Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microscopy, Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron: An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Cryoultramicrotomy: The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Freeze Substitution: A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.3,3'-DiaminobenzidineEndoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss: A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.

The structlre of pili (fimbriae) of Moraxella bovis. (1/34186)

Cells from rough and smooth colonies of Moraxella bovis were examined by electron microscopy utilizing both shadowing and thin sectioning techniques. Pili were found on the surfaces of cells from rough but not smooth colonies. Pili had a peritrichoud distribution and appeared as delicate (6.5-8.5 nm in diameter), elongated unbranched filaments. When bacteria were sectioned pili did not contain central pores and appeared to originate from opacities on the surface of the cell wall.  (+info)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (2/34186)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (3/34186)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

Assessment of hepatotoxic potential. (4/34186)

Philosophic concepts and pragmatic approaches toward improved understanding of the effect of drugs in the hepatocyte are reviewed. No set pattern of studies is advocated but rather observations are encouraged within the framework of studies that provide for varied exposure of the hepatocyte. Clinical usage should be imitated to provide earliest possible indications of toxicity in man. The need for definitive characterization through utilization of appropriate methodology derived from cross-fertilization of related disciplines is stressed. Both minimal and maximal dose effects should be established. Selected use of electron microscopy has become essential for characterizing responses of the liver to injury. The advantages of the toluidine blue-stained Epon "thick" sections are emphasized. Such observations are used to implement the utility of serial biopsies from the beagle dog prior to and during long-term study of potential hepatic injury. Examples of the critical effects of drug concentration within the hepatocyte are presented.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (5/34186)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (6/34186)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Unsaturated fatty acid requirements for growth and survival of a rat mammary tumor cell line. (7/34186)

A cell line, the growth and survival of which is markedly affected by linoleic acid, has been established from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor. The cells have been continuously passaged in 5% rat serum plus 10% fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. The rat serum component was found to be indispensalbe, for when it was omitted the growth rate rapidly declined and the cells died by 5 to 7 days. Removal of the rat serum from the growth medium also resulted in a dramatic loss of Oil Red O-positive droplets in the cells, suggesting that the lipid component of rat serum might be a major growth-promoting principle in rat serum. This is likely since the total lipid fraction, but not the delipidized protein fraction, could largely supplant requirement of the cells for rat serum. Pure linoleic acid was found to be effective in maintaining the cell growth in delipidized serum or in whole fetal calf serum-supplemented medium. Fatty acid analysis revealed a 19-fold higher amount of linoleic acid in rat serum than in fetal calf serum.  (+info)

Effect of desiccation on the ultrastructural appearances of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter lwoffii. (8/34186)

An Acinetobacter baumannii isolate survived desiccation beyond 30 days and an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate up to 21 days. For both species, desiccation resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of round cells (A baumannii, 40% to 80%; A lwoffii, 51% to 63%) and a significant decrease in rod shaped cells (A baumannii, 58% to 13%; A lwoffii, 46% to 34%). Electronmicroscopic examination showed that there was also a corresponding significant increase in the cell wall thickness (A baumannii, up to 53%; A lwoffii, up to 26%). Desiccated A baumannii cells became more electron-dense and had significantly thicker cell walls (x1.3) than those of A lwoffii. Cell wall structures of A baumannii strains with different abilities to resist desiccation deserve further study.  (+info)

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We have developed techniques for studying patch-clamped membranes inside glass pipettes using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). To preserve the patch structure with the least possible distortion, we rapidly froze and freeze dried the pipette tip. The pipette is transparent for more than 50 microns from the tip. HVEM images of patches confirm light microscopy observations that the patch is not a bare bilayer, but a membrane-covered bleb of cytoplasm that may include organelles and cytoskeleton. The membrane that spans the pipette is commonly tens of micrometers from the tip of the pipette and occasionally as far as 100 microns. The structure of patches taken from a single cell type is variable but there are consistent differences between patches made from different cell types. With suction applied to the pipette before seal formation, we have seen in the light microscope vesicles swept from the plasmalemma up the pipette. These vesicles are visible in electron micrographs, particularly ...
1963 Conference on Electron Microscopy, Gliwice, chairman: S. Gorczyca, in Polish, 10 papers (unpublished) 1971 II Polish Conference on Electron
Electron microscopic localization of acetylcholinesterase in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. In: Kolligátum. pp. 274-285. (1967 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A structural study of tin-antimony oxide catalysts by high-resolution electron microscopy. AU - Berry, Frank J.. AU - Smith, David J.. PY - 1984/7. Y1 - 1984/7. N2 - Tin-antimony oxide catalysts prepared by the calcination of precipitates have been investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy. The exposure of the catalysts prepared at low temperatures to gaseous atmospheres containing hydrocabon and oxygen results in a segregation of antimony from the poorly crystalline rutile-type solids and the development of an amorphous material. The catalysts containing low concentrations of antimony are also partially converted to a non-rutile-type crystalline phase. Prolonged calcination in air of the used catalysts at high temperatures leads to the attainment of bulk equilibrium and the formation of solid solutions of antimony in tin(IV) oxide. Treatment of the equilibrated crystalline catalysts prepared at high temperatures in the hydrocarbon and oxygen gas stream gives rise to ...
