Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Relating to the size of solids.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (1/10657)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The postnatal development of the alimentary canal in the opossum. I. Oesophagus. (2/10657)

The oesophageal epithelium of the newborn opossum generally is two to three cells in depth and in some regions appears pseudostratified. By the 9th postnatal day the epithelium shows two distinct strata. Ciliated cells and occasional goblet cells also are observed within the epithelium during this stage and in subsequent stages. Cilia persist in the oesophagus of the adult opossum, but are restricted to the depths of the transverse folds found in the distal part of the organ. The epithelium covering the transverse folds of the adult likewise has an immature appearance. By 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days), the epithelium has assumed a more mature appearance and is of greater depth. This and later stages show three basic strata: a germinal layer, a spinous layer and, adjacent to the lumen, a flattened layer of cells that retain their nuclei. The epithelium throughout the postnatal period and in the adult does not undergo complete keratinization. The oesophageal glands begin as outgrowths from the epithelium just prior to 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days). The glands continue their development throughout the remainder of the postnatal period. The secretory units of the oesophageal glands of the the major portion of the secretory elements, and a light, rounded cell type which is less numerous and which occupies the terminal portions of the secretory units. Secretory material of the former appears complex, consisting of both neutral and acid glycoproteins. The secretory product of the light cell type is unknown at present. Both cell types are encompassed by myoepithelial cells. The relationship of the mitotic sequences to the observations made by microscopic examination of the developing oesophagus is discussed.  (+info)

Collagen fiber arrangement in canine hepatic venules. (3/10657)

Cell-maceration/scanning electron microscopy, serial sections and scanning electron microscopy of vascular resin casts were employed to demonstrate the arrangement of collagen fibers in the terminal hepatic venules, involving the central, intercalated and collecting veins in dog liver. In cell-maceration specimens, each collagen fiber was observed to run in various directions, forming a sheath with a compact meshwork of collagen fibers. The collagenous meshwork in the hepatic venules was looser than those of the terminal portal venules and hepatic arterioles. Some collagen fibers formed bundles with an elongated spiral arrangement encircling the wall of the terminal hepatic venules. In resin casts, these venules were observed as a twisted configuration caused by spiral collagen bundles. A helical modification of such connective tissue bundles might provide a mechanically stable vascular structure and permit reversible changes in linear and circumferential vascular dimensions at the terminal tributaries of veins. Round or oval pores with diameters of approximately 9 microns were also observed in the sheath of collagen fibers. These pores, together with the relatively loose collagenous meshwork in the hepatic venules, might play a role in lymphocyte migration from these venules into the surrounding tissue and provide high permeability to the venule walls. No such helical configuration and pores were observed in either the portal venules or the hepatic arterioles.  (+info)

Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases. (4/10657)

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

Perturbation of mammalian cell division. III. The topography and kinetics of extrusion subdivision. (5/10657)

If mitotic-arrested, cold-stored HeLa cells are incubated at 37 degrees C a proportion of the population divides by an aberrant process which we have called subdivision by extrusion. This process has been studied by time-lapse photography and shown to differ from normal cleavage in several respects. The cell surface becomes more generally mobile and, instead of producing the precisely localized furrowing activity of cytokinesis, gives rise to multiple surface protrusions. These protrusions enlarge at the expense of the parent cell and develop into a cluster of small daughter cells (mini segregants). The surface structure of the cell, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, also changes; the microvilli characteristic of interphase, metaphase and cleaving HeLa cells are lost during extrusion and the cell surface becomes smooth. Extrusion activity is much more variable than division by cleavage in terms of both topography and kinetics, and in general takes longer to complete. Some cells in the cold-treated populations divide by mixtures of cleavage and extrusion or by cleavage alone. The relative numbers of cells dividing in different ways vary with the conditions of pretreatment and incubation of the mitotic cells. The greater the perturbation (e.g. longer cold storage), the greater the proportion of extruding rather than cleaving cells. Human diploid cells can also be induced to subdivide by extrusion. Possible mechanisms underlying the different types of division activity are discussed.  (+info)

Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Kodamaea anthophila, three new related yeast species from ephemeral flowers. (6/10657)

Three new yeast species were discovered during studies of yeasts associated with ephemeral flowers in Brazil, Australia and Hawaii. Their physiological and morphological similarity to Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri suggested a possible relationship to that species, which was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. Kodamaea nitidulidarum and Candida restingae were found in cactus flowers and associated nitidulid beetles in sand dune ecosystems (restinga) of South-eastern Brazil. Over 350 strains of Kodamaea anthophila were isolated from Hibiscus and morning glory flowers (Ipomoea spp.) in Australia, and from associated nitidulid beetles and Drosophila hibisci. A single isolate came from a beach morning glory in Hawaii. Expansion of the genus Kodamaea to three species modified the existing definition of the genus only slightly. The type and isotype strains are as follows: K. nitidulidarum strains UFMG96-272T (h+; CBS 8491T) and UFMG96-394I (h-; CBS 8492I); Candida restingae UFMG96-276T (CBS 8493T); K. anthophila strains UWO(PS)95-602.1T (h+; CBS 8494T), UWO(PS)91-893.2I (h-; CBS 8495I) and UWO(PS)95-725.1I (h-; CBS 8496I).  (+info)

Embryonal feather growth in the chicken. (7/10657)

Prenatal feather growth development in the chicken was studied in 7 body regions in HH stages 27-45, using direct measurements, specific histological and immunohistochemical methods, and scanning electron microscopy. The results from measurements of absolute length values, and, particularly, growth rate development in each HH stage revealed a distinct phase of most intensive growth in HH stage 40-41, which was preceded by feather follicle insertion and accompanied by the occurrence of alpha-keratins in barbule cells. Specific regional evaluation demonstrated that growth in the feather follicles of abdominal skin generally showed the slowest progression from absolute values and that in the feather filaments of the developing wings the most rapid progression occurred during HH stage 40-41 from growth rate values.  (+info)

Activation of G12/G13 results in shape change and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in mouse platelets. (8/10657)

Platelets respond to various stimuli with rapid changes in shape followed by aggregation and secretion of their granule contents. Platelets lacking the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq do not aggregate and degranulate but still undergo shape change after activation through thromboxane-A2 (TXA2) or thrombin receptors. In contrast to thrombin, the TXA2 mimetic U46619 led to the selective activation of G12 and G13 in Galphaq-deficient platelets indicating that these G proteins mediate TXA2 receptor-induced shape change. TXA2 receptor-mediated activation of G12/G13 resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of pp72(syk) and stimulation of pp60(c-src) as well as in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in Galphaq-deficient platelets. Both MLC phosphorylation and shape change induced through G12/G13 in the absence of Galphaq were inhibited by the C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum, by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and by cAMP-analogue Sp-5,6-DCl-cBIMPS. These data indicate that G12/G13 couple receptors to tyrosine kinases as well as to the Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated regulation of MLC phosphorylation. We provide evidence that G12/G13-mediated Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent regulation of MLC phosphorylation participates in receptor-induced platelet shape change.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of surface treatment on the electron field emission property of nano-diamond films. AU - Lee, Yen Chih. AU - Pradhan, Debabrata. AU - Lin, Su Jien. AU - Chia, Chih Ta. AU - Cheng, Hsiu Fung. AU - Lin, I. Nan. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank National Science Council, R.O.C. for the support of this research through the project No. NSC 93-2112-M-032-010.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Nano-diamond films having grain size around 20 nm were deposited by bias enhanced growth (BEG) method. Different surface treatments were carried out to increase their field emission properties and their effects are clearly noticed. Surface morphology of different surface treated nano-diamond films was examined. There was no significant change in the curve of Raman spectra of different surface treated samples. Raman spectra were typically of similar nature to nano-diamond film. Field emission results were more interesting. Biased in hydrogen plasma treated ...
A field emission display having an ion pump, for removal of outgassed material, is described. The display has a baseplate and an opposing face plate. A substrate acts as a base for the baseplate. There are parallel, spaced conductors acting as cathode electrodes, over the substrate. An insulating layer covers the cathode electrodes and the substrate, and parallel, spaced conductors act as gate electrodes and overlay the insulating layer. There is a plurality of openings extending through the insulating layer and the gate electrodes. At each of the openings is a field emission microtip connected to and extending up from one of the cathode electrodes. The faceplate has a glass base and is mounted opposite and parallel to the baseplate. A conducting anode electrode covers the glass base. There is a pattern of phosphorescent material over the conducting anode electrode, so that when electrons which are emitted from the field emission microtips strike the pattern of phosphorescent material, light is emitted,
Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field. The most common context is field emission from a solid surface into vacuum. However, field emission can take place from solid or liquid surfaces, into vacuum, air, a fluid, or any non-conducting or weakly conducting dielectric. The field-induced promotion of electrons from the valence to conduction band of semiconductors (the Zener effect) can also be regarded as a form of field emission. The terminology is historical because related phenomena of surface photoeffect, thermionic emission (or Richardson-Dushman effect) and cold electronic emission, i.e. the emission of electrons in strong static (or quasi-static) electric fields, were discovered and studied independently from the 1880s to 1930s. When field emission is used without qualifiers it typically means cold emission. Field emission in pure metals occurs in high electric fields: the ...
There is provided a field emission type display which is capable of suppressing deterioration of image quality which otherwise occurs due to stepwise cuts and to the increase of wiring resistance caused by a thin width of a cathode line and which causes less failures. The display includes a plurality of cathode lines having an equal line width within the pixel and is structurally based on a multiple gradation representing a scheme of controlling spatial gradation display by changing the number of field emission type emitters to be driven by changing the number of cathode lines to be selected.
Logos Verlag Berlin, Taryl L. Kirk Near Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Reihe: Applied Electron Microskopy - Angewandte Elektronenmikroskopie, Bd. 9
Home › Tender Notices › Global Notice for Inviting Tender and Tender Documents for procurement of a Focused Ion Beam Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope FIB-FESEM ...
Conjugated polyelectrolyte nano field emission adlayers. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
merely we discover, that objects carry not this download fowler nordheim field; but Now upon participating their quae, consider with the aspect of transition in those drawn tis, that our individuals are our useless tis, and belong exclusively and so the not-made in all their independent particulars. There are different regions of this download, as we may be its interest on the identity, in a now sure esse. Of these, I shall know the two download fowler nordheim field emission.
High resolution color displays for field emission displays are formed by applying a grille to a screen layer, the grille having a set of holes formed therein exposing areas of the screen layer. A layer of photoresist is applied to the grille and the exposed areas of the screen layer, whereby a plurality of photoresist-covered screen layer areas are defined. One set of the plurality of photoresist-covered screen layer areas is fixed, whereby a fixed set and an unfixed set are defined. The photoresist is removed from the unfixed set and a light emitting substance is deposited on the exposed screen layer area. The fixed set of photoresist is plasma etched.
