The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
An analytical transmission electron microscopy method using an electron microscope fitted with an energy filtering lens. The method is based on the principle that some of the ELECTRONS passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The amount of energy loss is dependent upon the element. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum (ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY) reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. It is used analytically and quantitatively to determine which, how much of, and where specific ELEMENTS are in a sample. For example, it is used for elemental mapping of PHOSPHORUS to trace the strands of NUCLEIC ACIDS in nucleoprotein complexes.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Methods used to study CELLS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.

Astrocyte-specific expression of tyrosine hydroxylase after intracerebral gene transfer induces behavioral recovery in experimental parkinsonism. (1/16624)

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the depletion of dopamine in the caudate putamen. Dopamine replacement with levodopa, a precursor of the neurotransmitter, is presently the most common treatment for this disease. However, in an effort to obtain better therapeutic results, tissue or cells that synthesize catecholamines have been grafted into experimental animals and human patients. In this paper, we present a novel technique to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the host's own astrocytes. This procedure uses a transgene in which the expression of a TH cDNA is under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, which confers astrocyte-specific expression and also increases its activity in response to brain injury. The method was tested in a rat model of Parkinson's disease produced by lesioning the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Following microinjection of the transgene into the denervated striatum as a DNA-liposome complex, expression of the transgene was detected by RT-PCR and TH protein was observed specifically in astrocytes by using double-labeling immunofluorescence for GFAP and TH coupled with laser confocal microscopy. Efficacy was demonstrated by significant behavioral recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the pharmacologically induced turning behavior generated by the unilateral denervation of the rat striatum. These results suggest this is a valuable technique to express molecules of therapeutic interest in the brain.  (+info)

Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes. (2/16624)

The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (3/16624)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

In oculo transplants of myometrium from postpartum guinea pigs fail to support sympathetic reinnervation. (4/16624)

Sympathetic nerves to the enlarged fetus-containing region of the uterus undergo degenerative changes during late pregnancy and show slow regrowth after parturition. It is not known whether this unusual response of sympathetic nerves to smooth muscle hypertrophy is due to the sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes, or whether the nerves respond to changes in the neurotrophic capacity of the target. We have investigated this question using in oculo transplantation. Small pieces of myometrium from the uterine horn of virgin guinea pigs, or from the region previously occupied by the placenta and fetus in postpartum guinea pigs, were transplanted into the anterior eye chamber. After 3 wk in oculo, the pattern of reinnervation of the transplants was assessed on whole mount stretch preparations stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The histology of the transplants was examined in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections. Myometrial transplants from virgin donors and uterine artery transplants from both virgin and postpartum donors became organotypically reinnervated by sympathetic fibres from the host iris. In contrast, sympathetic nerves did not reinnervate myometrial transplants from postpartum donors, although they approached the transplants and became distributed in the surrounding connective tissue. All transplanted tissues showed a normal histological appearance. Both the myometrium and uterine artery from postpartum donors retained a hypertrophic appearance after 3 wk in oculo. We interpret these results to indicate that the degeneration of sympathetic nerves in late pregnancy, as well as their slow regrowth to the uterus after delivery, may be due to changes in uterine smooth muscle rather than a particular sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes.  (+info)

Opposing motor activities of dynein and kinesin determine retention and transport of MHC class II-containing compartments. (5/16624)

MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently transported to the cell surface. We previously visualised vesicular transport of MHC class II-containing early lysosomes from the microtubule organising centre (MTOC) region towards the cell surface in living cells. Here we show that the MIIC move bidirectionally in a 'stop-and-go' fashion. Overexpression of a motor head-deleted kinesin inhibited MIIC motility, showing that kinesin is the motor that drives its plus end transport towards the cell periphery. Cytoplasmic dynein mediates the return of vesicles to the MTOC area and effectively retains the vesicles at this location, as assessed by inactivation of dynein by overexpression of dynamitin. Our data suggest a retention mechanism that determines the perinuclear accumulation of MIIC, which is the result of dynein activity being superior over kinesin activity. The bidirectional nature of MIIC movement is the result of both kinesin and dynein acting reciprocally on the MIIC during its transport. The motors may be the ultimate targets of regulatory kinases since the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine induces a massive release of lysosomal vesicles from the MTOC region that is morphologically similar to that observed after inactivation of the dynein motor.  (+info)

The identification of ferritin in the nucleus of K562 cells, and investigation of a possible role in the transcriptional regulation of adult beta-globin gene expression. (6/16624)

We studied the subcellular distribution of ferritin in K562 cells by immunofluorescence techniques and have made a reappraisal of a direct binding interaction between ferritin and the proximal promoter region of the human beta-globin gene, as previously mentioned in the literature. Confocal microscopy indicates that ferritin, the iron-storage protein, is present in the nucleus of K562 cells, in addition to its expected cytoplasmic localisation. The stain distribution suggests that it is not directly associated with the nuclear matrix. Using a gel mobility shift assay, a protein that cross-reacts with monoclonal ferritin antibodies competitively binds to a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the region situated 150 base pairs upstream from the beta-globin transcription start site. Despite this antibody cross-reactivity, the protein is unlike cytosolic ferritin as it appears to be highly sensitive to both temperature and freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-crosslinking experiments indicate that the molecular mass of the protein factor lies between 90 and 100 kDa. In conclusion, while the intranuclear location of ferritin is described in the present study, ferritin is not in direct contact with the beta-globin promoter region.  (+info)