A method for forming a zoned distribution of particulate material within a fibrous web includes a conveying step for providing a gas entrained supply of the particulate material and a segregating step centrifugally directing at least a portion of the particulate material into an accumulation region. A transferring step selectively directs particulate material from the accumulation region into a delivery gas stream to provide an intermittent flow volume of a selected quantity of particulate material from the accumulation region through a delivery conduit and into a web forming chamber. A fiberizing step provides a flow of a selected fibrous material into the web forming chamber, and a directing step controls the intermittent flow of particulate material from the delivery conduit into the forming chamber. A foraminous forming layer is disposed within the forming chamber for receiving the fibrous material and the particulate material to produce a fibrous web which includes zoned regions having selected,
Mitosis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in thick (0-25-I mum) serial sections with a high voltage electron microscope and in preparations of spheroplasts spread on a water surface. Spindle microtubules originate from a plaque-like structure called the spindle pole bosis the SPB duplicates and a set of long and short microtubules develops on each SPB. The spindle arises as the SPBs separate on the nuclear membrane adense and are not individually visible. Genetic studies, however, have indicated that there are 17 linkage groups. The number of microtubules was determined in diploid and haploid spindles on serial stereo micrographs. In diploid mitosis about 40 microtubules issue from a SPB. Most are non-continuous and often they are visibly associated with a chromatin fibre. The spindle in haploid cells is similar except that the number of microtubules is about half that in diploid cells and the SPB is smaller. The pole-to-pole microtubules vary in number from spindle to spindle, ...
Biology is a challenging and complicated mess. Understanding this challenging complexity is the realm of the biological sciences: Trying to make sense of the massive, messy data in terms of discovering patterns and revealing its underlying general rules. Among the most powerful mathematical tools for organizing and helping to structure complex, heterogeneous and noisy data are the tools provided by multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) approaches. These eigenvector/eigenvalue data-compression approaches were first introduced to electron microscopy (EM) in 1980 to help sort out different views of macromolecules in a micrograph. After 35 years of continuous use and developments, new MSA applications are still being proposed regularly. The speed of computing has increased dramatically in the decades since their first use in electron microscopy. However, we have also seen a possibly even more rapid increase in the size and complexity of the EM data sets to be studied. MSA computations had thus become a
A hemagglutination-inhibitory mucoprotein from human urine has been studied with the electron microscope. It consists of filaments, with diameters of 40 to , 240 A, composed of smaller fibrils. In the two-dimensional projection of the electron micrographs, the single fibrils often show a zig-zag course with a periodicity of 100 to 140 A; the single branch of a zig-zag measures about 60 A in length and either 20 or 40 A in width. Still thinner fibrillar elements are observable with diameters of 10 A or less. In three-dimensional aspect, the zig-zag structure might be a helix. The fibril-bundle (or filament) reveals a complicated configuration. Heat treatment at 70°C shows some indication of denaturation (e.g. filaments are shorter), whereas at 80°C almost complete degradation of the protein into individual zig-zag elements or smaller pieces is attained. The interaction between influenza virus particles and inhibitory mucoprotein consists of the attachment of a fiber molecule to the virus ...
Microplastics collected at sea harbour a high diversity of microorganisms including some Vibrio genus members, raising questions about the role of microplastics as a novel ecological niche for...
The fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes was observed under high voltage electron microscopy, in 4μm thick rat retinal sections with the aid of acid phosphatase cytochemistry. The study of thick sections facilitates the observation of the moment of fusion in stereo view from two tilted pictures. From this study, the contents of the lysosome pored into the phagosome through the orifice, shortly after the collision of the two organelles. The hydrolytic enzymes such as acid phosphatase spread in a sheet under the limiting membrane of the phagosome to finally form a balloon of the reaction product. In some case the ballooning appeared to be doubled. The outer skin of the reaction product may be the result of a wrapping mechanism of phagolysosomes.. ...
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results. The initial deposition of PM on the SiC grains showed good agreement with theoretical observations, ...
Methodology to annotate the multiple origins of axonal projections in dense electron microscopy data of mammalian nervous tissue without the need of chemical label conversion is reported.
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
Hi, I am Stefan Fischer. I am biologist at the University of Tübingen, working in the department for Evolutionary Biology of Invertebrates (Institute of Evolution and Ecology). My methodological focus is set on electron microscopy. Furthermore I do focus on 3D techniques, be it on basis of semi-thin sections (LM), Ultra-thin sections (ssTEM) and also MicroCT data. For that reason I developed a strong interest in open source software packages and image analysis in order to automate (or semi-automate) some of the tedious parts of my workflows.. ...
Conventional electron microscopy offers a substantial resolution advantage over light microscopy, but requires difficult and often destructive preparation techniques. Recent advances in electron microscopy allow for imaging of hydrated samples, retaining the resolution advantage while removing the difficulty in preparation. Two new techniques, environmental scanning electron microscopy and wet electron microscopy offer this advantage, allowing for new possibilities in biological imaging.
The fine structure of the His bundle is described on the basis of its light and electron microscopic appearance. Electron microscopy was performed on one human and two canine hearts, and light microscopy on over 400 human and 60 canine hearts. The His bundle was identified by its light microscopic appearance. There were no significant differences in the fine structure of human and canine His bundles. In both, the principal cell was a typical Purkinje cell containing few myofibrils and a large perinuclear clear zone; these cells are shorter and broader than working myocardial cells, and their intercellular junctions (which are obliquely rather than transversely oriented) contain a high proportion of nexus formations. Both the human and canine His bundles are partitioned by fine collagen septa, which are longitudinally oriented with comparatively few crossover connections. The general organization of the His bundle is thus into multiple strands of Purkinje cells, and these strands are largely ...