We report the first observations of field emission/ionisation in liquid helium under pressure. Our preliminary data are presented, and discussed, for pressures, tip potentials and temperatures in the range 0 , P , 25 atm, 0 , V , 3kV, T, 1.5 K.. ...
Looking for interconnecting? Find out information about interconnecting. To attach one device to another. A physical port or wireless port used to attach one device to another Explanation of interconnecting
The first part of this project involves instrumental developments. First, we will demonstrate and characterize laser driven field emission from the customized electron source of a commercial 200kV TEM. The femtosecond cold field emission gun that we have already mounted in a dedicated Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) bench will be completely characterized in terms of brightness, emittance and energy spectrum as a function of laser parameters and extraction voltage. Then, it will be transferred on a TEM column. Its potential for electron microscopy experiments will be thoroughly investigated first on routine TEM applications and later on more demanding experiments. A system allowing light injection and collection on the TEM sample, already installed, will allow us to perform original experiments involving electrons and photons. The principle of an ultrafast TEM is show on the Figure 1. An ultrashort laser pulse excites the sample inserted inside the objective lens. A second laser pulse, delayed, will ...
To create a SEM image a focused primary electron beam scans across a sample surface. Due to the electron bombarding secondary electrons (SE) as well as backscattered electrons (BSE) emit from the sample.. While secondary elecontrons have an energy lower than 50 eV, backscattered electrons show much higher energies.The different electrons are therefore detected by two different, energy selective detectors which convert them into signals, amplifys and visualizes them on a monitor. The result is a tremendously vivid surface image. Since secondary electrons can only be emitted from the surface the resolution of the corresponding image is very good. It ranges between 5 and 10 nm. Backscattered electrons are generated at greater depths. Therefore, the resolution of the corresponding image is significantly lower. SEM have a field depth that is much higher than the one from optical microscopes.. ...
Abstract: It is generally accepted that when multi-component materials are examined with a scanning electron microscope, the contrast differences observed using compositional backscattered electron imaging are due to variations in their average atomic numbers. With increasing atomic number, there is an approximate monotonic increase in backscatter coefficient, which is observed as an increase in the brightness of specimens. However, what seems to be less generally appreciated is that light emitted from cathodoluminescent compounds, especially organic compounds, will also contribute to the brightness in backscattered electron images, and this may result in anomalous compositional contrast. Backscattered electron detectors used with scanning electron microscopes are either a scintillator or a solid state semiconductor and, in addition to detecting high energy backscattered electrons, these detectors also happen to be very sensitive to light. Anomalous contrast had been observed with several ...
The invention is directed to an expandable self-expanding stent for implantation in a body lumen, such as an artery. The stent is made with a plurality of cylindrical elements which are interconnected by a plurality of interconnecting members which connect adjacent cylindrical elements, some of the interconnecting members have one or more bending points formed therein for promoting the bendability of the interconnecting member. The bending point can be formed by reducing the strut wall thickness of the interconnecting member to promote the bending of the strut or it can be formed by reducing the strut width of the interconnecting member, or a combination of both. The bending points on the interconnecting member enhances the bendability and flexibility of the composite stent device by creating mechanical hinges which help to bend the stent as it is delivered through the tortuous anatomy of the patient or conforms to a curved portion of a body vessel, where the stent may be implanted.
Two types of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) systems are available through Innovatech Labs - Variable Pressure SEM (VPSEM) and Field Emission SEM
The FEI Helios 660 dual-beam microscope combines a monochromated field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with an advanced focused ion beam (FIB)
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD ...
The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers electrospun from 15 wt% PVP, 5 wt% wt sucrose in 0.1mg/mL horseradish pero
To enhance our understanding of effects of microbially mediated pyrite dissolution and the influence parameters such as varied metabolism and crystallographic orientation of pyrite surfaces some dissolution experiments were performed. Microbial etching experiments on pyrite surfaces of different orientation, including {111} and {210} were devised. The experiments were performed using two strains ...
In the CrN coating, it can be seen that clear scars were not formed as with the other coatings, instead isolated areas and irregular wear were seen. The dark areas are still coated and the clear areas are where the substrate material has been exposed (figure 8b).. To determine that in some areas the coating was removed it was necessary to test hardness, such as that shown for the steel 4320 with a load of 11.76N (figure 8e), where the wear scar produced by Vickers indentation appears, and whose measurement corresponded to the substrate (700 HV). The SEM micrograph (figure 10c and 10d) shows that wear produced was irregularly shaped in the 4320 steel with a coating of CrN. Figures 10e and 11b show a SEM micrograph and EDS graphic respectively, of 4140 steel with CrN coating, in the first, the clear areas represent removed coating (substrate) and the second shows how the content of Chromium has decreased significantly.. In the WC/C coating, the scar was also produced in a regular form, but ...
Volume I: Principles and Techniques - Provides the foundation for effective use of all particle atlases. It fully describes techniques for particle characterization, handling, and identification and includes detailed presentations of microscope optics, polarized light microscopy, x-ray diffraction camera, and electron and ion microprobes.. Volume II: Light Microscopy Atlas - 711 full-color photomicrographs of 609 particles including complete descriptions in terms of identifying microscopical characteristics. Each particle is also identified morphologically, the vital key to identifying unknown particles with the light microscope.. Volume III: Electron Microscopy Atlas - Shows and describes 1,827 SEM micrographs and EDXRA patterns of the same 609 particles shown in Volume II. This volume details the procedure for the study of samples by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This volume includes 27 TEM micrographs and SAED patterns.. Volume IV: The Particle Analysts Handbook - 356 ...
Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices, Part 2 (ICND2) by Stephen McQuerry, 9781587054631, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Abstract: A typical dual-beam platform combines a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM). Using FIB-FEGSEM, it is possible to sequentially mill away > ~ 50 nm sections of a material by FIB and characterize, at high resolution, the crystallographic features of each new surface by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The successive images can be combined to generate 3D crystallographic maps of the microstructure. A useful technique is described for FIB milling that allows the reliable reconstruction of 3D microstructures using EBSD. This serial sectioning technique was used to investigate the recrystallization behaviour of a particle-containing nickel alloy, which revealed a number of features of the recrystallizing grains that are not clearly evident in 2D EBSD micrographs such as clear evidence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) and twin formation and growth during PSN ...
Development of docetaxel nanocrystals surface modified with transferrin for tumor targeting Jin-Seok Choi, Jeong-Sook Park College of Pharmacy, Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, South Korea Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop the surface modification of docetaxel nanocrystals (DTX-NCs) with apo-Transferrin human (Tf) for improving the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DTX. DTX-NCs were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method, and the surface modified with Tf by an adsorption method (Tf-DTX-NCs). The morphology and particle size of DTX-NCs and Tf-DTX-NCs were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope and zetasizer. An in vitro drug release study was performed in phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24 hours. Cellular uptake was studied at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours. A cytotoxicity study was performed using the A549 (human lung cancer) cell line after 24-, 48-, and 72-hour
Learn about the newly expanded ZEN technology and new Correlative Microscopy in this interview with John B Yorston, Carl Zeiss. Capabilities of the Sigma VP Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope are demonstrated and the LSM 700 Scanning Confocal Microscope is shown. These systems combine ultra-resolution with labelling capabilities for a turn-key solution called Shuttle and Find. Filmed by SelectScience at ASCB 2011.
Usually expensive filters and chemicals are used to image bacteria through high resolution scanning electron microscope (Field emission). The substrate developed by this Institute can be used as an ideal, cheap and better substitute of these materials. This technology can be transferred within three months on exclusive basis.. ...
The FEI Quanta 200 ESEM scanning electron microscope is pre-owned and remanufactured to OEM specifications. Click in for more on the scope specs.
SEM images of the fabricated scaffolds (A and B) and the commercial product from BD Bioscience (C). A: HT63, composed the combination of HA and TCP at a 2:1 mas
In one aspect, the invention includes a method of patterning a substrate. A film is formed over a substrate and comprises a plurality of individual molecules. The individual molecules comprise two ends with one of the two ends being directed toward the substrate and the other of the two ends being directed away from the substrate. Particle-adhering groups are bound to said other of the two ends of at least some of the individual molecules and a plurality of particles are adhered to the particle-adhering groups to form a mask over the substrate. The substrate is etched while the mask protects portions of the substrate. In another aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a field emission display. A material having a surface of exposed nitrogen-containing groups is formed over the substrate. At least one portion of the material is exposed to radiation while at least one other portion of the material is not exposed. The exposing renders one of the exposed or unexposed portions better at bonding
National Tsing Hua University, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan): Fabrication and Field Emission Characteristics of Carbon-Based Nano Composite Materials abstract. ...
National Tsing Hua University, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan): Fabrication and Field Emission Characteristics of Carbon-Based Nano Composite Materials abstract. ...
CHINA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEWSLETTER T h e M i n i s t r y o f S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a I N T H I S I S S U E * Six Goals for Space Development * China-Korea Joint Marine Study * China: Largest GEF Recipient * World First GM Cassava * 25-inch VGA Field Emission Display Chinese State Development and Reform Commission an ...
A médiaszakembereknek készített heti eseménynaptár segítségével tájékozódjon az Európai Parlament várható tevékenységeiről.
Gel Serum - All Skin Types - HYDRATION. The Zone Super Smoother is an anti-ageing gel serum, designed to smooth the skins surface, and impart essential moisture into the skin. This formulation boasts a Dual Hyaluronic Action, utilising two different analogues of Hyaluronic Acid for advanced penetration into the skin, which provides unparalleled moisturising capabilities, applying the latest technology in the highest concentrations. Provides immediate and long term ultimate dermal and epidermal moisturisation and plumping but without any oiliness. The serum dries quickly leaving skin feeling tighter, looking smoother.. Super Smoother enhances the action of injectable fillers that are used to plump out wrinkles. A light, cooling Gel Serum formulation that ideally adds a perfect balance of moisture required to feed the dermis and epidermis but without any oily feel. A must for most skins, particularly beneficial for adult acne sufferers as it provides essential moisture but without any oiliness. ...
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm{sup 2} at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O{sub 2}) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O{sub 2} plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm{sup 2} at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/μm. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O{sub ...
