Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Relating to the size of solids.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.

The structlre of pili (fimbriae) of Moraxella bovis. (1/34186)

Cells from rough and smooth colonies of Moraxella bovis were examined by electron microscopy utilizing both shadowing and thin sectioning techniques. Pili were found on the surfaces of cells from rough but not smooth colonies. Pili had a peritrichoud distribution and appeared as delicate (6.5-8.5 nm in diameter), elongated unbranched filaments. When bacteria were sectioned pili did not contain central pores and appeared to originate from opacities on the surface of the cell wall.  (+info)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (2/34186)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (3/34186)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Assessment of hepatotoxic potential. (4/34186)

Philosophic concepts and pragmatic approaches toward improved understanding of the effect of drugs in the hepatocyte are reviewed. No set pattern of studies is advocated but rather observations are encouraged within the framework of studies that provide for varied exposure of the hepatocyte. Clinical usage should be imitated to provide earliest possible indications of toxicity in man. The need for definitive characterization through utilization of appropriate methodology derived from cross-fertilization of related disciplines is stressed. Both minimal and maximal dose effects should be established. Selected use of electron microscopy has become essential for characterizing responses of the liver to injury. The advantages of the toluidine blue-stained Epon "thick" sections are emphasized. Such observations are used to implement the utility of serial biopsies from the beagle dog prior to and during long-term study of potential hepatic injury. Examples of the critical effects of drug concentration within the hepatocyte are presented.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (5/34186)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (6/34186)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (7/34186)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Effect of desiccation on the ultrastructural appearances of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter lwoffii. (8/34186)

An Acinetobacter baumannii isolate survived desiccation beyond 30 days and an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate up to 21 days. For both species, desiccation resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of round cells (A baumannii, 40% to 80%; A lwoffii, 51% to 63%) and a significant decrease in rod shaped cells (A baumannii, 58% to 13%; A lwoffii, 46% to 34%). Electronmicroscopic examination showed that there was also a corresponding significant increase in the cell wall thickness (A baumannii, up to 53%; A lwoffii, up to 26%). Desiccated A baumannii cells became more electron-dense and had significantly thicker cell walls (x1.3) than those of A lwoffii. Cell wall structures of A baumannii strains with different abilities to resist desiccation deserve further study.  (+info)

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We have developed techniques for studying patch-clamped membranes inside glass pipettes using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). To preserve the patch structure with the least possible distortion, we rapidly froze and freeze dried the pipette tip. The pipette is transparent for more than 50 microns from the tip. HVEM images of patches confirm light microscopy observations that the patch is not a bare bilayer, but a membrane-covered bleb of cytoplasm that may include organelles and cytoskeleton. The membrane that spans the pipette is commonly tens of micrometers from the tip of the pipette and occasionally as far as 100 microns. The structure of patches taken from a single cell type is variable but there are consistent differences between patches made from different cell types. With suction applied to the pipette before seal formation, we have seen in the light microscope vesicles swept from the plasmalemma up the pipette. These vesicles are visible in electron micrographs, particularly ...
The structure and distribution of cytoplasmic membranes during mitosis and cytokinesis in maize root tip meristematic cells was investigated by low and high voltage electron microscopy. The electron opacity of the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was enhanced by staining the tissue in …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solid state amorphization of metastable Al0.5TiZrPdCuNi high entropy alloy investigated by high voltage electron microscopy. AU - Nagase, Takeshi. AU - Takeuchi, Akira. AU - Amiya, Kenji. AU - Egami, Takeshi. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - The phase stability of high entropy alloy (HEA), Al0.5TiZrPdCuNi, under fast electron irradiation was studied by in-situ high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The initial phase of this alloy quenched from the melt was dependent on cooling rate. At high cooling rates an amorphous phase was obtained, whereas a body-centered cubic (b.c.c.) phase were obtained at low cooling rates. By thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase b.c.c. phase nano-crystals were formed. Upon fast electron irradiation solid state amorphization (SSA) was observed in b.c.c. phase regardless of the initial microstructure (i.e., coarse crystalline structure or nano-crystalline structure with grain boundaries as a sink for point defects). SSA behavior in the ...
1963 Conference on Electron Microscopy, Gliwice, chairman: S. Gorczyca, in Polish, 10 papers (unpublished) 1971 II Polish Conference on Electron
Electron microscopic localization of acetylcholinesterase in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. In: Kolligátum. pp. 274-285. (1967 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A structural study of tin-antimony oxide catalysts by high-resolution electron microscopy. AU - Berry, Frank J.. AU - Smith, David J.. PY - 1984/7. Y1 - 1984/7. N2 - Tin-antimony oxide catalysts prepared by the calcination of precipitates have been investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy. The exposure of the catalysts prepared at low temperatures to gaseous atmospheres containing hydrocabon and oxygen results in a segregation of antimony from the poorly crystalline rutile-type solids and the development of an amorphous material. The catalysts containing low concentrations of antimony are also partially converted to a non-rutile-type crystalline phase. Prolonged calcination in air of the used catalysts at high temperatures leads to the attainment of bulk equilibrium and the formation of solid solutions of antimony in tin(IV) oxide. Treatment of the equilibrated crystalline catalysts prepared at high temperatures in the hydrocarbon and oxygen gas stream gives rise to ...
A method for forming a zoned distribution of particulate material within a fibrous web includes a conveying step for providing a gas entrained supply of the particulate material and a segregating step centrifugally directing at least a portion of the particulate material into an accumulation region. A transferring step selectively directs particulate material from the accumulation region into a delivery gas stream to provide an intermittent flow volume of a selected quantity of particulate material from the accumulation region through a delivery conduit and into a web forming chamber. A fiberizing step provides a flow of a selected fibrous material into the web forming chamber, and a directing step controls the intermittent flow of particulate material from the delivery conduit into the forming chamber. A foraminous forming layer is disposed within the forming chamber for receiving the fibrous material and the particulate material to produce a fibrous web which includes zoned regions having selected,
Mitosis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in thick (0-25-I mum) serial sections with a high voltage electron microscope and in preparations of spheroplasts spread on a water surface. Spindle microtubules originate from a plaque-like structure called the spindle pole bosis the SPB duplicates and a set of long and short microtubules develops on each SPB. The spindle arises as the SPBs separate on the nuclear membrane adense and are not individually visible. Genetic studies, however, have indicated that there are 17 linkage groups. The number of microtubules was determined in diploid and haploid spindles on serial stereo micrographs. In diploid mitosis about 40 microtubules issue from a SPB. Most are non-continuous and often they are visibly associated with a chromatin fibre. The spindle in haploid cells is similar except that the number of microtubules is about half that in diploid cells and the SPB is smaller. The pole-to-pole microtubules vary in number from spindle to spindle, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The structure of grain boundaries in granite-origin ultramylonite studied by high-resolution electron microscopy. AU - Hiraga, T.. AU - Nagase, Toshiro. AU - Akizuki, M.. PY - 1999/9/1. Y1 - 1999/9/1. N2 - The structure of grain boundaries in a granite-origin ultramylonite, composed mainly of fine-grained feldspar and quartz, was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). At most of the boundaries, not only between the same minerals but also between different minerals, lattice fringes in adjacent grains meet at the interface with no other appreciable phases. In these boundaries, some of the straight segments correspond to a low-index plane of one of the connected grains. Boundaries containing voids, with a spheroidal shape elongated along the boundaries, were observed only between quartz grains. It is suggested that these boundaries were formed by healing of microcracks. The structural width of major boundaries, deduced from lattice-fringe imaging, is less than about ...
The Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-Is were the first unconventional myosins to be discovered, and the myosin-I class has since been found to be one of the more diverse and abundant classes of the myosin superfamily. We used two-dimensional (2D) crystallization on phospholipid monolayers and negative stain electron microscopy to calculate a projection map of a classical myosin-I, Acanthamoeba myosin-IB (MIB), at ∼18 Å resolution. Interpretation of the projection map suggests that the MIB molecules sit upright on the membrane. We also used cryoelectron microscopy and helical image analysis to determine the three-dimensional structure of actin filaments decorated with unphosphorylated (inactive) MIB. The catalytic domain is similar to that of other myosins, whereas the large carboxy-terminal tail domain differs greatly from brush border myosin-I (BBM-I), another member of the myosin-I class. These differences may be relevant to the distinct cellular functions of these two types of myosin-I. ...
Biology is a challenging and complicated mess. Understanding this challenging complexity is the realm of the biological sciences: Trying to make sense of the massive, messy data in terms of discovering patterns and revealing its underlying general rules. Among the most powerful mathematical tools for organizing and helping to structure complex, heterogeneous and noisy data are the tools provided by multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) approaches. These eigenvector/eigenvalue data-compression approaches were first introduced to electron microscopy (EM) in 1980 to help sort out different views of macromolecules in a micrograph. After 35 years of continuous use and developments, new MSA applications are still being proposed regularly. The speed of computing has increased dramatically in the decades since their first use in electron microscopy. However, we have also seen a possibly even more rapid increase in the size and complexity of the EM data sets to be studied. MSA computations had thus become a
A hemagglutination-inhibitory mucoprotein from human urine has been studied with the electron microscope. It consists of filaments, with diameters of 40 to , 240 A, composed of smaller fibrils. In the two-dimensional projection of the electron micrographs, the single fibrils often show a zig-zag course with a periodicity of 100 to 140 A; the single branch of a zig-zag measures about 60 A in length and either 20 or 40 A in width. Still thinner fibrillar elements are observable with diameters of 10 A or less. In three-dimensional aspect, the zig-zag structure might be a helix. The fibril-bundle (or filament) reveals a complicated configuration. Heat treatment at 70°C shows some indication of denaturation (e.g. filaments are shorter), whereas at 80°C almost complete degradation of the protein into individual zig-zag elements or smaller pieces is attained. The interaction between influenza virus particles and inhibitory mucoprotein consists of the attachment of a fiber molecule to the virus ...
EMDB EMD-22958: Negative stain electron microscopy reconstruction of 2P SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain in complex with Fabs DH1047 and DH1051
Microplastics collected at sea harbour a high diversity of microorganisms including some Vibrio genus members, raising questions about the role of microplastics as a novel ecological niche for...
Fibrinogen conjugated to colloidal gold or colloidal gold-monoclonal anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) was used to label the receptor on platelets. Whole mount preparations were examined by stereo pair high voltage electron microscopy and then by scanning electron microscopy to determine the feasibility of this approach in detecting the number of receptors and their location relative to the cytoskeletal and surface structure. Both the ligand-gold and antibody-gold labels were effective. The relative numbers of receptors could be seen and their relationship to cytoskeletal structure could be determined. Marked differences in receptor number and distribution were observed when platelets in different stages of activation were compared. In co-cultured macrophages and platelets, receptors were found exclusively on platelets or on pieces of platelet membrane adherent to macrophages.
The fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes was observed under high voltage electron microscopy, in 4μm thick rat retinal sections with the aid of acid phosphatase cytochemistry. The study of thick sections facilitates the observation of the moment of fusion in stereo view from two tilted pictures. From this study, the contents of the lysosome pored into the phagosome through the orifice, shortly after the collision of the two organelles. The hydrolytic enzymes such as acid phosphatase spread in a sheet under the limiting membrane of the phagosome to finally form a balloon of the reaction product. In some case the ballooning appeared to be doubled. The outer skin of the reaction product may be the result of a wrapping mechanism of phagolysosomes.. ...
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results. The initial deposition of PM on the SiC grains showed good agreement with theoretical observations, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anatomical and physiological observations on synapses formed on isolated autonomic neurons in tissue culture. AU - Bunge, Richard P.. AU - Rees, Rosemary. AU - Wood, Patrick. AU - Burton, Harold. AU - Ko, Chien Ping. N1 - Funding Information: We benefited from the opportunity to discuss the development of this system with Drs. Dennis Bray, Stanley Crain and Robert Porter. Supported by NIH Grants NS-09923 and NS-09809 and GRS-5 SO1 RR05398.. PY - 1974/2/8. Y1 - 1974/2/8. N2 - Neurons from the superior cervical ganglion of perinatal rats were freed of their supporting cells and established in culture by the method of Bray. To these were added meninges-free explants of embryonic rat thoracic spinal cord to allow interaction between the outgrowing cord neurites and the isolated autonomic neurons. Electron microscopic observations on the autonomic neurons in these preparations revealed the presence of axon terminals of two types. One type (presumably adrenergic) contained pleomorphic ...
Even small amounts of amorphous materials can have a significant effect on the drug product. Are gravimetric vapour sorption techniques an effective solution to characterize amorphous materials?
Methodology to annotate the multiple origins of axonal projections in dense electron microscopy data of mammalian nervous tissue without the need of chemical label conversion is reported.