With the use of the method described in the preceding paper (to be referred to subsequently as I) for constructing the displacement fields, the electron microscope image contrast of small dislocation loops and of stacking-fault tetrahedra has been computed from numerical solutions of the Howie-Whelan (1961) equations. The computer-simulated images, displayed in the form of half-tone pictures, have been used to identify the nature and geometry of such defects in ion-irradiated foils. A systematic study of the contrast of small Frank loops in Cu+ ion irradiated copper under a wide variety of diffraction conditions is reported. In particular the variations of the contrast of loops edge-on and inclined to the electron beam with the operating Bragg reflexion, the thickness and inclination of the foil, depth of the defect in the foil and deviation from the Bragg-reflecting condition have been studied. Methods of obtaining useful information, such as the diameters of the loops, are suggested. The ...
A new type of Sr-containing sialon polytypoid phase with the structural formula SrSi10-xAl18+xN32-xOx (x approximate to l) has been found in the Sr-Si-Al-O-N system. The phase was characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and its structure was investigated by electron diffraction (ED) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). It is considerably disordered, but the average structure has a rhombohedral unit cell with a=5.335(5)approximate to root 3.a(AIN) and c= 79.1(1)Angstrom approximate to 30.c(AIN). The Sr atoms ave located in layers M-Sr-M, M=(Si/Al), at the origin of the unit cell with 12 X= (O,N) atoms around it, at distances of similar to 3 Angstrom, forming a cubo-octahedron. The X atoms that form a hexagon around the Sr atom in the ab plane are corner shared by M = (Si/Al) tetrahedra with opposite polarity in adjacent layers in which 2/3 of the tetrahedra are occupied. The M-Sr-M layers alternate with normally eight-layer-thick AIN type blocks, although the thickness of ...
SMITH, DJ and FREEMAN, LA and MCMAHON, RA and AHMED, H and PITT, MG and PETERS, TB (1984) CHARACTERIZATION OF SI-IMPLANTED AND ELECTRON-BEAM-ANNEALED SILICON-ON-SAPPHIRE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY. J APPL PHYS, 56. pp. 2207-2212. ISSN 0021-8979. Full text not available from this repository ...
RICHMOND, Va., June 7 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- National Environmental Testing Lab Now IDs Carbon Black with Electron-Microscopy.
Learn how your ultrastructural investigations can benefit from modern electron microscope techniques. Correlative microscopy provides you deeper insights about cell structure by combination of light and scanning electron microscopy methods.
Cryoelectron microscopy of biological molecules is among the hottest growth areas in biophysics & structural biology at present.Frank, Joachim is the author of Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy Of Macromolecular Assemblies Visualization Of Biological Molecules In Their Native State, published 2006 under ISBN 9780195182187 and ISBN 0195182189. [read more] ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
With the resolution becoming sufficient to reveal individual atoms, HREM is now entering the stage where it can compete with X-ray methods to quantitatively determine atomic structures of materials without much prior knowledge, but with the advantage of being applicable to aperiodic objects such as crystal defects. In our view the future electron microscope will be characterised by a large versatility in experimental settings under computer control such as the illumination conditions (TEM-STEM), CBED, detecting conditions (diffraction, image, ptychography) and many other tunable parameters such as focus (g), voltage, spherical aberration (C-s), beam tilt, etc. Since modem detectors can detect single electrons, also the counting statistics is known. The only limiting factor in the experiment will be the total number of electrons that interact with the object during the experiment due to the limitations in the exposure time or in the object damage. However, instrumental potentialities will never ...
Transmission electron micrographs showing the tracheal epithelium in Ig-deficient mice. The tracheal epithelium in SAL/SAL-treated animals (a) harbored only
A system for forming particulate material in a bulk form comprises a compression tower having a top and sides depending therefrom. A compression chamber having side walls and an open bottom is reciprocatively mounted to said tower for deposit of loose particulate material therein. The system further includes a first conveyor assembly displaced from said tower. In its extended position, the chamber contacts the first conveyor assembly and the bottom of the chamber is closed thereby. A vacuum blower draws loose particulate material into the chamber through an inlet and compresses it against the first conveyor assembly. A ram assembly within the chamber further compresses the loose material into a bulk form atop the conveyor belt. When the chamber and ram assembly are returned to their retracted positions, the material bulk is transferred downstream by the first conveyor assembly to a space between vertically spaced second and third conveyor assemblies.
Transmission electron micrograph of the cells of A. aeolicus.(A) Image of the whole cell and its flagellum. (B) and (C) Partial enlargements of the flagellated
Choosing a suitable particulate material for the material systems of the present invention involves various qualitative evaluations, which may easily be accomplished through routine experimentation by those of ordinary skill in the art. First, a small mound of particulate material is formed, a small depression is formed in the mound, and a small amount of fluid is placed in the depression. Visual observations are made regarding, among other things, the rate at which the fluid diffuses into the particulate material, the viscosity of the particulate material introduction of the fluid, and whether a membrane is formed around the fluid. Next, line testing is performed by filling a syringe filled with fluid and strafing the mounds of particulate material. After a period of about 24 hours, the mounds of particulate material are examined. Those in which pebbles of particulate material have formed are most suitable, as it means that the particulate material and fluid react more quickly than the fluid ...
Natural chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) specimens from Golden, New Mexico and Transvaal, South Africa were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The defect structure was composed of dislocations,...