摘要 The a-C and a-C:H films are deposited on silicon surfaces modified with and without nickel nanoparticles by using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructures and morphologies of the films are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Field emission behaviors of the deposited films with and without nickel nanoparticles modification are comparatively investigated. It is found that the hydrogen-free carbon film exhibits a high field emission current density and low turn-on electric field compared with the hydrogenated carbon film. Nickel modifying could increase the current density, whereas it has no significant effect on the turn-on electric field. The mechanism of field electron emission of a sample is discussed from the surface morphologies of the films and nickel nanoparticle roles in the interface between film and substrate ...
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
18 inch complete CNT-FED (Carbon Nanotubes Field Emission Device Technology), Model: FED-18, 18 inch complete CNT-FED (Carbon Nanotubes Field Emission Device Technology) : Granting customers whole new visible effect and showing high quality image & see-through superiority, improving the expe...
This report focuses on the design, fabrication and characterization of vacuum field emission (VFE) devices, specifically on the triode and integrated differential amplifier (diff-amp), utilizing CNTs synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition in conjunction with semiconductor microfabrication methods. A consistent and reproducible CNTs synthesis method comprised of plasma pretreatment of the catalysts prior to CNT synthesis was developed to tailor the surface profile of vertically aligned CNTs. CNT triode arrays with a well-controlled convex-shaped emitter profile, designed for optimum field emission, were fabricated and their dc and ac performance evaluated. The triodes demonstrated good transistor characteristics with distinct linear, saturation and cutoff regions of operation. The triode amplifier achieved a low gate turn-on of ~16 V, high current density of ~7 A/cm2, high amplification factor of |400, and a projected 50 dB gain at cutoff frequency of ~26 MHz and 20 dB gain at 1 GHz.
The field emission (FE) properties of sigle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of great importance, especially in applications involving flat panel displa
In this paper, we propose a model of spatial confinement quantization of electron states and of tunneling field emission from these states. The model can a
BioAssay record AID 724374 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of morphological changes in human erythrocytes at => 60 uM after 1 hr by cold field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis.
Recently, research has established a screening system comprising a combination of two technologies, the MEMS sensor and the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC), to perform experiments. The aim of our study was to establish MEMS sensor field emission cell technology (MS-FECT) to measure the changes in the pollutant concentration of field emission cells. A building material emission database was created via an Internet of Things (IoT) in order to develop a MEMS sensor field emission modeling platform. Based on the basic information of the building material emission database, and emission and decay models, in this system the MS-FECT, IoT, indoor positioning system (Beacon), and cloud database are integrated. The source of pollution was determined by sensing and data analysis to create a multidimensional map of pollution sources to determine air quality in order to monitor the location of pollutants and flow conditions in the long term to change the indoor air quality efficiently. Moreover, ...
The ability to pattern in the nanoscale to drill holes, to draw lines, to make circles, or more complicated shapes that span a few atoms in width is the main driver behind current efforts in the rapidly growing area of nanomanufacturing. In applications ranging from the microprocessor industry to biomedical science, there is a constant need to develop new tools and processes that enable the shrinking of devices. For this and more applications, nanomanufacturing using electron beams offers a window of opportunity as a top-down approach since electrons, unlike light, have a wavelength that is in the order of the atomic distance. Though the technology based on electron beams has been available for more than twenty years, new concepts are constantly being explored and developed based on fundamental approaches. As such, a tool that utilizes electron field-emission from carbon nanotubes was proposed to accomplish such feats. A full numerical analysis of electron field-emission from carbon nanotubes for
David Nam, Judith Mantell, David Bull, Paul Verkade, Alin Achim. The following work presents a graphical user interface (GUI), for automatic segmentation of granule cores and membranes, in transmission electron microscopy images of beta cells. The system is freely available for academic research. Two test images are also included. The highlights of our approach are:. ...
The opportunities of the hot wall aerosol synthesis, i.e. conventional spray pyrolysis (CSP) method are demonstrated for the generation of highly spherical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured phosphor particles with uniformly distributed components, phases a The opportunities of the hot wall aerosol synthesis, i.e. conventional spray pyrolysis (CSP) method are demonstrated for the generation of highly spherical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured phosphor particles with uniformly distributed components, phases and nano-clustered inner structure. With the presumption that certain particle morphology is formed during the evaporation/drying stage, the aerosol transport properties and powder generation are correlated with the particles structural and morphological features. With the help of various analyzing techniques like Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray Analysis and STEM mode (TEM/EDS), X-ray ...
This paper reports a change of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) properties by post-treatment process after growth of CNTs. CNTs were treated by thermal method and solution method, and then investigated in detail using field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM), high resolution transmission scanning e...
Natural chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) specimens from Golden, New Mexico and Transvaal, South Africa were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The defect structure was composed of dislocations,...
This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10-50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of
Even small amounts of amorphous materials can have a significant effect on the drug product. Are gravimetric vapour sorption techniques an effective solution to characterize amorphous materials?
Supplément au Journal de Physique Colloques, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
EBSD is a method for determining the crystallographic orientation of mineral or metal grains relative to one another in a polished thin section. The technique can be used to determine preferred orientations among minerals produced by crystallization and deformation processes.. The method is based on backscattered electrons being channelled by crystalline lattice planes when the angle of an incident electron beam is near 30 degrees (sample tilt 70 degrees). The resulting emission presents an image with a pattern that is characteristic of the minerals crystallography, and which can be captured by a digital camera. The variety of angles within the image, together with the locations where the bands meet (poles) are indicative of the crystals symmetry and orientation. The band widths are a measure of the crystal d-spacing - however the EBSD technique is not as sensitive to d-spacing measurement as is traditional x-ray diffraction. For mineral identification, EBSD can only be used together with ...
Field emission behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and phosphorus-doped DLC (p-DLC) films prepared by electrochemical deposition process was comparatively investigated. It was shown phosphorus incorporation in the DLC film could lower the turn on field from 12 to 9.5V/μm and increase the current density from 12.6 to 45.7μA/mm2 under high electric field. And better field emission performance of p-DLC films would be mainly attributed to the influence of the surface morphology and the changes of microstructure due to the phosphorus incorporation ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Structural Component of the Bovine Vaginal Fluid at Oestrus. AU - Rutllant, J.. AU - López-Gatius, F.. AU - Camón, J.. AU - López-Plana, C.. AU - López-Béjar, M.. PY - 1997/6/1. Y1 - 1997/6/1. N2 - The ultrastructure of the vaginal fluid of cows at oestrus was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Samples of vaginal fluid were collected from 7 normally cycling and healthy cows, 3 to 4 years of age, in oestrus. Evaluation of the patterns of crystallization was used as a previous assessment of the quality of the samples. SEM images revealed a structure made up of non-oriented filaments constituting a network with a three-dimensional arrangement. These filaments were of different diameters and ranged between 50 and 400 nm. Mesh size, defined as the minimum distance measurement between strands, ranged between 2 to 8 μm.. AB - The ultrastructure of the vaginal fluid of cows at oestrus was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. ...
The vasculature, made up of vessels of different morphology and function, distributes bloodstream to all or any tissues and maintains physiological tissue homeostasis. endothelial cells present specific morphological features that reveal the necessity for communication between your organs as well as the blood flow. In the mind, the vasculature forms an especially strong hurdle, the bloodCbrain hurdle (BBB) (5), to safeguard the mind parenchyma from harmful edema. In hormone-producing organs, like the endocrine pancreas, endothelial cells screen specific fenestrae on the surface. They are diaphragm-covered openings in the plasma membrane, which enable extremely fast exocytosis of human hormones (6). Generally in most organs, the endothelial cells type a dynamic hurdle between the bloodstream and the tissues. In resting circumstances, the vasculature regularly leakages solute and little substances but restricts extravasation of bigger substances and cells. In lots of diseases, including tumor and ...
The Museums Ultra Plus scanning electron microscope is suitable for high-resolution imaging of biological and non-biological specimens.
The electron microscope is relatively larger and uses a vacuum and electrons to produce a high quality image, by sending electrons through the tiny gaps. (An anode is there to speed it up). This gives an advantage to the electron microscope, a better resolution. As a result if any person wants to see something such as the mitochondrion, the Golgi Body or even a lysosome they are able to. It magnifies up to 200,000 times, which is a huge amount!. There are two types of electron microscope, the Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] and the Transmission Electron Microscope [TEM]. Scanning Electron Microscope shows the external and whole image of a specimen such as a dust mite, or a nit. The Transmission Electron Microscope is literally the opposite. It gives the image from the interior. These are very exciting options as they give an overview of the entire specimen in question and we are able to study them in great detail and depth.. ...
Although multiple charging in electrospray ionization (ESI) is essential to protein mass spectrometry, the underlying mechanism of multiple charging has not been explicated. Here, we present a new theory to describe ESI of native-state proteins and predict the number of excess charges on proteins in …
The scanning electron microscopy service, equipped with a QUANTA FEI 200 FEG-ESEM offers a powerful imaging tool for both, routine and advanced inspection of materials. The service is intended to offer high resolution facilities (1.2nm @30kV) with a field emission gun, specially suited for the morphological characterization of nanocrystals, nanostructured materials and surfaces. Image contrast proportional to the atomic number is also available with high lateral resolution (2.5 nm @30kV) using an electron backscattered detector. The instrument can be used in high vacuum mode, low-vacuum mode (the chamber pressure is monitored by water vapour injection), and environmental SEM mode (ESEM). This makes possible to study samples in pressures up to 5 Torr. The resolution is kept high at all conditions: 1.2 nm and 1.5 nm at 30kV in the high and low vacuum modes, respectively. The capability to vary the chamber pressure is specially suited for the observation of uncoated non-conducting materials. The ...
Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700°C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. ...
360\,{\text {cm}}^{-1}\) ). Mapping the distribution of FWHM (Fig.? 4 d-f) reveals an overall broadening of the vibrational bands in the laser modified regions with respect to the pristine bulk material. This indicates amorphisation within the structures. The lattice vibrations at \(201.5\,{\text {cm}}^{-1}\) and \(123.8\,{\text {cm}}^{-1}\) exhibit the strongest broadening in the core region. In contrast, the internal vibration at \(361.5\,{\text {cm}}^{-1}\) only features a marginal bandwidth increase in both core and shell. Changes in bandwidths are more pronounced in comparison to peak shifts, which indicates that amorphisation is one of the key initiator for waveguide formation. The field-emission backscattered electron (BSE) image, which gives contrast based on atomic number (Z-contrast) of the same 1,000?mm/min, 90?nJ waveguide reveals strong elemental variation across the waveguides cross-section (Fig.? 5 ). The shell region (bright boundary) shows an increase in heavy elements, whereas ...