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
Out of 54 open renal biopsies performed on children, 17 were selected and studied not only by light microscopy but also by electron microscopy. Statistical-mathematical analysis of basement membrane thickness-measurements was carried out. It is concluded that electron microscopic investigation of the renal biopsy material is required in selected cases involving diagnostic or therapeutic problems. In nephrotic syndrome it may help above all to separate minimal changes from early forms or glomerular lesion of the focal sclerosing type. Electron microscopy can also be useful in any of the mono- and oligosymptomatic renal diseases. In those cases only electron microscopy makes it possible to provide exact morphological diagnosis which is necessary to the proper therapy. ...
Partial denaturation pattern of sex factor deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli was studied by electron microscopy. Clustering of the adenine-plusthymine-rich regions in one part of the molecule was revealed. The positions of these regions were located on the physical map of F by analyzing the partial denaturation pattern of heteroduplexes between F and F-prime factors with various parts of F sequences deleted. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Correlative light and electron microscopy of autophagosomes. AU - Gudmundsson, Sigurdur Runar. AU - Kahlhofer, Jenny. AU - Baylac, Nastassia. AU - Kallio, Katri Anneli. AU - Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa. PY - 2019/1. Y1 - 2019/1. N2 - Live-cell imaging has been widely used to study autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. When combined with correlative electron microscopy, this approach can be extended to reveal ultrastructural details in three dimensions. The resolution of electron microscopy is needed when membrane contact sites and tubular connections between organelles are studied.. AB - Live-cell imaging has been widely used to study autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. When combined with correlative electron microscopy, this approach can be extended to reveal ultrastructural details in three dimensions. The resolution of electron microscopy is needed when membrane contact sites and tubular connections between organelles are studied.. KW - 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular ...
Hi, I am Stefan Fischer. I am biologist at the University of Tübingen, working in the department for Evolutionary Biology of Invertebrates (Institute of Evolution and Ecology). My methodological focus is set on electron microscopy. Furthermore I do focus on 3D techniques, be it on basis of semi-thin sections (LM), Ultra-thin sections (ssTEM) and also MicroCT data. For that reason I developed a strong interest in open source software packages and image analysis in order to automate (or semi-automate) some of the tedious parts of my workflows.. ...
Conventional electron microscopy offers a substantial resolution advantage over light microscopy, but requires difficult and often destructive preparation techniques. Recent advances in electron microscopy allow for imaging of hydrated samples, retaining the resolution advantage while removing the difficulty in preparation. Two new techniques, environmental scanning electron microscopy and wet electron microscopy offer this advantage, allowing for new possibilities in biological imaging.
The fine structure of the His bundle is described on the basis of its light and electron microscopic appearance. Electron microscopy was performed on one human and two canine hearts, and light microscopy on over 400 human and 60 canine hearts. The His bundle was identified by its light microscopic appearance. There were no significant differences in the fine structure of human and canine His bundles. In both, the principal cell was a typical Purkinje cell containing few myofibrils and a large perinuclear clear zone; these cells are shorter and broader than working myocardial cells, and their intercellular junctions (which are obliquely rather than transversely oriented) contain a high proportion of nexus formations. Both the human and canine His bundles are partitioned by fine collagen septa, which are longitudinally oriented with comparatively few crossover connections. The general organization of the His bundle is thus into multiple strands of Purkinje cells, and these strands are largely ...
With the use of the method described in the preceding paper (to be referred to subsequently as I) for constructing the displacement fields, the electron microscope image contrast of small dislocation loops and of stacking-fault tetrahedra has been computed from numerical solutions of the Howie-Whelan (1961) equations. The computer-simulated images, displayed in the form of half-tone pictures, have been used to identify the nature and geometry of such defects in ion-irradiated foils. A systematic study of the contrast of small Frank loops in Cu+ ion irradiated copper under a wide variety of diffraction conditions is reported. In particular the variations of the contrast of loops edge-on and inclined to the electron beam with the operating Bragg reflexion, the thickness and inclination of the foil, depth of the defect in the foil and deviation from the Bragg-reflecting condition have been studied. Methods of obtaining useful information, such as the diameters of the loops, are suggested. The ...
A new type of Sr-containing sialon polytypoid phase with the structural formula SrSi10-xAl18+xN32-xOx (x approximate to l) has been found in the Sr-Si-Al-O-N system. The phase was characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and its structure was investigated by electron diffraction (ED) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). It is considerably disordered, but the average structure has a rhombohedral unit cell with a=5.335(5)approximate to root 3.a(AIN) and c= 79.1(1)Angstrom approximate to 30.c(AIN). The Sr atoms ave located in layers M-Sr-M, M=(Si/Al), at the origin of the unit cell with 12 X= (O,N) atoms around it, at distances of similar to 3 Angstrom, forming a cubo-octahedron. The X atoms that form a hexagon around the Sr atom in the ab plane are corner shared by M = (Si/Al) tetrahedra with opposite polarity in adjacent layers in which 2/3 of the tetrahedra are occupied. The M-Sr-M layers alternate with normally eight-layer-thick AIN type blocks, although the thickness of ...
The antimalarial drug, artemisinin packs a double whammy -- exploding inside malaria parasites and shutting down the waste disposal system that deals with the damage. Resistance to artemisinin, can be overcome by co-treating parasites with an anti-cancer drug of the proteasome-inhibitor class. Electron microscope images of malaria parasites (blue) generated by Associate Professor Eric Hanssen, University of Melbourne, Australia, and chemical structure of artemisinin.
SMITH, DJ and FREEMAN, LA and MCMAHON, RA and AHMED, H and PITT, MG and PETERS, TB (1984) CHARACTERIZATION OF SI-IMPLANTED AND ELECTRON-BEAM-ANNEALED SILICON-ON-SAPPHIRE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY. J APPL PHYS, 56. pp. 2207-2212. ISSN 0021-8979. Full text not available from this repository ...
RICHMOND, Va., June 7 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- National Environmental Testing Lab Now IDs Carbon Black with Electron-Microscopy.
Learn how your ultrastructural investigations can benefit from modern electron microscope techniques. Correlative microscopy provides you deeper insights about cell structure by combination of light and scanning electron microscopy methods.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mechanism of vortex connection at a free surface. AU - Zhang, Chiong. AU - Shen, Lian. AU - Yue, Dick K.P.. PY - 1999/4/10. Y1 - 1999/4/10. N2 - Vortex connections al the surface are fundamental and proouncnc features to free-surface vortical flows. To understand the detailed mechanism of such connection, we consider, as a canonical problem, the laminar vortex connections at a free surface when an oblique vortex ring impinges upon thai surface. We perform numerical simulations of the Navier Stokes equations with viscous free-surface boundary conditions. It is found that the key to understanding the mechanism of vortex connection at a free surface is the surface layers: a viscous layer resulting from the dynamic zero-stress boundary conditions at the free surface, and a thicker blockage layer which is due to the kinematic boundary condition at the surface. In the blockage layer, the vertical vorticity component increases due to vortex stretching and vortex turning (from the ...
Cryoelectron microscopy of biological molecules is among the hottest growth areas in biophysics & structural biology at present.Frank, Joachim is the author of Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy Of Macromolecular Assemblies Visualization Of Biological Molecules In Their Native State, published 2006 under ISBN 9780195182187 and ISBN 0195182189. [read more] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation of bismuth-tungsten bronzes. AU - Jefferson, D. A.. AU - Uppal, M. K.. AU - Smith, David J.. PY - 1984/6. Y1 - 1984/6. N2 - The oxidation of bismuth-tungsten bronzes at 600 and 950°C has been studied using high-resolution electron microscopy at 200 and 500 kV. At the lower temperature, a topotactic transformation to lamellae of Bi2WO6 in a WO3 matrix was observed but at higher temperature larger crystals were produced, primarily of Bi2W2O9 but with some disordered intergrowths.. AB - The oxidation of bismuth-tungsten bronzes at 600 and 950°C has been studied using high-resolution electron microscopy at 200 and 500 kV. At the lower temperature, a topotactic transformation to lamellae of Bi2WO6 in a WO3 matrix was observed but at higher temperature larger crystals were produced, primarily of Bi2W2O9 but with some disordered intergrowths.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021442349&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
With the resolution becoming sufficient to reveal individual atoms, HREM is now entering the stage where it can compete with X-ray methods to quantitatively determine atomic structures of materials without much prior knowledge, but with the advantage of being applicable to aperiodic objects such as crystal defects. In our view the future electron microscope will be characterised by a large versatility in experimental settings under computer control such as the illumination conditions (TEM-STEM), CBED, detecting conditions (diffraction, image, ptychography) and many other tunable parameters such as focus (g), voltage, spherical aberration (C-s), beam tilt, etc. Since modem detectors can detect single electrons, also the counting statistics is known. The only limiting factor in the experiment will be the total number of electrons that interact with the object during the experiment due to the limitations in the exposure time or in the object damage. However, instrumental potentialities will never ...
Transmission electron micrographs showing the tracheal epithelium in Ig-deficient mice. The tracheal epithelium in SAL/SAL-treated animals (a) harbored only
A system for forming particulate material in a bulk form comprises a compression tower having a top and sides depending therefrom. A compression chamber having side walls and an open bottom is reciprocatively mounted to said tower for deposit of loose particulate material therein. The system further includes a first conveyor assembly displaced from said tower. In its extended position, the chamber contacts the first conveyor assembly and the bottom of the chamber is closed thereby. A vacuum blower draws loose particulate material into the chamber through an inlet and compresses it against the first conveyor assembly. A ram assembly within the chamber further compresses the loose material into a bulk form atop the conveyor belt. When the chamber and ram assembly are returned to their retracted positions, the material bulk is transferred downstream by the first conveyor assembly to a space between vertically spaced second and third conveyor assemblies.
An electron microscopic investigation was performed on 28 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from 15 antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases and from 13 healthy infants. Through the use of supernatants of the cultures induced by mitomycin C (1 or 3 micrograms/ml), 18 of the 28 C. difficile strains …
Free Public Domain Picture: Here a negative stain electron micrograph reveals a M (mulberry type) monkeypox virus virion in human vesicular fluid. See PHIL 10817 for | ID: 13540024213919
Schulte, E., 1972: Electron microscopic studies on renal tubules (Malpighian tubules) in Drosophila melanogaster. V. Localization of Na-adenosine triphosphatase
The THO complex participates during eukaryotic mRNA biogenesis in coupling transcription to formation and nuclear export of translation-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, THO has been defined as a heteropentamer composed of the Tho2p, Hpr1p, Tex1p, Mft1p, and Thp2p subunits and the overall three-dimensional shape of the complex has been established by negative stain electron microscopy. Here, we use small-angle X-ray scattering measured for isolated THO components (Mft1p and Thp2p) as well as THO subcomplexes (Mft1p-Thp2p and Mft1p-Thp2p-Tho2p) to construct structural building blocks that allow positioning of each subunit within the complex. To accomplish this, the individual envelopes determined for Mft1p and Thp2p are first fitted inside those of the Mft1p-Thp2p and Mft1p-Thp2p-Tho2p complexes. Next, the ternary complex structure is placed in the context of the five-component electron microscopy structure. Our model reveals not only the position of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of synapse with high-voltage electron microscopy. AU - Kea, Joo Lee. AU - Park, Chang Hyun. AU - Rhyu, Im Joo. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank Dr Kiyoshi Hama for helpful comments on the manuscript. We appreciate the strong support of the HVEM group at KBSI, Dae-Jeon, South Korea. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Project for Biomedical Science and grant from the Korean Health 21 R&D Project, Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare (HMP-00-GN-01-0002).. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Three-dimensional (3-D) information on nervous tissue is essential for the understanding of brain function. Especially, 3-D synaptic analyses on serial ultrathin sections with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have contributed to the knowledge on neural plasticity associated with various pathophysiological conditions. The 3-D reconstruction procedures, however, not only require a great amount of expertise but also include ...
Electron microscopic observations on normally differentiating and α-MSH (melanocytestimulating hormone)-treated epidermal melanocytes of newborn mouse skin were carried out. The process of melanocyte differentiation from premelanosome-containing melanoblasts was investigated in detail with respect to melanosomes as markers.. Melanoblasts containing unmelanized premelanosomes gradually decreased in number after birth, while the number of melanocytes rapidly increased. The epidermis of α-MSH-treated 3-day-old mice and normal 6-day-old mice contained melanocytes with numerous fully melanized melanosomes, and with no or only a few melanoblasts.. Changes in other organelles in differentiating melanocytes were also noticeable. Golgi apparatus and RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) decreased in number during the normal or α-MSH-induced differentiation of the epidermal melanocytes, though the number of mitochondria showed no notable change. The number of SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) per cell did ...
