborative environment where scientists are provided generous ongoing support to conduct high impact research at the cutting edge.. ...
Introduction to microscopy techniques and their use in biology. Fluorescence microscopy, dyes, their characterization and use. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence. Microscopic methods for detection of cell organelles ( nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, lysosomes, vacuoles and other membrane structures). Microscopic detection cell function and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Detection ions, reactive oxygen and nitrogen. Nanoparticles and their use in microscopic techniques. ...
Enveloped viruses are wrapped in a lipid membrane; the viral envelope fuses with a host (plasma or endosomal) cell membrane, allowing penetration of the viral core into the host cell. The extracellular form of Vaccinia virus (EEV, for extracellular enveloped virus) is wrapped in two lipid envelopes, however, posing a challenge to viral entry: Fusion of the outer envelope will result in the intracellular release of a form called the intracellular mature virus (IMV), which is still surrounded by a lipid membrane. Law et al. used immunoelectron microscopy to investigate EEV invasion of PtK2 potoroo kidney cells and saw that, rather than fusing with the plasma membrane, the outer membrane became disrupted at the site of cell contact. It remained outside the cell, allowing the inner viral membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane. Outer membrane disruption occurred only at the site of cell contact and was not stimulated by binding to glass. Exposure to polyanions (PA), heparin, or dextran sulfate, ...
We have obtained several hybridoma clones producing antibodies to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from bovine brain. Interaction of one of these antibodies, named RN 17, with cultured cells was studied by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. RN 17 antibody recognized bot …
article{9e6ef65e-280f-480c-95c2-8ec585bac8f7, abstract = {Secretory lysosomes of natural killer (NK) cells combine storage, regulated secretion and lysosomal activity. We asked whether one could target exogenous proteins to the secretory lysosomes of NK-cells for final delivery into a tumor site upon degranulation. cDNAs for both soluble and transmembrane (tm) proteins were expressed in the human YT-Indy NK-cell line. Targeting of a soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1) was achieved by expressing a cDNA construct with a transmembrane sequence to facilitate ER-export and by incorporating a cytosolic sorting signal (Y) from CD63 to overcome constitutive secretion. The resulting sTNFR1-tm-Y was targeted to secretory lysosomes as confirmed by results from biosynthetic radiolabeling in combination with subcellular fractionation, immunoelectron microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. A soluble sTNFR1 form was generated in the secretory lysosome by endogenous proteolytic activity. Expression of ...
Postdoctoral Position- Cell-Biology of polysaccharide Biosynthesis Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia Postdoctoral position is available to study the function of two gene families involved in the synthesis of nucleotide-sugars in plants. The project involves cellular and molecular biology methodology in addition to biochemistry and analysis wall mutants. Candidates must hold a Ph.D. in molecular biology or biochemistry with an excellent publication record and strong credentials in modern molecular biology/ genetics and enzymology/biochemistry. Experience with biochemical techniques such as heterologous protein expression, protein purification, enzymatic assays, antibody production, and experience with molecular and cellular techniques such as cloning, construction of fusion proteins (GFP), and immuno-EM protein localization is desirable. Salary commensurate with experience. Applicants should send a letter of interest, Curriculum vitae, selected reprints, and names, ...
Hugon, J and Borgers, M, The ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in the crypt epithelium of the irradiated mouse duodenum. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 465 ...
Nagase T et al. (1996) Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VI. The coding sequences of 80 new genes (KIAA0201-KIAA0280) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from cell line KG-1 and brain.. ...
Light and Electron Microscopic Evidence for a Direct Retinal Projection to the Pulvinar in the Asiatic Chipmunk,,I,Tamias sibricus,/I,. (1986 ...
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Advanced optical imaging techniques can provide unprecedented details about the dynamics of life on a microscopic level. Such techniques typically rel
By proteomic and immunoelectron microscopy analysis, Marconi et al.,(2021) showed that Trastuzumab modulates the release of ... but it is expensive and requires fluorescence microscopy and an image capture system. The main expense involved with CISH is in ... the purchase of FDA-approved kits, and as it is not a fluorescent technique it does not require specialist microscopy and ...
Differential storage described via immuno-electron microscopy, see Ständer 2001 below. Pruritus Bork K (2005). "Pruritus ... an immunoelectron-microscopical long-term study". Cell Tissue Res. 304 (2): 261-9. doi:10.1007/s004410000324. PMID 11396719. v ...
