Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cryoultramicrotomy: The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Microscopy, Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron: An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Photobleaching: Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning: A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freeze Substitution: A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Photoacoustic Techniques: Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Photomicrography: Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (1/16624)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes. (2/16624)

The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (3/16624)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

In oculo transplants of myometrium from postpartum guinea pigs fail to support sympathetic reinnervation. (4/16624)

Sympathetic nerves to the enlarged fetus-containing region of the uterus undergo degenerative changes during late pregnancy and show slow regrowth after parturition. It is not known whether this unusual response of sympathetic nerves to smooth muscle hypertrophy is due to the sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes, or whether the nerves respond to changes in the neurotrophic capacity of the target. We have investigated this question using in oculo transplantation. Small pieces of myometrium from the uterine horn of virgin guinea pigs, or from the region previously occupied by the placenta and fetus in postpartum guinea pigs, were transplanted into the anterior eye chamber. After 3 wk in oculo, the pattern of reinnervation of the transplants was assessed on whole mount stretch preparations stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The histology of the transplants was examined in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections. Myometrial transplants from virgin donors and uterine artery transplants from both virgin and postpartum donors became organotypically reinnervated by sympathetic fibres from the host iris. In contrast, sympathetic nerves did not reinnervate myometrial transplants from postpartum donors, although they approached the transplants and became distributed in the surrounding connective tissue. All transplanted tissues showed a normal histological appearance. Both the myometrium and uterine artery from postpartum donors retained a hypertrophic appearance after 3 wk in oculo. We interpret these results to indicate that the degeneration of sympathetic nerves in late pregnancy, as well as their slow regrowth to the uterus after delivery, may be due to changes in uterine smooth muscle rather than a particular sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes.  (+info)

Opposing motor activities of dynein and kinesin determine retention and transport of MHC class II-containing compartments. (5/16624)

MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently transported to the cell surface. We previously visualised vesicular transport of MHC class II-containing early lysosomes from the microtubule organising centre (MTOC) region towards the cell surface in living cells. Here we show that the MIIC move bidirectionally in a 'stop-and-go' fashion. Overexpression of a motor head-deleted kinesin inhibited MIIC motility, showing that kinesin is the motor that drives its plus end transport towards the cell periphery. Cytoplasmic dynein mediates the return of vesicles to the MTOC area and effectively retains the vesicles at this location, as assessed by inactivation of dynein by overexpression of dynamitin. Our data suggest a retention mechanism that determines the perinuclear accumulation of MIIC, which is the result of dynein activity being superior over kinesin activity. The bidirectional nature of MIIC movement is the result of both kinesin and dynein acting reciprocally on the MIIC during its transport. The motors may be the ultimate targets of regulatory kinases since the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine induces a massive release of lysosomal vesicles from the MTOC region that is morphologically similar to that observed after inactivation of the dynein motor.  (+info)

The identification of ferritin in the nucleus of K562 cells, and investigation of a possible role in the transcriptional regulation of adult beta-globin gene expression. (6/16624)

We studied the subcellular distribution of ferritin in K562 cells by immunofluorescence techniques and have made a reappraisal of a direct binding interaction between ferritin and the proximal promoter region of the human beta-globin gene, as previously mentioned in the literature. Confocal microscopy indicates that ferritin, the iron-storage protein, is present in the nucleus of K562 cells, in addition to its expected cytoplasmic localisation. The stain distribution suggests that it is not directly associated with the nuclear matrix. Using a gel mobility shift assay, a protein that cross-reacts with monoclonal ferritin antibodies competitively binds to a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the region situated 150 base pairs upstream from the beta-globin transcription start site. Despite this antibody cross-reactivity, the protein is unlike cytosolic ferritin as it appears to be highly sensitive to both temperature and freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-crosslinking experiments indicate that the molecular mass of the protein factor lies between 90 and 100 kDa. In conclusion, while the intranuclear location of ferritin is described in the present study, ferritin is not in direct contact with the beta-globin promoter region.  (+info)

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (7/16624)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (8/16624)

Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation.  (+info)

Background and aims: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is used to differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal polyps during colonoscopy. We aimed to assess the accuracy of two endoscopists starting to use real-time pCLE for differentiation of colorectal polyps and to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) for neoplasia in ... read more polyps ≤ 5 mm. Methods: Patients undergoing colonoscopy in a tertiary hospital were included in this prospective trial. After a training session, two colonoscopists assessed 50 polyps between August 2012 and April 2014. They sequentially used narrow-band imaging (NBI) and real-time pCLE to differentiate non-adenomatous, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps during colonoscopy. Histologic diagnosis by a gastrointestinal pathologist was the gold standard. Results were compared to post-hoc pCLE by a panel of gastroenterologists and pathologists. Results: The accuracy of real-time pCLE was 76 %, compared to 73 % for NBI, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) images of submucosal growth of a duodenal mucous neck cell adenoma. AU - Tahara, Tomomitsu. AU - Horiguchi, Noriyuki. AU - Nagasaka, Mitsuo. AU - Nakagawa, Yoshihito. AU - Tsukamoto, Tetsuya. AU - Shibata, Tomoyuki. AU - Ohmiya, Naoki. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955452020&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955452020&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1055/s-0041-111031. DO - 10.1055/s-0041-111031. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 26800196. AN - SCOPUS:84955452020. VL - 48. SP - E19-E21. JO - Endoscopy. JF - Endoscopy. SN - 0013-726X. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre- and post-training session evaluation for interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for biliary strictures. AU - Talreja, Jayant P.. AU - Turner, Brian G.. AU - Gress, Frank G.. AU - Ho, Sammy. AU - Sarkaria, Savreet. AU - Paddu, Naveen. AU - Natov, Nikola. AU - Bharmal, Sheila. AU - Gaidhane, Monica. AU - Sethi, Amrita. AU - Kahaleh, Michel. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Background and Aim Current diagnostic modalities for indeterminate biliary strictures offer low accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) permits microscopic assessment of mucosal structures by obtaining real-time high-resolution images of the mucosal layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, an interobserver study demonstrated poor to fair agreement even among experienced confocal endomicroscopy operators. Our objective was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy upon completion of a pCLE training session. Methods ...