The effect of 0.5 mM cadmium (Cd) was studied on the ultrastructural aspects and pectin features of the walls of flax cellulosic fibres when the thickening of secondary wall had just started in the hypocotyl of 10-day old seedlings. As seen by PATAg staining in controls, cell-wall formation displayed two distinct steps, secretion and remodelling, which did not occur simultaneously for all the neighbouring fibres. The inner part of the secondary wall, where the cellulose molecules had just been synthesized, appeared very reactive to PATAg. The outer part, where the cellulose fibrils associated in larger microfibril complexes, became non-reactive to PATAg. Under Cd treatment, we noticed some acceleration of fibre differentiation in terms of fibre number, wall thickness and yield. As revealed by PATAg staining, treated fibres exhibited a disturbed cell-wall texture, indicating a modified adhesion between the matrix polysaccharides and the cellulose microfibrils. The Cd impact on the distribution of highly
The non-clay and clay mineralogy of the British argillaceous sedimentary rocks are discussed. The non-clay mineralogy is only considered in general terms due to the lack of detailed information. The general nature of the clay minerals, their genesis and the effects of burial diagenesis on clay minerals are reviewed. This is followed by a more detailed examination of the clay mineralogy of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary argillaceous rocks. Consideration is given to the relative importance of the depositional environment and burial diagenesis in forming the clay assemblages now found in British mudrocks.. The petrology of the argillaceous sedimentary rocks is discussed in general terms. The use of electron microscopy in the examination of mudrocks generally and some British examples in particular is reviewed, including a discussion of the nature and origin of fissility. The possibility of using high voltage electron microscopy in future studies of argillaceous sediments is proposed based on ...
Human lenses extracted for cataract 26 years after long-term exposure to an imperfectly shielded radium source were examined by slit-lamp photography, thin-section light microscopy, and electron microscopy. Anterior epithelial cells were fibroblast-like, and germinal epithelium and vacuolated cortical fibres had accumulated at the equator. A zone of light scatter at the anterior pole corresponded to an area of breakdown of cortical lens fibres, where unusual feathery fibres were orientated perpendicular to the lens surface. Two zones of light scatter separated by a 250-microM clear interval were seen in the posterior cortex. The zone at the posterior pole corresponded to an area of fibre liquefaction and large rounded membrane whorls, while the deeper zone comprised small flattened membrane whorls. The characteristic plaques of swollen abnormal cells described in previous histological studies of x-ray cataract were not present. This and other differences probably reflect the extremely long time ...
1. 1. At the growth temperature the total phospholipids isolated from Escherichia coli cells give rise to 31P-NMR spectra which indicate the existence of lamellar, isotropic and hexagonal phases. These phases are also detected by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. In particular, the isotropic phase may contain lipidic particles (possibly inverted micelles) ... read more associated with the lamellar phase. 2. 2. The cytoplasmic membrane isolated from E. coli cells grown at 37°C is mainly lamellar at 25°C, whereas at 37 and 45°C the presence of some almost isotropic phospholipid motion is indicated. The possible significance of the isotropic phase for the functioning of the cytoplasmic membrane is discussed. show less ...
The adult lobster Homarus gammarus is a weak hyper-regulator at low salinity. The objective of this study was to locate the ion-transporting tissues in the branchial chamber of this species, using electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy with a fluorescent vital stain for mitochondria, DASPMI, which is widely used to locate mitochondria-rich cells in ion-transporting epithelia of fish. A thick mitochondria-rich epithelium is present on the inner side of the branchiostegite and over the entire surface of the epipodites. Ultrastructural observations confirm that this tissue has features typical of an ion-transporting epithelium. When the lobster is transferred to low salinity, these epithelia undergo marked ultrastructural changes, such as an increase in thickness related to the development of basolateral infoldings, the appearance of numerous vesicles and an increase in height of the apical microvilli. In the gills, the branchial filaments are lined by a thin and poorly ...
EVP is an associate professor of computer systems department in School of Natural Sciences in Far Eastern Federal University. He has a Ph.D. in Physics and great experience in electron microscopy. His scientific interests are electron microscopy, physics of condensed matter, image processing, and high-performance computations on GPU. EBM is currently a Ph.D. student of School of Natural Sciences in Far Eastern Federal University. His Ph.D. project focuses on electron microscopy of amorphous and nanocrystalline metallic alloys and their structure changes under external impact. OVV is a Ph.D. student of School of Natural Sciences in Far Eastern Federal University. His Ph.D. project focuses on electron microscopy and electron tomography of structure inhomogeneities in amorphous metallic alloys.ANF holds a BS degree in Information Systems from Far Eastern Federal University. He is currently working toward a masters degree in Information Systems and Technologies at Far Eastern Federal University. He ...
Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy ...
After monolayer cultures of rat islets were exposed to [125I]insulin,[125I]glucagon, and [125I]tyrosinyl somatostatin, specific autoradiographic grains associated with each radioactively labeled ligand were found on B, A, and D cells.The density of labeling of the B, A, and D cells with each labeled ligand correlated well with the known actions of the three hormones on each of the islet cells. ...
Ice crystal larger than about 5 μm diameter were separated from interstitial particles in aircraft contrails and evaporated. Residual particles larger than 0.1 μm were analyzed by electron microscopy. Soot, metals, and volatile organic substances, apparently from the aircraft exhaust, were found. However, the residual particles also contained high percentages of minerals, thought to be crustal in origin, that were often mixed with sulfur. The percentages of particles in our samples (representing the larger residual particles from relatively large ice crystals) identified as exhaust-derived and the percentage apparently derived from the ambient aerosol were roughly equal, suggesting that ambient particles may be important in contrail formation. Possible explanations for this are presented ...
The presently acknowledged onset of synaptogenesis in the chick retina from embryonic day 12 (E12) onward stands in contrast with the appearance of spontaneous electrical activity, of presynaptic proteins, or of neurotransmitters during early formation of the inner (E6-E8) and outer (E9) plexiform layers. Therefore, we investigated the chick retina from E6 to E12 at which age first synapses appear by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study provides evidence that synaptogenesis in the chick retina begins shortly after the plexiform layers have started to emerge. The first synapses are electrical synapses, which appear on E7, one day after the future inner plexiform layer emerged, and towards the end of E8 in the nascent outer plexiform layer. Conventional chemical synapses appear in both plexiform layers on E8, in the inner plexiform layer (stage 34) only a few hours earlier than in the outer plexiform layer (stage 35). The first synapses are formed close to the apex of the optic fissure and
We report the nanostructure study results, mainly based on plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on the coalescence process during the overgrowth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In cross-section scanning electron microscopy images, one can observe a two-stage coalescence overgrowth process. First, a group of nearby nanocolumns is merged into a thicker column. One of the possible merging processes is the growth of a bridging domain between two columns for their connection. The thicker columns are then developed into horn-shaped structures for the second-stage coalescence. Because different columns may have different crystal orientations, stacking faults can be formed for implementing the coalescence between two domains. Such stacking faults around the boundaries of merged domains represent one of the major kinds of defect after the threading dislocation density is reduced based on the nanocolumn growth technique.. ©2013 ...
In 1981 Taxy et al described first two cases of epithelioid schwannoma. The clinical, gross, and light microscopic features of two epithelioid tumours were not typical of either benign or malignant schwannoma. Electron microscopic features were indicative of benign Schwann cell tumours.. In 1985 Frank et al described electron microscopic features of Schwann cells in epithelioid schwannoma.. It was first reported as cutaneous epithelioid schwannoma by Kindblom et al in 1998.. The tumors are predominantly dermal/subcutaneous in location and involve the lower limb, upper limb, trunk and head/neck. These tumors may cause diagnostic errors due to their increased cellularity and epithelioid morphology. Typical histologic features of classic schwannoma such as Antoni A and B areas, Verocay bodies, and hyalinized vessels are either absent or only present in focal areas. Strong and diffuse S-100 protein expression is seen in both benign and malignant counterparts of epithelioid schwannoma. Type IV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An iterative method for obtaining a nonlinear solution for the temperature distribution of a rotating spherical body revolving in an eccentric orbit. AU - Sekiya, Minoru. AU - Shimoda, A. A.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - An iterative method for determining the temperature distribution in a rotating spherical body with an eccentric orbit around a star is developed. The heating term is expanded into the Fourier series with respect to the mean anomaly and the spherical harmonics with respect to the longitude and colatitude of a spherical body. The obtained formula is suitable for the eccentricity less than about 0.7. The remaining procedure to determine the temperature using an iterative method is the same as that described in Sekiya and Shimoda (2013). The method for determining the change rates of orbital elements due to the Yarkovsky effect is also developed. Our method is applicable to any value of the rotation period of a body. The errors of our results are less than 1%. ...
Guinea pigs approximately 8 months old, maintained on a diet of rabbit pellets and carrots, developed abnormalities similar to some of those described for scorbutic guinea pigs (Follis, 1963). Approximately half of the animals developed a fibrovascular proliferation in the thigh muscles which caused up to sixfold increase in the normal volume of the thigh (Meheregon, personal communication). Tissue from the swollen legs grew in culture in Eagle's medium as a confluent, fibroblast-like sheet, whereas normal-sized leg muscles of the same animals did not grow under the same conditions. Increase in cell number occurred for 4 to 6 weeks and then the culture became stationary. This report presents electron microscopic evidence for the presence of virus-like particles, possible developmental forms of a pox virus, in the cells in culture. Cultures were obtained by treatment of the tissues with 0.25% trypsin for 15 min.; the dispersed cells were collected by centrifugation, suspended in tissue culture
Hepatitis A pathogen (HAV) infects African green monkey kidney cells via HAV cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1). to the Fc and hinge portions of human IgG1. D1muc-Fc neutralized 10 occasions more HAV than did D1-Fc. Sedimentation evaluation in sucrose gradients demonstrated that treatment of HAV with 20 to 200 nM D1muc-Fc disrupted a lot of the virions, whereas treatment with 2 nM D1muc-Fc acquired no influence on the sedimentation from the contaminants. Treatment of HAV TAK-875 with 100 nM D1muc-Fc led to low-level deposition of 100- to 125S contaminants. Negative-stain electron microscopy evaluation revealed the fact that 100- to 125S contaminants acquired the features of disrupted virions, such as for example inner staining and diffuse sides. Quantitative PCR evaluation showed the fact that 100- to 125S contaminants included viral RNA. These outcomes indicate that D1 as well as the mucin-like area of havcr-1 must induce conformational adjustments resulting in HAV uncoating. Hepatitis A pathogen ...
The present study was designed to develop a technique to prepare human chromosomes for sequential light and electron microscopic observation and to compare detectability of chromosome aberrations induced by adriamycin and mitomycin C by the two procedures. The technique developed preserved the morphological and structural organization of chromosome while allowing observation of the cells entire chromosome complement. It was rapid and reproducible and chromosomes could be treated and stained for banding. Light microscopic data showed that in cultures of human lymphocytes both drugs induce chromosome aberrations. In comparison with controls both drugs produced significantly more chromosome and chromatid fragments. Electron microscopy revealed greater numbers of chromosome aberrations in both drug groups at higher levels of statistical significance. The differences between chromosome and chromatid fragments observed at the light and electron microscope levels were statistically significant. However, with
Published data are reviewed along with our own data on synaptic plasticity and rearrangements of synaptic organelles in the central nervous system. Contemporary laser scanning and confocal microscopy techniques are discussed, along with the use of serial ultrathin sections for in vivo and in vitro studies of dendritic spines, including those addressing relationships between morphological changes and the efficiency of synaptic transmission, especially in conditions of the long-term potentiation model. Different categories of dendritic spines and postsynaptic densities are analyzed, as are the roles of filopodia in originating spines. The role of serial ultrathin sections for unbiased quantitative stereological analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction is assessed. The authors data on the formation of more than two synapses on single mushroom spines on neurons in hippocampal field CA1 are discussed. Analysis of these data provides evidence for new paradigms in both the organization and ...
Single particle analysis is a group of related computerized image processing techniques used to analyze images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These methods were developed to improve and extend the information obtainable from TEM images of particulate samples, typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are very noisy, and so hard to interpret. Combining several digitized images of similar particles together gives an image with stronger and more easily interpretable features. An extension of this technique uses single particle methods to build up a three-dimensional reconstruction of the particle. Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic resolution first in the case of highly symmetric viruses, and now in smaller, asymmetric proteins as well. Single particle analysis can be done on both negatively stained and vitreous ...
Fenestrated blood vessels in the rat choroid plexus are permeable to dye-labelled proteins, HRP and ferritin. Most leakage appears to be via fenestrae but some additional escape of marker appears to take place through transient and reversible openings in the junctions between endothelial cells. After they have escaped into the choroidal stroma markers are prevented from entering the CSF by tight junctions between the epithelial cells which cover the choroid plexus, but how they are removed from the extravascular space is not known. Electron microscope study of rats who have been given multiple intravenous injections of ferritin shows that extravascular ferritin is take up both by connective tissue cells in the choroidal stroma and by choroidal epithelial cells. The findings suggest that the ingested protein is subsequently broken down within lysosomal vacuoles in the cytoplasm of these cells. Such intracellular digestion may be the major means of controlling the protein content of the extravascular
The interaction of electrons with solids are briefly reviewed with the emphasis given to elastically and inelastically scattered electrons and the origin of characteristic X-rays, which are used for chemical analysis in electron microscopy. The physical origin of image diffraction and phase contrasts in the transmission electron microscope are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of Kikuchi line diffraction patterns. In scanning electron microscopy, Kikuchi lines are used for all orientation imaging techniques (OIM /EBSD) which allow us to determine the orientation of grains and to establish the presence of textures. In the case of transmission electron microscopy, Kikuchi line diffraction patterns are used as crystallographic maps which allow to orient single crystals. It will be explained how simple two beam diffraction contrasts can be obtained and a brief introduction into stereographic 3D methods in scanning and transmission electron microscopy will be given. The students ...