Cryoelectron microscopy of biological molecules is among the hottest growth areas in biophysics and structural biology at present, and Frank is arguably the most distinguished practitioner of this art.
A recording element is disclosed which is capable of providing high-quality, high information-density recording by thermal deformation. The element comprises a support having thereon a layer of amorphous material. The amorphous material is capable of being thermally deformed to form depressions surrounded by sharply defined ridges when impinged upon by a high energy-density recording beam. The amorphous material comprises either a binder and a dye or a certain solvent-coatable dye, Iosol Red. The amorphous material must have an absorption factor, as herein defined, greater than 20. The depressions which are formed in the described material are such that they are readable by a reading beam which is not absorbed by the material.
Read the latest amorphous materials journal articles on Materials Today: the gateway for amorphous research, journal articles and more.
... (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular complexes and subcellular structures. It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. The EMDB was founded at EBI in 2002, under the leadership of Kim Henrick. Since 2007 it has been operated jointly by the PDBe, and the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB PDB) as a part of EMDataBank which is funded by a joint NIH grant to PDBe, the RCSB and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI). ...
The electron microscope is relatively larger and uses a vacuum and electrons to produce a high quality image, by sending electrons through the tiny gaps. (An anode is there to speed it up). This gives an advantage to the electron microscope, a better resolution. As a result if any person wants to see something such as the mitochondrion, the Golgi Body or even a lysosome they are able to. It magnifies up to 200,000 times, which is a huge amount!. There are two types of electron microscope, the Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] and the Transmission Electron Microscope [TEM]. Scanning Electron Microscope shows the external and whole image of a specimen such as a dust mite, or a nit. The Transmission Electron Microscope is literally the opposite. It gives the image from the interior. These are very exciting options as they give an overview of the entire specimen in question and we are able to study them in great detail and depth.. ...
Light and Electron Microscopic Evidence for a Direct Retinal Projection to the Pulvinar in the Asiatic Chipmunk,,I,Tamias sibricus,/I,. (1986 ...
Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the structure of molecular films of self-assembled monolayers of pentathiophene derivatives supported on various electron transparent substrates. Despite the extreme beam sensitivity of the monolayers, structural crystallographic maps were obtained that revealed the nanoscale structure of the film. The image resolution is determined by the minimum beam diameter that the radiation hardness of the monolayer can support, which in our case is about 90 nm for a beam current of 5 × 106 e-/s. Electron diffraction patterns were collected while scanning a parallel electron beam over the film. These maps contain uncompromised information of the size, symmetry and orientation of the unit cell, orientation and structure of the domains, degree of crystallinity, and their variation on the micrometer scale, which are crucial to understand the electrical transport properties of the organic films. This information allowed us to track small changes in the ...
Virtual Nanoscopy: The Ridiculously Zoomable Cell... Color us impressed! A team of researchers... ...Our approach employs standard transmission electron microscopy , rapid automated data collection, and s... ...It greatly facilitates correlative light- electron microscopy studies to relate structure and functio... ...ues stitched together... http://www.neatorama.com/2012/08/08/Virtual-Nanoscopy-The-Ridiculously-Zoomable-Cell/ ...
Gadisseux, JF. ; Evrard, Philippe. Glial-neuronal Relationship in the Developing Central Nervous-system - a Histochemical Electron Microscope Study of Radial Glial-cell Particulate Glycogen in Normal and Reeler Mice and the Human-fetus. In: Developmental Neuroscience, Vol. 7, no. 1, p. 12-32 (1985 ...
Male chick embryos of a sex-linked cross were injected with 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate on the fourth day of incubation. Their left gonads, together with ovaries from uninjected control females, were dissected at various intervals after hatching and processed for electron microscopic study. At the time of hatching no differences were found between the intersexual gonads of treated chicks and control ovaries with the exception of the presence, in the former, of great number of germ cells in interphase. Cortical degeneration in intersexual gonads began on the third day and was almost completed by the tenth. During this period germ cells underwent cytolysis while accompanying pre-follicular cells showed cytological characteristics which were undistinguishable from those found in control ovaries. This fact tends to suggest that the primary incompetency responsible for cortical degeneration lies in the germ cells and not in the pre-follicular cells.
As part of a project sponsored by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Osaka Universitys Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy will hold a workshop -- Electronic Microscope School #2. This workshop is intended for in-house and outside researchers and for students in the second-term of doctoral programs that require microstructural analysis making use of an electronic microscope in the fields of life sciences and/or materials and device engineering.. First Day ...
Mutations in Trk-fused gene (TFG) have been linked to numerous forms of neurodegenerative disease. Using a combination of single particle electron microscopy approaches, small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray crystallography, and human stem cell models, we have determined the direct impacts of several of these mutations. In particular, mutations within the TFG amino-terminus alter the conformation of TFG ring complexes, which play an important role in the kinetics of secretory protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistent with this idea, we find that cells harboring TFG mutations exhibit constitutively elevated levels of ER stress. Moreover, we find that neurons expressing these mutants fail to display normal axon bundling, suggesting that a deficit in protein export from the ER plays an important role during neurite outgrowth. ...
A multifunctional particulate material, fluid, or composition includes a predetermined amount of core particles with a plurality of coatings. The core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 ~m. The particulate material, fluid, or composition is capable of exhibiting one or more properties, such as magnetic, thermal, optical, electrical, biological, chemical, lubrication, and rheological.