Finally, the gold-standard method of cellular localization is immunoelectron microscopy. This technique also uses an antibody ... "Developments in cell biology for quantitative immunoelectron microscopy based on thin sections: a review". Histochemistry and ... Cryoelectron microscopy is used to produce lower-resolution structural information about very large protein complexes, ... In more recent times, cryo-electron microscopy of large macromolecular assemblies and computational protein structure ...
cDNA cloning, epitope mapping and immunoelectron microscopy of two titin-associated proteins". Journal of Cell Science. 106 (1 ...
cDNA cloning, epitope mapping and immunoelectron microscopy of two titin-associated proteins". J. Cell Sci. 106 (1): 319-30. ... cDNA cloning, epitope mapping and immunoelectron microscopy of two titin-associated proteins". Journal of Cell Science. 106 (1 ... cDNA cloning, epitope mapping and immunoelectron microscopy of two titin-associated proteins". Journal of Cell Science. 106 (1 ... and the 250-kD carboxy-terminal region of titin by immunoelectron microscopy". The Journal of Cell Biology. 134 (6): 1441-53. ...
I. Molecular definition in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes by immunoelectron microscopy of desmosomal proteins". European ... an electron microscopy investigation on endomyocardial biopsies". European Heart Journal. 27 (15): 1847-54. doi:10.1093/ ...
I. Molecular definition in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes by immunoelectron microscopy of desmosomal proteins". European ...
I. Molecular definition in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes by immunoelectron microscopy of desmosomal proteins". Eur. J. ... Under electron microscopy, an intercalated disc's path appears more complex. At low magnification, this may appear as a ... Under light microscopy, intercalated discs appear as thin, typically dark-staining lines dividing adjacent cardiac muscle cells ...
I. Molecular definition in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes by immunoelectron microscopy of desmosomal proteins". European ...
Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B. (1990). "Use of immunoelectron microscopy to show Ebola virus during the 1989 United States ...
Finally, the gold-standard method of cellular localization is immunoelectron microscopy. This technique also uses an antibody ... "Developments in cell biology for quantitative immunoelectron microscopy based on thin sections: a review". Histochemistry and ... Yuste R (2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-904. PMID 16299474. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902.. ... Cryoelectron microscopy is used to produce lower-resolution structural information about very large protein complexes, ...
Paracingulin has been localized in epithelial and in endothelial tissues by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. ... In liver tissue, immunofluorescence experiments show junctional and apical localizations, whereas immunoelectron microscopy ... immunoelectron microscopy indicates that paracingulin is not only localized in the TJ but also in the adherens junctions (AJ) ...
Melanosomal localization of OA1 has been confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy and other techniques alike. Localization ...
Additionally, NFTs were clearly detected by immunoelectron microscopy at 4 months but not at 2 months. However, at both 2 and 4 ...
The refinements included thin sectioning, negative staining, and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) developed for clinical ... The refinements included thin sectioning, negative staining, and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) developed for clinical ... The refinements included thin sectioning, negative staining, and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) developed for clinical ... her immune electron microscopy (IEM) innovations and insights contributed to research related to the diagnosis of hepatitis B, ...
Ogawa Y, Hong SS, Toyosawa S, Kuwahara H, Shimazaki M, Yagi T (March 1993). "Immunoelectron microscopy of carbonic anhydrase ...
"Immunoelectron microscopy of Schüffner's dots in Plasmodium vivax-infected human erythrocytes". The American Journal of ... Plasmodium vivax induces morphologic alterations in infected host erythrocytes that are visible by light microscopy in ... are important in the identification of this species of malarial parasite and have been associated by electron microscopy with ... ". "Microscopy of Plasmodium species". Udagama, P. V.; Atkinson, C. T.; Peiris, J. S.; David, P. H.; Mendis, K. N.; Aikawa, M ...
The order in which different cell wall components are deposited has been determined largely by immuno-electron microscopy. The ... with a focus on fluorescence microscopy Nanninga N (June 2001). "Cytokinesis in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Common Principles ...
... an immunoelectron microscopy study". Journal of Virology. 73 (10): 8503-11. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.10.8503-8511.1999. PMC 112870. ... Fluorescent labeling techniques (e.g. fluorescence microscopy) have enabled direct visualization of transport in living neurons ...
"The role of the vimentin intermediate filaments in rat 3Y1 cells elucidated by immunoelectron microscopy and computer-graphic ... "Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Finally, the gold-standard method of cellular localization is immunoelectron microscopy. This technique also uses an antibody ... "Developments in cell biology for quantitative immunoelectron microscopy based on thin sections: a review". Histochemistry and ... cryo-electron microscopy روش دیگری است برای مطالعه ساختار پروتئین که معمولاً در دمای نزدیگ به نیتروژن مایع انجام می‌شود. ... Yuste R (December 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID ...
Immunoelectron-microscopy experiments suggest that relocation from a peri-nuclear to a cytoplasmic distribution, coinciding ...
Cellular localization and tissue distribution of PLEKHA7 has been confirmed by Immunoelectron microscopy (Immuno-EM) of wild ...