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (7/16624)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (8/16624)

Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation.  (+info)

Background and aims: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is used to differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal polyps during colonoscopy. We aimed to assess the accuracy of two endoscopists starting to use real-time pCLE for differentiation of colorectal polyps and to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) for neoplasia in ... read more polyps ≤ 5 mm. Methods: Patients undergoing colonoscopy in a tertiary hospital were included in this prospective trial. After a training session, two colonoscopists assessed 50 polyps between August 2012 and April 2014. They sequentially used narrow-band imaging (NBI) and real-time pCLE to differentiate non-adenomatous, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps during colonoscopy. Histologic diagnosis by a gastrointestinal pathologist was the gold standard. Results were compared to post-hoc pCLE by a panel of gastroenterologists and pathologists. Results: The accuracy of real-time pCLE was 76 %, compared to 73 % for NBI, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) images of submucosal growth of a duodenal mucous neck cell adenoma. AU - Tahara, Tomomitsu. AU - Horiguchi, Noriyuki. AU - Nagasaka, Mitsuo. AU - Nakagawa, Yoshihito. AU - Tsukamoto, Tetsuya. AU - Shibata, Tomoyuki. AU - Ohmiya, Naoki. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1055/s-0041-111031. DO - 10.1055/s-0041-111031. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 26800196. AN - SCOPUS:84955452020. VL - 48. SP - E19-E21. JO - Endoscopy. JF - Endoscopy. SN - 0013-726X. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre- and post-training session evaluation for interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for biliary strictures. AU - Talreja, Jayant P.. AU - Turner, Brian G.. AU - Gress, Frank G.. AU - Ho, Sammy. AU - Sarkaria, Savreet. AU - Paddu, Naveen. AU - Natov, Nikola. AU - Bharmal, Sheila. AU - Gaidhane, Monica. AU - Sethi, Amrita. AU - Kahaleh, Michel. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Background and Aim Current diagnostic modalities for indeterminate biliary strictures offer low accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) permits microscopic assessment of mucosal structures by obtaining real-time high-resolution images of the mucosal layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, an interobserver study demonstrated poor to fair agreement even among experienced confocal endomicroscopy operators. Our objective was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy upon completion of a pCLE training session. Methods ...
New approaches to the chemotherapy of glioblastoma [Elektronische Ressource] : investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy / vorgelegt von Dietmar Gross : New Approaches to the Chemotherapy of Glioblastoma: investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät IV - Chemie und Pharmazie - der Universität Regensburg
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for varicella prompt diagnosis and treatment in a severely immunosuppressed patient. AU - Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol. AU - Costa, Mariana Carvalho. AU - Agozzino, Marina. AU - Amorosi, Beatrice. AU - Cota, Carlo. AU - Ardigo, Marco. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2011.00581.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2011.00581.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 22092934. AN - SCOPUS:84863550245. VL - 18. SP - 386. EP - 388. JO - Skin Research and Technology. JF - Skin Research and Technology. SN - 0909-752X. IS - 3. ER - ...
A Wavelet-Based Approach to 3-D Confocal Microscopy Image Reconstruction , A Wavelet-Based Approach to 3-D Confocal Microscopy Image Reconstruction , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوراسگان
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interobserver agreement of confocal laser endomicroscopy for detection of head and neck neoplasia. AU - Moore, Charles. AU - Mehta, Vikas. AU - Ma, Xiaohui. AU - Chaudhery, Shabnum. AU - Shi, Runhua. AU - Moore-Medlin, Tara. AU - Lian, Timothy. AU - Nathan, Cherie Ann O.. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Objectives/Hypothesis We have described the feasibility of using the probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) in differentiating benign from malignant lesions of the head and neck. Therefore, we wanted to determine the interobserver agreement of pCLE offline images of noncancerous, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the head and neck. Study Design Single tertiary referral center. Methods In the feasibility study, image criteria for nondysplasia, dysplasia, and cancer were defined. The pCLE was performed before lesions were biopsied. Fifty offline images and 10 videos of good quality were selected. Seven surgeons and one pathologist were asked to review and ...
A novel, noninvasive imaging technique for intraoperative assessment of parathyroid glands: confocal reflectance microscopy. Surgery. 2000 Dec; 128(6):1088-1100; discussion 1100-1 ...
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic evaluation with high-definition white light endoscopy and random 4-quadrant biopsy (Seattle Protocol) is the current standard of care for the detection of Barretts esophagus (BE). Recently, enhanced imaging technologies have become available to provide real-time diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia, reducing the need for tissue biopsy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides dynamic microscopic mucosal views, rapidly capturing digital images that become optical biopsies. This study examined the role of pCLE in BE screening and surveillance as compared to the Seattle Protocol.. METHODS: Patients undergoing BE screening or surveillance endoscopy were enrolled at eight US centers. Optical biopsy using pCLE was interpreted in real time. Endoscopists performing pCLE were new users with a median experience of 8.5 months and no formal training in surgical pathology. Seattle Protocol biopsies were then taken. Recorded pCLE images were reviewed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - First experiences using reflectance confocal microscopy on equivocal skin lesions in Queensland. AU - Curchin, Claudia E S. AU - Wurm, Elisabeth M T. AU - Lambie, Duncan L J. AU - Longo, Caterina. AU - Pellacani, Giovanni. AU - Soyer, H. Peter. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Background/Objectives: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive method of imaging human skin in vivo. The purpose of this study was to observe the experience of using RCM on equivocal skin lesions in a tertiary clinical setting in Queensland. Methods: Fifty equivocal lesions on 42 patients were imaged using a reflectance confocal microscope immediately prior to being excised. The images were then analysed blind to the histopathological diagnosis. The experience and problems encountered when using RCM on skin lesions for the first time was also observed. Results: On RCM analysis 12/13 melanomas (92.3% sensitivity, 75% specificity), 19/22 benign naevi (86% sensitivity, 95% specificity), 6/9 basal ...