New approaches to the chemotherapy of glioblastoma [Elektronische Ressource] : investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy / vorgelegt von Dietmar Gross : New Approaches to the Chemotherapy of Glioblastoma: investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät IV - Chemie und Pharmazie - der Universität Regensburg
A Wavelet-Based Approach to 3-D Confocal Microscopy Image Reconstruction , A Wavelet-Based Approach to 3-D Confocal Microscopy Image Reconstruction , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوراسگان
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic evaluation with high-definition white light endoscopy and random 4-quadrant biopsy (Seattle Protocol) is the current standard of care for the detection of Barretts esophagus (BE). Recently, enhanced imaging technologies have become available to provide real-time diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia, reducing the need for tissue biopsy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides dynamic microscopic mucosal views, rapidly capturing digital images that become optical biopsies. This study examined the role of pCLE in BE screening and surveillance as compared to the Seattle Protocol.. METHODS: Patients undergoing BE screening or surveillance endoscopy were enrolled at eight US centers. Optical biopsy using pCLE was interpreted in real time. Endoscopists performing pCLE were new users with a median experience of 8.5 months and no formal training in surgical pathology. Seattle Protocol biopsies were then taken. Recorded pCLE images were reviewed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First experiences using reflectance confocal microscopy on equivocal skin lesions in Queensland. AU - Curchin, Claudia E S. AU - Wurm, Elisabeth M T. AU - Lambie, Duncan L J. AU - Longo, Caterina. AU - Pellacani, Giovanni. AU - Soyer, H. Peter. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Background/Objectives: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive method of imaging human skin in vivo. The purpose of this study was to observe the experience of using RCM on equivocal skin lesions in a tertiary clinical setting in Queensland. Methods: Fifty equivocal lesions on 42 patients were imaged using a reflectance confocal microscope immediately prior to being excised. The images were then analysed blind to the histopathological diagnosis. The experience and problems encountered when using RCM on skin lesions for the first time was also observed. Results: On RCM analysis 12/13 melanomas (92.3% sensitivity, 75% specificity), 19/22 benign naevi (86% sensitivity, 95% specificity), 6/9 basal ...
Representative confocal microscopy images of cells exposed to green fluorescent nano-particles (40 nm in diameter). (A-C) Dural epithelial cells. (D-F) Dura
A prospective randomized study of 26 patients treated with flex in one eye, and smile in the other at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital. Preoperative spherical equivalent refraction averaged -7.50 D (range -6.00 to -9.75 D) in both groups. All patients had stable myopia and no other ocular diseases. A VisuMax® femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) was used. Lenticule diameters were the same in both eyes and ranged from 6.00 to 6.50 mm. Flap thickness was 110 to 120 ṁm, and flap/cap diameter ranged from 7.3 to 8.0 mm. Images of the subbasal corneal nerves were acquired by continuous through-focusing of the cornea using in vivo confocal laser-scanning microscopy (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The detachable objective, the so called Rostock cornea module (RCM) , was used to optimize image acquisition. The NeuronJ Java program (http://www.imagescience.org/meijering/software/neuronj) was used to trace and quantify subbasal nerves. Mean ...
The pUL97 protein kinase encoded by human cytomegalovirus is a multifunctional determinant of the efficiency of viral replication and phosphorylates viral as well as cellular substrate proteins. Here, we report that pUL97 is expressed in two isoforms with molecular masses of approximately 90 and 100 kDa. ORF UL97 comprises an unusual coding strategy in that five in-frame ATG start codons are contained within the N-terminal 157 aa. Site-directed mutagenesis, transient expression of point and deletion mutants and proteomic analyses accumulated evidence that the formation of the large and small isoforms result from alternative initiation of translation, with the start points being at amino acids 1 and 74, respectively. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that catalytic activity, in terms of autophosphorylation and histone substrate phosphorylation, was indistinguishable for the two isoforms. An analysis of the intracellular distribution of pUL97 by confocal laser-scanning microscopy demonstrated that both
Glomeruli are anatomical and possibly functional modules in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We investigated the spatial arrangement of glomeruli in the olfactory bulbs of adult zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). A solution of the lipophilic tracer Dil was injected into the nasal cavities. Axons of sensory neurons projecting from the olfactory epithelium into the bulb were traced anterogradely, thus labeling the whole population of glomeruli. The glomerular distribution was analyzed in detail by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We find that a typical olfactory bulb contains a small number of about 80 glomeruli that have a stereotyped configuration in all animals investigated. All glomeruli exhibit bilateral symmetry. Twenty-two single glomeruli could be identified from animal to animal by their characteristic position and morphology. The remaining glomeruli either are embedded in glomerular plexus and therefore cannot be delineated reliably, or belong to a densely clustered subpopulation of on ...
Cell culture and toxicity studies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were cultivated in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and 2 mM L-glutamine at 37°C and 5% CO2. Primary neuron cultures were prepared from hippocampi or cortex of C57BL/6 mice and cultured in neurobasal medium supplemented with B-27, N-2, and L-glutamine. All reagents were supplied by Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Neurons were cultivated at different densities depending on which culture plate was used (30,000/well for 96-well plates, 75,000/well for 24-well plates, and 900,000/well for 6-well plates). For confocal laser-scanning microscopy, neurons and HEK293 cells were cultivated on poly-L-lysine-coated and collagenized coverslips, respectively. Unless otherwise stated, all neuronal studies were conducted after 9 to 10 days in vitro (DIV).. Toxicity studies using the MTT assay were conducted in 96-well plates for 12 hours in the presence of 200 μM of each investigated metabolite, unless otherwise stated. For ...
Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used to carry out a comparative study of the immunostaining for three families of neuropeptides, viz., allatostatin-A (AS-A), allatostatin-C (AS-C) and allatotropin (AT), in adult female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The specific patterns of immunostaining for each of the three peptides were similar in both species. The antisera raised against AT, AS-A, and AS-C revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cells of each protocerebral lobe of the brain and stained cells in each of the ventral ganglia and neuronal projections innervating various thoracic and abdominal tissues. Only the AS-A antiserum labeled immunoreactive endocrine cells in the midgut. The distribution of the peptides supports the concept that they play multiple regulatory roles in both species.
The enamel defects (EDs) may present with a variety of clinical manifestations with increasing severity from the sole appearance of pale discoloration to remarkable structural alterations. EDs are responsible for higher caries receptivity. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows to image in vivo at microscopic resolution of the dental surface, thus avoiding the tooth extraction and the sample preparation because of its ability to optically scan living tissues along their depth. Aim of this study is the in vivo assessment at microscopic resolution of dental surfaces affected by EDs without resorting to invasive methods such as teeth extractions, to define histological findings occurring in chromatic and/or structural EDs. For the purpose, 15 children, referring at the Dental Clinic of the Second University of Naples, affected by several degrees of EDs, were enrolled and underwent in vivo RCM imaging to microscopically define the ED confocal features using a commercially available ...
Buchner AM, Gomez V, Heckman MG, Shahid MW, Achem S, Gill KR, Jamil LH, Kahaleh M, Lo SK, Picco M, Riegert-Johnson D, Raimondo M, Sciemeca D, Wolfsen H, Woodward T, Wallace MB. The learning curve of in vivo probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for prediction of colorectal neoplasia. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011 Mar; 73(3):556-60 ...
Plants are valuable systems for analyzing the acentriolar mitotic spindle. We have developed methods for imaging the mitotic spindle in living tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension culture cells expressing GFP-?-tubulin. The methods allow the spindle to be observed in living cells at high spatial and temporal resolution and rely on water immersion objectives, spinning disk optics, and high-sensitivity cameras. Here, we describe these methods and provide step-by-step protocols for certain key steps. We also describe a method for application and removal of inhibitors ...
Breast cancer is the most prevalent and deadly cancer among women worldwide. The current standard for breast lesion diagnosis is histologic assessment with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Histology has high diagnostic accuracy, but requires extensive time and resources to perform. The objective of this work was to improve diagnosis of early breast cancers by developing approaches to rapidly image and characterize neoplastic tissue and the tumor microenvironment in high resolution optical images. Confocal fluorescence microscopy can image optical sections of tissue without the need for extensive tissue processing. Three studies were performed to evaluate if confocal microscopy images contain sufficient information to identify neoplasia in breast tissue. In a 31 patient study, five pathologists identified neoplasia with high accuracy in confocal and histologic images. In another study, an expert pathologist estimated tumor cellularity in core biopsies with moderate agreement between confocal ...
The use of blochemical fractionation, immunofluorescence laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy with mouse anti-human bcl-2 monoclonal antibody to analyze the subcellular localization of the bcl-2 gene product revealed the protein prominently in the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and mitochondrial membranes. Electron microscopy at high magnification more precisely localized bcl-2 to the nuclear outer membrane as confirmed by the biochemical fractionation, as well as to mitochondrial outer and, to a lesser degree, inner membrane. This multisite membrane distribution of bcl-2 suggests an important role for this protein in several different membrane compartments.. ...
When T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells of the immune system interact with target cells, signaling molecules are accumulated in the plasma membrane at structures known as the immunological synapse. Evidence is accumulating that proteins, as well as signals, are transferred between the interacting cells at such contacts. NK cells receive inhibitory signals from cells that express self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on their surface. Earlier evidence had shown that NK cells can actually acquire MHC class I proteins during interactions with target cells. Now Vanherberghen et al. show that the exchange goes both ways and that NK receptors are transferred to cells that express MHC class I ligands. The authors monitored transfer of biotinylated killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) KIR2DL1 by immunoblotting or green fluorescent protein-tagged receptor by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or laser-scanning confocal microscopy and observed transfer of KIRs. The NK cell receptor ...
Areas of active investigation include: use of laser-scanning confocal microscopy to measure "calcium sparks", which are brief localized increases in fluorescence from a Ca-indicator such as fluo-3 that are thought to be reflective of the transient opening of one or a few RyRs (=ryanodine receptors), the Ca release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); the possibility that the mechanism of activation of RyRs involves both voltage-gating and Ca-gating; the nature of the mechanism whereby SR Ca release is inactivated by a rise in myoplasmic free [Ca]; the possibility that either activation or inactivation of SR Ca release may vary with the RyR isoform composition (RyR1, RyR3, etc.); estimation of local Ca movements within the sarcomere by means of computer modeling, including estimation of the kinetics of binding of Ca to the intracellular Ca buffers troponin, parvalbumin, ATP, and the SR Ca pump ...
Plant parasites secrete proteins known as effectors into host tissues to manipulate host cell structures and functions. One of the major goals in effector biology is to determine the host cell compartments and the protein complexes in which effectors accumulate. Here, we describe a five-step pipeline that we routinely use in our lab to achieve this goal, which consists of (1) Golden Gate assembly of pathogen effector-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions into binary vectors, (2) Agrobacterium-mediated heterologous protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells, (3) laser-scanning confocal microscopy assay, (4) anti-GFP coimmunoprecipitation-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (coIP/MS) assay, and (5) anti-GFP western blotting ...
By enhancing the signal of genetically encoded markers expressed in defined circuit elements and quickly mapping them in large volumes of brain tissue, it enables sparse reconstructions of genetically defined circuit motifs. These motifs can be further used as road maps for targeted imaging of tissue subsets at high resolution, thus restricting imaging and segmentation time by enabling directed unsupervised reconstructions. As a proof of principle, this technique has been used to automatically reconstruct and visualize interneurons of different mouse retinas. This approach is not restricted to the retina and can be used to track long-range projections anywhere in the brain, e.g., from the retina to visual recipient layers located several millimeters away. Further, the same approach for unsupervised image processing can be applied to a variant of spectral confocal reflectance microscopy, facilitating the long range tracing of myelinated axons, as well as the automatic assessment of myelin ...