We introduced several membrane-impermeant fluorescent dyes, including Lucifer Yellow, carboxyfluorescein, and fura-2, into the cytoplasmic matrix of J774 cells and thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages by ATP permeabilization of the plasma membrane and observed the subsequent fate of these dyes. The dyes did not remain within the cytoplasmic matrix; instead they were sequestered within phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles and released into the extracellular medium. We used Lucifer Yellow to study these processes further. In cells incubated at 37 degrees C, 87% of Lucifer Yellow was released from the cells within 30 min after dye loading. The dye that remained within the cells at this time was predominantly within cytoplasmic vacuoles. Lucifer yellow transport was temperature dependent and occurred against a concentration gradient; therefore it appeared to be an energy-requiring process. The fluorescent dyes used in these studies are all organic anions. We therefore examined the ...
The active zone is present in all chemical synapses examined so far and is present in all animal species. The active zones examined so far have at least two features in common, they all have protein dense material that project from the membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles close to the membrane and they have long filamentous projections originating at the membrane and terminating at vesicles slightly farther from the presynaptic membrane. The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the dense projection is the ribbon synapse (see below) which contains a ribbon of protein dense material that is surrounded by a halo of synaptic vesicles and extends perpendicular to the presynaptic membrane and can be as long as 500 nm.[3] The glutamate synapse contains smaller pyramid like structures that extend about 50 nm from the membrane.[4] The neuromuscular synapse contains two rows of vesicles with a long proteinaceous band ...
A morphological and ultrastructural study on the prostate of a land snail Nesiohelix samarangae was conducted. The prostate of Nesiohelix samarangae is a tubular gland connected with the large hermaphrodite duct. The lining of the prostate tubules possesses two distinct types of epithelial cells, one secretory and the other non-secretory. The secretory cells contained numerous secretory granules in various sizes and electron density. Most of the secretory granules showed light electron density but some of them showed heavy density. The ciliated cells were non-secreting cells situated only toward the lumen of the tubules and appeared as ordinary epithelial lining cells. The ciliated cells of the epithelium extensively interdigitate with each other and their apical surfaces had numerous cilia and microvilli. The bases of the ciliated cells did not reach the basal region of the secretory cells ...
INTRODUCTION Familial benign hematuria (FBH) (MIM 141200) is an autosomal dominant disease. It is characterized by persistent or recurrent microscopic hematuria, not associated with other abnormalities such as renal failure or deafness1. The diagnosis of this benign disease may be difficult to establish, since it is based on a series of negative findings (absence of proteinuria, renal failure or extrarenal symptoms) and the finding of a non-specific ultrastructural lesion, the thin glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and above all on the results of family investigation demonstrating the absence of progression towards renal failure.. Early stages of Alport Syndrome (AS) can be very similar to FBH, both in its clinical features and the electron microscopic appearance.. AS can be inherited as an X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait2. X-linked forms account for approximately 85% of AS cases and they are due to mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Autosomal dominant and recessive forms ...
Chair of Ultrapath XVIII - President-elect of the Society for Ultrastructural Pathology. Electron microscopy is a method whose importance for diagnosis and research in Pathology is well established. Unfortunately, the method remains poorly known by the medical profession and is often not part of the standard medical curriculum, precluding its widespread use in diagnosis. Further factors like the use of proper facilities and experience for performing ultrastructural diagnosis have to be addressed but are often underestimated. It is usually acknowledged that many diagnostic applications that in the past relied solely on electron microscopy methods have been replaced by simpler and more accessible methods like immunocytochemistry and molecular biology.. However it must be understood that electron microscopy is still the most reliable way to study macromolecular structure and its relationships within the cell. Electron microscopy is also a catch all method available at the ultrastructural level, ...
Application: To obtain a 3D model for objects that are too thick for single particle electron microscopy (≥ 1 micrometer thick), e.g., small cells, cellular organelles, macromolecules and their complexes, viruses. Method: Samples are vitrified by plunge freezing or by high-pressure freezing, cut into thin slices if necessary, and imaged at various tilt angles in the microscope using the lowest possible electron dose. Imaging under low dose conditions minimizes physical damage of the sample during data acquisition, but leads to extremely low signal-to-noise conditions. Sub-tomogram averaging recovers the signal by an intensive computational procedure, yielding structural resolutions of up to ~1 nm.. ...
To establish the methods of demonstrating early fixation of metal implants to bone, one side of a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) based alloy implant surface was seeded with rabbit marrow mesenchymal cells and the other side was left unseeded. The mesenchymal cells were further cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, β-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone, resulting in the appearance of osteoblasts and bone matrix on the implant surface. Thus, we succeeded in generating tissue-engineered bone on one side of the CoCr implant. The CoCr implants were then implanted in rabbit bone defects. Three weeks after the implantation, evaluations of mechanical test, undecalcified histological section and electron microscope analysis were performed. Histological and electron microscope images of the tissue engineered surface exhibited abundant new bone formation. However, newly formed bone tissue was difficult to detect on the side without cell seeding. In the mechanical test, the mean values of pull-out forces were 77.15 N
Neural circuitry is determined primarily by trillions of synaptic junctions that link cells in the nervous system. Understanding how the structure of the synapse influences its function has been a central goal of cellular neuroscience since synapses were first recognized more than a century ago. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a long lasting enhancement of synaptic efficacy, is a well-characterized cellular correlate of learning and memory that results in dramatic structural remodeling of the synapse. Research has focused heavily on the postsynaptic structural remodeling that occurs to support LTP, but concomitant presynaptic and subcellular remodeling during LTP has been left largely unexplored. To address these questions, three-dimensional reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy of presynaptic boutons, vesicle pools, and dendritic smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in hippocampal area CA1 were created and quantified. The data presented in this dissertation demonstrate that ...
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The CAMCOR Alice C. Tyler Nanofabrication and FIB-SEM Facility provides an array of equipment supporting high resolution electron microscopy, nanofabrication, and material characterization techniques. The facility offers high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and ion-beam microscopy services, as well as electron-beam, and ion beam lithography.. The facility is equipped to support sample types from multiple disciplines, providing sample preparation equipment and services for biological, materials, and geological applications.. ...
Myosin has been identified in a variety of non-muscle cells, and is believed to play a role in maintenance of cell shape, locomotion, cytokinesis, exocytosis and other cellular functions. In this paper we describe the purification of myosin from a pancreatic acinar-cell carcinoma of the rat which forms solid tumours, but retains many differentiated functions. The purified myosin was composed of a 200,000 Da heavy chain and two or three classes of light chains. Electron-microscopic examination of rotary-shadowed preparations revealed that individual molecules had two globular heads and a long tail measuring approx. 149 nm. The myosin was soluble in high-salt buffers and became sedimentable as the ionic strength was lowered. Examination of negative-stained preparations showed that this sedimentable myosin consisted of short, bipolar, thick filaments which had a strong tendency to aggregate in a head-to-head manner. The ATPase activity of the purified myosin was stimulated by EDTA or Ca2+, but not ...
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Mitochondria have a central importance: they use electron transport chains and their associated molecular machinery to synthesize ATPs, which provide energy to drive chemical reactions within all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are also involved in heme synthesis and lipid metabolism and are highly dynamic, resulting in either large or discrete structures or networks. Characterization of these networks within cells can provide important information about the cells metabolic activity and their overall viability. We have used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) to analyze distributions of mitochondrial network lengths in several types of cells. SBF-SEM can provide high-resolution three-dimensional ultrastructure of large volumes of resin-embedded biological tissue or cells at the nanometer scale, making it possible to image samples extending over ,100 µm in three dimensions, at 10 nm spatial resolution in the plane of the block face (x and y) and 25 nm resolution in the ...
A process for producing flat products from particulate material comprises the steps of forming relatively smooth, castable slurry comprising a suspension of particulate material in an aqueous solution, a film-forming binder material and a dispersion of a particulate synthetic resin in an aqueous solution, depositing a coating of this slurry onto a support surface and, heating the deposited coating to a temperature at which a component of the synthetic resin volatilises. The coating may be removed from the support surface as a flat product either before or after heating to volatilize a component of the synthetic resin.
0046]While various materials have been identified as useful as either high or low threshold percolation concentration materials, as such high and low thresholds are relative terms, certain materials may be usable as either a low or high threshold material, depending upon the threshold percolation wt % concentration of the other conductive particulate material employed. In one embodiment of the invention, the relatively low threshold particulate material and the relatively high threshold particulate material are selected such that their threshold percolation weight percent concentrations are separated by at least 1 wt percent, preferably at least 2 wt percent, more preferably at least 5 wt percent, and most preferably at least 10 wt percent. In a further embodiment, the relatively low threshold particulate material and the relatively high threshold particulate material are selected such that the low threshold particulate material has a percolation threshold wt % concentration of less than 10 ...
number we have found in this type of neuron is only 10-12. In longitudinal sections the fasciculated microtubules in the initial segment often appear darker than the single microtubules in the rest of the nerve cell and its processes. This appearance is due only partly to overlapping of the microtubules in a bundle within the thickness of the section. In addition, each microtubule is surrounded by a cloud of fine fibrillar material that contributes to the general density of the fascicle. In transverse sections it can be seen that the microtubules are arrayed close together in a curving and sometimes branching line (Figs. 3, 4, and 6). Single or isolated microtubules are rarely encountered in the initial segment. Favorably oriented transverse sections show that the microtubules within the fascicles are bound together by thin, dark crossbars or arms (Figs. 3 and 6). The bundling of the microtubules ceases abruptly at the beginning of the myelin sheath. Whether they continue down the axons as ...
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Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. Fly larvae and fly eggs are used to aid in the determination of a PMI. In order for the ... When scanning electron microscopy is not available, a faster, lower cost technique is potassium permanganate staining. The ... A study in 2007 demonstrates a technique that can use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify key morphological features ... "Identification of fly eggs using scanning electron microscopy for forensic investigations". Micron. 39 (7): 802-7. doi:10.1016/ ...
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe dislocations within the microstructure of the material.[22] Thin foils ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2008). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. Springer. ... "g dot b") analysis.[23] When performing dark field microscopy with the TEM, a diffracted spot is selected to form the image (as ... The electron beam undergoes diffraction by the regular crystal lattice planes into a diffraction pattern and contrast is ...
Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM 10−21[7] None, sample in thin capability 1 nm to 10 µm[7] Chemical structure analysis, ... Acceleration of the electrons is achieved using resonance. For this to occur, the electrons must pass through a resonance zone ... Atomic Force microscopy AFM Variable 0.5 nm[7] 0.5 nm[7] Cross Sectional View ... For heavier ion production, for example, an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source can be used.[23] Figure 4 shows a ...
The first images of viruses were obtained upon the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska ... Long GW, Nobel J, Murphy FA, Herrmann KL, Lourie B. Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of ... electron-dense "stains" are used. These are solutions of salts of heavy metals, such as tungsten, that scatter the electrons ... Imaging of viruses by atomic force microscopy. Journal of General Virology. 2001;82(9):2025-2034. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-82-9- ...
Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a high-energy electron beam (ranging a few 100 eVs ... Transmission electron microscopy[edit]. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uses electrons to generate high-resolution ... Low-Energy and Photoemission Electron Microscopy[edit]. Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photoemission electron ... Scanning tunneling microscopy[edit]. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a sharp tip scans the surface of a sample in a ...
Laboratory for Electron Microscopy. *Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology. *School Science Center ...
Slayter, Elizabeth M.; Slayter, Henry S. (1992). Light and Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521- ... In 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar calculated, using special relativity, that a non-rotating body of electron-degenerate ...
1 December 2012). "Prokaryote or eukaryote? A unique microorganism from the deep sea". Journal of Electron Microscopy. 61 (6): ... also used microscopy to observe microbial life in the form of the fruiting bodies of moulds. In his 1665 book Micrographia, he ...
"Journal of Electron Microscopy. Japan Society Microscopy. 12 (1): 72.. *^ Luft, J.H. (1961). "Improvements in epoxy resin ... "A new embedding technique for electron microscopy, combining a water-soluble epoxy resin (Durcupan) with water-insoluble ... Water-soluble epoxies such as Durcupan[13][14] are commonly used for embedding electron microscope samples in plastic so they ...
Transmission electron microscopy ‎ *12:30, 14 March 2013 (diff , hist) . . (+1)‎ . . Hydrochloric acid ‎ ...