Representative confocal microscopy images of cells exposed to green fluorescent nano-particles (40 nm in diameter). (A-C) Dural epithelial cells. (D-F) Dura
A prospective randomized study of 26 patients treated with flex in one eye, and smile in the other at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital. Preoperative spherical equivalent refraction averaged -7.50 D (range -6.00 to -9.75 D) in both groups. All patients had stable myopia and no other ocular diseases. A VisuMax® femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) was used. Lenticule diameters were the same in both eyes and ranged from 6.00 to 6.50 mm. Flap thickness was 110 to 120 ṁm, and flap/cap diameter ranged from 7.3 to 8.0 mm. Images of the subbasal corneal nerves were acquired by continuous through-focusing of the cornea using in vivo confocal laser-scanning microscopy (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The detachable objective, the so called Rostock cornea module (RCM) , was used to optimize image acquisition. The NeuronJ Java program ( was used to trace and quantify subbasal nerves. Mean ...
The pUL97 protein kinase encoded by human cytomegalovirus is a multifunctional determinant of the efficiency of viral replication and phosphorylates viral as well as cellular substrate proteins. Here, we report that pUL97 is expressed in two isoforms with molecular masses of approximately 90 and 100 kDa. ORF UL97 comprises an unusual coding strategy in that five in-frame ATG start codons are contained within the N-terminal 157 aa. Site-directed mutagenesis, transient expression of point and deletion mutants and proteomic analyses accumulated evidence that the formation of the large and small isoforms result from alternative initiation of translation, with the start points being at amino acids 1 and 74, respectively. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that catalytic activity, in terms of autophosphorylation and histone substrate phosphorylation, was indistinguishable for the two isoforms. An analysis of the intracellular distribution of pUL97 by confocal laser-scanning microscopy demonstrated that both
Glomeruli are anatomical and possibly functional modules in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We investigated the spatial arrangement of glomeruli in the olfactory bulbs of adult zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). A solution of the lipophilic tracer Dil was injected into the nasal cavities. Axons of sensory neurons projecting from the olfactory epithelium into the bulb were traced anterogradely, thus labeling the whole population of glomeruli. The glomerular distribution was analyzed in detail by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We find that a typical olfactory bulb contains a small number of about 80 glomeruli that have a stereotyped configuration in all animals investigated. All glomeruli exhibit bilateral symmetry. Twenty-two single glomeruli could be identified from animal to animal by their characteristic position and morphology. The remaining glomeruli either are embedded in glomerular plexus and therefore cannot be delineated reliably, or belong to a densely clustered subpopulation of on ...
We present a low-cost, high-speed, retrofitted laser scanning module for microscopy. The cage-mounted system, with various available fiber-coupled sources, offers a real-time imaging alternative to costly commercial systems with capabilities for conventional or confocal reflectance and fluorescence applications as well as advanced laser scanning microscopy implementations. Reflectance images of a resolution target and confocal images of fluorescent polystyrene beads are presented for system characterization. Confocal fluorescence image stacks of T84 epithelial cancer cells are presented to demonstrate application to biological studies. This laser scanning module is a flexible, scalable, high-speed alternative to commercial laser scanning systems suitable for applications requiring a simple imaging tool and for teaching laboratories.. © 2005 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Cell culture and toxicity studies. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) were cultivated in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS and 2 mM L-glutamine at 37°C and 5% CO2. Primary neuron cultures were prepared from hippocampi or cortex of C57BL/6 mice and cultured in neurobasal medium supplemented with B-27, N-2, and L-glutamine. All reagents were supplied by Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Neurons were cultivated at different densities depending on which culture plate was used (30,000/well for 96-well plates, 75,000/well for 24-well plates, and 900,000/well for 6-well plates). For confocal laser-scanning microscopy, neurons and HEK293 cells were cultivated on poly-L-lysine-coated and collagenized coverslips, respectively. Unless otherwise stated, all neuronal studies were conducted after 9 to 10 days in vitro (DIV).. Toxicity studies using the MTT assay were conducted in 96-well plates for 12 hours in the presence of 200 μM of each investigated metabolite, unless otherwise stated. For ...
Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used to carry out a comparative study of the immunostaining for three families of neuropeptides, viz., allatostatin-A (AS-A), allatostatin-C (AS-C) and allatotropin (AT), in adult female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The specific patterns of immunostaining for each of the three peptides were similar in both species. The antisera raised against AT, AS-A, and AS-C revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cells of each protocerebral lobe of the brain and stained cells in each of the ventral ganglia and neuronal projections innervating various thoracic and abdominal tissues. Only the AS-A antiserum labeled immunoreactive endocrine cells in the midgut. The distribution of the peptides supports the concept that they play multiple regulatory roles in both species.
To quantify the degree of alignment in the data sets, the authors use a grayscale moments analysis of the data to obtain a histogram of the orientations of the fibers in the sample. This yields values of the azimuthal angle ,math,\phi,/math, defined within the imaging plane and of the polar angle ,math,\theta,/math, defined with respect to the perpendicular (z) axis. Since the area of a surface element for a unit sphere is ,math,sin \theta d\theta d\phi,/math,, an isotropic network should show a sine distribution for ,math,\theta,/math, and a uniform distribution for ,math,\phi,/math,. The distributions are shown in Figure 2. The ,math,\phi,/math, distribution is fairly flat for both imaging methods, revealing that the sample is isotropic within the focal plane. For ,math,\theta,/math,, CFM data follows a sine distribution whereas CRM data deviates strongly. To test whether the anisotropy in the CRM data is an imaging artifact, the authors rotate the sample by 90 degrees. Whereas the CFM data ...