Our histological and ultrastructural study on the occurrence of cardiomyocytes in PVs of humans as well as of mice and rats showed major differences in cardiomyocyte distribution and localization. These data might be of considerable relevance in terms of understanding the development of AF in humans as well as on the choice of animal models of AF as discussed below.. In our study on mice and rats we found cardiomyocytes forming part of PV walls in all lungs under investigation. In mice, their occurrence and distribution was not related to a specific strain, being similar both in C57BL/6 mice and in BALBc-mice. Cardiomyocytes were found in vessels with diameters varying from 70 - 250µm. However, their occurrence had a random character, not being present in every vessel of the same size. At the hilus the presence of cardiomyocytes was a constant feature, whereas in vessels less than 70µm no cardiomyocytes were found. These data were in accordance with the lacZ expression in transgenic ...
Definition: applying immunohistochemistry or immunocytochemistry method to localize antigens or proteins at sub-cellular level using an electron microscope.. General Methods & Techniques. Antigen Retrieval Methods. Multiple Labeling Methods. Antigen-Antibody Specific Applications. Tissue-Cell Specific Applications. Virological Applications. Tumor, Disease & Diagnostic Applications. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Pre-embedding Method (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Post-embedding Method-1 (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. TEM Immunogold Labeling Protocol - Post-embedding Method-2 (IHC World) - Detailed step by step procedure for EM immunogold staining technique on ultrathin sections.. ...
Dr. Cardona will present and discuss the complete neural circuits of a glomerularly organized olfactory system (the antennal lobe) and a parallel-fiber system for learning and memory (the mushroom bodies) as reconstructed from serial section electron microscopy in the larval Drosophila ...
View details for this PhD Studentship: Understanding Battery Chemistry with In-situ Electron Microscopy job vacancy at University of Oxford in...
The presence of a free surface between two fluids of different properties is a source of (geometric) nonlinearity due to the role of interface curvature on the normal stress balance when surface tension is present. Thus, even for linear bulk equations (Stokes flow), a rich solution structure can be found. One difficulty in solving such problems is that the free surface and the fluid domain(s) can change dramatically with time, or under variation of parameters. We have developed numerical methods to solve such problems using an ALE-based finite-element method. The deforming fluid domain is treated as a pseudo-elastic solid for small deformations, but can also be completely remeshed to handle extreme changes in geometry. Techniques for the continuation of solution branches in the presence of remeshing will be described and used to demonstrate the existence of new solutions for the canonical problems of viscous fluid flow on the outside or inside of rotating cylinders, and to quantify the accuracy ...
Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. Fly larvae and fly eggs are used to aid in the determination of a PMI. In order for the ... When scanning electron microscopy is not available, a faster, lower cost technique is potassium permanganate staining. The ... A study in 2007 demonstrates a technique that can use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify key morphological features ... "Identification of fly eggs using scanning electron microscopy for forensic investigations". Micron. 39 (7): 802-7. doi:10.1016/ ...
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe dislocations within the microstructure of the material.[22] Thin foils ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2008). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. Springer. ... "g dot b") analysis.[23] When performing dark field microscopy with the TEM, a diffracted spot is selected to form the image (as ... The electron beam undergoes diffraction by the regular crystal lattice planes into a diffraction pattern and contrast is ...
The first images of viruses were obtained upon the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska ... Long GW, Nobel J, Murphy FA, Herrmann KL, Lourie B. Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of ... electron-dense "stains" are used. These are solutions of salts of heavy metals, such as tungsten, that scatter the electrons ... Imaging of viruses by atomic force microscopy. Journal of General Virology. 2001;82(9):2025-2034. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-82-9- ...
Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a high-energy electron beam (ranging a few 100 eVs ... Transmission electron microscopy[edit]. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uses electrons to generate high-resolution ... Low-Energy and Photoemission Electron Microscopy[edit]. Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photoemission electron ... Scanning tunneling microscopy[edit]. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a sharp tip scans the surface of a sample in a ...
Laboratory for Electron Microscopy. *Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology. *School Science Center ...
Slayter, Elizabeth M.; Slayter, Henry S. (1992). Light and Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521- ... In 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar calculated, using special relativity, that a non-rotating body of electron-degenerate ...
"Journal of Electron Microscopy. Japan Society Microscopy. 12 (1): 72.. *^ Luft, J.H. (1961). "Improvements in epoxy resin ... "A new embedding technique for electron microscopy, combining a water-soluble epoxy resin (Durcupan) with water-insoluble ... Water-soluble epoxies such as Durcupan[13][14] are commonly used for embedding electron microscope samples in plastic so they ...
Transmission electron microscopy ‎ *12:30, 14 March 2013 (diff , hist) . . (+1)‎ . . Hydrochloric acid ‎ ...
1 December 2012). "Prokaryote or eukaryote? A unique microorganism from the deep sea". Journal of Electron Microscopy. 61 (6): ... also used microscopy to observe microbial life in the form of the fruiting bodies of moulds. In his 1665 book Micrographia, he ...
Journal of Electron Microscopy. 51 (suppl 1): S79-S85. doi:10.1093/jmicro/51.Supplement.S79. ISSN 0022-0744.. ... High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and in situ measurements reveal that the welds are nearly perfect, with the ... "IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 55 (11): 2827-2845. Bibcode:2008ITED...55.2827A. doi:10.1109/TED.2008.2008011.. ... More recently, after microscopy advancement, the nanowire growth driven by screw dislocations[16][17] or twin boundaries[18] ...