Lanthanum nickelate (LNO) is a perovskite oxide material with metallic conductivity in a wide temperature range which makes it suitable for application as electrode material for thin films. In this paper LNO thin films were prepared by polymerizable complex method from the diluted citrate solutions. Precursor solutions were spin coated onto Si-substrates with amorphous layer of SiO2. Deposited layers were thermally treated from the substrate side with low heating rate (1 °/min) up to 700 °C and finally annealed for 10 hours. Results of AFM and FESEM showed that films are very smooth (Ra = 4 nm), dense, crack-free and with large square-shaped grains (170 nm). According to FESEM and TEM results the obtained four-layered film was only 65 nm thin. EBSD and XRD analyses confirmed polycrystalline microstructure of the films without preferential orientation. It was concluded that the presence of SiO2 layer on Si substrate prevents epitaxial or oriented growth of LNO.
Fe-W coatings with 4, 16 and 24 at.% of W were electrodeposited under galvanostatic conditions from a new environmental friendly Fe(III)-based glycolate-citrate bath. This work aims to find correlations between composition including the light elements, internal structure of the electrodeposited Fe-Walloys and functional properties of material. The obtained alloys were characterized by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry (GD-OES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Compositional depth profiles of 10 mm thick coatings obtained by GD-OES show that the distribution of metals is uniform along the entire film thickness, while SEM imaging depicted the presence of cracks and O- and W-rich areas inside the Fe-Wcoating with 4 at.% W. In the samples with 16 and 24 at.% of W, oxygen and hydrogen are present mostly at the surface about 1 mm from the top while traces of carbon are
Objective(s): This work focuses on preparing an efficient bacterial capture system based on the magnetic polyphenolic nanostructure. For a reason, a one-step hydrothermally route was employed to prepare [email protected] acid - resorcinol nanohybrid. Methods: The nanostructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) and zeta potential measurement. Bacillus subtilis was employed as a sample pathogen to evaluate bacterial capture efficiency of the nanohybrid. Results: Characterization results confirmed that the hybrid material is in nano scale. Moreover, it has a magnetic saturation of 6.7 emu g-1 which is in right level to be employed for magnetic separation. Effect of relevant variables on capturing efficiency including pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage was investigated, and optimum levels were obtained. Conclusions: It found that the capturing efficiency is
The scanning electron microscopy service, equipped with a QUANTA FEI 200 FEG-ESEM offers a powerful imaging tool for both, routine and advanced inspection of materials. The service is intended to offer high resolution facilities (1.2nm @30kV) with a field emission gun, specially suited for the morphological characterization of nanocrystals, nanostructured materials and surfaces. Image contrast proportional to the atomic number is also available with high lateral resolution (2.5 nm @30kV) using an electron backscattered detector. The instrument can be used in high vacuum mode, low-vacuum mode (the chamber pressure is monitored by water vapour injection), and environmental SEM mode (ESEM). This makes possible to study samples in pressures up to 5 Torr. The resolution is kept high at all conditions: 1.2 nm and 1.5 nm at 30kV in the high and low vacuum modes, respectively. The capability to vary the chamber pressure is specially suited for the observation of uncoated non-conducting materials. The ...
Electrical properties of n-Si/n-Si, p-Si/n-Si, and p{sup −}-Si/n{sup +}-Si junctions fabricated by using surface-activated-bonding are investigated. The transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the n-Si/n-Si interfaces reveals no evidence of oxide layers at the interfaces. From the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the p-Si/n-Si and p{sup −}-Si/n{sup +}-Si junctions, it is found that the interface states, likely to have formed due to the surface activation process using Ar plasma, have a more marked impact on the electrical properties of the p-Si/n-Si junctions. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics indicates that the properties of carrier transport across the bonding interfaces for reverse-bias voltages in the p-Si/n-Si and p{sup −}-Si/n{sup +}-Si junctions can be explained using the trap-assisted-tunneling and Frenkel-Poole models, respectively. ...
Read the latest amorphous materials journal articles on Materials Today: the gateway for amorphous research, journal articles and more.
Glass-nanocomposites of compositions xAgI − (1 − x)(0.40Ag2O-0.60SeO2) for 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 were prepared by quenching the melt of the appropriate mixtures of the chemicals AgI, AgNO3 and SeO2. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine the glass transition and crystallization temperatures. The as-prepared samples were heat-treated above glass transition temperature to observe the growth of nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the microstructure of these samples. These studies revealed the presence of β-AgI and Ag2SeO3 nanocrystals in both the as-prepared and heat-treated samples. The particle size was found to decrease with the increase of AgI content in both cases. The heat-treated samples showed increased tendency of crystallization for the compositions with higher AgI content. The β-α phase transition of AgI crystals was observed at ...
NANOTEM is an open TEM facility located at C2N, which is devoted to the development of nanosciences on the Plateau de Saclay campus. The NANOTEM facility is equipped with a Cs-corrected FEI-THEMIS and a high efficiency EDX detector allowing atomic-scale chemical mapping, plus a FEI- SCIOS focused ion beam machine (FIB) dedicated to fabricating TEM samples.. ...
View details for this PhD Studentship: Understanding Battery Chemistry with In-situ Electron Microscopy job vacancy at University of Oxford in...
Marshak Science Building: The 360,000 sq. ft. Robert E. Marshak Science Building is located in the heart of the CCNY campus and houses various research facilities, laboratories, and equipment. CDI (Center for Discovery and Innovation) Science Building: The CDI building which opened in 2015, has 200,000 square feet of space for advanced research. Imaging Core Facility: State-of-the art microscopes are available in the imaging core facility at Marshak and can be easily reserved for use for a moderate fee. A Zeiss LSM 710 scanning confocal microscope, a Zeiss LSM 800 and a Zeiss 880 Airyscan confocal microscopes, an Ultima 4 multiphoton microscope, and a Nikon N-STORM super-resolution microscope with TIRF, are available in Marshak. Also available in the Marshak building are two electron microscopes; a Jeol JEM2100 200 kV Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with a maximum resolution of 0.144 nm and a Zeiss Supra 55VP Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that has a maximum resolution ...
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Red cell fragmentation in human disease (a light and scanning electron microscope study). AU - Young, T. W.. AU - Keeney, Gary. AU - Bull, B. S.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Although the mechanism of schizocyte formation has been amply documented in animal experiments and in in-vitro models, the fragmentation encounter between flowing red cells and fibrin strands has not previously been successfully demonstrated in human, microangiopathic disease. If blood flow is restored briefly in vitro immediately prior to tissue fixation, the instant of red cell fragmentation can be captured. Examination of tissue specimens fixed in this manner shows a pathophysiologic process that amplifies the findings previously described in other studies. In the patient under study, the microangiopathic process was widespread in all specimens of pulmonary and renal tissue that had been fixed after brief restoration of blood flow. Small arteries as well as the true microcirculation of both organs were ...
Correlative light and electron microscopy is an imaging technique that enables identification and targeting of fluorescently tagged structures with subsequent imaging at near-to-nanometer resolution. We established a novel correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy workflow, which enables imaging of the studied object of interest very close to its natural state, devoid of artifacts caused for instance by slow chemical fixation. This system was tested by investigating the interaction of the zoonotic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi with two mammalian cell lines of neural origin in order to broaden our knowledge about the cell-association mechanisms that precedes the entry of the bacteria into the cell ...
Mechanical alloying of binary and ternary elemental powder mixtures with the nominal compositions of Mg2Ni and Mg(2-x)MnxNi (x= 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 at. %) were carried out in a planetary ball mill for various milling times of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 60 h. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the milled products. Clusters of Mg2Ni-based nano-crystals were produced after 10 h of milling using the binary powder mixture. However, the formation kinetic of Mg2Ni-based structure was found to increase by increasing Mn content. In addition, Mn was found to decrease Mg2Ni crystallite size during milling; a mean Mg2Ni crystallite size of ~6 nm was achieved by high energy ball milling of the initial ternary powder mixture of Mg1.85 Mn0.15Ni after 60h. The milled product consisted of Mg2Ni-based crystallites surrounded by amorphous regions. Addition of Mn to Mg2Ni resulted in increased electrode discharge capacity of the ternary Mg
This application seeks support for continued development of EMAN, an extensive image processing suite for electron microscopists. Structural biology is the stud...
Adsorption processes are responsible for detection of cancer biomarkers in biosensors (and immunosensors), which can be captured with various principles of detection. In this study, we used a biosensor made with nanostructured films of polypyrrole and p53 antibodies, and image analysis of scanning e …
Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. Phase purity and crystallinity of the samples were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show different morphologies like nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles. For linear and nonlinear optical measurements, the as-synthesized Cu2O with different morphologies were dispersed in isopropanol solution. The absorption spectrum recorded in the visible regions shows peaks that depend on the morphology of the particles and the peak shifts towards red region as one goes from nanoclusters to microparticles. Simple open-aperture Z-scan technique is used to measure nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide at 532 nm, 30 ps excitation at 10 Hz repetition rate. Cuprous oxide nanoclusters show reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behaviour, the microcubes and microparticles at a similar concentration exhibit saturable absorption ...
McMullan, D. (1995). "Scanning electron microscopy 1928-1965". Scanning. 17 (3): 175-185. doi:10.1002/sca.4950170309. Seiler, H ... The setup simply consists of scanning electron microscopy machine always works in ultra-high vacuum that regarding on electron ... Scanning electron microscopy is a powerful technique to give full reliable mapping of sample surface topography and material ... "US Patent for Scanning electron microscopy by photovoltage contrast imaging Patent (Patent # 4,902,967 issued February 20, 1990 ...
Confocal microscopy Confocal laser scanning microscopy Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscope Scanning transmission ... as in other scanning microscopy techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. ... Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is an electron microscopy technique analogous to scanning confocal optical ... electron microscopy Transmission electron microscopy Zaluzec, N.J. (2003) "Scanning confocal electron microscope" U.S. Patent ...
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D STEM ... High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) ... "Optimizing the environment for sub-0.2 nm scanning transmission electron microscopy". Journal of Electron Microscopy. 50 (3): ... Ophus, Colin (June 2019). "Four-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (4D-STEM): From Scanning Nanodiffraction ...
Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Detectors for transmission electron microscopy ... 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D STEM) is a subset of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which ... Electron beam induced deposition Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Energy ... "Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) for Conventional Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)". Journal of Electron Microscopy. ...
... is a method to generate high resolution three-dimensional images from small ... One of the first applications of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy was to analyze the connectivity of axons in the ... Practical serial block-face scanning electron microscopy was invented in 2004 by Winfried Denk at the Max-Planck-Institute in ... Many different samples can be prepared for serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and the ultramicrotome is able to cut ...
... transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM ... Danilatos, G.D.; Robinson, V.N.E. (1979). "Principles of scanning electron microscopy at high specimen pressures". Scanning. 18 ... with electron microscopy has been a wish ever since the early days of electron microscopy but technical difficulties prevented ... The oldest open system that gained widespread usage was environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of liquid samples on ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS): Uses an electronic beam to scan the surface of a ... n.d.). Scanning electron microscopy. Retrieved April 19, 2014. CAMEO. (2014). Chromatography. Retrieved April 19, 2014. CAMEO ... n.d.). SEM/EDS: Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray microanalysis. Archived 2014-06-08 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved ...
"Hot Electron". SCALE Lab. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2022. "Scanning Probe Microscopy". SCALE Lab. 10 June 2014. Retrieved ... There are four primary research topics at SCALE Lab; surface chemistry, nanocatalysis, hot electron, and scanning probe ... "빛이 전기로 활발히 전환되는 '핫스팟' 찾았다-나노미터 수준에서 핫전자(hot electron) 거동 관찰…고효율 에너지 소자 응용 기대". Naver (in Korean). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 2 ... Park, Jeong Young; Baker, L. Robert; Somorjai, Gábor A. (22 April 2015). "Role of hot electrons and metal-oxide interfaces in ...
"Thermal characteristics of submicron vias studied by scanning Joule expansion microscopy". IEEE Electron Device Letters. 21: ... In microscopy, scanning joule expansion microscopy (SJEM) is a form of scanning probe microscopy heavily based on atomic force ... Scanning joule expansion microscopy is based on the contact operation model of atomic force microscopy. During the operation, ... Scanning Joule Expansion Microscopy has been used to measure the local heat dissipation of an in-plane gate (IPG) transistor to ...
1995). "Thermal detection of device failure by atomic force microscopy". IEEE Electron Device Letters. 16 (7): 312-315. Bibcode ... Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy that maps the local temperature and thermal ... Majumdar A. Scanning thermal microscopy. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1999). "Scanning thermal microscopy". Annual Review of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scanning thermal microscopy. SThM tutorial SThM-FMR technique SThM designs (CS1 maint: ...
Levi-Setti, R. (1974). "Proton scanning microscopy: feasibility and promise". Scanning Electron Microscopy: 125. W. H. Escovitz ... FIB systems operate in a similar fashion to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) except, rather than a beam of electrons and as ... The same protocol used for preparing samples to transmission electron microscopy can also be used to select a micro area of a ... A FIB setup is a scientific instrument that resembles a scanning electron microscope (SEM). However, while the SEM uses a ...
Typical visual inspection methods are: scanning optical microscopy (SOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pico-second ... "Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)". University of Wyoming. Zeng Gong and Marc X. Makkes "Hardware Trojan side-channels based ... Then, the engineer repeatedly scans the surface while grinding the layers of the chip. There are several operations to scan the ... The signature may consist of any number of data outputs from the chip: an entire scan chain or intermediate data result. In a ...
Microscopy Microanalysis Microstructures. 5: 31-40. doi:10.1051/mmm:019940050103100. (Scanning probe microscopy, American ... Ballistic electron emission microscopy or BEEM is a technique for studying ballistic electron transport through a variety of ... BEEM is a three terminal scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique that was invented in 1988 at the Jet Propulsion ... Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J. (1996). "Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscopy: A Nanometer-Scale Probe of Interfaces and Carrier ...
Low-voltage electron microscopy (LVEM) Precession electron diffraction Scanning confocal electron microscopy "Viruses". users. ... Electron microscope Cryo-electron microscopy Electron diffraction Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) Energy filtered ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen ... "A Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and Microanalysis. 14 (S2): 806-807. doi: ...
Leamy, H. J. (1982). "Charge collection scanning electron microscopy". Journal of Applied Physics. AIP Publishing. 53 (6): R51- ... is a semiconductor analysis technique performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or scanning transmission electron ... However, because the electron beam of an SEM or STEM is very small, it is scanned across the sample and variations in the ... thus delivering energy and creating electron hole pairs, and cause a current to flow. In EBIC, energetic electrons take the ...
In Olsen, S.L (ed.) Scanning Electron Microscopy in Archaeology. British Archaeological Reports International Series 452. ... "A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Archaeological Dental Calculus," pp 372-385. ...
A review', Scanning electron microscopy., pp. 437-62. The anatomy of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vertebrate skeletal muscle: ...
McMullan, D. (1993). "Scanning Electron Microscopy: 1928-1965". University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 16 March ... Scanning electron microscopes rasteri a finely focused electron beam, as in a TV set, across the studied sample to produce the ... Flegler, S.L.; Heckman, J.W. Jr.; Klomparens, K.L. (1995). Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy: An Introduction ( ... Independent electrons moving in vacuum are termed free electrons. Electrons in metals also behave as if they were free. In ...
Raeusch through scanning electron microscopy". Current Science. India: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of ...
... : Pioneer of Scanning Electron Microscopy The Papers of Sir Charles Oatley held at Churchill Archives Centre ... Rodenburg, J.M. (1997). Electron microscopy and analysis 1997 : proceedings of the Institute of Physics Electron Microscopy and ... Ratinac, Kyle R. (2008). "Great moment 9: Scanning electron microscopy". In Ratinac, Kyle R. (ed.). 50 great moments : ... Hawkes, Peter W. (2004). Advances in imaging and electron physics: Volume 133, Sir Charles Oatley and the Scanning Electron ...
Mar 4, 2020). "Absolute Structure from Scanning Electron Microscopy". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 4065. Bibcode:2020NatSR.. ...
Gong, Z.; Chen, B. K.; Liu, J.; Sun, Y. (2013). "Automated nanoprobing under scanning electron microscopy". 2013 IEEE ... Commercially available nanoprobing systems are integrated into either a vacuum-based scanning electron microscope (SEM) or ... Wen Pin Lin; Hsiu Ju Chang (2010). "Physical failure analysis cases by Electron Beam Absorbed Current & Electron Beam Induced ... Scanning Capacitance, and Electrostatic Force Microscopy images. Conductive AFM provides pico-amp resolution to identify and ...
... immunogold labeling has been applied to both transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as ... "Immunogold Labeling in Scanning Electron Microscopy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-06. Retrieved 2010-07-08. Alberts, ... As the resolution of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) increased, so too did the need for nanoparticle-sized labels such as ... The silver enhancement increases the particle size, also making scanning electron microscopy possible. In order to produce the ...
Guarenti, IM; Almeida HL, Jr; Leitão, AH; Rocha, NM; Silva, RM (2013). "Scanning electron microscopy of tinea nigra". Anais ... Skin surface microscopy started in 1663 by Kolhaus and was improved with the addition of immersion oil in 1878 by Ernst Abbe. ... Dermatoscopy also known as dermoscopy or epiluminescence microscopy, is the examination of skin lesions with a dermatoscope. It ... Stolz, Wilhelm (1989). "Skin Surface Microscopy". The Lancet. 334 (8667): 864-865. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(89)93027-4. PMID ...
Danilatos, G.D. (1988). "Foundations of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy". Advances in Electronics and Electron ... is a Greek-Australian physicist and inventor of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). He was born in Cefalonia ... Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics. Vol. 78. Academic Press. pp. 1-102. Official website v t e v t e v t e (Articles ... after prior attempts by other workers to examine wet specimens under the electron beam. For the most part, he received ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy (4): 1609-1618. PMID 11539690. Ehlers, U. (1997). "Ultrastructure of the statocysts in the apodous ...
Digenea), revealed by scanning electron microscopy". Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde. 51 (1): 115-128. doi:10.1007/BF00380533. ... from the Nearctic as revealed by light and scanning electron microscopy". Zoologica Scripta. 11 (2): 87-100. doi:10.1111/j.1463 ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy (4): 1609-1618. PMID 11539690. Lowe, B. (1997). "The role of Ca2+ in deflection-induced excitation ...
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and SECM approach curve measurements are frequently applied to ... Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique within the broader class of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) that is ... electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the interrogation of various ... Bard, Allen (2001). Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0471-1. Szunerits, Sabine; Knorr ...
Wartoń, A; Honigberg, BM (February 1979). "Structure of trichomonads as revealed by scanning electron microscopy". The Journal ... Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo A. (December 2003). "Scanning electron microscopy study of Trichomonas gallinae". Veterinary ...
A description of human papillomavirus (HPV) by electron microscopy was given in 1949, and HPV-DNA was identified in 1963. It ... Imaging modalities such as ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI have been used to look for alternating disease, spread of the tumor, ...
The virus particles demonstrate an amorphous surface structure when visualized using electron microscopy. Noroviruses contain a ... Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA termination-reinitiation. Humans and other mammals serve as the natural host ... electron microscopy on stored human stool samples identified a virus, which was given the name "Norwalk virus". Numerous ...
... brief review and role of scanning electron microscopy in diagnosis". Ultrastructural Pathology. 25 (2): 99-103. doi:10.1080/ ...
One of the researchers explained, "…we are specialists in scanning tunneling microscopy. It allows us to see the structure of ... neodymium usually only uses three electrons as valence electrons, as afterwards the remaining 4f electrons are strongly bound: ... J Biophys Biochem Cytol 4:727-730 Watson ML (1958b) Staining of tissue sections for electron microscopy with heavy metals. J ... Uranyl acetate has been the standard contrasting agent in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for decades. However, its use ...
In 1969 he began using a scanning electron microscope on a Life assignment to depict the body's functions. He is generally ... When he was around fifteen, he saw a documentary about Louis Pasteur that made him interested in microscopy. Within a few years ...
In the course of development of the ESEM, the detectors previously employed in the vacuum of a scanning electron microscope ( ... of this compatibility constitutes the basis of the invention of GDD and the leap from particle physics to electron microscopy. ... Addition of those two fractions gives a charge equal to the charge of one electron. Thus by counting the electrons arriving at ... e the electron charge and ε is the ratio of the thermal (agitation and kinetic) energy of the electrons divided by the thermal ...
Quantum gas microscopy techniques applied to trapped atom optical-lattice systems can even provide single-site imaging ... Because atoms can be imaged directly - something difficult to do with electrons in solids - they can be used to study effects ... Shaken optical lattices - where the phase of the lattice is modulated, causing the lattice pattern to scan back and forth - can ... which is similar to the electrons in an insulator. In the case of Fermionic atoms, if the well depth is further increased the ...
Transmission electron microscopy Scanning transmission electron microscopy Dark field microscopy Otten, Max T. (1992). "High- ... 147-203, doi:10.1016/s1076-5670(00)80013-0, ISBN 9780120147557 "electron microscopy home". www.microscopy.ethz.ch. Archived ... Annular dark-field imaging is a method of mapping samples in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). These images ... Weber, Juliane (2017). Fundamental Insights into the Radium Uptake into Barite by Atom Probe Tomography and Electron Microscopy ...