The enamel defects (EDs) may present with a variety of clinical manifestations with increasing severity from the sole appearance of pale discoloration to remarkable structural alterations. EDs are responsible for higher caries receptivity. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows to image in vivo at microscopic resolution of the dental surface, thus avoiding the tooth extraction and the sample preparation because of its ability to optically scan living tissues along their depth. Aim of this study is the in vivo assessment at microscopic resolution of dental surfaces affected by EDs without resorting to invasive methods such as teeth extractions, to define histological findings occurring in chromatic and/or structural EDs. For the purpose, 15 children, referring at the Dental Clinic of the Second University of Naples, affected by several degrees of EDs, were enrolled and underwent in vivo RCM imaging to microscopically define the ED confocal features using a commercially available ...
Buchner AM, Gomez V, Heckman MG, Shahid MW, Achem S, Gill KR, Jamil LH, Kahaleh M, Lo SK, Picco M, Riegert-Johnson D, Raimondo M, Sciemeca D, Wolfsen H, Woodward T, Wallace MB. The learning curve of in vivo probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for prediction of colorectal neoplasia. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011 Mar; 73(3):556-60 ...
Plants are valuable systems for analyzing the acentriolar mitotic spindle. We have developed methods for imaging the mitotic spindle in living tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension culture cells expressing GFP-?-tubulin. The methods allow the spindle to be observed in living cells at high spatial and temporal resolution and rely on water immersion objectives, spinning disk optics, and high-sensitivity cameras. Here, we describe these methods and provide step-by-step protocols for certain key steps. We also describe a method for application and removal of inhibitors ...
Breast cancer is the most prevalent and deadly cancer among women worldwide. The current standard for breast lesion diagnosis is histologic assessment with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Histology has high diagnostic accuracy, but requires extensive time and resources to perform. The objective of this work was to improve diagnosis of early breast cancers by developing approaches to rapidly image and characterize neoplastic tissue and the tumor microenvironment in high resolution optical images. Confocal fluorescence microscopy can image optical sections of tissue without the need for extensive tissue processing. Three studies were performed to evaluate if confocal microscopy images contain sufficient information to identify neoplasia in breast tissue. In a 31 patient study, five pathologists identified neoplasia with high accuracy in confocal and histologic images. In another study, an expert pathologist estimated tumor cellularity in core biopsies with moderate agreement between confocal ...
The use of blochemical fractionation, immunofluorescence laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy with mouse anti-human bcl-2 monoclonal antibody to analyze the subcellular localization of the bcl-2 gene product revealed the protein prominently in the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and mitochondrial membranes. Electron microscopy at high magnification more precisely localized bcl-2 to the nuclear outer membrane as confirmed by the biochemical fractionation, as well as to mitochondrial outer and, to a lesser degree, inner membrane. This multisite membrane distribution of bcl-2 suggests an important role for this protein in several different membrane compartments.. ...
When T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells of the immune system interact with target cells, signaling molecules are accumulated in the plasma membrane at structures known as the immunological synapse. Evidence is accumulating that proteins, as well as signals, are transferred between the interacting cells at such contacts. NK cells receive inhibitory signals from cells that express self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on their surface. Earlier evidence had shown that NK cells can actually acquire MHC class I proteins during interactions with target cells. Now Vanherberghen et al. show that the exchange goes both ways and that NK receptors are transferred to cells that express MHC class I ligands. The authors monitored transfer of biotinylated killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) KIR2DL1 by immunoblotting or green fluorescent protein-tagged receptor by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or laser-scanning confocal microscopy and observed transfer of KIRs. The NK cell receptor ...
Areas of active investigation include: use of laser-scanning confocal microscopy to measure calcium sparks, which are brief localized increases in fluorescence from a Ca-indicator such as fluo-3 that are thought to be reflective of the transient opening of one or a few RyRs (=ryanodine receptors), the Ca release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); the possibility that the mechanism of activation of RyRs involves both voltage-gating and Ca-gating; the nature of the mechanism whereby SR Ca release is inactivated by a rise in myoplasmic free [Ca]; the possibility that either activation or inactivation of SR Ca release may vary with the RyR isoform composition (RyR1, RyR3, etc.); estimation of local Ca movements within the sarcomere by means of computer modeling, including estimation of the kinetics of binding of Ca to the intracellular Ca buffers troponin, parvalbumin, ATP, and the SR Ca pump ...
Plant parasites secrete proteins known as effectors into host tissues to manipulate host cell structures and functions. One of the major goals in effector biology is to determine the host cell compartments and the protein complexes in which effectors accumulate. Here, we describe a five-step pipeline that we routinely use in our lab to achieve this goal, which consists of (1) Golden Gate assembly of pathogen effector-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions into binary vectors, (2) Agrobacterium-mediated heterologous protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells, (3) laser-scanning confocal microscopy assay, (4) anti-GFP coimmunoprecipitation-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (coIP/MS) assay, and (5) anti-GFP western blotting ...
Cells were fixed with 3% PFA in warm PHEM buffer (60 mM Pipes-KOH, pH 6.9, 25 mM Hepes, 10 mM EDTA, and 2 mM MgCl2) containing 0.1% Triton X-100. EB1 staining required fixation with methanol at −20°C for 5 min. Primary antibodies to EB1 (1A11/4; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), paxillin (349; BD), SEPT2 (N5N; gift from M. Kinoshita, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan), SEPT6 (S6CU; gift from M. Kinoshita), SEPT7 (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Inc.), GFP (Invitrogen), α-tubulin (DM1A; Sigma-Aldrich), and secondary donkey DyLight 488-, 549-, 594-, or 649-conjugated F(ab′)2 to mouse or rabbit IgG (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc.) were diluted in PBS with 2% BSA. Staining with antibodies of the same species was performed with an antibody-labeling kit (Zenon; Invitrogen). Coverslips were mounted with FluorSave (EMD) or Vectashield (Vector Laboratories) and imaged on a confocal laser-scanning microscope (FluoView 1000; Olympus) using a Plan Apochromat 60×/1.42 NA objective. ...