Journal of Electron Microscopy. 51 (suppl 1): S79-S85. doi:10.1093/jmicro/51.Supplement.S79. ISSN 0022-0744.. ... High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and in situ measurements reveal that the welds are nearly perfect, with the ... "IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 55 (11): 2827-2845. Bibcode:2008ITED...55.2827A. doi:10.1109/TED.2008.2008011.. ... More recently, after microscopy advancement, the nanowire growth driven by screw dislocations[16][17] or twin boundaries[18] ...
Electron microscopy of plant protoplasm. Int. Rev. Cytol. 14: 41-155. link Archived 2018-04-07 at the Wayback Machine.. ... With electron microscopy, the lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by Keith R. Porter, Albert ... "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy: methods and preliminary observations". The Journal of Experimental ...
as Demonstrated by Electron Microscopy". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 25 (1): 116-119. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1962.tb01126 ... Azotobacter respires aerobically, receiving energy from redox reactions, using organic compounds as electron donors, and can ... Germination of cysts is accompanied by changes in the intima, visible with an electron microscope. The intima consists of ... which is detected with phase contrast microscopy. Germination of cysts takes about 4-6 h. During germination, the central body ...
"Prof Caterina Ducati - Electron Microscopy Group". www.emg.msm.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-09-25.. ... She was subsequently awarded a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to explore electron microscopy of nanostructures, ... and was based in Churchill College, Cambridge.[7] This involved developing transmission electron microscopy to study the ... Ducati has worked with the Institute of Physics Electron Microscopy and Analysis group and the Nanoscale Physics and Technology ...
"DNA Base Identification by Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of ... and microscopy-based techniques, such as atomic force microscopy or transmission electron microscopy that are used to identify ... Microscopy-based techniques[edit]. Main article: Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing. This approach directly ... visualizes the sequence of DNA molecules using electron microscopy. The first identification of DNA base pairs within intact ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B. (1995). "Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy". Virus research. 39 (2-3): 129 ... During an outbreak, virus isolation and electron microscopy are most often not feasible options. The most common diagnostic ... but electron microscopy cannot differentiate the various filoviruses alone despite some overall length differences.[24] ...
De Graef, Marc (2003). Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN ... is the potential distribution of the atom, and the electron form factor is the Fourier transform of this.[3] The electron form ... Electron form factor[edit]. The relevant distribution, ρ. (. r. ). {\displaystyle \rho (r)}. ... It is the spatial distribution of these unpaired electrons about the nucleus that is ρ. (. r. ). {\displaystyle \rho (r)}. for ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy (4): 1609-1618. PMID 11539690.. ...
"Entry and release of poliovirus as observed by electron microscopy of cultured cells". J. Virol. 4 (4): 505-13. PMC 375900. ...
Bozzola, J. J.; Russell, L. D. (1999). "Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy". Electron Microscopy : ... OsO4 is a widely used staining agent used in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide contrast to the image.[20] As a ... Hayat, M. A. (2000). Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications. Cambridge University Press. pp ... it is also useful in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as an alternative to sputter coating. It embeds a heavy metal directly ...
Electron Microscopy Laboratory. *Center for Mass Spectrometry. Stevens har samarbeid med Kongsbergindustrien og de norske ...
His research activity was mainly devoted to the development of electron microscopy techniques applied to the study of magnetic ... Particles and Waves in Electron Optics and Microscopy .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output . ... He is the co-author of the documentary "Electron interference"(1976) [2][3], which won a prize at the Brussels' Scientific ... He has contributed to the development of a research line on interferometry and electron holography and has collaborated with ...
A study by light and electron microscopy". Gastroenterology. 39: 454-68. PMID 13712267. Bahadori M, Liebow AA (January 1973). " ... a light and electron microscopic study". Hum. Pathol. 7 (4): 411-26. doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(76)80055-X. PMID 939538. Bleisch VR ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... "Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy" (PDF). Virus Research. 39 (2-3): 129-150. doi:10.1016/0168-1702(95)00080 ... "Cryo-Electron Tomography of Marburg Virus Particles and Their Morphogenesis within Infected Cells". PLoS Biology. 9 (11): ...
Research Laboratory for High Voltage Electron Microscopy. *Center of Environment and Safety ...
Electron microscopy; Ion microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry; Nonimaging optics and solar energy concentration; ...
Transmission electron microscopy: TEM can visualize virion structure, but the imaging procedure is more difficult than SEM, and ... "Electron Microscopy , TEM vs SEM - US". www.thermofisher.com. Retrieved 2021-02-21. Janjic, Aleksandar (2018-11-29). "The Need ... The following methods could offer biosignatures with varying levels of usefulness: Scanning electron microscopy: SEM has ...
Electron microscopy. Histopathology and tissue preservation. Pharmacology and tissue therapy. Immunology. Biochemistry. ...
Wilkinson, A. J.; Hirsch, P. B. (1997). "Electron diffraction based techniques in scanning electron microscopy of bulk ... In the mid-1950s he pioneered the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to metals and developed in detail the ... P. Hirsch, A. Howie, R. Nicholson, D. W. Pashley and M. J. Whelan (1965/1977) Electron microscopy of thin crystals ( ... In 1965, with Howie, Whelan, Pashley and Nicholson, he published the text Electron microscopy of thin crystals. The following ...
Electron microscopy. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/technology/electron-microscopy Britannica, T. Editors ... SEM-EDS): scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy is used for directly studying the surfaces of solid ... action of the electron beam stimulates the emission of high-energy backscattered electrons and low-energy secondary electrons ... scientists routinely use scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ...
Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles (EM ... cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light microscopy. They have basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus ...
Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Columbi Ohii: Battelle Press. ISBN 978-1-57477-131-2. ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... "Modern uses of electron microscopy for detection of viruses". Clinical Microbiology Reviews (Review). 22 (4): 552-63. doi: ... such as EBOV may be identified by their unique filamentous shapes in cell cultures examined with electron microscopy.[97] ... An electron microscopist from USAMRIID discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebola in the tissue samples sent from ...
Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s.[17][18] The results of ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[17] ... its genes encode eleven subunits of a protein complex which mediates redox reactions to recycle electrons,[24] which is similar ... the microscopy experiments led to the idea that chloroplast DNA replicates using a double displacement loop (D-loop). As the D- ...
Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ... Electron micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network around the nucleus (shown in lower right-hand side of the picture). ... The lacey membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by scientists using an electron microscope.[2] ...
Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ...
... it may act as a valve for low-potential electrons and maintain photosynthetic electron trasport. Little is known about this. ... Atomic force microscopy of Precambrian microscopic fossils Kempe A, Schopf JW, Altermann W, Kudryavtsev AB, Heckl WM ...
These electron are then focus using electron lenses inside the intensifier to an output screen coated with phosphorescent ... This is determined by the area of the electron beam hitting the anode. A large photon source results in more blurring in the ... or directly by capturing the electrons produced when the X-rays hit the detector. Direct detector do not tend to experience the ... When hit by X-rays material phosphors which causes the photocathode adjacent to it to emit electrons. ...
is the electron density. One may assume the electron density is simply the number of electrons per atom Z multiplied by the ... In the visual spectrum this is done using Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC ... is the classical electron radius, λ. {\displaystyle \lambda }. is the X-ray wavelength, and n. e. {\displaystyle n_{e}}. ... If the electrons emit a light wave which is in phase with the light wave shaking them, it will amplify the light wave. This is ...
... (CTLM) is the trademark of Imaging Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (IDSI, United States) for its optical tomographic technique for female breast imaging. This medical imaging technique uses laser energy in the near infrared region of the spectrum, to detect angiogenesis in the breast tissue. It is optical molecular imaging for hemoglobin both oxygenated and deoxygenated. The technology uses laser in the same way computed tomography uses X-Rays, these beams travel through tissue and suffer attenuation. A laser detector measures the intensity drop and the data is collected as the laser detector moves across the breast creating a tomography image. CTLM images show hemoglobin distribution in a tissue and can detect areas of Angiogenesis surrounding malignant tumors, that stimulate this angiogenesis to obtain nutrients for growth. ...
Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. FISH is often used for ... mRNA provides sufficient fluorescence to accurately detect and localize each target mRNA in a wide-field fluorescent microscopy ... Electron microscopy. *Immunofluorescence. *Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinical pathology. *Clinical chemistry. * ...
As a young professor at UC Davis, Deamer continued to work with electron microscopy, revealing for the first time particles ... where he learned techniques of electron microscopy. Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid ...
In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), translational Moiré fringes can be seen as parallel contrast lines formed in phase- ... Microscopy[edit]. In super-resolution microscopy, the moiré pattern can be used to obtain images with a resolution higher than ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2009-01-01). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. ... However, if probe aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) ...
... characterization methods such as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB), Rutherford ... A diamond cuboctahedron showing seven crystallographic planes, imaged with scanning electron microscopy ... This involves methods such as diffraction with X-rays, electrons, or neutrons, and various forms of spectroscopy and chemical ... Due to its higher electron mobility and saturation velocity compared to silicon, it is a material of choice for high-speed ...
... using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral particle is ...
On electron microscopy, subepithelial deposits that nestle against the glomerular basement membrane seems to be the cause of ... By light microscopy, the basement membrane is observed to be diffusely thickened. Using Jones' stain, the GBM appears to have a ... Immunofluorescence microscopy will reveal typical granular deposition of immunoglobulins and complement along the basement ... Immune complexes (black) are deposited in a thickened basement membrane creating a "spike and dome" appearance on electron ...
Using cryo-electron microscopy it has become possible to generate reconstructions with sub-nanometer resolution and near-atomic ... Transmission electron microscopy images are projections of the object showing the distribution of density through the object, ... EM Data Bank (EM Data Bank) Frank, Joachim (2006). Three-dimensional electron microscopy of macromolecular assemblies: ... "3D structure of Syk kinase determined by single-particle electron microscopy". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1774 (12): 1493-9. doi: ...
... crystals, imaged with light and with scanning electron microscopy. Depth hoar (also called sugar snow) are large ...
There are many viroplasms in one infected cell, where they appear dense to electron microscopy. Very little is understood about ... These appear electron-dense under an electron microscope and are insoluble. Viroplasms are localized in the perinuclear area or ...
... phase-contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy, confocal microscopy, cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, etc. have ... Advancement in microscopic techniques and technology such as fluorescence microscopy, ...
It was identified by electron microscopy in 1965 by ZuRhein and Chou,[1] and by Silverman and Rubinstein, and later isolated in ... Silverman, L.; Rubinstein, L.J. (1965). "Electron microscopic observations on a case of progressive multifocal ...
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic ... "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[۳۴] ... "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the ... "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have ...
... on routine light microscopy. Electron microscopy reveals electron-dense subendothelial immune complexes (between endothelium ...
For example, through devices fabricated from an LB trough Lee et al.[17] showed in 2006 that direct electron tunneling was the ... ranging from 2D crystallization of proteins to Brewster angle microscopy. The LB trough's general objective is to study the ... T. H. Lee, W. Y. Wang, and M. A. Reed, "Mechanism of electron conduction in self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer devices." pp. ...
A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both ... visible on light microscopy or not thus visible). The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, ...
In 2010 Imperial College Press published 4D Electron Microscopy: Imaging in Space and Time, which he co-authored with Ahmed ... 4D Electron Microscopy: Imaging in Space and Time, 2010, Imperial College Press. (With A.H. Zewail). ... The modern electron microscope: A cornucopia of chemico-physical insights[48]. References[edit]. *^ a b THOMAS, Sir John Meurig ... and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Thomas is one of the most cited authors in the field of heterogeneous ...
Electron microscopy. *Immunofluorescence. *Fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinical pathology. *Clinical chemistry. * ...
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM, SBSEM or SBFSEM) is a method to generate high resolution three- ... "Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2010) (Learn how and when ... Samples are prepared by methods similar to that in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), typically by fixing the sample with ... Denk W, Horstmann H (2004) Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure ...
More recently, the application of scanning electron microscopy in the biological sciences has enjoyed something of a ... A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences (PDF, 12 MB) ... Sponsored Collection , A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences ... Sponsored Collection , A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences ...
Electron Microscopy, Volume 2. Contributors. International Federation of Societies for Electron Microscopy, Australian Academy ... Academic Press, 1966 - Electron microscopy. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electron_Microscopy.html?id= ... dehydrated dense bodies density desmosomes developed diameter electron dense electron micrograph electron microscope ELECTRON ... Microscopy.html?id=bxxRAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectron Microscopy. ...
Electron Microscopy, Volumes 1-2. Electron Microscopy Society of America. Meeting. Snippet view - 1974. ... Academic Press, 1962 - Electron microscopy. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electron_Microscopy.html?id= ... Microscopy.html?id=y5FqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectron Microscopy. ... cristae crystals Cytol cytoplasm dehydration density desmosomes diameter droplets electron dense electron micrographs electron ...
Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique applied on samples cooled to cryogenic ... Scanning electron cryomicroscopy (cryoSEM), is scanning electron microscopy technique with a scanning electron microscopes ... Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (cryoTEM) is a transmission electron microscopy technique that is used in structural ... History of cryogenic electron microscopy[edit]. In the 1960s, scientists were faced with the issue of structure determination ...