Using scanning electron microscopy, they discovered in samples of the limestone pyramid blocks mineral compounds and air ... Proceedings of the 29th Conference on Cement Microscopy, International Cement Microscopy Association, Quebec City, Canada, May ... International Cement Microscopy Association) in 2007 and gave a paper in which he discusses Davidovits's and Barsoum's work and ...
Confocal laser scanning microscopy and Two-photon excitation microscopy make use of lasers to obtain blur-free images of thick ... This fact is exploited in several plasma acceleration techniques used for accelerating both electrons and charged ions to high ... Additional laser microscopy techniques include harmonic microscopy, four-wave mixing microscopy and interferometric microscopy ... Duarte FJ (2016). "Tunable Laser Microscopy". In Duarte FJ (ed.). Tunable Laser Applications (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. ...
Hawkes, Peter (2009). "Cold field emission and the scanning transmission electron microscope". Advances in Imaging and Electron ... He was also a pioneer and professor in physics and high-energy electron microscopy, and retired from teaching and research at ... The result was a visiting appointment for Strojnik at Cornell University in electron microscopy. Later Strojnik became full ...
Sublimation is important in the preparation of certain classes of biological specimens for scanning electron microscopy. ...
... scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), etc. "Solid State Chemistry and its Applications", ...
... believed to be fossilized melanosomes were found in five feather samples from the specimen using scanning electron microscopy. ...
... to tochilinite alteration can be seen in petrologic microscopes, scanning electron microscope, and electron microprobe ... neutron activation analysis and analytical electron microscopy". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. 36 (1): ... Kamacite is opaque and can be observed only in reflected light microscopy. It is isometric and therefore behaves isotropically ...
Because an X-ray probe offers 1,000 times higher sensitivity than electron probes, the fluorescence technique is a powerful ... In spectroscopy mode, the primary X-ray beam's energy is scanned across the absorption edge of an element, providing ... Argonne National Lab advanced the state of the art by providing a hard X-ray microscopy beamline with the highest spatial ... with an accuracy 100 times higher than with standard electron diffraction. Fluorescence. Induced X-ray fluorescence reveals the ...
Scanning laser microscope (SLM) Structured-light scanning Non-scanning Digital holographic microscopy Because every instrument ... electron microscopy, photogrammetry and non-contact profilometers. The most common method is to use a diamond stylus ... Vertical scanning: Coherence scanning interferometry Confocal microscopy Focus variation Confocal chromatic aberration ... Confocal microscopy: this method has the advantage of high lateral resolution because of the use of a pin hole but has the ...
Rabe became internationally known for his seminal scanning tunneling microscopy research on the structure, dynamics, and ... "Optimized Hole Injection with Strong Electron Acceptors at Organic-Metal Interfaces" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 95 (23): ... employing scanning probe microscopies, light, and molecularly modified graphite surfaces, which has been used to correlate ... he initiated the use of scanning tunneling microscopy for molecular monolayers, which he continued in Gerhard Wegner's ...
"Scanning SQUID microscopy of vortex clusters in multiband superconductors". Physical Review B. 81 (2): 020506. arXiv:1001.2199 ... In a two-band superconductor the electrons in different bands are not independently conserved thus the definition of two ... When a magnetic field is applied to these materials, superconducting electrons produce a strong current on the surface, which ... In type-II superconducting materials, however, a complicated flow of superconducting electrons can form deep in the interior of ...
... primarily based on inhibitory signals from SAC's based on an oversampled serial block-face scanning electron microscopy study ... Recent research (published March 2011) relying on serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM) has led to identification of the ...
... quality of a weld and for example the weld microstructure is examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ... Scanning electron microscopy, ADC - Analog to digital converter. Welding Friction Friction welding Friction stir welding ...
... barkeri in anaerobic mesophilic granular sludge by fluorescent In situ hybridization and confocal scanning laser microscopy". ... Jing, Zhaoqian; Hu, Yong; Niu, Qigui; Liu, Yuyu; Li, Yu-You; Wang, Xiaochang C. (June 2013). "UASB performance and electron ...
Her research has applied microscopy, and in particular environmental scanning electron microscopy to the study of both ... achievements in biological physics are strongly based on the imaginative use environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM ... She pioneered studies of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers via transmission electron microscopy, revealing the ubiquity ... ISBN 978-1-8574-3217-6. Donald, Athene (1977). Electron microscopy of grain boundary embrittled systems (PhD thesis). ...
... excitation Coulomb gap Coulomb potential Coulomb staircase Counter-electromotive force Counter-scanned images Counter-scanning ... Core electron Core-mantle boundary Coriolis effect Coriolis field Coriolis-Stokes force Corium (nuclear reactor) Cornelis Dirk ... Chemical affinity Chemical beam epitaxy Chemical force microscopy Chemical ionization Chemical laser Chemical oxygen iodine ... Convective overturn Conventional lens Conventional superconductor Conyers Herring Coolfluid Cooling curve Cooper electron pair ...
N.J. Zaluzec (2007). "Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy". Microsc. Microanal. 13 (S02): 1560. doi:10.1017/S1431927607074004 ... electron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. In addition to creating tools for science, as a researcher he also uses these ... "Submicron imaging of buried integrated circuit structures using scanning confocal electron microscopy". Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 ( ... 10.1017/S143192762101360X MMMS Home Page MSA website Argonne National Laboratory Electron Microscopy Center The Microscopy ...
... is often used as a coating for non-conductive materials in preparation for observation in scanning electron microscopes ... 106, 2001, 25-46 (3.5 MB PDF) Höflinger, Gisela (2013-08-28). "Brief Introduction to Coating Technology for Electron Microscopy ... One example is IrH5(PiPr3)2. The ternary hydride Mg 6Ir 2H 11 is believed to contain both the IrH4− 5 and the 18-electron IrH5 ... Synthetic isotopes heavier than 191 decay by β− decay, although 192Ir also has a minor electron capture decay path. All known ...
... such as electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and scanning probe microscopy (NSOM, STM and AFM). SPM differs from other techniques ... Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) was described in 1984, and used in many applications since then. The combination ... IR near-field scanning optical microscopy (IR-NSOM) is a powerful spectroscopic tool because it allows subwavelength resolution ... The first mode relies on the AFM contact mode, and the second mode of operation employs a scanning thermal microscopy probe ( ...
... scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning SQUID microscopy. He is married to Kathryn Barr Kirtley, who received her PhD from ... His PhD topic was inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, with Paul Hansma as his thesis advisor. He was then a Research ... He has worked in the fields of Surface Enhanced Raman scattering, light emission from tunnel junctions and electron injection ... Levi, Barbara Goss (January 1996), "Experiments Probe the Wavefunction of Electron Pairs in High-Tc Superconductors", Physics ...
Transmission/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy *Transmission Electron Microscopy. *Scanning Transmission Electron ... Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. With STEM, a highly-focused electron probe is raster-scanned across the material, ... on defects and interfaces using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). ... Field-emission scanning electron (SEM) and ion microscopy. Preparation of TEM and SEM samples. Fabrication of nano-structures. ...
The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important instrument for the study of portland ... The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important instrument for the study of portland ...
A scanning electron microscopy study Am J Pathol. 1996 Oct;149(4):1405-15. ... Scanning electron microscopy with stereo-pair imaging allowed three-dimensional visualization of the exposed templates. In ...
... uses electrons that are reflected off the near-surface region of a sample to create an image. ... In scanning electron microscopy, the electron beam scans the sample in a raster pattern. First, electrons are generated at the ... What is SEM? Scanning Electron Microscopy Explained. By Antonis Nanakoudis 11.14.2019 Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have ... Accelerating ScienceAdvancing Materials / Electron Microscopy 101 / What is SEM? Scanning Electron Microscopy Explained ...
for Scanning Electron Microscopy A large selection of SEM specimen holders for SEMs, FESEMs, and FIB systems, which are using ... The standard 3mm TEM grid is placed in the grid holder and located under the scanning beam. The STEM image is created by the ... The longer pin allows for a larger distance from the SEM stage pin holder and therefore greatly reduces electron and X-ray ... Opening angle on the holes in the top and base is 120° to reduce electron scattering and improve X-ray collection. Overall ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy, CLEM, 3D imaging, STED, Expansion Microscopy Hasan, Md Mahdi Overingeniør +47 22851320 [email protected] ... Personer med emneord «Scanning Electron Microscopy» Navn. Telefon. E-post. Emneord. Hasan, Md Mahdi Head Engineer +47 22851320 ...
... from male patients with gonorrhoea were studied by use of the critical point drying technique for scanning electron microscopy ...
This definition explains the meaning of Scanning Electron Microscopy and why it matters. ... What Does Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Mean?. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a kind of electron microscope that ... Corrosionpedia Explains Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Scanning electron microscopy uses a focused beam of high-energy ... The electron beam is usually scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beams position is joined with the detected signal to ...
"Fundamentals of 4D Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy". Gabriel Sánchez Santolino, Departamento de Física de Materiales ... New workshop on the Fundamentals of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Imaging and Spectroscopy ... "Nano-scale optics with fast electron spectroscopies". Luiz Galvao Tizei, CNRS researcher at the Laboratory Physique des Solides ... "The study of dynamic processes in solution and solid-liquid interfaces inside an electron microscope".. Patricia Abellán Baeza ...
Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacterial cells dispersed in the affected gill tissues. ... Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacterial cells dispersed in the affected gill tissues. Most of ... Molecular characterization, virulence profiling, antibiotic susceptibility, and scanning electron microscopy of Flavobacterium ...
Scanning-electron microscopy observations on the family of the Spinturnicidae (Acarina, Mesostigmata). III Ultrastructure of ... scanning electron microscopy. Abstract. Observations en microscopie electronique a balayage sur la famille des Spinturnicidae ( ... Scanning-electron microscopy observations on the family of the Spinturnicidae (Acarina, Mesostigmata). III Ultrastructure of ... This work is the third exclusively on the morphology of the mites of the family Spinturnicidae with Scanning; this time on the ...
A surface characterisation and microstructural study by scanning electron microscopy of the N-methyl-n-alkylpyrrolidinium ... A surface characterisation and microstructural study by scanning electron microscopy of the N-methyl-n-alkylpyrrolidinium ... A surface characterisation and microstructural study by scanning electron microscopy of the N-methyl-n-alkylpyrrolidinium ... charging due to electron beam irradiation, and air-sensitivity were overcome with the use of a Field Emission SEM and cryostage ...