Fluorescence confocal laser scanning endomicroscopy is a novel tool combining confocal microscopy and endoscopy for in-vivo subcellular structure imaging with comparable resolution as the traditional microscope. In this paper, we propose a three-channel fluorescence confocal microscopy system based on fiber bundle and two excitation laser lines of 488nm and 650nm. Three fluorescent photomultiplier detecting channels of red, green and blue can record multi-color fluorescence signals from single sample site simultaneously. And its ability for in-vivo multi-channel fluorescence detection at subcellular level is verified. Moreover, the system has achieved an effective field of view of 154μm in diameter with high resolution. With its multi-laser scanning, multi-channel detection, flexible probing, and in-vivo imaging abilities it will become a powerful tool in bio-chemical research and diagnostics, such as the investigation of the transport mechanism of nano-drugs in small animals.. ...
By enhancing the signal of genetically encoded markers expressed in defined circuit elements and quickly mapping them in large volumes of brain tissue, it enables sparse reconstructions of genetically defined circuit motifs. These motifs can be further used as road maps for targeted imaging of tissue subsets at high resolution, thus restricting imaging and segmentation time by enabling directed unsupervised reconstructions. As a proof of principle, this technique has been used to automatically reconstruct and visualize interneurons of different mouse retinas. This approach is not restricted to the retina and can be used to track long-range projections anywhere in the brain, e.g., from the retina to visual recipient layers located several millimeters away. Further, the same approach for unsupervised image processing can be applied to a variant of spectral confocal reflectance microscopy, facilitating the long range tracing of myelinated axons, as well as the automatic assessment of myelin ...
A variety of microscopic techniques have been utilized to study cyanobacterial associations with plant roots, but confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is the least used due to the unavailability of a suitable fluorescent dye. Commonly used lectins have problems with their binding ability with root cells and their visualization under CLSM. DTAF (5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein) is a fluorescent dye that has been widely used for staining various biological samples for fluorescent microscopy. It reacts with polysaccharides and peptides at ordinary conditions. The possible application and efficiency of DTAF for CLSM studies were examined in various aspects of cyanobacterial-plant interactions. Seedlings of Pisum sativum, Vigna rediata and Triticum aestivum were co-cultivated and stained with DTAF as a fluorochrome. Extracellular and intracellular interactions of cyanobacteria and the plant root surface were observed by CLSM. Results were compared with staining by other commonly used ...
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For these reasons, in vivo observation of the skin in its physiology and responses to stimuli has always been somewhat of a challenge. What Corcuff, P et al experimented with was a method of observing the skin of the forearm before sun exposure and for a month afterward using confocal microscopy techniques. Observations were made in regards to melanasome (melanin-containing organelle) caps within basal keratinocytes (skin cells in the deep epidermis). The use of in vivo confocal microscopy also affords new insight to the role of melanin and its gradual migration after sun exposure In vivo confocal microscopy involved reflected singals being used to create an image. Contrast was improved due to absorption and scattering (minimal loss of photons). Another feature that was regarded was realtime imaging to prevent blurring from motion caused by blood pulses and involuntary movement. ...
Multi-dimensional fluorescence imaging of live animal models demands strong optical sectioning, high spatial resolution, fast image acquisition, and minimal photobleaching. While conventional laser scanning microscopes are capable of deep penetration and sub-cellular resolution, they are generally too slow and causing excessive photobleaching for volumetric or time-lapse imaging. We demonstrate the performance of an augmented line-scan focal modulation microscope (aLSFMM), a high-speed imaging platform that affords above video-rate imaging speed by the use of line scanning. Exceptional background rejection is accomplished by combining a confocal slit with focal modulation. The image quality is further improved by merging the information from simultaneously acquired focal modulation and confocal images. Such a hybrid imaging scheme makes it possible to use very low power excitation light in high-speed imaging, and therefore leads to reduced photobleaching that is desirable for three-dimensional ...
Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several
In this issue, Wen and colleagues demonstrate that inhibition of the prolactin receptor by G129R initiates FOXO3a-mediated cell death in ovarian cancer. The confocal microscopy image on this months cover demonstrates treatment with G129 results in nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a (in red) in a uterine cancer cell line. They further demonstrate FOX3a and EIF-4EBP1 play a critical role in the cytotoxic response to G129R. Read the full article on page 1943. ...
Synthesis of a 1:1 mixture of lactose/mannose-QDs 20 b and lactose/maltotriose-QDs 21 b and confocal microscopy images after 2 h incubation with AS cells: A)
We established a collection of 7,000 transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of GAL4 in each line is controlled by a different, defined fragment of genomic DNA that serves as a transcriptional enhancer. We used confocal microscopy of dissected nervous systems to determine the expression patterns driven by each fragment in the adult brain and ventral nerve cord. We present image data on 6,650 lines. Using both manual and machine-assisted annotation, we describe the expression patterns in the most useful lines. We illustrate the utility of these data for identifying novel neuronal cell types, revealing brain asymmetry, and describing the nature and extent of neuronal shape stereotypy. The GAL4 lines allow expression of exogenous genes in distinct, small subsets of the adult nervous system. The set of DNA fragments, each driving a documented expression pattern, will facilitate the generation of additional constructs for manipulating neuronal function. synapse was substantially ...
Opterra II swept field scanning confocal microscope Brochure 2.8 MB Opterra II is the latest advancement in high-speed fluorescence microscopy designed specifically for live-cell microscopy. It uniquely combines the resolution of traditional confocal systems with the speed typically associated with wide-field imaging. ...