High-resolution immunoelectron microscopy has shown that hnRNPs localize predominantly to the border regions of chromatin, ... Though it is known that a few hnRNPs shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus, immunofluorescence microscopy with hnRNP- ...
Chiu H, Morales J, Govind S (February 2006). "Identification and immuno-electron microscopy localization of p40, a protein ...
... a comparison between wild type and heterozygous reeler mice by immunoelectron microscopy". Journal of Neurocytology. 30 (5): ... morphological and morphometric estimation by Golgi technique and electron microscopy". Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 127 (4): 351-4. ...
Through the use of gold-immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments plectin has been found to ...
... cDNA cloning and immunoelectron microscopy". The Journal of Cell Biology. 121 (3): 491-502. doi:10.1083/jcb.121.3.491. PMC ...
Immunoelectron microscopy suggests that VSIV G protein moves from cis to trans Golgi bodies without being transported between ...
... of cargo molecules and the evolution of a clathrin-coated pit by fluorescence microscopy and immuno electron microscopy. Since ...
Finally, the gold-standard method of cellular localization is immunoelectron microscopy. This technique also uses an antibody ... "Developments in cell biology for quantitative immunoelectron microscopy based on thin sections: a review". Histochemistry and ... Yuste R (December 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID ... Cryoelectron microscopy is used to produce lower-resolution structural information about very large protein complexes, ...
Using a variety of molecular techniques, including immuno-electron microscopy, intermolecular chemical cross-linking, and X-ray ...
... negative-staining immunoelectron microscopy, and ELISAs may be performed on samples from the liver, blood, spleen or other ...
When examined by transmission electron microscopy in epithelioid cells in the field of Golgi lamellar complex are taped not ... The present ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopic study of epithelioid cell granulomas provided further arguments in ... 1979) in experiments on rats, using the method of electron microscopy, showed that one of the main cytomorphological features ... Structurally, epithelioid cells (when examined by light microscopy after stained with hematoxylin and eosin), are elongated, ...
Using a variety of molecular techniques, including immuno-electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, intermolecular ... Tirumalai MR, Kaelber JT, Park DR, Tran Q, Fox GE (2020). "Cryo-Electron Microscopy Visualization of a Large Insertion in the ...
... microscopy, immunoelectron MeSH E05.595.458.500 - microscopy, fluorescence, multiphoton MeSH E05.595.513.569 - microscopy, ... microscopy, electron, scanning MeSH E05.595.402.580 - microscopy, electron, transmission MeSH E05.595.402.580.480 - microscopy ... phase-contrast MeSH E05.595.666.400 - microscopy, atomic force MeSH E05.595.666.500 - microscopy, scanning tunneling MeSH ... microscopy, energy-filtering transmission electron MeSH E05.196.867.851 - spectroscopy, near-infrared MeSH E05.196.867.877 - ...
... an immunoelectron microscopy study" J Cell Biol, 101 (2), 1985, 683-688 J. Meier, C. Vannier, A. Serge, A. Triller, D. Choquet ... In addition, using electron microscopy, he was able to demonstrate the presence of messenger RNAs encoding the glycine receptor ... he was able to visualize the glycine receptor in the synapses of the central nervous system by electron microscopy and show ...
... , sometimes called immunoelectron microscopy is a method used in electron microscopy for diagnosis ... Anderson SR, Parmiter D, Baxa U, Nagashima K. Immunoelectron Microscopy for Visualization of Nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. ... In a technique known as solid phase immune electron microscopy, the antisera is used to coat the electron microscope grid ... Lavazza A, Tittarelli C, Cerioli M. The use of convalescent sera in immune-electron microscopy to detect non-suspected/new ...
... microscopy, immunoelectron MeSH E01.370.350.515.458 - microscopy, fluorescence MeSH E01.370.350.515.458.500 - microscopy, ... microscopy, scanning probe MeSH E01.370.350.515.666.400 - microscopy, atomic force MeSH E01.370.350.515.666.500 - microscopy, ... microscopy MeSH E01.370.350.515.184 - dermoscopy MeSH E01.370.350.515.370 - microscopy, acoustic MeSH E01.370.350.515.395 - ... microscopy, confocal MeSH E01.370.350.515.395.500 - laser scanning cytometry MeSH E01.370.350.515.402 - microscopy, electron ...
Immunoelectron microscopy localization of immunoglobulin G in human placenta.. Lin CT.. Abstract. Immunoelectron microscopy of ...
免疫電顕におけるトラブルシューティング [in Japanese] Immuno-electron microscopy problems and solutions [in Japanese] * * 和泉 伸一 IZUMI Shin-ichi ... An Immunoelectron Microscopic Study IZUMI Shin-ichi , KIMURA Miyuki , KIMURA Takahiro , WADA Akihiro , HIRAYAMA Toshiya , ...