Zaman, V. (1987-03). Scanning electron microscopy of helminth ova.. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy * Publication Venue For. * Microprobe analysis in human pathology.. 659-680. 1985 ... Carbohydrate cytochemistry by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.. 1827-1834. 1983 * Three-dimensional configuration ...
... and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (reference method) were compared. The results showed that the VSSA can robustly identify ... One example of how the latter can be obtained is by the electron microscopy (EM) method. However, this method is not widely ... X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods Claire Dazon 1 Olivier Witschger 1 Sébastien Bau 1 Vanessa Fierro 2 ... and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (reference method) were compared. The results showed that the VSSA can robustly identify ...
Count on EAGs years of expertise with Scanning Electron Microscopy, or SEM high-resolution and high depth-of-field images of ... Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provides high-resolution and high-depth-of-field images ... Scanning Electron Microscopy Technical Specifications. *Signals Detected: Secondary and backscattered electrons and X-rays, ... Ideal Uses of Scanning Electron Microscopy. *High-resolution surface topography images. *Elemental microanalysis and particle ...
Hatice Hasturk, Daniel Huy Nguyen, Homa Sherzai, Xiaoping Song, Nikos Soukos, Felicitas B. Bidlack and Thomas E. Van Dyke ...
Electron Microscopy Laboratory. The core competencies of the electron microscopy laboratory lie in the investigation of ... High resolution field emission scanning electron microscope with various detectors (secondary electron, backscattering electron ... Material characterisation by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (e.g. microstructure assessment, phase composition) ... Scanning electron microscope with LaB6 cathode and low pressure mode (also suitable for analysis of non-conducting and ...
Applications of automated scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for inhalable drug products. ... Applications of automated scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for inhalable drug products ...
Ellingham, S. T. D., Thompson, T. J. U., & Islam, M. (2017). Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX): A ... T1 - Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX). T2 - A Rapid Diagnostic Tool to Aid the Identification of ... Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX): A Rapid Diagnostic Tool to Aid the Identification of Burnt Bone ... Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX): A Rapid Diagnostic Tool to Aid the Identification of Burnt Bone ...
Scanning electron microscopy. The teeth of 8-week-old Smoc2−/− mutants and respective controls dissected from alveolar bone ... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed irregular alignments and reduced compaction of enamel crystals in Smoc2−/− mutants ... A HUMMER JR sputtering device was used to coat teeth with gold-palladium (Technics, CA, USA). Scanning electron microscopy was ... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) views of WT (B) and Smoc2−/− (D) incisors. ...
Dive into the research topics of Renal basement membranes by ultrahigh resolution scanning electron microscopy. Together they ...
Freeze-drying and scanning electron microscopy of setting dental gypsum. In: Dental Materials. 1995 ; Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 226- ... Freeze-drying and scanning electron microscopy of setting dental gypsum. Mark M. Winkler, Peter Monaghan, Jeremy L. Gilbert, ... Freeze-drying and scanning electron microscopy of setting dental gypsum. Dental Materials. 1995 Jul;11(4):226-230. doi: 10.1016 ... Freeze-drying and scanning electron microscopy of setting dental gypsum. / Winkler, Mark M.; Monaghan, Peter; Gilbert, Jeremy L ...
Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the recovered parasite belongs to Postorchigenes sp ... Study on house lizard (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) trematode by scanning electron microscopy from different localities of Aizawl ... Study on house lizard (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) trematode by scanning electron microscopy from different localities of Aizawl ...
Scanning electron microscopy is a technique for imaging with up to 800,000X magnification. This is achieved by focusing a beam ... Scanning electron microscopy is typically used to image inorganic material, but it can also be used to image biological matter ... Learn various procedures for preparing biological samples for scanning electron microscopy.. Charging. Learn the basics of ... The resolution of a scanning electron microscopy is approximately 5 [nm]. This sample was thinned using a focused ion beam in ...
Home / Activity Sectors / Plastics / Polymers / Scanning Electron Microscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy. Showing the single ...
... is an imaging technique that is used to produce high resolution surface images of a sample. ... The electron beam is raster across the sample and secondary electrons and back scatter electrons can be observed to form the ... In SEM, the sample is bombarded with electrons from an electron gun. ... Home > Chemical > Technology > Microscopy > Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). #dnn_mriBreadcrumbs_pnlMain p { font-size: 12px ...
Scanning electron microscopy. Polypropylene nonwoven fabric was examined through SEM (Hitachi S-4800) before and after plasma ... Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of the substrate. It is evident from the capillary flow ... a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the untreated polypropylene fabric. (b) SEM image of the plasma treated ... As is evident from the scanning electron micrograph (Figure 6(b)), there is some displacement of individual filaments as well ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). An additional set of plants were collected from the sample sites in Shark Bay in November ... FIGURE 5. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the root hair zone of three seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule ... 2016 for examination of natural microbial colonization on roots using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For these samples, ... and the scientific and technical assistance of the Australian Microscopy & Microanalysis Research Facility at the Centre for ...
  • The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important instrument for the study of portland cement clinker, cement, and concrete. (astm.org)
  • Since the wavelength of electrons is much smaller than that of light, the resolution of SEMs is superior to that of a light microscope. (thermofisher.com)
  • Like all components of an electron microscope, the electron source is sealed inside a special chamber to preserve vacuum and protect it against contamination, vibrations, and noise. (thermofisher.com)
  • As electrons are very sensitive to magnetic fields, their path inside the microscope column can be controlled by these electromagnetic lenses simply by adjusting the current that is applied to them. (thermofisher.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a kind of electron microscope that produces images of a specimen by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. (corrosionpedia.com)
  • All of these advantages make the scanning electron microscope one of the most useful instruments in modern research. (corrosionpedia.com)
  • Water was immediately removed by freeze-drying the specimen to prevent any further reaction so that the specimen could be returned to room temperature for examination in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). (syr.edu)
  • This sample was thinned using a focused ion beam in order to image it in a transmission electron microscope which can resolve atoms. (uh.edu)
  • This document is the standard operating procedure (SOP) for the FEI XL-30 scanning electron microscope at UHNF. (uh.edu)
  • The field emission scanning electron microscope (JEOL JSM 7100 FT FE-SEM) at Microtrace provides a new level of resolution and intensity over a conventional SEM . (microtrace.com)
  • Ultimately, this instrument provides the highest microanalysis resolution of any instrument in our laboratory, with the exception of the transmission electron microscope . (microtrace.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific Phenom ParticleX Desktop SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) is a multi-purpose desktop SEM designed for multiple applications at the microscale: additive manufacturing, technical cleanliness, steel manufacturing QC, batteries and energy storage, and gunshot residue analysis. (thermofisher.cn)
  • It is a good time to be in the market for a scanning electron microscope (SEM): new products and new accessories are launched every year and there are many levels of performance to choose from. (thermofisher.cn)
  • The Thermo Scientific Phenom Pro(X) G6 Desktop SEM is a robust, versatile, and effortless desktop scanning electron microscope designed to expand the capabilities of research facilities. (thermofisher.cn)
  • For service purposes a field emission scanning electron microscope and a conventional scanning electron microscope with modern EDX system and 3d backscatter electron detector are available. (tu-dresden.de)
  • The gaps at the material/ dentin interface were measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of the present study is to find a fast and accurate procedure to measure the length and width of asbestos fibers using images acquired by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a phase-contrast microscope (PCM), and a polarized light microscope (PLM). (cdc.gov)
  • The high energy (kilo-electron volt range) electron beam of an electron microscope is one way of exciting these characteristic X-rays from a material. (strath.ac.uk)
  • It is possible to mount the required detectors in either a scanning or transmission electron microscope (SEM or TEM), or to use a dedicated instrument, the electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA). (strath.ac.uk)
  • The Grand Prize Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Image award was given to Lita Duraine, a certified electron microscopist at Baylor College of Medicine in Baylor, Texas. (labbulletin.com)
  • The Grand Prize Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Image award was given to Flávio Loureiro, an engineer working in the laboratories of a Vallourec Group's plant located in Brazil. (labbulletin.com)
  • Our microscopes are equipped to perform diffraction contrast, higher-resolution phase-contrast microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field microscopy, nanodiffraction, convergent beam electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. (nrel.gov)
  • This instrument is also equipped with a GIF that enables electron energy loss spectroscopy and elemental mapping for a wide range of elements and energy-filtered electron diffraction and imaging, and an EDS system for compositional analysis and elemental mapping with high spatial resolution. (nrel.gov)
  • During this workshop, the fundamentals of STEM, basic and advanced STEM imaging (HAADF, ABF, iDPC, and 4D STEM) as well as acquisition and analysis of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data. (icmab.es)
  • Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) scans a sample with an electron beam, and the resulting backscatter produces an ultra-high magnification image of the sample along with an elemental map of the viewed surface. (conservation-wiki.com)
  • X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL), kinetics of luminescence decay and magnetic studies were used to characterize the structural, optical and magnetic properties of these nanospheres. (ias.ac.in)
  • Ten exoskeleton specimens were studied, and experimental analyses were performed using laboratory techniques including scanning electron microscopy and electron diffraction spectroscopy, revealing details about the structure and chemical composition. (phys.org)
  • Methods: Asbestos was identified using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have become powerful and versatile tools for material characterization, especially in recent years, as the size of materials used in various applications continues to shrink. (thermofisher.com)
  • Equivalent particle sizes determined by the VSSA, X-ray diffraction (XRD) (another method giving access to an equivalent particle size and integrated into our characterization methodology) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (reference method) were compared. (univ-lorraine.fr)
  • Characterization of a nano-aerosol using a portable scanning mobility particle sizer and electron microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • The magnified signal may be observed by electron diffraction, amplitude-contrast imaging such as diffraction contrast, or phase-contrast imaging such as high resolution TEM. (nrel.gov)
  • Transmission electron diffraction patterns help to determine the crystallographic structure of a material. (nrel.gov)
  • Electron diffraction is used to determine the crystallographic structure of materials on a fine scale. (nrel.gov)
  • The deformation and fracture mechanisms were studied based on microstructure observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). (mpie.de)
  • The instrument is equipped with an energy filtered secondary electron detector, a short working distance backscatter electron detector which enables working at low voltages, and a through the lens detectors, which can be used individually or in concert to provide numerous types of image contrast. (microtrace.com)
  • This is achieved by focusing a beam of electrons into a tiny spot and scanning the beam across a sample. (uh.edu)
  • A focused beam of electrons sweeps across a sample surface and an image is created from the scattered electrons. (microvisionlabs.com)
  • Electron microscopes use electrons for imaging in a similar way that light microscopes use visible light. (thermofisher.com)