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The FCCM Facility was developed to assist investigators with the use of several different sophisticated instruments designed to detect and measure fluorescent light emission. A BD FACSCalibur flow cytometer is available for analysis of cells and particles from each other based on size, internal complexity, and/or up to four different fluorescent signals. Cells labeled either internally or externally with fluorescent antibodies, calcium or pH specific probes, fluorescent proteins, or with DNA specific probes and dyes. Cells or particles can also be aseptically sorted to obtain pure populations for either further analysis or subsequent culture. A Leica SP2 laser scanning confocal microscope and an automated Zeiss Axiovert 200M driven by OpenLab software are available for imaging of live or fixed cells or other fluorescent materials. A spinning disk confocal and TIRF microscopy system will be added to the facility in 2008.
The Opterra II swept-field confocal microscope utilizes proprietary one-dimensional pinhole array technology to combine the resolution of traditional confocal systems with the speed typically associated with wide-field imaging. With its short acquisition times and cell-protecting minimization of photobleaching and phototoxicity, Opterra II is ideal for advanced live-cell imaging. ...
The first four members of the myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88) family of cytosolic adaptor proteins are well known for their roles in mediating Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the immune system. Kim et al. set out to characterize the more enigmatic fifth member of this family, MyD88-5. Northern and Western blotting demonstrated a higher abundance of MyD88-5 mRNA and protein in the brains of mice and humans than in any other organ. In human blood, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays showed that MyD88-5 mRNA was preferentially found in lymphocytes and not in myeloid cells. The authors developed a transgenic mouse that expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged MyD88-5 protein. Confocal microscopic analysis of brain sections showed that GFP fluorescence was strongest in the hippocampus and cerebellum and found only in neurons, within which MyD88-5-GFP was cytoplasmic and had a punctate distribution. When expressed in COS-1 cells, ...
HCS systems are basically fully automated microscopes: an automated stage moves the multi-well plate from position to position (according to a previously defined protocol) and at each position the same imaging procedure is performed. Dichroic mirrors and filters are automatically switched, the sample is illuminated at one or more excitation wavelengths and the images are recorded with a CCD camera. Optionally also brightfield images are recorded. A combination of a laser-based autofocus system and a software-based autofocus procedure ensure that the sample is always in focus during imaging. HCS systems are available in widefield configuration or as confocal setup as for certain experiments optical sections or 3D imaging is required. The confocal HCS systems usually employ a spinning disk technique to ensure fast image acquisition. For fluorescence excitation the systems are equipped either with Mercury or Xenon light sources or with lasers, which are frequently used in confocal HCS systems. When ...
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One of the key frontiers in optical imaging is to maximize the spatial information retrieved from a sample while minimizing acquisition time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that allows real-time and high-resolution acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) sections. However, in order to obtain information from threedimensional (3D) volumes it is currently limited by a stepwise process that consists of acquiring multiple 2D sections from different focal planes by slow z-focus translation. Here, we present a novel method that enables the capture of an entire 3D sample in a single step. Our approach is based on an acoustically-driven varifocal lens integrated in a commercial confocal system that enables axial focus scanning at speeds of 140 kHz or above. Such high-speed allows for one or multiple focus sweeps on a pixel by pixel basis. By using a fast acquisition card, we can assign the photons detected at each pixel to their corresponding focal plane allowing ...
In the MBS program, Barthel, who didnt take many molecular courses as an undergraduate, enrolled in a variety of molecular and cell biology, spectroscopy, cell physiology, and other courses.. The incredible access to University faculty and resources helped him get a paper published with Karen Mesce and several others about a new confocal microscopy technique used to image Golgi-stained neurons.. It seems like everyone you work with around here is a genius. My knowledge base now has far surpassed what it was.. He also found a full-time job on campus at the Imaging Center, where he provided training, as well as imaged specimens such as intact and optically clear mouse brains in order to study viral induced genetic modification. (Imaging Center program director, Mark Sanders, was also a co-author of the paper and instrumental in Barthels success there.). They have a lot of impressive high-end research equipment that they teach people how to use, in addition to providing sample preparation, ...
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Using the 3D spinning disk confocal microscope at CBST, we are able to observe this process in much greater detail (more than 10 times the useful information in terms of spatial and temporal resolution), and reconstruct video images to focus on the structure and behavior of the virological synapse, which forms at the interface of cells in contact. By uncovering the different modes of Gag movements in the donor cell, we may be able to identify new targets or strategies for antiviral therapy.. ...
Magnified intelligence chromoendoscopy (FICE) plus probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (GIM) diagnosis: a feasibility trial. Research Question:. Is confocal endomicroscope feasible to diagnose gastric intestinal metaplasia?. Objective:. To evaluate the feasibility of confocal endomicroscope in diagnose gastric intestinal metaplasia.. Hypothesis:. Confocal endomicreosocpe can provide the accurate diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia.. Research design:. Diagnostic study. Sample size:. The investigators follow the population in recent study from Imraporn et al.: Validity of magnify NBI for gastric intestinal metaplasia targeted biopsy (N= 50). Data analysis:. Confocal Barretts esophagus classification was used to evaluate agreement of confocal endomicroscopic finding in gastric intestinal metaplasia. The accuracy of new criteria for GIM by confocal endomicroscope was evaluated in relation to pathological report, a gold standard for diagnosis, ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Semi-adaptive optics in confocal reflection and two photon microscopy in rat brain. AU - Vijverberg, J.. AU - Poland, S.P.. AU - Wright, A.. AU - Girkin, J.M.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Paper concerned with semi-adaptive optics in confocal reflection and two photon microscopy in rat brain.. AB - Paper concerned with semi-adaptive optics in confocal reflection and two photon microscopy in rat brain.. KW - semi-adaptive optics. KW - confocal reflection. KW - photon microscopy. KW - rat brain. KW - microscopy. M3 - Paper. T2 - Photon 06. Y2 - 4 September 2006 through 7 September 2006. ER - ...