A variety of microscopic techniques have been utilized to study cyanobacterial associations with plant roots, but confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is the least used due to the unavailability of a suitable fluorescent dye. Commonly used lectins have problems with their binding ability with root cells and their visualization under CLSM. DTAF (5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein) is a fluorescent dye that has been widely used for staining various biological samples for fluorescent microscopy. It reacts with polysaccharides and peptides at ordinary conditions. The possible application and efficiency of DTAF for CLSM studies were examined in various aspects of cyanobacterial-plant interactions. Seedlings of Pisum sativum, Vigna rediata and Triticum aestivum were co-cultivated and stained with DTAF as a fluorochrome. Extracellular and intracellular interactions of cyanobacteria and the plant root surface were observed by CLSM. Results were compared with staining by other commonly used ...
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For these reasons, in vivo observation of the skin in its physiology and responses to stimuli has always been somewhat of a challenge. What Corcuff, P et al experimented with was a method of observing the skin of the forearm before sun exposure and for a month afterward using confocal microscopy techniques. Observations were made in regards to melanasome (melanin-containing organelle) caps within basal keratinocytes (skin cells in the deep epidermis). The use of in vivo confocal microscopy also "affords new insight to the role of melanin and its gradual migration after sun exposure" In vivo confocal microscopy involved reflected singals being used to create an image. Contrast was improved due to absorption and scattering (minimal loss of photons). Another feature that was regarded was realtime imaging to prevent blurring from motion caused by blood pulses and involuntary movement. ...
Multi-dimensional fluorescence imaging of live animal models demands strong optical sectioning, high spatial resolution, fast image acquisition, and minimal photobleaching. While conventional laser scanning microscopes are capable of deep penetration and sub-cellular resolution, they are generally too slow and causing excessive photobleaching for volumetric or time-lapse imaging. We demonstrate the performance of an augmented line-scan focal modulation microscope (aLSFMM), a high-speed imaging platform that affords above video-rate imaging speed by the use of line scanning. Exceptional background rejection is accomplished by combining a confocal slit with focal modulation. The image quality is further improved by merging the information from simultaneously acquired focal modulation and confocal images. Such a hybrid imaging scheme makes it possible to use very low power excitation light in high-speed imaging, and therefore leads to reduced photobleaching that is desirable for three-dimensional ...
Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several
Synthesis of a 1:1 mixture of lactose/mannose-QDs 20 b and lactose/maltotriose-QDs 21 b and confocal microscopy images after 2 h incubation with AS cells: A)
We established a collection of 7,000 transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of GAL4 in each line is controlled by a different, defined fragment of genomic DNA that serves as a transcriptional enhancer. We used confocal microscopy of dissected nervous systems to determine the expression patterns driven by each fragment in the adult brain and ventral nerve cord. We present image data on 6,650 lines. Using both manual and machine-assisted annotation, we describe the expression patterns in the most useful lines. We illustrate the utility of these data for identifying novel neuronal cell types, revealing brain asymmetry, and describing the nature and extent of neuronal shape stereotypy. The GAL4 lines allow expression of exogenous genes in distinct, small subsets of the adult nervous system. The set of DNA fragments, each driving a documented expression pattern, will facilitate the generation of additional constructs for manipulating neuronal function. synapse was substantially ...
Opterra II swept field scanning confocal microscope Brochure 2.8 MB Opterra II is the latest advancement in high-speed fluorescence microscopy designed specifically for live-cell microscopy. It uniquely combines the resolution of traditional confocal systems with the speed typically associated with wide-field imaging. ...
The Opterra II swept-field confocal microscope utilizes proprietary one-dimensional pinhole array technology to combine the resolution of traditional confocal systems with the speed typically associated with wide-field imaging. With its short acquisition times and cell-protecting minimization of photobleaching and phototoxicity, Opterra II is ideal for advanced live-cell imaging. ...
Line-scanning, with pupil engineering and the use of linear array detectors, may enable simple, small, and low-cost confocal microscopes for clinical imaging of human epithelial tissues. However, a fundamental understanding of line-scanning performance within the highly scattering and aberrating conditions of human tissue is necessary, to translate from benchtop instrumentation to clinical implementation. The results of a preliminary investigation for reflectance imaging in skin are reported.. © 2009 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
HCS systems are basically fully automated microscopes: an automated stage moves the multi-well plate from position to position (according to a previously defined protocol) and at each position the same imaging procedure is performed. Dichroic mirrors and filters are automatically switched, the sample is illuminated at one or more excitation wavelengths and the images are recorded with a CCD camera. Optionally also brightfield images are recorded. A combination of a laser-based autofocus system and a software-based autofocus procedure ensure that the sample is always in focus during imaging. HCS systems are available in widefield configuration or as confocal setup as for certain experiments optical sections or 3D imaging is required. The confocal HCS systems usually employ a spinning disk technique to ensure fast image acquisition. For fluorescence excitation the systems are equipped either with Mercury or Xenon light sources or with lasers, which are frequently used in confocal HCS systems. When ...
In the MBS program, Barthel, who didnt take many molecular courses as an undergraduate, enrolled in a variety of molecular and cell biology, spectroscopy, cell physiology, and other courses.. The incredible access to University faculty and resources helped him get a paper published with Karen Mesce and several others about a new confocal microscopy technique used to image Golgi-stained neurons.. "It seems like everyone you work with around here is a genius. My knowledge base now has far surpassed what it was.". He also found a full-time job on campus at the Imaging Center, where he provided training, as well as imaged specimens such as intact and optically clear mouse brains in order to study viral induced genetic modification. (Imaging Center program director, Mark Sanders, was also a co-author of the paper and instrumental in Barthels success there.). "They have a lot of impressive high-end research equipment that they teach people how to use, in addition to providing sample preparation, ...
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Using the 3D spinning disk confocal microscope at CBST, we are able to observe this process in much greater detail (more than 10 times the useful information in terms of spatial and temporal resolution), and reconstruct video images to focus on the structure and behavior of the virological synapse, which forms at the interface of cells in contact. By uncovering the different modes of Gag movements in the donor cell, we may be able to identify new targets or strategies for antiviral therapy.. ...