Electron microscopy of plant protoplasm. Int. Rev. Cytol. 14: 41-155. link Archived 2018-04-07 at the Wayback Machine.. ... With electron microscopy, the lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 by Keith R. Porter, Albert ... "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy: methods and preliminary observations". The Journal of Experimental ...
as Demonstrated by Electron Microscopy". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 25 (1): 116-119. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1962.tb01126 ... Azotobacter respires aerobically, receiving energy from redox reactions, using organic compounds as electron donors, and can ... Germination of cysts is accompanied by changes in the intima, visible with an electron microscope. The intima consists of ... which is detected with phase contrast microscopy. Germination of cysts takes about 4-6 h. During germination, the central body ...
"Prof Caterina Ducati - Electron Microscopy Group". www.emg.msm.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-09-25.. ... She was subsequently awarded a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to explore electron microscopy of nanostructures, ... and was based in Churchill College, Cambridge.[7] This involved developing transmission electron microscopy to study the ... Ducati has worked with the Institute of Physics Electron Microscopy and Analysis group and the Nanoscale Physics and Technology ...
"DNA Base Identification by Electron Microscopy". Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of ... and microscopy-based techniques, such as atomic force microscopy or transmission electron microscopy that are used to identify ... Microscopy-based techniques[edit]. Main article: Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing. This approach directly ... visualizes the sequence of DNA molecules using electron microscopy. The first identification of DNA base pairs within intact ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... Geisbert, T. W.; Jahrling, P. B. (1995). "Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy". Virus research. 39 (2-3): 129 ... During an outbreak, virus isolation and electron microscopy are most often not feasible options. The most common diagnostic ... but electron microscopy cannot differentiate the various filoviruses alone despite some overall length differences.[24] ...
De Graef, Marc (2003). Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN ... is the potential distribution of the atom, and the electron form factor is the Fourier transform of this.[3] The electron form ... Electron form factor[edit]. The relevant distribution, ρ. (. r. ). {\displaystyle \rho (r)}. ... It is the spatial distribution of these unpaired electrons about the nucleus that is ρ. (. r. ). {\displaystyle \rho (r)}. for ...
Scanning Electron Microscopy (4): 1609-1618. PMID 11539690.. ...
"Entry and release of poliovirus as observed by electron microscopy of cultured cells". J. Virol. 4 (4): 505-13. PMC 375900. ...
Bozzola, J. J.; Russell, L. D. (1999). "Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy". Electron Microscopy : ... OsO4 is a widely used staining agent used in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide contrast to the image.[20] As a ... Hayat, M. A. (2000). Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications. Cambridge University Press. pp ... it is also useful in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as an alternative to sputter coating. It embeds a heavy metal directly ...
Electron Microscopy Laboratory. *Center for Mass Spectrometry. Stevens har samarbeid med Kongsbergindustrien og de norske ...
His research activity was mainly devoted to the development of electron microscopy techniques applied to the study of magnetic ... Particles and Waves in Electron Optics and Microscopy .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output . ... He is the co-author of the documentary "Electron interference"(1976) [2][3], which won a prize at the Brussels' Scientific ... He has contributed to the development of a research line on interferometry and electron holography and has collaborated with ...
A study by light and electron microscopy". Gastroenterology. 39: 454-68. PMID 13712267. Bahadori M, Liebow AA (January 1973). " ... a light and electron microscopic study". Hum. Pathol. 7 (4): 411-26. doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(76)80055-X. PMID 939538. Bleisch VR ...
Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. ... "Differentiation of filoviruses by electron microscopy" (PDF). Virus Research. 39 (2-3): 129-150. doi:10.1016/0168-1702(95)00080 ... "Cryo-Electron Tomography of Marburg Virus Particles and Their Morphogenesis within Infected Cells". PLoS Biology. 9 (11): ...
Research Laboratory for High Voltage Electron Microscopy. *Center of Environment and Safety ...
In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), translational Moiré fringes can be seen as parallel contrast lines formed in phase- ... Microscopy[edit]. In super-resolution microscopy, the moiré pattern can be used to obtain images with a resolution higher than ... Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry (2009-01-01). Transmission electron microscopy : a textbook for materials science. ... However, if probe aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) ...
Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles (EM ... cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light microscopy. They have basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus ...
Scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM ) is an operation mode within scanning electron microscopy utilizing the sound or ... Application Of Scanning Electron Acoustic Microscopy For Medical Research Author(s): Ludwig J. Balk; Michael Domnik; Ekkehardt ... ultrasound generation within the sample due to the impact of a temporarily modulated electron beam current. This technique, ...
... Rhinow D, ... The advent of near-atomic resolution in single-particle electron microscopy.. Cheng Y, Walz T., Annu. Rev. Biochem. 78(), 2009 ... Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of biological samples on highly transparent carbon nanomembranes. ... Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of biological samples on highly transparent carbon nanomembranes. ...
Scanned Tip and Electron Image Lab - SPM and electron imaging lab at the University of Missouri at St. Louis *Scanning Probe ... Microscopy: Atomic Force and Scanning Probe Microscopy. *Advanced Surface Microscopys Introduction to AFM *Advanced Surface ... Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Defined - from the National Computational Science Alliance *Scanning Tunneling Microscopy ... Probe Microscopy - New Journal devoted to SPM *SPM at UVA - SPM abstracts from University of Virginia *SPM Image Analysis ...