This study aims to investigate the roles of the Notch-Hes1 pathway in the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-mediated differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). We prepared pLentiLox3.7 lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against Notch1 and transfected it into NSCs. Cell differentiation was analyzed under confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The percentage of neurons and astrocytes was quantified by normalizing the total number of TUJ1+ (Neuron-specific class III β-tubulin) and GFAP+ (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) cells to the total number of Hoechst 33342-labeled cell nuclei. The protein and gene expression of Notch-Hes1 pathway components was examined via western blot analysis and real-time PCR. After 1 week of incubation, we found that AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) (400 μg/mL) induced the astrocytic differentiation of cultured neurospheres and inhibited neuronal formation. The expression of Notch-Hes1 pathway components was upregulated in the cells in the AGE-BSA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two-photon laser confocal microscopy of micropermeability of resin-dentin bonds made with water or ethanol wet bonding. AU - Sauro, Salvatore. AU - Watson, Timothy F.. AU - Mannocci, Francesco. AU - Miyake, Katsuya. AU - Huffman, Bradford P.. AU - Tay, Franklin R.. AU - Pashley, David H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - This study evaluated the micropermeability of six etch-and-rinse adhesives bonded to dentin. There were two principal groups: wet bonding with water or wet bonding with absolute ethyl alcohol. After bonding and the creation of composite build-ups, the pulp chambers were filled with 0.1% lucifer yellow. The contents of the pulp chamber were kept under 20 cm H2O pressure to simulate pulpal pressure for 3 h. The specimens were vertically sectioned into multiple 0.5-mm thick slabs that were polished and then examined using a twophoton confocal laser scanning microscope (TPCLSM). The results showed that ...
Clinical applications of corneal confocal microscopy Mitra Tavakoli1, Parwez Hossain2, Rayaz A Malik11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; 2University of Southampton, Southampton Eye Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. It provides images which are comparable to in-vitro histochemical techniques delineating corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane and the corneal endothelium. Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. Thus far it has been used in the detection and management of pathologic and infectious conditions, corneal dystrophies and ecstasies, monitoring contact lens induced corneal changes and for pre and post surgical evaluation
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new diagnostic technique that allows microscopic examination of the digestive mucosa during ongoing endoscopy. Different types of tissue and diseases can be diagnosed immediately, and analysis of the in vivo microarchitecture is helpful to better target standard biopsies and reduce the number of biopsies required. CLE necessitates an intravenous injection of a fluorescent marker, e.g. fluorescein, to obtain optical biopsies with a high level of magnification (up to 1000 fold). To date, more than 1000 endomicroscopy procedures have been performed in the world and different publications have shown the safety, feasibility and excellent diagnostic yield of CLE. No complication related to IV injection of fluorescein has been reported. However, all these data come from a very limited number of expert centres and need to be confirmed and validated at the multicenter level. The aims of this multicenter trial are: 1) to standardize CLE in all centres equipped in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A non-contact measuring system for in-situ surface characterization based on laser confocal microscopy. AU - Fu, Shaowei. AU - Cheng, Fang. AU - Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh. AU - Yu, Zhou. AU - Butler, David. PY - 2018/8/13. Y1 - 2018/8/13. N2 - The characterization of surface topographic features on a component is typically quantified using two-dimensional roughness descriptors which are captured by off-line desktop instruments. Ideally any measurement system should be integrated into the manufacturing process to provide in-situ measurement and real-time feedback. A non-contact in-situ surface topography measuring system is proposed in this paper. The proposed system utilizes a laser confocal sensor in both lateral and vertical scanning modes to measure the height of the target features. The roughness parameters are calculated in the developed data processing software according to ISO 4287. To reduce the inherent disadvantage of confocal microscopy, e.g. scattering noise at steep ...
Random biopsies with targeted biopsies of any suspicious lesions is a reasonable alternative if chromoendoscopy is not available or if the yield of chromoendoscopy is reduced by significant underlying inflammation, pseudopolyposis, or poor preparation (ASGE, 2015). While there is emerging evidence that chromoendoscopy may yield higher polyp detection rates, at this time it is not known if the additional polyps detected are clinically significant and whether a higher detection rate results in a meaningful clinical outcome benefit. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Confocal laser endomicroscopy (also known as confocal fluorescent endomicroscopy) is an endoscopic technique that makes it possible to carry out microscopic examination of a smaller, focused spot of the mucosal layer during endoscopic procedures. Rasmussen and colleagues (2015) conducted a systematic review of the current indications and perspectives of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) for IBD. Only studies reporting original clinical ...
This well established symposium will cover various aspects of modern Raman microscopy and detail the advantages of confocal Raman imaging and its applications. Scientific talks from distinguished speakers in academia and industry, the contributed talk and poster sessions, and the instrument demonstration will give the participants a deeper understanding of confocal Raman imaging.
Confocal Raman microscopy can identify particles in the 5-50 ?m range and can bridge the gap between micro-FT-IR and SEM-EDS analyses.
Scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM) was used to visualize fully hydrated microbial biofilms. The improved rejection of out-of-focus haze and the increased resolution of SCLM made it preferable to conventional phase microscopy for the analysis of living biofilms. The extent of image improvement was dependent on the characteristics of individual biofilms and was most apparent when films were dispersed in three dimensions, when they were thick, and when they contained a high number of cells. SCLM optical sections were amenable to quantitative computer-enhanced microscopy analyses, with minimal interference originating from overlying or underlying cell material. By using SCLM in conjunction with viable negative fluorescence staining techniques, horizontal (xy) and sagittal (xz) sections of intact biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were obtained. These optical sections were then analyzed by image-processing techniques to assess the ...