Using double-label quantitative immunoelectron microscopy on ultrathin cryosections of rat liver, we have compared the ... Intracellular receptor sorting during endocytosis: comparative immunoelectron microscopy of multiple receptors in rat liver.. ...
Main Page , Immuno-Electron Microscopy. Electron microscopic (EM) immunohistichemical techniques can be divided into two groups ... These methods were originally introduced for electron microscopy (Faulk and Taylor 1971) as the gold particles are easily ... visible under the electron microscope, but they are also useful for light microscopy. ...
... the immunostained material is ready for examination with transmission electron microscopy. ...
Microscopy, Immunoelectron / methods. Nerve Fibers / ultrastructure*. Norepinephrine / analysis*. Portal Vein. Rats. Rats, ...
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide antibody for Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM). ... Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM). 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 ... Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Alternatives ... Top referenced anti-Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide antibody for Immunoelectron Microscopy. * Bat Polyclonal Vip Primary Antibody ...
Geuze H.J. (1986) Immunoelectron Microscopy on Receptor and Ligand Sorting Sites. In: Greten H., Windler E., Beisiegel U. (eds ... The increasing need for precise subcellular detection has coincided with recent developments of powerful immunoelectron ...
... and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). TRA98 was localized exclusively to the nuclei. In spermatocytes, IF staining was ... A Quantitative and Qualitative Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM) Analysis," CellBio, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 11-20. doi: 10.4236/ ... and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). TRA98 was localized exclusively to the nuclei. In spermatocytes, IF staining was ...
We have developed a new standardized method for the post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using the same fixation, antigen ... Journal of Electron Microscopy Year: 2009 , Volume: 58 , Issue: 4 , Page No.: 267 - 279 ...
"Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of HCMV gpUL73 (gN) localization, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of HCMV gpUL73 (gN) localization. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of HCMV gpUL73 (gN) ... Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of HCMV gpUL73 (gN) localization. Pignatelli, S.; Dal Monte, P.; Zini, N.; Valmori, A.; ... lp/springer_journal/immunoelectron-microscopy-analysis-of-hcmv-gpul73-gn-localization-ebuRRyMK2w ...
The Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 from Trigeminal Neurons to the Murine Cornea: an Immunoelectron Microscopy Study. ... The Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 from Trigeminal Neurons to the Murine Cornea: an Immunoelectron Microscopy Study ... The Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 from Trigeminal Neurons to the Murine Cornea: an Immunoelectron Microscopy Study ... The Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 from Trigeminal Neurons to the Murine Cornea: an Immunoelectron Microscopy Study ...
pemphigus / electron microscopy / cell adhesion / desmoglein / immunoelectron microscopy / desmosome / acantholysis / bullous ... We are currently trying the other method for immunoelectron microscopy. We also tried to characterize PF in dogs. Canine PF can ... Analysis of pathophysiology of pemphigus foliaceus by using immunoelectron microscopy. Research Project ... study is to elucidate the mechanism whereby autoantibody binding lead to the blister formation using immunoelectron microscopy. ...
Detection and comparison of some ghanaian isolates of cacao swollen shoot virus by elisa and immunoelectron microscopy using an ... Detection and comparison of some ghanaian isolates of cacao swollen shoot virus by elisa and immunoelectron microscopy using an ... Detection and comparison of some ghanaian isolates of cacao swollen shoot virus by elisa and immunoelectron microscopy using an ... by ELISA and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) using an antiserum to severe strain 1A. Many isolates were detected with ...
Immunoelectron microscopy can be defined as any technique that uses antibodies, or molecules that interact with antibodies for ... Immunoelectron microscopy can be defined as any technique that uses antibodies, or molecules that interact with antibodies (for ... Principles of immunoelectron microscopy. Last Updated on Wed, 06 Jun 2018 , Immune Response ... Samples for scanning electron microscopy must be fixed and dehydrated, as in transmission electron microscopy, but instead of ...
Reproducibility studies for immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography demonstrated a considerable amount of variation ... Glomerular changes in microscopic haematuria, studied by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography. ... The composition of glomerular basement membrane was evaluated using quantitative immuno-electron microscopy; this was ... cases were arranged into triplet groups and handled as a single batch through immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography ...
Immunoelectron microscopy reveals colocalization of myopalladin and CARP in mouse cardiac myofibrils. (A-C) Isolated myofibrils ... Figure 8: Immunoelectron microscopy reveals colocalization of myopalladin and CARP in mouse cardiac myofibrils. (A-C) Isolated ... Figure 8: Immunoelectron microscopy reveals colocalization of myopalladin and CARP in mouse cardiac myofibrils. (A-C) Isolated ... Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that myopalladin also colocalized with CARP in the central I- ...