Electron microscopy can be used to observe the rabies virus in detail. Photos show examples of Rhabdovirus. ... The ultrastructure of viruses can be examined by electron microscopy. Using this method, the structural components of viruses ... Negatively stained Rhabdovirus as seen through an electron microscope. Notice the bullet shape of the virus (A). See the "bee ... When viewed with an electron microscope Rhabdoviruses are seen as bullet-shaped particles. ...
... molecular spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy instruments, giving advice and providing training. ... Philip oversees the electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, ... Electron Microscopy Philip oversees the electron microscopy, X- ... Philip jointly manages the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ... transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and X-ray analysis instrumentation ...
... light microscopy, physiology, and biochemistry, among other disciplines. It is also pre ... Electron microscopy is frequently portrayed as a discipline that stands alone, separated from molecular biology, ... Fixation electron microscopy microscopy scanning electron microscope transmission electron microscopy Authors and affiliations ... Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopes (IVEM), Electron Tomography, and Single-Particle Electron Microscopy ...
... (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular ... The Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) at PDBe. Quick access. Click on one of these categories: ... It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. ...
The Electron Microscopy Core provides advice, technical services, training and use of facilities to NHLBI DIR investigators who ...
... electron diffraction and chemical and elemental analysis and by electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and energy filtered ... It is equipped with several detectors; the new generation E-T detector can filter out SE3 electrons, thus it collects mainly ... Dual beam FIB-SEM is a multifunctional analytical instrument integrating both a focused ion beam (FIB) and a scanning electron ... It is equipped with several detectors; the E-T detector collects SE2 electrons and provide topographical information, the in- ...
About the GJ Russell Microscopy Facility. The GJ Russell Facility is the electron microscopy suite for the Faculty of Science, ... We have state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and focused ion-beam ...
Serial-Section-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-(S3EM)-on-Silicon-Wafers-for-Ultra-Structural-Volume-pone.0035172.s002.ogv 5.7 s, ... Serial-Section-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-(S3EM)-on-Silicon-Wafers-for-Ultra-Structural-Volume-pone.0035172.s003.ogv 3.4 s, ... Ion-Abrasion-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-Reveals-Surface-Connected-Tubular-Conduits-in-HIV-ppat.1000591.s007.ogv 6.7 s, 1,280 ... Ion-Abrasion-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-Reveals-Surface-Connected-Tubular-Conduits-in-HIV-ppat.1000591.s008.ogv 3.4 s, 1,024 ...
Learn about optimal microscopy imaging practices and see the latest ZEISS microscopy solutions. This ZOYC will focus on best ... Convince yourself in this workshop how your work can benefit from the latest advances in electron microscopy. Learn how ZEISS ... For scientists interested in electron microscopy related techniques there is no better option to get informed and to talk ... ZEISS On Your Campus , Electron Microscopy in Sciences Hosted at University Konstanz - Department of Physics. September 19, ...
Electron Microscopy Facility. The Electron Microscopy Facility (EMF) is one of several core research facilities at Brown ... The Electron Microscopy Facility is administered by IMNI and is operated as a cost center where the annual cost of supplies, ... The EMF is designed to house a suite of electron microscopes, and each room has the power, cooling water supply, and HVAC ...
The Transmission Electron Microscopy Core, part of the Neurosciences Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, aids in ... Transmission Electron Microscopy Core. The Transmission Electron Microscopy Core, part of the Neurosciences Center at ... The transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been an essential tool for research in cell biology since its development in the ...
Using electron microscopy, much greater magnification levels and resolution can be achieved than with a light microscope ... Electron microscopy is a technique that uses a beam of accelerated electrons to illuminate and produce images of specimens. ... because the wavelength of electrons is so much shorter than that of photons. ... Applications of Electron Microscopy. Electron microscopy has many wide ranging applications in science and technology. ...
Biochemists at the University of Zurich have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the detailed architecture of the ... Super-resolution microscopy provides insights into cells amazing flexibility One of todays sharpest imaging tools, super- ... STReM stands for Super Time-Resolved Microscopy, and as STORM, PALM, and other methods are designed to improve spatial ... resolution microscopy, produces sparkling images of what until now has been the blurry interior of cells, detailing not only ...
The EM Unit staff provides basic training for all instruments at the EM Unit. After a trial period, users can work independently 24/7, with discounts for evening and weekend use. EM staff provide ongoing support and advanced training as required ...
Tissue should be submitted fresh to the laboratory immediately after collection. Do not freeze tissue or place it in a fixative. ...
... critical to the advance of cryo-electron microscopy, allowing researchers to obtain images of biological materials that more ... he continued to refine techniques for structural imaging of biological materials by cryo-electron microscopy. He developed a ... Other articles where Cryo-electron microscopy is discussed: Jacques Dubochet: … ... using a technique known as cryo-electron microscopy. Hendersons refinement of imaging methods for cryo-electron microscopy, in ...
Electron microscopy of cell membranes. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6127.1621 (Published 17 June 1978) ...
Electron microscopy Handout Duration : 12 pages Buy Modern Chemical Techniques: £19.95 Website ... Modern chemical techniques: electron microscopy Description. This book teaches about modern chemical techniques without heavy ... On This Day - March 29 : Soviet scientists developed a new form of electron microscope on this day in 1956 ...
... of Innsbruck provides a Zeiss Libra 120 Energy Filter Transmission Electron Microscope and a Zeiss DSM 950 Scanning Electron ... Electron Microscopy. Contact: [email protected] History. Electron microscopy has a very long tradition at the Zoological ... Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). The event of energy loss is produced by an electron coming from the electron beam ... The collision scatters this electron inelastically and the energy loss of the electron is specific for the element. A ...
Electron microscopy. Definition:. The technique used to produce an enlarged image of a tiny object that utilizes an electron ... This type of microscopy is necessary when items or features are too small to be imaged by light. In this case, the image is ... microscope, an instrument that uses a beam of electrons focused by an electron lens. ... created by the bending/reflection of an electron beam rather than a light beam. ...
... our electron imaging lab, offers expertise in electron microscope testing on all tissue specimens. ... Pediatric Electron Microscopy Pediatric Electron Microscopy The laboratory at Childrens Health℠ offers expertise in the field ... of routine electron microscopy on all tissue specimens.. Electron Microscopy services are performed for analysis of diagnostic ... The Electron Microscopy Laboratory at Childrens Health, ... Electron Microscopy Services. *Electron microscopy (technical ...
San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues have created a new type of genetic tag visible under an electron microscope, ... may elevate the abilities of electron microscopy in the same way GFPs have made modern light microscopy in biological research ... The new electron microscopy technique reveals the previously unknown locations of two neuronal proteins called SynCAM1 and ... Tsien and Shu are optimistic that miniSOG will grant new powers to electron microscopy, permitting scientists to pursue answers ...
Specimens should be transported to Anatomic Pathology via CPA (call Vocera CPA Lab). The specimen MUST be accompanied with a tissue requisition which includes all patient information (patient name, date of birth, medical record number, pertinent history, sending institution and tests required).. ...
We present a complete pipeline for the segmentation of 3-dimensional electron microscopy data. Efficient algorithms and ... Köthe U., Andres B., Kröger T., Hamprecht F. (2012) Geometric Analysis of 3D Electron Microscopy Data. In: Köthe U., Montanvert ... We present a complete pipeline for the segmentation of 3-dimensional electron microscopy data. Efficient algorithms and ... Denk, W., Horstmann, H.: Serial Block-Face scanning electron microscopy to reconstruct Three-Dimensional tissue nanostructure. ...
  • The advent of computer operated electron microscopes has also broadened access to these instruments, allowing users with little technical knowledge about electron microscope design to quickly become operators. (springer.com)
  • We have state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and focused ion-beam microscopes (FIB) that are accessible to staff and students from Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Engineering and Biology. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Learn how ZEISS scanning electron microscopes combine ultrahigh resolution imaging with the capability to perform advanced analytics while maintaining flexibility and ease-of-use. (zeiss.com)
  • Based on this, users from the University Konstanz and the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin will talk about first-hand experience for their applications with electron microscopes and will introduce you to the flexible instruments suited to a broad variety of applications in materials science, industrial labs and life sciences. (zeiss.com)
  • The EMF is designed to house a suite of electron microscopes, and each room has the power, cooling water supply, and HVAC necessary to run a modern microscope. (brown.edu)
  • Electron microscopes are much larger and more expensive instruments than the light microscope. (news-medical.net)
  • The EM & Nanofabrication Facility contains a suite of transmission and scanning electron microscopes. (lehigh.edu)
  • At present the Institute of Zoology provides two electron microscopes: A Zeiss Libra 120 Energy Filter Transmission Electron Microscope and a Zeiss DSM 950 Scanning Electron Microscope. (uibk.ac.at)
  • There are two types of electron microscopes - transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). (wur.nl)
  • For external users (outside of the Department of Biology), samples can be analysed with our transmission and scanning electron microscopes for a corresponding fee (see below). (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Electron microscopes can now resolve single atoms buried within structures, while X-ray microscopy can image molecular dynamics on a timescale of femtoseconds. (anl.gov)
  • Electron microscopes, whether of the transmission (TEM) or the scanning (SEM) type, relate to the study of specimen ultrastructure at levels of resolution that transcend the modest possibilities attainable using light microscopes. (le.ac.uk)
  • Conventional microscopes use light and several lenses to magnify images, whereas SEM uses electron beams to sweep the surface of specimens, producing magnified images in black and white. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They show that scanning transmission electron microscopes can be used for precision sculpting in complex oxide materials as well as imaging. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Electron Microscopes, Ultramicrotomy, Photographic techniques. (bio.net)
  • This unprecedented growth has been stimulated by the availability of new imaging detectors that dramatically increase the acuity of images, but also reflects advances in electron microscopes and image analysis software. (biophysics.org)
  • Electron microscopes uses electrons instead of photons, because electrons have a much shorter wavelength than photons and so allows you to observe matter with atomic resolution. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are two general types of electron microscopes: the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that scans an electron beam over the surface of an object and measures how many electrons are scattered back, and the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) that shoots electrons through the sample and measures how the electron beam changes because it is scattered in the sample. (wikibooks.org)
  • In environmental electron microscopes, differential pumping systems are used to actually have gasses present by the sample together with the electron beam. (wikibooks.org)
  • The figure below gives an overview typical magnifications achievable by the different electron microscopes compared to a light microscope. (wikibooks.org)
  • Electron microscopes fire electrons and create images, magnifying micrometer and nanometer structures by up to ten million times, providing a spectacular level of detail, even allowing researchers to view single atoms. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cryo-EM is a series of techniques utilizing transmission electron microscopes to yield accurate, detailed, 3D models of intricate biological structures at the sub-cellular and molecular scales. (thermofisher.com)
  • These electron microscopes were used for only a brief period of time, but the components live on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies employed two different EM methods: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the larvae and focused-ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) in the adult, and specialized software that helps make sense of the immense tangle of neurons. (hhmi.org)
  • Explore our cryo-tomography workflow covering live-cell imaging, vitreous freezing, cryo-fluorescence microscopy, sample thinning by focused ion beam microscopy and high-resolution electron cryo-tomography. (thermofisher.com)
  • The technique used to produce an enlarged image of a tiny object that utilizes an electron microscope, an instrument that uses a beam of electrons focused by an electron lens. (greenfacts.org)
  • Once the sample is in the chamber, the air is extracted and an electron gun at the top of the chamber emits a beam of electrons, which passes through a series of magnetic lenses that condense the beam into an extremely fine focus, capable of sweeping nano spots on the sample surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) enables the investigator to examine the surface topography and morphology of cells, tissues, or medical devices by scanning a beam of electrons across a sample using the low vacuum (low resolution) mode or high vacuum (high resolution) mode. (criver.com)
  • The optical microscope uses lenses to control the lights pathway through the system and is in many ways built up like a TEM - only the TEM uses electromagnetic lenses to direct the beam of electrons. (wikibooks.org)
  • Electron emission microscopy is a type of electron microscopy in which the information carrying beam of electrons originates from the specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this presentation, I will introduce attosecond electron microscopy and diffraction, which enable the space-time recording of the sub-optical-cycle dynamics. (anl.gov)
  • By two proof-of-principle experiments, we show that the attosecond electron pulses are suitable for atomic-scale diffraction and sub-cycle microscopy applications. (anl.gov)
  • Although the law of refraction in optics is exchanged with the Lorentz force in electrodynamics, the electron optical system has similar diffraction limits as optical systems, since they depend on the wave nature of the electron beam. (wikibooks.org)
  • In physics, this technique is referred to as PEEM, which goes together naturally with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). (wikipedia.org)
  • January 2010-Present: Member of the Core Executive Committee of the Advanced Facility for Microscopy and Microanalysis (AFMM), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. (google.com)
  • The Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility (EMMF) at the University of Nevada, Reno provides services and research opportunities to students, faculty and the community. (unr.edu)
  • This course is designed for individuals who use scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis in academic, governmental, or industrial laboratories: engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, geologists, forensic scientists and technical managers. (lehigh.edu)
  • Each registrant receives the textbook, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis , 4th edition, Kluwer/Springer Publishers (2018), as well as detailed laboratory notes which provide experimental results and worked problems. (lehigh.edu)
  • Electron microscopy is a technique that uses a beam of accelerated electrons to illuminate and produce images of specimens. (news-medical.net)