  • Unlike transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), which detect electrons that pass through a very thin specimen, SEMs use the electrons that are reflected or knocked off the near-surface region of a sample to create an image. (thermofisher.com)
  • In a similar way to optical microscopes, lenses are used to control the path of the electrons. (thermofisher.com)
  • In many microscopes, detection of X-rays generated from the electron-matter interaction is also widely used to perform elemental analysis of the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • Since the introduction of electron microscopes in the 1930s, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has developed into a critical tool within numerous different research fields, spanning everything from materials science to forensics to industrial manufacturing. (thermofisher.cn)
  • Scanning electron microscopes in forensic and crime laboratories play many roles, including gunshot residue analysis (GSR) used to determine the chemistry of particles collected from firearm suspects. (thermofisher.cn)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopes are found in many types of Micro-Electronic research, development and quality control. (nanoimages.com)
  • AMOBIO provides the highest quality service for sample preparation to be viewed under transmission electron (TEM) and scanning microscopes (SEM). (szn.it)
  • Excellent knowledge of Image Analysis software applied to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. (ior.it)
  • A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. (bvsalud.org)
  • The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY . (bvsalud.org)
  • The synthetic process and resulting organo-silica particles were characterized using silicon NMR, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and fluorescence microscopy. (monash.edu)
  • We combine scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect, pattern, and study the morphology of the graphitic layers on different substrate materials. (dpg-verhandlungen.de)
  • FEI 200 kV field emitting gun F20 UT ultra-high resolution STEM fitted with a high-angle angular dark field STEM detector for high-resolution (~0.14 nm) STEM Z-contrast microscopy. (nrel.gov)
  • Electron capture detector. (cdc.gov)
  • Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. (irg-wp.com)
  • The core competencies of the electron microscopy laboratory lie in the investigation of material and fracture surfaces by means of high resolution scanning electron microscopic methods. (mcl.at)
  • Four different types of images were used in the evaluation: (1) backscattered electron SEM images of fibrous tremolite, (2) secondary electron SEM images of fibrous grunerite, (3) PCM images of fibrous grunerite, and (4) PLM images of fibrous grunerite. (cdc.gov)
  • NREL investigates the structure and chemistry of materials with particular emphasis on defects and interfaces using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). (nrel.gov)
  • With STEM , a highly-focused electron probe is raster-scanned across the material, and various types of scattering are collected as a function of position. (nrel.gov)
  • The microstructures in the sintered and in the deformed materials were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Objective: Portable scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) offer convenient means to collect information about nano-sized aerosols because they provide real-time distributions. (cdc.gov)
  • These provide a full suite of microscopy services for all of your analytical needs. (microvisionlabs.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy with stereo-pair imaging allowed three-dimensional visualization of the exposed templates. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of an SEM, the two types of electrons used for imaging are backscattered (BSE) and secondary electrons (SE). (thermofisher.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy is a technique for imaging with up to 800,000X magnification. (uh.edu)
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is an imaging technique that is used to produce high resolution surface images of a sample. (cbrnetechindex.com)
  • The electron beam allows for the accurate imaging of features below the resolution limit of visible light. (microvisionlabs.com)
  • MicroVision Labs has multiple fully-operational SEMs, Bruker X-Flash EDS detectors and mapping technology , backscatter electron (BSE) imaging, and large chamber capabilities. (microvisionlabs.com)
  • First, we captured functional properties of the dendritic spines of neurons with live 2-photon calcium imaging, and targeting the same cell, dendrites, and spines in serial block-face scanning EM (SEM) to analyze the structural characteristics of synapses and their surroundings. (zeiss.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to produce a diversity of signals at the surface of solid specimens. (corrosionpedia.com)
  • The beam has enough energy for the electrons to be transmitted through the sample, and the transmitted or scattered electron signal is greatly magnified by a series of electromagnetic lenses. (nrel.gov)
  • In scanning electron microscopy, the electron beam scans the sample in a raster pattern. (thermofisher.com)
  • The SEM's lens system also contains scanning coils , which are used to raster the beam onto the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • The electron beam is usually scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is joined with the detected signal to produce an image. (corrosionpedia.com)
  • The electron beam is raster across the sample and secondary electrons and back scatter electrons can be observed to form the final image. (cbrnetechindex.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy is typically used to image inorganic material, but it can also be used to image biological matter with special processing. (uh.edu)
  • Learn various procedures for preparing biological samples for scanning electron microscopy. (uh.edu)
  • The following table is a condensed listing of equipment, techniques, applications, and properties of instrumentation for Transmission/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. (nrel.gov)
  • The nanoparticles were submitted to UV-Vis espectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the stabilization. (ufrgs.br)
  • Furthermore, thin sections of the porous beads were successfully produced and analyzed via transmission electron microscopy. (monash.edu)
  • Some have even taken their desktop SEMs on the road, providing on-site electron microscopy analysis via mobile laboratories. (thermofisher.cn)
  • As the incoming X-ray is absorbed by the silicon, a number of electron-hole pairs is generated which is proportional to the energy of the X-ray. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The electrons and holes are swept to opposite sides of the silicon by an applied electric field, and are read out of the device as a pulse of charge. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Develop the basic knowledge and skills towards becoming a good electron microscopist. (uh.edu)
  • This is a video guide to preparing clostridium difficile bacteria for scanning electron microscopy. (uh.edu)
  • Ultrastructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy of bacteria adhering to plastic showed flagellalike structures within the bacterial clusters, suggesting that flagella are produced as the bacteria spread on the abiotic surface. (cdc.gov)
  • This study investigates the use of Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) as a diagnostic tool for the determination of the osseous origin of samples subjected to different temperatures. (tees.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy, the apical region of premolars with a single canal, in relation to the number of apical foraminas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Marginal adaptation of new bioceramic materials and mineral trioxide aggregate: a scanning electron microscopy study. (bvsalud.org)
  • In TEM , a thin sample, typically less than 200 nanometers, is bombarded by a highly focused beam of single-energy electrons. (nrel.gov)
  • Generally, two types of electromagnetic lenses are used: The condenser lens is the first lens that electrons meet as they travel towards the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • This lens converges the beam before the electron beam cone opens again and is converged once more by the objective lens before hitting the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • The condenser lens defines the size of the electron beam (which defines the resolution), while the main role of the objective lens is to focus the beam onto the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • The interaction of electrons within a sample can generate many different types of electrons, photons, or irradiations. (thermofisher.com)
  • BSEs belong to the primary electron beam and are reflected back after elastic interactions between the beam and the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • they are a result of inelastic interactions between the electron beam and the sample. (thermofisher.com)
  • For the detection of BSEs, solid state detectors are placed above the sample, concentrically to the electron beam, to maximize BSE collection. (thermofisher.com)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provides high-resolution and high-depth-of-field images of the sample surface and near-surface. (eag.com)
  • The electron beam ejects secondary electrons from the surface of the sample which is collected and recorded to produce an image of the sample. (uh.edu)
  • An electron mirror sample was used to reflect the electron beam to image the objective lens instead of the sample. (uh.edu)
  • In SEM, the sample is bombarded with electrons from an electron gun. (cbrnetechindex.com)
  • This effectively increases resolution by maintaining higher kV in the gun & column (reduces aberrations) and accelerates secondary electrons off the sample, especially at very low accelerating voltages improving signal to noise ratio. (microtrace.com)
  • SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) provides detailed high resolution images of the sample by rastering a focussed electron beam across the surface and detecting secondary or backscattered electron signal. (biblaridion.info)
  • Electron microscopy (EM) applied to a filter sample has been considered the traditional method for the sizing and counting of small particles. (cdc.gov)
  • in Humans and Domestic Pets by Scanning Electron Microscopy / January 2001. (gastroscan.ru)
  • EAG uses SEM analysis in cases where optical microscopy cannot provide sufficient image resolution or high enough magnification. (eag.com)
  • The range of services of the scanning electron microsopy laboratory extends from quick standard analyses to sophisticated high resolution examinations using the latest analysis technologies available in the field of cross-beam scanning electron microscopy. (mcl.at)
  • The SPEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (uwo.ca)
  • Electron energy losses can be detected using a Gatan image filter (GIF) to map the compositional and electronic properties of materials. (nrel.gov)
  • When an inner shell electron is ejected from an atom-for example through interaction with an X-ray or high energy electron-the resultant hole left in the shell will be filled by an electron relaxing down from a higher energy state. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This electron must lose an amount of energy equal to the difference in energy levels, and it may do this through the emission of an X-ray. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Scanning-electron microscopy observations on the family of the Spinturnicidae (Acarina, Mesostigmata). (inra.fr)
  • Observations en microscopie electronique a balayage sur la famille des Spinturnicidae (Acarina, Mesostigmata). (inra.fr)
  • Meantime, it was found that electron linkers can regulate the intermolecular arrangement and crystallinity, thus affecting the blend morphology and device efficiency. (azooptics.com)
  • The conductor material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and adsorption and desorption of N2 with the goal of know the morphology and texture. (ufrgs.br)
  • Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the recovered parasite belongs to Postorchigenes sp. (entomoljournal.com)
  • These dinoflagellates appear similar under light microscopy and require scanning electron microscopy for definitive identification. (cdc.gov)
  • Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful method to investigate the structure-function relationship in biology. (zeiss.com)
  • The investigation of materials and materials related problems is mostly based on light, electron and ion microscopy. (tugraz.at)
  • SEM is a powerful surface microscopy method which allows for high resolution images to be obtained on a wide range of samples. (microvisionlabs.com)
  • The transmitted electrons at high scattering angle can be collected to form high-resolution, chemically sensitive, atomic number (Z-) contrast images. (nrel.gov)
  • Besides protecting the electron source from being contaminated, vacuum also allows the user to acquire a high-resolution image. (thermofisher.com)
  • High vacuum also increases the collection efficiency of electrons by the detectors that are in the column. (thermofisher.com)
  • Images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. (webmineral.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy images of the extremotolerant tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus , in the hydrated condition (a) and in the dehydrated state (b), which is resistant to various physical extremes. (grisda.org)
  • Electron Microscopy Can Still Have a Role in the Diagnosis of Selected Inborn Errors of Metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • The differential conductance is evaluated in a good agreement with the scanning tuneling microscopy measurements. (arxiv.org)
  • Their interaction with electrons causes the electron beam to deflect and reduces the image quality. (thermofisher.com)
  • JEOL USA awarded two Grand Prizes to winners of its 2020 Electron Microscopy Image Contest, and kicked off its 2021 Image Contest at the beginning of the new year. (labbulletin.com)