Connectin filaments link thick filaments and Z lines in frog skeletal muscle as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy. K ... Connectin filaments link thick filaments and Z lines in frog skeletal muscle as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy.. J Cell ... In the present immunoelectron microscopic study using polyclonal antibodies against native connectin, we have concluded that ...
... and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). TRA98 was localized exclusively to the nuclei. In spermatocytes, IF staining was ... TRA98 in developing spermatogenic cells using immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). TRA98 was localized ...
Localization of subunits in proteasomes from Thermoplasma acidophilum by immunoelectron microscopy ... Microscopy, Electron; Molecular Structure; Molecular Weight; Multienzyme Complexes/im [Immunology]; *Multienzyme Complexes/ul [ ... The subunit topography of the Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome was determined by immunoelectron microscopy using ... in proteasomes from Thermoplasma acidophilum by immunoelectron microscopy. FEBS Letters., 290(1-2), 186-190. ...
... and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology, 97(2), ... and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy., Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 97 ... and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology. 1983 Aug; ... and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy. In: Journal of Cell Biology. 1983 ...
Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal human atrial tissue by immunoelectron microscopy. / Wei, Chi Ming; Hukee, ... Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal human atrial tissue by immunoelectron microscopy. Proceedings - Annual ... title = "Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal human atrial tissue by immunoelectron microscopy", ... T1 - Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal human atrial tissue by immunoelectron microscopy ...
Immunoelectron Microscopy.. Whole-cell, negative-stain, ImmunoGold labeling was performed by using a modified procedure ... ImmunoGold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of BZ83 strain was performed with antisera raised against ... Anna Rita Taddei for technical help with ImmunoGold labeling and transmission electron microscopy; Maria Scarselli for help in ...
In addition, by immunoelectron microscopy we can still localize actin to the space between the plasma membrane and the outer ... Immunoelectron Microscopy.. Jasplakinolide-treated parasites were fixed in suspension in a mixture of 4% formaldehyde and 0.5% ... Actin and myosin have been localized by immunoelectron microscopy to the apical end of the parasite and in the space between ... At present, the limited spatial resolution of current immunoelectron microscopy methods precludes the precise localization of ...
Immuno-electron microscopy. After the combined immunogold-immunoperoxidase stainings, sections were treated with osmium ... Correlated confocal laser-scanning microscopy, electron microscopy and electron tomography. Following multiple ... Time-lapse microscopy and cell motility data analysis. Time-lapse recordings were performed on a computer-controlled Leica DM ... Super-resolution (STORM) microscopy. Sections were mounted onto #1.5 thick borosilicate coverslips and covered with imaging ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
Immunoelectron microscopy analysis. To confirm ultrastructurally the presence of synapses on newborn GCs in the adult OB, ... Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of newborn GCs in the EPL. Newborn eGFP-positive GCs make and receive GABAergic ... E-G , Double immunoelectron microscopy for gephyrin (silver grains, arrows) and eGFP (*) in GAD67-GFP mice, depicting eGFP- ... To confirm these observations ultrastructurally, we performed dual-labeling immunoelectron microscopy in OB sections of GAD67- ...
Routine and Immunoelectron Microscopy. Brains were transcardially perfusion fixed with standard Karnovskys fix, 4% ... 4A). Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that young Cav-1 KO mice had increased Aβ staining in Niss1 positive neurons in ... Routine electron microscopy (EM) revealed a significant reduction in hippocampal synapses (i.e., post synaptic densities) in ... Immunofluorescence Confocal Microscopy. Tissue and cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS ...
Immunoelectron Microscopy. Rats were transcardially perfused with 4% PFA and 0.15% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer (PB). ... Immunoelectron microscopy analysis revealed GFP immunoreactivity in newly formed myelin sheath produced by transplanted OPC- ... Figure 7. Detection of myelination and remyelination by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining and immunoelectron microscopy in rats ... five animals were cut as longitudinal sections and five animals were used for immunoelectron microscopy assay in cell-grafted ...
Immunoelectron microscopy. Cells were fixed in 0.5% glutaraldehyde and 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) ... A, Immunoelectron microscope image of DM (10 nm gold) and class II (15 nm gold) distribution in a representative MVB in Mel ... Microinjection and confocal microscopy. Fifty to 100 cells were typically microinjected intranuclearly with a mix of the cDNA ... localization of DM/DO and class II in Mel JuSo and both transfectants is analyzed in more detail by immunoelectron microscopy. ...