MCF10A ductal carcinoma in situ cells are shown invading collectively through a fibrillar collagen gel and stained for F-actin (white) and DAPI (blue) and imaged using a spinning disk confocal microscope. Image © 2017 Jaquemet et al ...
D4832 - 16 Standard Test Method for Preparation and Testing of Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) Test Cylinders , backfill, CLSM, compressive strength, construction control, mix design, quality control, soil stabilization,,
Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around a sample to reconstruct an image in a point-by-point manner. A pinhole is used in the detection path to reject out-of-focus light and increase resolution and contrast compared to wide field illumination. The technique is particularly useful for three-dimensional imaging.. ...
The IXplore Spin microscope system utilizes an advanced spinning disk unit to provide a large field of view, fast 3D confocal imaging, and prolonged cell viability in time-lapse experiments.
Use laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze only a slice of a sample, even a thick one. Thanks to this tutorial be able to make a comparison between confocal and widefield microscopy.
Whether you use spinning disk, SSD, NVMe, or a combination of each, the Cisco UCS S-Series has you covered to scale to Petabytes in just minutes.
By combing light sheet illumination with confocal microscopy, researchers were able to capture high resolution images of slices of whole mouse brains. The slices were reconstucted into a a macroscopic view of the whole organ with a resolutin of a few microns ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi. ...
Endoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure used to screen patients and to investigate a wide variety of suspected health issues. It often involves
1. LeicaSP5/STED This microscope is an inverted fully motorized confocal microscope from Leica (SP5) combined with a super resolution module (Super Re...
Quantitative colocalization analysis is a tool to objectively estimate the degree of overlap (colocalization) of fluorescently labelled antigens in biological microscopy. It allows the drawing of unbiased conclusions about their interaction and function.
We recently received funding to replace an obsolete BioRad 600 confocai microscope with a Leica TCS SP Spectral confocal microscope (S10 RR16708). The day-to-da...
Magnified intelligence chromoendoscopy (FICE) plus probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (GIM) diagnosis: a feasibility trial. Research Question:. Is confocal endomicroscope feasible to diagnose gastric intestinal metaplasia?. Objective:. To evaluate the feasibility of confocal endomicroscope in diagnose gastric intestinal metaplasia.. Hypothesis:. Confocal endomicreosocpe can provide the accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia.. Research design:. Diagnostic study. Sample size:. The investigators follow the population in recent study from Imraporn et al.: Validity of magnify NBI for gastric intestinal metaplasia targeted biopsy (N= 50). Data analysis:. Confocal Barretts esophagus classification was used to evaluate agreement of confocal endomicroscopic finding in gastric intestinal metaplasia. The accuracy of new criteria for GIM by confocal endomicroscope was evaluated in relation to pathological report, a gold standard for diagnosis, ...
This study aims to investigate the roles of the Notch-Hes1 pathway in the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-mediated differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). We prepared pLentiLox3.7 lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against Notch1 and transfected it into NSCs. Cell differentiation was analyzed under confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The percentage of neurons and astrocytes was quantified by normalizing the total number of TUJ1+ (Neuron-specific class III β-tubulin) and GFAP+ (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) cells to the total number of Hoechst 33342-labeled cell nuclei. The protein and gene expression of Notch-Hes1 pathway components was examined via western blot analysis and real-time PCR. After 1 week of incubation, we found that AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) (400 μg/mL) induced the astrocytic differentiation of cultured neurospheres and inhibited neuronal formation. The expression of Notch-Hes1 pathway components was upregulated in the cells in the AGE-BSA
Tsien RY; Waggoner A (1995). "Fluorophores for confocal microscopy". In Pawley JB. Handbook of biological confocal microscopy. ... Juan Carlos Stockert, Alfonso Blázquez-Castro (2017). "Chapter 3 Dyes and Fluorochromes". Fluorescence Microscopy in Life ... Fluorescence Microscopy in Life Sciences. Bentham Science Publishers. pp. 96-134. ISBN 978-1-68108-519-7. Retrieved 24 December ...
686-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. P. Michael Conn (23 July 2010). Techniques in Confocal Microscopy. Academic Press. pp. 215-. ISBN ...
Hepler, P. K.; B. E. S. Gunning (1998). "Confocal fluorescence microscopy of plant cells". Protoplasma. 201 (3): 121-157. doi: ... Building on the work of Shinya Inoué and Andrew Bajer using polarized light microscopy, Hepler used electron microscopy to ... Zhang, D. H., P. Wadsworth, and P. K. Hepler (1990). "Microtubule dynamics in living dividing plant cells: Confocal imaging of ... Zhang, D., P. Wadsworth, and P. K. Hepler (1990). "Microtubule dynamics in living dividing cells: Confocal imaging of ...
"Nikon MicroscopyU - Confocal Microscopy - Spectral Imaging". http://www.bodkindesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/ ... One of the first alternatives is near infrared microscopy (NIR), which combines the advantages of microscopy and NIR. In 2004, ... Different studies have been done to propose alternative tools to the reference method of detection, (classical microscopy). ... Physicists use an electron microscopy technique that involves microanalysis using either energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( ...
... with active target-locking in real-time confocal microscopy. Lu also wrote the opening chapter, on confocal microscopy and ... "Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Nanotechnology". In Yao, Nan; Wang, Zhong-Lin. Handbook of Microscopy for ... "Target-locking acquisition with real-time confocal (TARC) microscopy". Optics Express. 15 (14): 8702-8712. Bibcode:2007OExpr.. ... nanotechnology, of the Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by Nan Yao. Girih tiles Penrose tiles Kotok, Alan. " ...
2005). "HIV-1 Gag-RNA interaction occurs at a perinuclear/centrosomal site; analysis by confocal microscopy and FRET". Traffic ...
In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... Microscopy[edit]. A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.[56] By wet-mounting seedlings in ...
In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... Microscopy[edit]. A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.[60] By wet-mounting seedlings in ... Scanning electron microscopy pictures of root surfaces from natural A. thaliana populations showing the complex microbial ...