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM, SBSEM or SBFSEM) is a method to generate high resolution three- ... "Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2010) (Learn how and when ... Samples are prepared by methods similar to that in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), typically by fixing the sample with ... Denk W, Horstmann H (2004) Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to Reconstruct Three-Dimensional Tissue Nanostructure ...
More recently, the application of scanning electron microscopy in the biological sciences has enjoyed something of a ... A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences (PDF, 12 MB) ... Sponsored Collection , A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences ... Sponsored Collection , A new age in scanning electron microscopy: Applications in the life sciences ...
Electron Microscopy, Volume 2. Contributors. International Federation of Societies for Electron Microscopy, Australian Academy ... Academic Press, 1966 - Electron microscopy. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electron_Microscopy.html?id= ... dehydrated dense bodies density desmosomes developed diameter electron dense electron micrograph electron microscope ELECTRON ... Microscopy.html?id=bxxRAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectron Microscopy. ...
Electron Microscopy, Volumes 1-2. Electron Microscopy Society of America. Meeting. Snippet view - 1974. ... Academic Press, 1962 - Electron microscopy. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Electron_Microscopy.html?id= ... Microscopy.html?id=y5FqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElectron Microscopy. ... cristae crystals Cytol cytoplasm dehydration density desmosomes diameter droplets electron dense electron micrographs electron ...
Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique applied on samples cooled to cryogenic ... Scanning electron cryomicroscopy (cryoSEM), is scanning electron microscopy technique with a scanning electron microscopes ... Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (cryoTEM) is a transmission electron microscopy technique that is used in structural ... History of cryogenic electron microscopy[edit]. In the 1960s, scientists were faced with the issue of structure determination ...
Electron microscopy can be used to observe the rabies virus in detail. Photos show examples of Rhabdovirus. ... The ultrastructure of viruses can be examined by electron microscopy. Using this method, the structural components of viruses ... Negatively stained Rhabdovirus as seen through an electron microscope. Notice the bullet shape of the virus (A). See the "bee ... When viewed with an electron microscope Rhabdoviruses are seen as bullet-shaped particles. ...
... light microscopy, physiology, and biochemistry, among other disciplines. It is also pre ... Electron microscopy is frequently portrayed as a discipline that stands alone, separated from molecular biology, ... Fixation electron microscopy microscopy scanning electron microscope transmission electron microscopy Authors and affiliations ... Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopes (IVEM), Electron Tomography, and Single-Particle Electron Microscopy ...
... (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular ... The Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) at PDBe. Quick access. Click on one of these categories: ... It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. ...
... electron diffraction and chemical and elemental analysis and by electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and energy filtered ... It is equipped with several detectors; the new generation E-T detector can filter out SE3 electrons, thus it collects mainly ... Dual beam FIB-SEM is a multifunctional analytical instrument integrating both a focused ion beam (FIB) and a scanning electron ... It is equipped with several detectors; the E-T detector collects SE2 electrons and provide topographical information, the in- ...
DAAD (German Academic Exchange) fellowship award to visit Ernst Ruska-Centre (ER-C) for Microscopy in Julich Germany (2014). ... January 2010-Present: Member of the Core Executive Committee of the Advanced Facility for Microscopy and Microanalysis (AFMM), ...
The Inspect F50 is a Field Emission gun based High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The facility is jointly ...
About the GJ Russell Microscopy Facility. The GJ Russell Facility is the electron microscopy suite for the Faculty of Science, ... We have state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and focused ion-beam ...
Serial-Section-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-(S3EM)-on-Silicon-Wafers-for-Ultra-Structural-Volume-pone.0035172.s002.ogv 5.7 s, ... Serial-Section-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-(S3EM)-on-Silicon-Wafers-for-Ultra-Structural-Volume-pone.0035172.s003.ogv 3.4 s, ... Ion-Abrasion-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-Reveals-Surface-Connected-Tubular-Conduits-in-HIV-ppat.1000591.s007.ogv 6.7 s, 1,280 ... Ion-Abrasion-Scanning-Electron-Microscopy-Reveals-Surface-Connected-Tubular-Conduits-in-HIV-ppat.1000591.s008.ogv 3.4 s, 1,024 ...
Spiralling electron beams have the potential to measure and manipulate the properties of single atoms. ... Electron microscopy gets twistedSpiralling electron beams have the potential to measure and manipulate the properties of single ... Electron microscopy gets twisted. Spiralling electron beams have the potential to measure and manipulate the properties of ... Materials scientists would like to be able to twist the electron beams used in electron microscopes in a similar way. An ...
Learn about optimal microscopy imaging practices and see the latest ZEISS microscopy solutions. This ZOYC will focus on best ... Convince yourself in this workshop how your work can benefit from the latest advances in electron microscopy. Learn how ZEISS ... For scientists interested in electron microscopy related techniques there is no better option to get informed and to talk ... ZEISS On Your Campus , Electron Microscopy in Sciences Hosted at University Konstanz - Department of Physics. September 19, ...
The Transmission Electron Microscopy Core, part of the Neurosciences Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, aids in ... Transmission Electron Microscopy Core. The Transmission Electron Microscopy Core, part of the Neurosciences Center at ... The transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been an essential tool for research in cell biology since its development in the ...
Using electron microscopy, much greater magnification levels and resolution can be achieved than with a light microscope ... Electron microscopy is a technique that uses a beam of accelerated electrons to illuminate and produce images of specimens. ... because the wavelength of electrons is so much shorter than that of photons. ... Applications of Electron Microscopy. Electron microscopy has many wide ranging applications in science and technology. ...