  • Upon completion of these procedures, the immunostained material is ready for examination with transmission electron microscopy. (jove.com)
  • In preparation for transmission electron microscopy, samples are usually fixed with aldehydes (glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde or a combination of the two), post-aldehyde fixed in osmic acid, en bloc stained with a uranyl acetate solution, dehydrated with alcohols and embedded in a plastic resin. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Examinations of meiocytes at the pachytene stage of prophase I using transmission electron microscopy have shown that the synaptonemal complex has a tripartite organization that extends along the entire length of the synapsed homologues. (biologists.org)
  • Containing high-quality representative images, this up-to-date text includes detailed information on the most important diagnostic applications of transmission electron microscopy as well as instructions for specific tissues and current basic preparative techniques. (wiley.com)
  • Ultrathin sections of SaOS-2 cells were prepared for transmission electron microscopy using an adaptation of the Tokuyasu method, and immunolabelled using goat anti-Kir6.1 or anti-Kir6.2 antisera as the primary label, and a 10nm colloidal gold-conjugated donkey anti-goat secondary antibody. (bioscience.org)
  • Such interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assay with anti-Fak and anti-heavy chain cardiac myosin antibodies, confocal microscopy of double-labeled isolated cardiac myocytes and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-Fak antibody. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, we confirmed the expression of gal-7 in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments of breast cancer cells and the ability of gal-7 to translocate to mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2016 Localizing proteins in fixed Giardia lamblia and live cultured cells by confocal microscopy. (memphis.edu)
  • Confocal microscopy of antibody-labeled cells showed greater biofilm formation at 25°C than at 37°C. Since the CP was shown to be produced at both 37°C and 25°C, it does not appear to be significantly involved in attachment during the early formation of the biofilm matrix. (asm.org)
  • Reproducibility studies for immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography demonstrated a considerable amount of variation if processing of tissue was performed on separated days. (le.ac.uk)
  • To control for variation in the measurement methods, cases were arranged into triplet groups and handled as a single batch through immuno-electron microscopy and in situ zymography studies. (le.ac.uk)
  • We used immuno-electron microscopy to examine the development of PV + perisomatic terminals and their target somata within dorsal and ventral MEC LII in rats of postnatal day (P)10, P15, and P30. (eneuro.org)
  • Contact us to learn more about our immuno-electron microscopy services to detect subcellular localization of test article and high-throughput quantification of full and empty AAV capsids for cell and gene therapy studies. (criver.com)
  • Immuno-electron microscopy requires special fixation. (criver.com)
  • by postembedding immuno-electron microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Differential storage described via immuno-electron microscopy, see Ständer 2001 below. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study analyzed the intracellular and intraviral localization of gpUL73 by immunoelectron-microscopy comparing the reactivity of two different antibodies. (deepdyve.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy can be defined as any technique that uses antibodies, or molecules that interact with antibodies (for example, protein A or protein G), in conjunction with electron microscopy to localize ultrastructurally antigens or antibodies in cells and tissues. (barnardhealth.us)
  • immunoelectron microscopy with affinity-purified antimyopalladin antibodies reveals that myopalladin is detected both within the periphery of the Z-line (A) and in the central I-band region (A-C). In stretched sarcomeres (B), the Z-line to I-band distance increases. (nih.gov)
  • In the present immunoelectron microscopic study using polyclonal antibodies against native connectin, we have concluded that the connectin structures are directly linked to Z lines from the thick (myosin) filaments in myofibrils of skinned fibers of frog skeletal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • The subunit topography of the Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome was determined by immunoelectron microscopy using monospecific antibodies directed against the two constituent subunits (alpha,beta). (mpg.de)
  • Glycoproteins of coated pits, cell junctions, and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS Resection specimens of UC and normal colon were analysed by immunomorphometry, immunoflow cytometry, and immunoelectron microscopy, using a large panel of monoclonal antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • The association of IE62 with wild-type VZV virions was confirmed using immunoelectron microscopy with IE62-specific antibodies, which reacted with virions in ultrathin sections of VZV-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy, using specific antibodies against CP, confirmed that CP surrounds the cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we measured the dynamics of SGs beneath the PM in neuroendocrine cells using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) combined with single-particle tracking and incorporated the data into a mathematical compartment model of SG trafficking. (jneurosci.org)
  • Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. (elifesciences.org)
  • See also fluorescence microscopy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We are currently trying the other method for immunoelectron microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that myopalladin also colocalized with CARP in the central I-band of striated muscle sarcomeres. (nih.gov)
  • Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies, we show that in normal melanocytes Rab27a colocalizes with melanosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Correlative immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that two small HSPs (HSP27 and αB-crystallin) and the ATP-dependent chaperone HSP90 translocated to the titin springs in myopathy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Diagnostic Electron Microscopy: A Practical Guide to Interpretation and Technique summarises the current interpretational applications of TEM in diagnostic pathology. (wiley.com)