  • To obtain high contrast images of unstained specimens an electron loss of 250 eV near the carbon edge is used. (uibk.ac.at)
  • The laboratory at Children's Health℠ offers expertise in the field of routine electron microscopy on all tissue specimens. (childrens.com)
  • Electron Microscopy services are performed for analysis of diagnostic specimens. (childrens.com)
  • Below are images taken by our research laboratories using our JSM 6510LV demonstrating the use of the secondary electron and back scatter electron detectors at high vacuum, as well as flash freezing specimens with the Jeol cryo-puck. (haverford.edu)
  • Electron microscopy can be used to investigate the microstructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens providing morphologic and crystallographic information. (wur.nl)
  • The acquisition of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data from biological specimens must be tightly coupled to data preprocessing to ensure the best data quality and microscope usage. (nature.com)
  • Our pathologists send renal transplant specimens to an outside facility for electron microscopy analysis. (aapc.com)
  • Paint particles, fibers (both natural and artificial), bullet fingerprints, gunshot residue , counterfeit bank notes, forged documents, and trace evidence are all examples of specimens that can be analyzed using the scanning electron microscope. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are countless specialized techniques in the field of electron and light microscopy that require the acquisition of specialized knowledge, particularly for interpretation of results (electron tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy immediately come to mind), but most laboratories possessing the equipment to effect these approaches have specialists to help the casual user. (springer.com)
  • The rapidly evolving field of electron microscopy touches nearly every aspect of modern life, underpinning impactful materials discoveries in applications such as quantum information science, energy, and medicine. (nist.gov)
  • The information contained herein is based in part on the results of the workshop, which was attended by stakeholders working in the field of electron microscopy (EM), as well as non-microscopy experts in selected fields. (nist.gov)
  • Get an inside look at our Academy: Workshops, One-on-One Training, and Equipment Demos ranging from a general introduction to the field of electron microscopy to very specific techniques. (emsdiasum.com)
  • Philip oversees the electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, molecular spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy instruments, giving advice and providing training. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Philip jointly manages the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and X-ray analysis instrumentation within MC². (bath.ac.uk)
  • Philip also oversaw, trained and supervised users on various other techniques, including ion chromatography, FTIR microscopy, and UV/vis, near IR and FTIR spectroscopy. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The experimental technique of Cryo Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM) complements those of X-Ray Crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the experimental determination of protein structure. (toronto.edu)
  • Rolf's research interests cover various topics in electron microscopy, such as atomic resolution and low-voltage electron microscopy, in-situ electron microscopy and (valence) electron energy-loss spectroscopy. (empa.ch)
  • In collaboration with various research groups, he has published articles in numerous fields ranging from atomic-scale studies of precipitates in binary alloys, valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, interplanetary dust particles, carbon nanomaterials, semiconductor nanostructures, complex functional oxides, and in the field of aberration-corrected high-resolution electron microscopy. (empa.ch)
  • Using state-of-the-art imaging equipment, we offer research and teaching services in transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. (unr.edu)
  • The aim of the present workshop is to show the possibilities and top applications of the modern electron microscopy as well as to offer an overview of the newly and improved techniques related to the electron microscopy and spectroscopy applied to materials science. (icmab.es)
  • In biology, it is called photoelectron microscopy (PEM), which fits with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2009, Rolf is head of Empa's Electron Microscopy Center. (empa.ch)
  • Using electron microscopy, much greater magnification levels and resolution can be achieved than with a light microscope because the wavelength of electrons is so much shorter than that of photons. (news-medical.net)
  • You can get up to a hundred-fold higher useful magnification from EM than from light microscopy," said Tsien. (ucsd.edu)
  • The scanning electron microscope (SEM) produces detailed images at a higher magnification than a light microscope. (liverpoolmuseums.org.uk)
  • The different methods for microscopy cover a range of magnification roughly indicated by the bars in the figure. (wikibooks.org)
  • ERC consolidator grant to explore the early stages of cluster formation and crystal nucleation by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. (empa.ch)
  • In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. (osti.gov)
  • Our electron microscopy laboratory, which is integrated into the Network for Electron Microscopy Tübingen (NET) , not only serves the research and teaching purposes of our own group, but also acts as a service location for other working groups at the Biology Department. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • In 1990 he went back to the electron microscopy and joined the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden where he has been working in the laboratory for analytical transmission electron microscopy until today. (springer.com)
  • Electron Microscopy Methods and Protocols offers both newcomers and established researchers wanting to expand their repertoire of cutting-edge electron microscopy techniques-each optimized for reproducibility and robust results-today's gold-standard laboratory manual. (springer.com)
  • Thereafter he carried out postdoctoral studies at the University of California at Davis and at the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (empa.ch)
  • 2007-2009: Staff Scientist, National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California (USA). (empa.ch)
  • Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley have combined cutting-edge cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with computational molecular modeling to produce a near atomic-resolution model of the interaction between microtubules - crucial components of eukaryotic cell ultrastructure - and microtubule-associated proteins called tau. (lbl.gov)
  • For two days beginning on March 8, 2017, a planning workshop entitled Electron Microscopy Frontiers: Opportunities and Challenges was hosted by the Material Measurement Laboratory (MML) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (nist.gov)
  • Laboratory of Electron Microscopy is a core facility of the Institute of Biomedicine. (utu.fi)
  • Laboratory research is conducted using confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy, time-resolved imaging, superresolution and correlation microscopy. (photonics.com)
  • Electron Microscopy Sciences specializes in the manufacturing, preparation and distribution of the highest quality laboratory chemicals and microscopy supplies and equipment for electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology. (emsdiasum.com)
  • Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy ( SBEM , SBSEM or SBFSEM ) is a method to generate high resolution three-dimensional images from small samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denk W, Horstmann H (2004) Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Welcome to the Website of the Facility for Electron Microscopy Research (FEMR) at McGill University. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Facility for Electron Microscopy Research (FEMR) is a world-class, open access electron microscopy facility at McGill University. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe, located at APS Sector 26 , is the only dedicated x-ray microscopy beamline within the portfolios of the nation's Nanoscale Science Research Centers. (anl.gov)
  • For imaging of nanoscale objects, optical microscopy has limited resolution since the objects are often much smaller than the wavelength of light. (wikibooks.org)
  • By showing us the structure of materials at the nanoscale, electron microscopy provides a way to understand the link between material composition, structure, and performance, leading to technological advances including smaller, faster computers, chemical sensors, targeted drug delivery, high-performance materials, water filters and many more. (thermofisher.com)
  • He received his doctoral degree on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in the group of Prof. Manfred Rühle at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung in Stuttgart in 1998. (springer.com)
  • Electron microscopy is frequently portrayed as a discipline that stands alone, separated from molecular biology, light microscopy, physiology, and biochemistry, among other disciplines. (springer.com)
  • When exposed to blue light, the altered protein produces abundant singlet oxygen, a form of molecular oxygen that can be made visible by electron microscopy (EM). (ucsd.edu)
  • This in turn is making it possible to repeat the reconstructions iteratively, which enables us to handle large biomolecular complexes (for instance ribosomes) as multiple semi-independent bodies, and extract the inherent molecular flexibility and motions from the cryo-electron micrographs. (kth.se)
  • Finally, I will describe some very recent work where we try to combine experimental and theoretical methods to study ensembles of molecular conformations, and how we would like to use these types of reconstruction methods for wider classes of experimental data, including e.g. neutron scattering and light microscopy. (kth.se)
  • Automated molecular microscopy: the new Leginon system. (nature.com)
  • In Electron Microscopy Methods and Protocols, well-practiced experts describe in detail the key electron microscopy techniques used for examining cells, tissue, biological macromolecules, molecular structure, and their interactions. (springer.com)
  • However, when free atoms collide or when they are bound through molecular chemical reactions, some atoms gain or lose an extra electron, thus becoming positive or negatively charged (cations or anions). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent electron-microscopy (EM) studies on NCP-containing assemblies have helped to describe important chromatin transactions at a molecular level. (iucr.org)
  • In the 1960s, scientists were faced with the issue of structure determination methods using electron microscopy damaging the specimen due to high energy electron beams, so cryogenic electron microscopy was considered to overcome this issue as it was expected that low temperatures would reduce beam damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used to restrict electron beams and filter out unwanted scattered electrons before image formation. (unl.edu)
  • Our achievements unify the atomic imaging capability of sub-relativistic electron beams with the sub-cycle resolution of attosecond science. (anl.gov)
  • Using electron beams however requires working in a vacuum environment, and this makes the instruments considerably larger and expensive. (wikibooks.org)
  • Various Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) imaging techniques (ADF, HAADF, ABF) have become extremely useful for materials characterization at the nano- and atomic scale, particularly due to recent developments in the correction of spherical aberrations (Cs) of the (S)TEM¢s microscope lenses. (merlot.org)
  • The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The annual Lehigh Microscopy School (LMS) utilizes many of these instruments and is the largest and longest-running course on electron microscopy and analysis. (lehigh.edu)
  • The big advantage of EM is that it has always had much higher spatial resolution than light microscopy. (ucsd.edu)
  • Advances in electron and X-ray microscopy have enabled new levels of spatial resolution and physicochemical sensitivity that allow scientists to, for instance, image strain in nanomaterials. (anl.gov)
  • It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • You've heard of "designer babies," the idea that you can customize a baby by altering its DNA, but now a team of researchers have meddled around with the very fabric of reality and created the very first "designer electrons. (extremetech.com)
  • critical to the advance of cryo-electron microscopy , allowing researchers to obtain images of biological materials that more closely resembled the natural state of the material. (britannica.com)
  • Modifying a protein from a plant much favored by science, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues have created a new type of genetic tag visible under an electron microscope, illuminating life in never-before-seen detail. (ucsd.edu)
  • The researchers at Linköping University used scanning transmission electron microscopy to study diffusion in thin film. (eurekalert.org)
  • Atomic-resolution electron microscopy has enabled researchers at Linköping University in Sweden to observe for the first time a phenomenon that has eluded materials scientists for many decades. (eurekalert.org)
  • We provide an electron microscopy service to students and researchers throughout Newcastle University. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Each individual will work with a small international team of researchers at MIT (K. Berggren and M. F. Yanik) and the Technical University of Delft (P. Kruit) in the Netherlands, Stanford University (M. Kasevich), and Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (P. Hommelhoff) to develop a new electron microscope based on quantum non-demolition measurements (Putnam & Yanik, Phys. (mit.edu)
  • Researchers have used electron microscopy to develop a unique way to build 3-D structures as small as one to two billionths of a metre. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The new Neurobiology Center at the Nencki Institute in Warsaw, Poland, has installed a combination of light and electron microscopy devices to help researchers better understand the structure, function and capabilities of the human brain. (photonics.com)
  • One of today's sharpest imaging tools, super-resolution microscopy, produces sparkling images of what until now has been the blurry interior of cells, detailing not only the cell's internal organs and skeleton, but also providing insights into cells' amazing flexibility. (news-medical.net)
  • Established methods were then used to convert singlet oxygen production into a tissue stain that the electron microscope can see. (ucsd.edu)
  • The text features both a screening and interpretational guide for TEM diagnostic applications and current TEM diagnostic tissue preparation methods pertinent to all clinical electron microscope units worldwide. (ecampus.com)
  • Tissue should be trimmed immediately into 1 mm cubes to ensure proper fixation throughout the tissue for electron microscopy services. (criver.com)
  • Immunohistochemical localization of antigens in tissue embedded in JB-4 by backscattered electron imaging utilizing colloidal gold-labeled and peroxidase-labeled antibodies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The advent of aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy technology is now giving resolutions below 0.05 nanometers enabling single atoms to be directly viewed and analyzed. (icmab.es)
  • The aberration corrected microscope PEEM-3 employs a curved electron mirror to counter the lowest order aberrations of the electron lenses and the accelerating field. (wikipedia.org)
  • This webinar focuses on recent technical developments in 3D electron microscopy that enable imaging of a greater variety of biological samples, revealing unexpected and new biology. (zeiss.com)
  • In conventional electron microscopy, biological samples have to be dehydrated and then coated with a material that conducts electricity, such as a thin layer of gold or carbon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For scientists interested in electron microscopy related techniques there is no better option to get informed and to talk directly with the scientific experts and ZEISS staff, respectively. (zeiss.com)
  • It was in 1931 that the German scientists Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska developed the first model of an electron microscope. (news-medical.net)
  • Tsien and Shu are optimistic that miniSOG will grant new powers to electron microscopy, permitting scientists to pursue answers to questions previously impossible to ask. (ucsd.edu)
  • Here we present the findings from the first in a series of workshops gathering together scientists and technologists across academia, government laboratories, and industry, with the goal to develop a critical roadmap for next-generation transmission electron microscopy (NexTEM). (nist.gov)
  • The samples were then purified for high-contrast imaging in cryo-electron microscopy, and from this image, the scientists found that heterochromatin is formed by HP1 binding with chromatin while bridging the nucleosomes positioned side by side. (eurekalert.org)