Nie, S; Chiu, D.; Zare, R. (1994). "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy". Science. 266 (5187): ...
ISBN 978-0-486-65957-2. James B. Pawley (1995). Handbook of biological confocal microscopy (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 112. ISBN ... ISBN 0-387-95269-1. Douglas B. Murphy (2002). Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging. Wiley/IEEE. p. 64. ISBN ... Young's Experiment: Two-Slit Interference". Digital microscopy (3rd ed.). Academic Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-12-374025-8. Halliday, ...
Nie, S; Chiu, DT; Zare, RN (11 November 1994). "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy". Science. ...
Linear excitation of fluorescence with confocal detection. This method is essentially confocal laser scanning microscopy. It ... "Characterization of a Confocal Microscope Readout System in a Photochromic Polymer under Two-Photon Excitation". Jap. J. Appl. ... Min Gu has examined confocal readout and methods for its enhancement. In addition to the academic research, several companies ... This method usually employs a phase contrast microscope or confocal reflection microscope. No absorption of light is necessary ...
Efron, Nathan; Al-Dossari, Munira; Pritchard, Nicola (2009-05-01). "In vivo confocal microscopy of the bulbar conjunctiva". ... "Dynamics of external ocular blood flow studied by scanning angiographic microscopy". Eye (London, England). 9 (5): 605-614. doi ...
Xenon Iodine Oxygen Confocal laser scanning microscopy Surgical. Laser medicine. High speed typesetters. Laser light shows. DNA ...
Scarcelli, G; Yun, SH (2008). "Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging". Nature Photonics. 2: 39 ... His research also contributed to the development of Brillouin microscopy and various implantable optical devices. Yun, SH; Kwok ... 2006). "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo". Nature Medicine. 12: 1429-1433. doi:10.1038/nm1450. Gather, MC; ...
2010). "Quantitative determination of spatial protein-protein correlations in fluorescence confocal microscopy." Biophys J 98: ... Zinchuk V & Grossenbacher-Zinchuk O (2011). "Quantitative colocalization analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy images." ... Colocalization Fluorescence microscopy Bioimage informatics Biological database Bolte S & Cordelieres FP (2006). "A guided tour ... 1993). "Measurement of colocalization of objects in dual-color confocal images." J Microsc Oxford 169:375-382. Wu Y et al. ( ...
Confocal microscopy, description of resolution improvement is a little inaccurate. *Kohler Illumination. add new article ...
ISBN 0-262-73005-7. Cheng PC (2006). "The Contrast Formation in Optical Microscopy". Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy ... "Realistic modeling of the illumination point spread function in confocal scanning optical microscopy". J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27 ( ... It is also used in fluorescence microscopy for image restoration, and in fluorescence spectral imaging for spectral separation ...
Confocal microscopy uses a scanning point or points of light to illuminate the sample. In conjunction with a pinhole at a ... These techniques are normally used in conjunction with confocal microscopy. Further improvements in optical sectioning are ... Total internal reflection microscopy is a fluorescent microscopy technique, which intentionally restricts observation to either ... In fluorescence microscopy objects out of the focal plane only interfere with the image if they are illuminated and fluoresce. ...
1993). "Measurement of co-localisation of objects in dual-colour confocal images". Journal of Microscopy. 169: 375-382. doi: ... Curr Protoc Cell Biol "Quantitative colocalization analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy images." Pawley JB (2006). ... link) Zinchuk V et al (2007). "Quantitative colocalization analysis of multicolor confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images ... Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy Zinchuk V et al (2011). "Quantifying spatial correlations of fluorescent markers ...
Rudnicka and her co-workers were the first to apply in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy in hair diagnostics. Their ... "In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy: usefulness for diagnosing hair diseases". Journal of Dermatological Case Reports 2. ...
Confocal microscopy, another optical technique, typically penetrates less deeply into the sample but with higher resolution. ... Kaufman, S; Musch, DC; Belin, MW; Cohen, EJ; Meisler, DM; Reinhart, WJ; Udell, IJ; Van Meter, WS (2004). "Confocal microscopy: ... Medical ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), confocal microscopy, and OCT are differently suited to morphological ... Roy, M; Svahn, P; Cherel, L; Sheppard, CJR (2002). "Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy". Optics ...
In fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as in molecular biology, FRET is a useful ... "In Pawley, James B. Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. pp. 162-206. doi:10.1007/978- ... Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. pp. 788-808. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_45. ... Molecular Imaging: FRET Microscopy and Spectroscopy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 72-94. doi:10.1016/B978-019517720- ...
Based on confocal microscopy ASRGL1 is mainly localized to the microtubules. ASRGL1 is highly expressed in the normal ...
"Perfluorodecalin enhances in vivo confocal microscopy resolution of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll". New Phytologist. 186 (4): ... Perfluorodecalin has also been shown to dramatically enhance in vivo microscopy resolution of airspace-containing tissues such ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
144 Pages Report] Acoustic Microscopy Market categorizes global market by Offering (Microscopes, Accessories & Software, ... 6.2.2 Confocal Scanning Acoustic Microscope (CSAm). 6.2.3 Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope (SLAM). 6.3 Accessories & Software ... Acoustic Microscopy Software and Solution Providers *Acoustic Microscopy Technology Providers *Technical Universities * ... and increased funding for R&D in microscopy. Acoustic microscopy is gaining popularity as a non-invasive and non-destructive ...
The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Microscopy.. online. *^ a b c Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And ... Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing ... Foundations of Confocal Scanned Imaging in Light Microscopy". In James Pawley. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3. ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ...
Source for information on Confocal Microscopy: World of Forensic Science dictionary. ... The choice of the microscopy technique can be determined in part by the size of the target. For example, gunshot residue may be ... Confocal Microscopy The examination of samples obtained from an accident or crime scene can be a sophisticated process. Some of ... Confocal Microscopy World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Confocal Microscopy. The examination of samples ...
Confocal microscopy. Definition. Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around ... Deep tissue space-gated microscopy via acousto-optic interaction In ideal diffraction-limited optical microscopy imaging depth ... This protocol describes how to visualize and quantify translation of individual mRNAs in live cells by fluorescence microscopy ... The combination of image scanning microscopy and quantum imaging improves resolution up to fourfold compared with the classical ...
Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis.. Pfister DR1, Cameron JD, Krachmer JH, Holland EJ. ... Confocal microscopy can be a useful, noninvasive imaging technique helpful in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of ... Tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed on two patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis to provide images detailing ... Although tandem scanning confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba has been described in previous reports, Acanthamoeba keratitis has ...
... deposits by confocal microscopy and to evaluate the correlation between conjunctival histopathology and confocal microscopy ... Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis. Melis Palamar,1 Suzan Guven Yilmaz,1 Taner Akalin,2 Sait Egrilmez,1 and Ayse ... To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and ... Confocal microscopy is a noninvasive tool for in vivo examination of diseases affecting the ocular surface. It provides images ...
The Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-Vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology discusses the principles of confocal in vivo ... Confocal microscopy. BioPhotonics. Feb 2007 The Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-Vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology discusses ... the principles of confocal in vivo microscopy, including slit-scanning techniques, the basics of image formation and confocal ... fluorescence microscopy. Observation of samples using excitation produced fluorescence. A sample is placed within the ...
Intraoperative confocal microscopy is an emerging and practicable technology for the resection of human brain tumors. Our ... Delaney PM, King RG, Lambert JR, Harris MR (1994) Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) for subsurface microscopy of the colon in ... Eschbacher J, Martirosyan NL, Nakaji P, Sanai N, Preul MC, Smith KA et al (2012) In vivo intraoperative confocal microscopy for ... Sanai N, Snyder LA, Honea NJ, Coons SW, Eschbacher JM, Smith KA et al (2011) Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the ...
For system specifications, please see the Specs tab.Thorlabs also offers complete single-channel and four-channel confocal ... Products Home / Imaging Systems & Components / Confocal Microscopy / Confocal Microscopy Upgrade. Confocal Microscopy Upgrade. ... Thorlabs Confocal Microscopy System. The photo above shows a confocal system coupled to an Olympus inverted microscope (not ... Thorlabs Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) Microscopy Upgrade consists of compact modules designed to bring powerful confocal ...
Thanks to this tutorial be able to make a comparison between confocal and widefield microscopy. ... Use laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze only a slice of a sample, even a thick one. ... Confocal versus Widefield Microscopy. Among the most popular tools to conduct optical sectioning is the spot-scanning laser ... In laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), it is possible to exclusively image a thin optical slice out of a thick specimen ...
Optical microscopy is almost non-invasive and allows highly spatially resolved images of organisms, cells, macromolecular ... Fluorescence microscopy is an important and fundamental tool for biomedical research. ... Advanced microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy Methods Mol Biol. 2011;784:169-80. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-289-2_12. ... The development of fluorescence microscopy was revolutionized with the invention of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). ...
Although confocal reflection microscopy has limited applications in biomedical imaging, it can often provide additional ... Figure 1 - Confocal Reflected Microscopy of Cells on Substrata. Confocal reflection microscopy can be utilized to gather ... Figure 3 - Confocal Reflection Microscopy of Silver Grains. As an example, confocal reflection microscopy offers a significant ... Confocal Reflection Microscopy. When many biomedical research think "confocal microscopy", they usually have fluorescence ...
Watch this on-demand webinar to learn sample preparation for confocal microscopy. Discover its advantage over epifluorescent ... Join Dr Ann Wheeler as she reviews the basic principles of confocal microscopy. Review best practice for confocal microscopy: ... but actually when you look in confocal microscopy you can see its quite discrete. So confocal microscopy can actually be used ... So when would one need to use confocal microscopy? Well, there are limits to what a confocal can do, it can be used to ...
... on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at Translate This Blog. Hurry! Limited ... This newly updated second edition details the latest instrumentation and applications of the confocal microscope. This edition ... Huge Savings Item! Save 12% on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at ... Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science). ...
Buy Confocal Microscopy for Biologists by Alan R. Hibbs from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones ... one of the most important of which is confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy has now become an important research tool, with ... Many of the people interested in using confocal microscopy to further their research do not have a background in microscopy or ... Confocal Microscopy for Biologists (Paperback). Alan R. Hibbs (author) Sign in to write a review ...
Confocal Microscopy - Zeiss LSM 510 Meta. The Zeiss LSM 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope is used primarily by ... Non-confocal gray-scale brightfield, darkfield and differential interference contrast (DIC; with 20X and higher objective ... The confocal was funded through a National Science Foundation Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) grant (#0618719). ... However, confocal microscopes are finding increasing use in non-biological applications as well. ...
Optical aberrations that cause subtle defects in image quality in widefield microscopy can have devastating effects in confocal ... Aberrations in Confocal Microscopy. Refinements in design have simplified confocal microscopy to the extent that it has become ... Over the past ten years, confocal microscopy has developed from a technique limited to specialists in microscopy into a ... The most common application of confocal microscopy is to compare the distributions or behaviors of multiple probes in the same ...
Confocal fluorescence microscopes are more widely used because they can acquire data in very thin optical sections, allowing ... In standard confocal microscopes, two or three fluorescence emission channels are defined by wavelength. In a FRET experiment ... Spectral confocal microscopes were first used to separate the signals from fluorescent molecules with highly overlapping ... Superresolution Microscopy Poster. Visually stunning poster illustrating methods and fundamental concepts The diffraction limit ...
... and light microscopy (LM) in order to correlate biochemical and molecular data with morphology. Electron... ... biologists have been confined to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ... MDCK Cell Mitotic Spindle Stereo Image Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Cell Height These keywords were added by machine and ... Hell, S., Reiner, G., Cremer, C., and Stelzer, E.H.K., 1993, Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy introduced by ...
Reflectance confocal microscopy in Shiitake dermatitis]. Hautarzt. 2019 May 13;: Authors: Cussigh CS, Fink C, Winkler JK, ... Reflectance confocal microscopy in Shiitake dermatitis]. Hautarzt. 2019 May 13;: Authors: Cussigh CS, Fink C, Winkler JK, ... The results of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) correlated with the histopathological investigations. Therefore, RCM can ...