  • Diagnostic Electron Microscopy: A Practical Guide Interpretation and Technique summarises the current interpretational applications of TEM in diagnostic pathology. (ecampus.com)
  • Diagnostic electron microscopy has two advantages over ance of vesicular lesions or respiratory illness in farm animals enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nucleic acid amplifi- may be evidence of an emerging disease, a possible zoonosis, cation tests. (cdc.gov)
  • Applications of diagnostic electron microscopy in clinically or outbreak-associated agents as diverse as Nipah virus (6) and epidemiologically critical situations as well as in bioterrorist gastroenteric agents (7) indicate that identification of an out- events are discussed. (cdc.gov)
  • These methods were originally introduced for electron microscopy (Faulk and Taylor 1971) as the gold particles are easily visible under the electron microscope, but they are also useful for light microscopy. (ihcworld.com)
  • Light microscopy examination of hair in GS shows a typical pattern of uneven accumulation of large pigment granules in the hair shaft instead of the homogeneous distribution of small pigment granules in normal hair. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy localization of immunoglobulin G in human placenta. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the localization of TRA98 indeveloping spermatogenic cells using immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). (scirp.org)
  • We have, here, analyzed the localization of the transverse filament protein SYCP1 and the central element proteins SYCE1, SYCE2 and SYCE3 within the central region of the synaptonemal complex in mouse spermatocytes using immunoelectron microscopy. (biologists.org)
  • Mitosomal membrane localization was indicated by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. (tcdb.org)
  • Intracellular protein localization by immunoelectron microscopy. (memphis.edu)
  • To investigate CNGC trafficking and localization, we have measured Atcngc5 and Atcngc10 expression in roots and leaves, analyzed AtCNGC10-GFP fusions transiently expressed in protoplasts, and conducted immunofluorescence labeling of protoplasts and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of high pressure frozen leaves and roots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of the COX-2 positive cells resembled that of lymphocytes, and the immunoreaction was localised to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. (bmj.com)
  • One of the best available methods of biological sample preparation for electron microscopy as regards to structural preservation is cryoimmobilization by high-pressure freezing (HPF) followed by freeze-substitution (FS). (oulu.fi)
  • Intracellular receptor sorting during endocytosis: comparative immunoelectron microscopy of multiple receptors in rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • A Quantitative and Qualitative Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM) Analysis," CellBio , Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 11-20. (scirp.org)
  • Electron microscopy services can be quite complex, so it's crucial to choose a provider with proven experience performing quantitative pathology techniques to avoid program setbacks including compromised study designs, increased costs, and extended timelines. (criver.com)
  • Performing electron microscopy can be quite complex so it is crucial to chose a provider with proven experience performing quantitative pathology techniques to avoid program setbacks. (criver.com)
  • Additional image analysis and stereology scientists on-site allow for quantitative assessment of electron microscopy images. (criver.com)
  • Design and Methods We studied hemojuvelin mutants of N-terminus (C80R, S85P, G99V, ΔRGD) and GDPH-consensus site for autoproteolysis (A168D, F170S, D172E) transiently expressed in HeLa cells, using electron microscopy, morphometric analysis and binding assays at different time points. (haematologica.org)
  • This was achieved by observing living human cells in which the nucleus was growing and then studying them using advanced techniques such as high-resolution three-dimensional electron tomography and super-resolution microscopy. (elifesciences.org)
  • Scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals that these proteins are involved in the formation of pili at the interface between H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy analysis demonstrated TcR-γδ internalisation and surface downregulation, indicating that the γδ T cells were activated and engaged in the disease process. (bmj.com)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) enables the investigator to examine the surface topography and morphology of cells, tissues, or medical devices by scanning a beam of electrons across a sample using the low vacuum (low resolution) mode or high vacuum (high resolution) mode. (criver.com)
  • Serial section immunoelectron microscopy of algal cells. (memphis.edu)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AtCNGC10 was associated with the plasma membrane of mesophyll, palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells of leaves, and the meristem, columella and cap cells of roots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We introduce a method for correlative in-resin super-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM) of biological structures in mammalian culture cells. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Invited chapter) Immunoelectron Microscopy: Methods and Protocols. (memphis.edu)
  • Schwartzbach, S.D. and Osafune, T. 2010 Immunoelectron Microscopy: Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 657. (memphis.edu)
  • The increasing need for precise subcellular detection has coincided with recent developments of powerful immunoelectron microscope techniques. (springer.com)
  • Using a correlative light- and electron-microscopy technique, we found that the intermediate filament proteins nestin and vimentin were induced in PDGFRβ-positive fibroblasts in the lesion core. (frontiersin.org)