  • Janelia scientists have used a powerful microscopy technique to discover new connections in the memory and learning center of the Drosophila brain. (hhmi.org)
  • Scientists have studied the neural underpinnings of fly learning and memory for more than 40 years, and mapped the brain region involved using light microscopy. (hhmi.org)
  • Or can scientists continue to rely on tried-and-true light microscopy? (hhmi.org)
  • Additional image analysis and stereology scientists on-site allow for quantitative assessment of electron microscopy images. (criver.com)
  • [1] A serial block-face scanning electron microscope consists of an ultramicrotome mounted inside the vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been a welcome advance, because earlier instru- ments required a level of knowledge about electron optics and vacuum systems to produce optimal photographs and to avoid "crashing" the instruments that typically made it difficult for beginners. (springer.com)
  • The JEOL 6510 LV Scanning Electron Microscope is equipped with a secondary electron detector and backscatter detector for high vacuum applications. (haverford.edu)
  • Between 1978 and 1989 he was responsible for the development of technologies for electron-beam welding and vacuum drying in the industrial research. (springer.com)
  • A scanning device near the bottom of the vacuum chamber controls the movement of the electron beam across the specimen, row by row. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cells were placed in buffer solution in a microfluidic device with electron transparent windows inside the vacuum of the electron microscope. (pnas.org)
  • All electron microscope work under at least low pressures and usually in high vacuum chambers to avoid scattering the electrons in the gas. (wikibooks.org)
  • In 1963, G. F. Rempfer designed the electron optics for an early ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) PEEM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some electrons penetrate the sample surface and escape into vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jacques Dubochet , Joachim Frank , and Richard Henderson "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tsien was co-winner of the 2008 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his role in helping develop and expand the use of green fluorescent proteins (GFP), a tool widely employed in light microscopy to peer inside living cells or whole animals and observe molecules interacting in real-time. (ucsd.edu)
  • Our experienced electron microscopy staff is available to provide guidance in protocol design for the most appropriate fixation, collection, preparation, and evaluation of biologic samples to ensure sample integrity. (criver.com)
  • What would you recommend for proper harvesting and fixation of tissues for electron microscopy? (criver.com)
  • Immuno-electron microscopy requires special fixation. (criver.com)
  • Biochemists at the University of Zurich have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the detailed architecture of the chloride channel TMEM16A. (news-medical.net)
  • This work is based on experiences acquired by the authors regarding often asked questions and problems during manifold education of beginners in analytical transmission electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Afterwards he expanded his field of work to analytical transmission electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Forensic analytical tests such as scanning electron microscopy, spectrometers, chromatography , and x-ray dispersion aim at producing individualized evidence that allows the identification and origin of samples and the accurate interpretation of data in relation to a crime or a suspect investigation or to help explain an explosion, arson , or airplane crash. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Forensic, Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences are identification sciences dealing with criminal and delicate societal problems for which scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-rays (EDAX) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are providing increasingly definitive solutions. (livrariacultura.com.br)
  • This ring-bound volume provides the reader with a useful source of comprehensive and accurate protocols for electron microscopic specimen preparation with an emphasis on the subcellular level. (springer.com)
  • Proteins are suspended in a tiny drop of solution that is frozen close to -196 o C (-321 o F), and an electron gun shoots electrons at the sample. (theregister.co.uk)
  • We have used correlated scanning EM (SEM) and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy to visualize budding of virus-like particles (VLPs) of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and HIV type 1 (HIV-1). (pnas.org)
  • By fluorescence microscopy, the Gag protein shows a punctate pattern that has often been interpreted to represent sites of virus budding, although this interpretation has not been verified directly in quantitative terms. (pnas.org)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) exploits the smaill wavelength of an electron to produce high resolution images with magnifcations exceeding 100 000X. (uoguelph.ca)
  • One can achieve a considerable improvement in resolution with instruments such as the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope that use electrons with De Broglie wavelength much smaller than that of visible light. (wikibooks.org)
  • Throughout the remainder of his career, he continued to refine techniques for structural imaging of biological materials by cryo-electron microscopy . (britannica.com)
  • The FEMR offers a comprehensive range of electron microscopy (EM) resources, expertise and services for both routine and advanced sample preparation, electron microscopy imaging, and analysis of biological matter, hydrated and beam-sensitive materials, and ambient temperature materials. (mcgill.ca)
  • The imaging of inelastically scattered electrons makes element analysis with EELS possible and shows the element distribution by using ESI ( E lectron S pectroscopic I maging). (uibk.ac.at)
  • A imaging mode in a TEM that uses only Unscattered Electrons to form the image. (unl.edu)
  • Imaging heterochromatin became possible because of cryo-electron microscopy. (eurekalert.org)
  • The main principle underpinning these imaging techniques is that the detectors are designed such that they mostly collect high-angle scattered electrons, thus minimizing the contribution of elastically scattered electrons to the image. (merlot.org)
  • For decades, electron microscopy and X-ray imaging have been used to look inside matter. (anl.gov)
  • At the CCI we offer full service for electron microscopy, from sample preparation, to imaging and image analysis. (gu.se)
  • It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by in this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects. (osti.gov)
  • The fluorescence confocal microscope operates in tandem with the electron microscope and combines high-resolution characteristics of electron-imaging techniques with the biological information provided by light-obtained images. (photonics.com)
  • Photoelectron imaging includes any form of imaging in which the source of information is the distribution of points from which electrons are ejected from the specimen by the action of photons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique with the highest resolution photoelectron imaging is presently photoelectron emission microscopy using UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • A photoemission electron microscope is a parallel imaging instrument. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Should we Know about Electron Optics and the Construction of an Electron Microscope? (springer.com)
  • Post-doctoral candidates are sought with experience in one or more of: quantum optics, free-electron optics design, numerical simulation of electron systems, electron decoherence, and/or transmission-electron microscopy. (mit.edu)
  • There are two main types of electron micrscope, namely, the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope. (news-medical.net)
  • More recently, the application of scanning electron microscopy in the biological sciences has enjoyed something of a renaissance, in part because of recent advances in EM technology. (sciencemag.org)
  • When you click "Send Request", we will send the contact details you supply to Electron Microscopy Sciences so they may respond to your inquiry directly. (photonics.com)
  • The Electron cryo-Microscopy group, headed by Assistant Prof. Cristina Paulino, is part of the Structural Biology Unit and is embedded in the Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology (GBB) Institute. (rug.nl)
  • Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy service geared towards the Life Sciences. (le.ac.uk)
  • In Electron Microscopy the spacings being determined are those between atoms in a lattice or crystal. (unl.edu)
  • They used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with such a high resolution that it was possible to image the positions of individual atoms in the material. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular complexes and subcellular structures. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been an essential tool for research in cell biology since its development in the 1950s and continues to aid in elucidating the complex architecture of the nervous system including membrane appositions between pre and postsynaptic structures, glia-neuron processes, glia-blood vessel contacts as well as the precise localization of membrane bound antigens by immunolabeling methods. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Electron and X-ray Microscopy Group, together with the CNM 's dynamic and diverse user community, makes use of the unique facilities located at the CNM to bring together two modalities with a single goal: to understand material structures, fundamental processes and excitations driving energy transport and interactions in complex nanomaterials. (anl.gov)
  • By correlated microscopy, a fraction of the fluorescent spots corresponded to spherical budding structures visible on the plasma membrane by SEM. (pnas.org)
  • Scanning electron microscopy also renders detailed three-dimensional (3-D) images of extremely small microorganisms, 3-D anatomical pictures of insect, worm, spore, or other organic structures, and the analysis of gems and gem fragments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this work, the authors rely on our expertise with transmission electron microscopy to identify autophagic structures in PDAC cells and to examine the morphology of mitochondria in surviving cancer cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • Cryo electron microscopy is booming, with new atomic structures appearing every week and new facilities being installed at research centers across the globe. (biophysics.org)
  • Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (cryoTEM) is a transmission electron microscopy technique that is used in structural biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solving the structure of large dynamic complexes often requires integrating several complementary techniques, such as biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)-an approach known as integrative structural biology. (thermofisher.com)
  • Samples are prepared by methods similar to that in transmission electron microscopy ( TEM ), typically by fixing the sample with aldehyde, staining with heavy metals such as osmium and uranium then embedding in an epoxy resin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryogenic electron microscopy ( cryo-EM ) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique applied on samples cooled to cryogenic temperatures and embedded in an environment of vitreous water. (wikipedia.org)
  • the E-T detector collects SE2 electrons and provide topographical information, the in-lens detector collects SE1 electrons and provide high resolution surface information, the EsB detector (which is an in lens detector) collects BS electrons at low voltages thus provide composition contrast for all samples including nonconductive or beam sensitive samples, the STEM detector collects transmitted electrons of thin samples (up to 100nm) at 30kV. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • the E-T detector collects SE2 electrons and provide topographical information, the in-lens detector collects SE1 electrons and provide high resolution surface information, the AsB detector collects BS electrons at voltages higher than 5kV and provide composition and channeling contrast, the CL detector collects photons that can be emitted as a result of electron-hole recombination in semiconductor samples, the EDS collects x-ray signals and provide elemental analysis. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The scanning electron dicroscope does produce lower resolution images than the transmission electron microscope, but since it uses surface electron interactions, it can image bulk samples and provide a much greater depth of field. (news-medical.net)
  • Similarly to transmission electron microscopy, samples need to be very thin as the technique mainly involves looking at the electron beam transmitted through and emerging from the specimen. (news-medical.net)
  • Therefore, some samples need to be specially prepared to withstand the environment inside an electron microscope. (wur.nl)
  • They also prepare samples and support external users of our scanning electron microscope. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Diagnostic Electron Microscopy: A Practical Guide Interpretation and Technique summarises the current interpretational applications of TEM in diagnostic pathology. (ecampus.com)
  • Electron microscopy services can be quite complex, so it's crucial to choose a provider with proven experience performing quantitative pathology techniques to avoid program setbacks including compromised study designs, increased costs, and extended timelines. (criver.com)
  • Performing electron microscopy can be quite complex so it is crucial to chose a provider with proven experience performing quantitative pathology techniques to avoid program setbacks. (criver.com)
  • This practically- oriented textbook represents a clear and comprehensible introduction for all persons who want to use a transmission electron microscope in practice but who are not specially qualified electron microscopists up to now. (springer.com)
  • Grass root efforts from electron microscopists across three MML divisions (642, 643, and 647) and two campuses (Boulder and Gaithersburg) co-organized this event. (nist.gov)
  • However, electron microscopists working independently in these three related fields are often called upon to identify particulates which have been well characterized by microscopists in one of the other fields of study. (livrariacultura.com.br)
  • It is virtually certain that this effort will also interest other electron microscopists in some novel scientific problems with criminal and societal relevance. (livrariacultura.com.br)
  • By contrast, a scanning electron microscope detects secondary electrons that arise from the surface as a result of excitation by the original electron beam. (news-medical.net)
  • These escaping electrons, known as deflected secondary electrons, have specific energies that can be measured. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This image can be obtained by measuring either the backscattered (i.e. reflected) incident electrons or secondary electrons ejected from the sample surface. (uoguelph.ca)
  • PEEM measures the coefficient indirectly by collecting the emitted secondary electrons generated in the electron cascade that follows the creation of the primary core hole in the absorption process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary electrons are generated by the decay of the core hole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ultrastructure of viruses can be examined by electron microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the resulting two-dimensional images are exceptionally noisy since the electron dose must be kept low to avoid damage, and averaging data over many images poses other problems, in particular due to motions in molecules. (kth.se)
  • Some of the electrons are scattered away when they bump into the protein molecules, and some pass straight to a photodetector on the other side. (theregister.co.uk)
  • As the electron beam sweeps the surface, it excites electrons present in the atomic structure of molecules, causing some of them to escape from the surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Single gold-tagged epidermal growth factor (EGF) molecules bound to cellular EGF receptors of fixed fibroblast cells were imaged in liquid with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). (pnas.org)
  • Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, also called photoelectron microscopy, PEM) is a type of electron microscopy that utilizes local variations in electron emission to generate image contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility is located in the Smith Research Building (South Campus) and houses a JEOL JEM1010 transmission electron microscope (TEM), a JEOL JSM5900 scanning electron microscope (SEM), a Technotrade coating system, a Leica ultramicrotome, and a Leica ultrastainer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Convince yourself in this workshop how your work can benefit from the latest advances in electron microscopy. (zeiss.com)