Biochemists at the University of Zurich have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the detailed architecture of the ... Super-resolution microscopy provides insights into cells amazing flexibility One of todays sharpest imaging tools, super- ... STReM stands for Super Time-Resolved Microscopy, and as STORM, PALM, and other methods are designed to improve spatial ... resolution microscopy, produces sparkling images of what until now has been the blurry interior of cells, detailing not only ...
Electron Microscopy and Nanofabrication Facility. Our Purpose. The Electron Microscopy and Nanofabrication Facility at Lehigh ... utilizes many of these instruments and is the largest and longest-running course on electron microscopy and analysis. LMS also ... The EM & Nanofabrication Facility contains a suite of transmission and scanning electron microscopes. These are well suited for ... Additionally, there are facilities for off-line data analysis and extensive microscopy-related software. ...
The EM Unit staff provides basic training for all instruments at the EM Unit. After a trial period, users can work independently 24/7, with discounts for evening and weekend use. EM staff provide ongoing support and advanced training as required ...
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... critical to the advance of cryo-electron microscopy, allowing researchers to obtain images of biological materials that more ... he continued to refine techniques for structural imaging of biological materials by cryo-electron microscopy. He developed a ... Other articles where Cryo-electron microscopy is discussed: Jacques Dubochet: … ... using a technique known as cryo-electron microscopy. Hendersons refinement of imaging methods for cryo-electron microscopy, in ...
  • Spiralling electron beams have the potential to measure and manipulate the properties of single atoms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Earlier this year, Masaya Uchida and Akira Tonomura at the Advanced Science Institute in Wako, part of Japan's network of research labs known as RIKEN, showed that electron beams can be twisted. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When spiraling electron beams pass magnetic particles, in theory, their degree of rotation should change, depending on the strength of the magnetism. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Used to restrict electron beams and filter out unwanted scattered electrons before image formation. (unl.edu)
  • Our achievements unify the atomic imaging capability of sub-relativistic electron beams with the sub-cycle resolution of attosecond science. (anl.gov)
  • Using electron beams however requires working in a vacuum environment, and this makes the instruments considerably larger and expensive. (wikibooks.org)
  • Freeze-drying of material, electron beams, and vacuum pressure in the microscope can all result in cell damage, which is problematic for visualizing cell shape, size, and development. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new Neurobiology Center at the Nencki Institute in Warsaw, Poland, has installed a combination of light and electron microscopy devices to help researchers better understand the structure, function and capabilities of the human brain. (photonics.com)
  • The information contained herein is based in part on the results of the workshop, which was attended by stakeholders working in the field of electron microscopy (EM), as well as non-microscopy experts in selected fields. (nist.gov)
  • Get an inside look at our Academy: Workshops, One-on-One Training, and Equipment Demos ranging from a general introduction to the field of electron microscopy to very specific techniques. (emsdiasum.com)
  • One of today's sharpest imaging tools, super-resolution microscopy, produces sparkling images of what until now has been the blurry interior of cells, detailing not only the cell's internal organs and skeleton, but also providing insights into cells' amazing flexibility. (news-medical.net)
  • Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (cryoTEM) is a transmission electron microscopy technique that is used in structural biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been an essential tool for research in cell biology since its development in the 1950s and continues to aid in elucidating the complex architecture of the nervous system including membrane appositions between pre and postsynaptic structures, glia-neuron processes, glia-blood vessel contacts as well as the precise localization of membrane bound antigens by immunolabeling methods. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Electron cryo-Microscopy group, headed by Assistant Prof. Cristina Paulino, is part of the Structural Biology Unit and is embedded in the Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology (GBB) Institute. (rug.nl)
  • Solving the structure of large dynamic complexes often requires integrating several complementary techniques, such as biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)-an approach known as integrative structural biology. (thermofisher.com)
  • He has authored more than 70 research papers on the subjects of microscopy, materials science and biology and holds several patents. (wiley.com)
  • She has authored over 30 peer-reviewed papers on the subjects of microscopy, materials science, chemistry and biology and is a renowned expert on ion-beam based sample preparation techniques for electron microscopy. (wiley.com)
  • The electron microscope's ability to resolve three-dimensional (3D) structures on the atomic scale is continuing to affect different fields, including materials science and biology. (omicsonline.org)
  • For scientists interested in electron microscopy related techniques there is no better option to get informed and to talk directly with the scientific experts and ZEISS staff, respectively. (zeiss.com)
  • Single gold-tagged epidermal growth factor (EGF) molecules bound to cellular EGF receptors of fixed fibroblast cells were imaged in liquid with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). (pnas.org)
  • Dr Bell is one of the renowned experts in the field of elemental analysis using electron microscopy (TEM and STEM) and has co-authored a book on this subject. (wiley.com)
  • LMS also describes the electron optical tools and techniques currently available to analyze nanomaterial morphology, structure and chemistry. (lehigh.edu)
  • The EM Core at BIDMC provides service, technical assistance, and instrumentation for electron microscopy techniques. (bidmc.org)
  • Containing high-quality representative images, this up-to-date text includes detailed information on the most important diagnostic applications of transmission electron microscopy as well as instructions for specific tissues and current basic preparative techniques. (ecampus.com)
  • After completing her Ph.D. she worked as a Senior Research Chemist at UOP LLC (currently Honeywell) in Des Plaines, IL focusing on investigation of structure-properties relationship in various catalysts using electron microscopy techniques. (wiley.com)