  • Electron microscopy revealed extensive ultrastructural changes in myofibers of various hereditary myopathies and also suggested massive binding of proteins to the sarcomeric I-band region, presumably heat shock proteins (HSPs), which can translocate to elastic titin under stress conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nevertheless, examination of parasites fixed by using a variety of electron microscopy protocols fails to reveal any filamentous material within the parasites that might represent actin ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a new standardized method for the post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using the same fixation, antigen retrieval and image contrasting procedures. (scialert.net)
  • Our experienced electron microscopy staff is available to provide guidance in protocol design for the most appropriate fixation, collection, preparation, and evaluation of biologic samples to ensure sample integrity. (criver.com)
  • What would you recommend for proper harvesting and fixation of tissues for electron microscopy? (criver.com)
  • Tissue should be trimmed immediately into 1 mm cubes to ensure proper fixation throughout the tissue for electron microscopy services. (criver.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy of chemically fixed developing plant embryos. (memphis.edu)
  • SR-BI dimerization and cell surface architectural changes were assessed using immunoelectron microscopic techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated an increased 3-nitrotyrosine formation (ONOO − -specific protein nitration) in endothelial plasma membrane in DM, which colocalized with caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the key structural protein of caveolae. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Publications] Tomokane,N.: 'Rosenthal fibers share epitopes with αB-crystallin,glial fibrillary acidic protein,and ubiquitin,but not with vimentin.Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy image of accumulated tau protein on cell membrane. (eurekalert.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy of IgG molecules in human mature placenta has shown that IgG bound to microvillar surfaces and the inner wall of endocytotic vesicles of syncytiotrophoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy with anti-SleB antiserum and a colloidal gold-immunoglobulin G complex showed that the enzymes from both Bacillus species are located just inside the spore coat layer in the dormant spore, and in the dormant spore, the amidases appear exist in a mature form lacking a signal sequence. (asm.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that TLR3, when stably expressed in the murine B cell line Ba/F3, was specifically accumulated in multivesicular bodies, a subcellular compartment situated in endocytic trafficking pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Biocenter Oulu Electron Microscopy Core Facility provides services and training in various electron microscopy techniques for the analysis of biological specimens. (oulu.fi)
  • Apoptosis, analyzed by flow cytometry and electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, was increased in islets cultured in high glucose (HG5) as compared with normal glucose (NG5) or hyperosmolar control (NG5+MAN5). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy was used to investigate the subcellular location of COX-2. (bmj.com)
  • We used differential interference contrast optics, laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence, and immunogold electron microscopy to characterize the structural properties and molecular composition of Abeta-containing elements in drusen. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the structure and function of the cell and its molecular components, it is necessary to integrate imaging techniques using optical, transmission, and scanning microscopy. (els.net)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy reveals colocalization of myopalladin and CARP in mouse cardiac myofibrils. (nih.gov)
  • Various isolates of cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) were detected without difficulty in leaves of Theobroma cacao L. by ELISA and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) using an antiserum to severe strain 1A. (eurekamag.com)
  • Using immunoelectron microscopy, the distribution of influenza A virus neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins was examined, after performing immunoreactions to virions on the grid. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Actin and myosin have been localized by immunoelectron microscopy to the apical end of the parasite and in the space between the plasma membrane and the outer face of the inner membrane complex (IMC) in both Toxoplasma and in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites ( 10 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Samples of isolated tachyzoites (≈10 7 parasites/ml) in suspension were incubated with 1 μM jasplakinolide for 5 min or 60 min at 37°C before being processed for electron microscopy or myosin subfragment 1 (S1) decoration, as described below. (pnas.org)
  • While recent studies suggest that health- the undirected, "open view" of electron microscopy allows rapid care systems are ill prepared to treat victims and contain the morphologic identification and differential diagnosis of different spread of an infectious agent (5), the performance of physi- agents contained in the specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • Electron microscopic diagnosis is uniquely suited for rapid microscopy fully, it should be quality controlled, applied as a identification of infectious agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy identifying avidin (8-nm gold) and cathepsin L (15-nm gold) immunoreactivity in organelles from late endosome, lysosome, and hybrid fractions. (nih.gov)
  • The same numbers of samples were processed for immunoelectron microscopy using freeze-substitution and post embedding labeling techniques. (usp.br)
  • This collection of articles describe how the development of microscopy and the implementation of new developments in microscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized biology. (els.net)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy was a term that was originally confined to studies that made use of the transmission electron microscope but now include those that use the scanning electron microscope. (barnardhealth.us)
  • What is Scanning Electron Microscopy? (criver.com)
  • Our dedicated electron microscopy service laboratories feature multiple electron microscope rooms with chiller, processing, and microtomy rooms and digital cameras. (criver.com)
  • Detection of noradrenaline-immunoreactive nerve fibres in rat liver by immunoelectron microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)