Confocal imaging involves scanning the specimen to create computer-generated optical sections down to 250 nm thickness using ... Articles and Tutorials on Optical Microscopy, Photomicrography, and Digital Imaging. *Imaging Products. Digital/Film Cameras, ... Confocal Microscopy. ...
Confocal Raman microscopy refers to the ability to spatially filter the analysis volume of the sample, in the XY (lateral) and ... 25: Cross section analysis of commercial plastic, showing the capability of confocal Raman microscopy for analysis of μm thick ... There are several methods in use today (for example, true confocal aperture, or pseudo confocal slit-binning techniques) and ... For a true confocal design, the limits of spatial resolution are defined principally by the laser wavelength and quality of the ...
Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy.. Beier BD1, Quivey RG, Berger AJ. ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ...
Confocal microscopy Confocal laser scanning microscopy Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscope Scanning transmission ... Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is an electron microscopy technique analogous to scanning confocal optical ... as in other scanning microscopy techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. ... 6: 8. Zaluzec, N.J. (2007). "Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy". Microsc. Microanal. 13: 1560. doi:10.1017/ ...
A confocal interferometry system for making interferometric measurements of an object, the system including an array of ... The issue of traditional critical alignment of conjugate confocal pinholes in a confocal microscopy system is nonexistent, i.e ... the traditional critical alignment requirement of conjugate confocal pinholes in a confocal microscopy system does not arise, i ... Interferometric confocal microscopy incorporating a pinhole array beam-splitter. US20040257577 *. 27 Jan 2004. 23 Dec 2004. ...
  • Confocal Raman microscopy refers to the ability to spatially filter the analysis volume of the sample, in the XY (lateral) and Z (depth) axes. (horiba.com)
  • Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is used to discriminate between different species of bacteria grown in biofilms. (nih.gov)
  • Confocal Raman Imagingmicroscopy provides a non-destructive method for the analysis of an impurity embedded inside a polymer resin. (jascoinc.com)
  • In this paper, we employ in-situ confocal Raman microscopy to probe the partitioning of a model membrane-active compound, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid or ibuprofen, into both hybrid- and supported-phospholipid bilayers deposited on the pore walls of individual chromatographic particles. (osti.gov)
  • Kitt, Jay P., Bryce, David A., Minteer, Shelley D., and Harris, Joel M.. Confocal Raman Microscopy for In-situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles . (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1437042, title = {Confocal Raman Microscopy for In-situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles}, author = {Kitt, Jay P. and Bryce, David A. and Minteer, Shelley D. and Harris, Joel M.}, abstractNote = {The phospholipid-water partition coefficient is a commonly measured parameter that correlates with drug efficacy, small-molecule toxicity, and accumulation of molecules in biological systems in the environment. (osti.gov)
  • Confocal Raman Im. (electrooptics.com)
  • The Confocal Raman Imaging Symposium, which took place for the 15th time in Ulm, was like a big family reunion with both familiar and new faces. (electrooptics.com)
  • For years, experts and beginners have been taking the opportunity to refresh and expand their knowledge of modern Raman microscopy. (electrooptics.com)
  • Katarzyna Marzec (Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland) concluded the scientific presentations on the first day with a presentation of her work on correlative Raman microscopy in biomedical research. (electrooptics.com)
  • Marzec and colleagues use confocal Raman microscopy in combination with atomic force, near-field or fluorescence microscopy. (electrooptics.com)
  • To begin the geoscientific lecture series, Guillaume Wille (BRGM Orleans, France) presented his investigations of polymorphic structures and asbestos using correlative Raman Imaging and Scanning Electron (RISE) microscopy. (electrooptics.com)
  • He combines the electron microscopy findings on sample morphology and nanostructure with the information on chemical mineral composition obtained by Raman microscopy. (electrooptics.com)
  • Using Raman microscopy, Papineau and colleagues have recently been able to identify one of the oldest microfossils ever found. (electrooptics.com)
  • Christian Timma (thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, Duisburg, Germany) vividly reported on the establishment of confocal Raman microscopy for quality control in steel production in his company. (electrooptics.com)
  • These facts have been corroborated by many gravimetric experiments, as well as visualization by electron and atomic force microscopy. (aiche.org)
  • Thus there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Together with neurobiologists, we have designed such a tool, choosing visualization methods to suit the characteristics of confocal data and a typical biologist's workflow. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are several academic and commercial visualization packages available, but these have various significant feature limitations when applied to multi-channel confocal data. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Despite the plethora of volume rendering techniques that have been available for many years, there is a real demand from neurobiologists, and biologists in general, for a flexible visualization tool that allows interactive visualization of multi-channel confocal data, with rapid fine-tuning of parameters to reveal the three-dimensional relationships of structures of interest. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. (hindawi.com)
  • The module consists of a monochrome laser radiation source which avoids chromatic aberrations and provides extremely sharp images and a high-powered lens that allows the operator to change the confocal plane within the cornea to capture images at different depths without losing sharpness [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Confocal reflection microscopy works especially well for imaging the cornea and lens of the eye because they are transparent. (microscopyu.com)
  • Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. (dovepress.com)
  • Confocal microscopy allows an in vivo ultrastructural analysis of the cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • To characterize the cornea of individuals with Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) at the cellular level by laser confocal biomicroscopy. (molvis.org)
  • Methods: I measured 30 eyes OD/OS (chosen randomly) of thirty healthy subjects aged from 18 to 55 years in the first study and twelve participants in the second study, with refractive error ≤ ±4 D and astigmatism ≤ 2 D. The thickness and cell density of five positions: superior, inferior, temporal, nasal limbal and central cornea was determined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Reading and thinking about cell biology is very interesting no doubt, but I find that to be able to see biological processes by live microscopy just amplifies the questions at hand so much! (tufts.edu)
  • Live cell microscopy has been my tool of preference to answer many biological research questions ever since. (tufts.edu)
  • Microscopy has been one of the most direct and powerful tools since the beginning of biological research. (nih.gov)