Author: Egner, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-04-01; Keywords: axial resolution; confocal microscopy; multifocal multiphoton microscopy|br/|; Title: Comparison of the axial resolution of practical Nipkow-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy with that of multifocal multiphoton microscopy: theory and experiment
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adaptations of diaphragm neuromuscular junction following inactivity. AU - Prakash, Y.s.. AU - Zhan, W. Z.. AU - Miyata, H.. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We hypothesized that differences exist in the morphological adaptations of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) on different fiber types in response to prolonged inactivation. Two weeks of inactivity of both phrenic motoneurons and diaphragm muscle was induced by spinal cord hemitransection at C2 (spinal isolation; SI). A three-color fluorescent immunocytochemical technique, combined with laser-scanning confocal microscopy, was used to create two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of NMJs and obtain morphological information concerning: (1) innervating axons and presynaptic nerve terminals; (2) motor endplates (postsynaptic apparatus consisting of acetylcholine receptors), and (3) myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype of muscle fibers. In both sham controls (CTL) and SI animals, planar (2D) and surface (3D) areas ...
With the use of HRTII-RCM, we have obtained in vivo images of the central cornea in eyes affected by TSPK. Although dendritic cells were observed in the unaffected healthy corneas of the two patients with unilateral TSPK, these cells were greatly increased in number and formed aggregates in both the basal cell layer of the corneal epithelium and in Bowmans layer of the affected eyes. The dendritic cells in Bowmans layer appeared associated with the nerve fibers that form the nerve plexus of the corneal epithelium. Medical intervention reduced the numbers of these dendritic cells to normal values. With use of HRTII-RCM, we were able to observe abnormalities of cell shape and cell density in the eyes affected by TSPK. In the affected eyes, accumulation of dendritic cells was apparent in the focal lesions. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy of eyes affected by TSPK previously revealed multiple highly reflective filamentous structures in Bowmans layer of the corneal epithelium, but these ...
White identified the first gene with a demonstrated role in determining synaptic specificity. He studied the role of cell-cell interaction in determining the lineage pattern, stimulating a wide field of research. In more recent work, John and his co-workers partially confirmed his earlier model of cytokinesis; they discovered genes controlling cytokinesis and found features previously thought specific to plant cell division. Recognising the potentialities of laser-scanning confocal microscopy, John built a prototype microscope: with William Bradshaw Amos he developed this into a commercially produced instrument now widely used.[5] ...
Background and study aims: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows mucosal barrier defects along the intestinal epithelium to be visualized in vivo during endoscopy. Training in CLE interpretation can be achieved didactically or through self-directed learning. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of expert-led didactic with self-directed audiovisual teaching for training inexperienced analysts on how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on endoscope-based CLE (eCLE). Materials and methods: This randomized controlled study involved trainee analysts who were taught how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE either didactically or through an audiovisual clip ...
Four types of confocal microscopes are commercially available: Confocal laser scanning microscopes use multiple mirrors (typically 2 or 3 scanning linearly along the x and the y axis) to scan the laser across the sample and descan the image across a fixed pinhole and detector.. Spinning-disk (Nipkow disk) confocal microscopes use a series of moving pinholes on a disc to scan spots of light. Since a series of pinholes scans an area in parallel each pinhole is allowed to hover over a specific area for a longer amount of time thereby reducing the excitation energy needed to illuminate a sample when compared to laser scanning microscopes. Decreased excitation energy reduces photo-toxicity and photo-bleaching of a sample often making it the preferred system for imaging live cells or organisms.. Microlens enhanced or dual spinning disk confocal microscopes work under the same principles as spinning-disk confocal microscopes except a second spinning disk containing micro-lenses is placed before the ...
The Advanced Light Microscopy Facility (ALMF) is available to all workgroups of the Institute of Biology of the Humboldt-University Berlin. Providing sufficient free capacity ALFM also provides access to its equipment for other groups of the Humboldt-University Berlin and for collaborating users not associated with the Humboldt-University of Berlin. We offer various methods of light microscopy, for instance epifluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and spinning disk confocal laser microscopy (SDM). The instruments are equipped for the following advanced techniques: ...
Intravital microscopy of leukocyte-endothelial dynamics using the Heidelberg confocal laser microscope in scleritis and allergic conjunctivitis Journal Articles Refereed ...
Confocal Raman microscopy is a high-resolution imaging technique that is widely used for the characterization of materials and specimens in terms of thei...
Ice rheology, the integrity of polar ice core records, and ice−atmosphere interactions are among the phenomena controlled by the morphology and composition of interstitial fluids threading polycrystalline ice. Herein, we investigate how ionic impurities affect such features via time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy of freezing electrolyte solutions doped with a pH probe. We find that the 10 μM probe accumulates into 12 μm thick glassy channels in frozen water, but it is incorporated into randomly distributed ,1 μm diameter inclusions in freezing 1 mM NaCl. We infer that morphology is largely determined by the dynamic instabilities generated upon advancing ice by the rejected solute, rather than by thermodynamics. The protracted alkalinization of the fluid inclusions reveals that the excess negative charge generated by the preferential incorporation of Cl^− over Na^+ in ice is neutralized by the seepage of the OH^− slowly produced via H_2O → H^+ + OH^− thermal dissociation. ...
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) is an open access journal that publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers. The journal welcomes submissions on the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.
Author(s): Oegema, K; Whitfield, WG; Alberts, B | Abstract: CP190, a protein of 1,096 amino acids from Drosophila melanogaster, oscillates in a cell cycle-specific manner between the nucleus during interphase, and the centrosome during mitosis. To characterize the regions of CP190 responsible for its dynamic behavior, we injected rhodamine-labeled fusion proteins spanning most of CP190 into early Drosophila embryos, where their localizations were characterized using time-lapse fluorescence confocal microscopy. A single bipartite 19-amino acid nuclear localization signal was detected that causes nuclear localization. Robust centrosomal localization is conferred by a separate region of 124 amino acids; two adjacent, nonoverlapping fusion proteins containing distinct portions of this region show weaker centrosomal localization. Fusion proteins that contain both nuclear and centrosomal localization sequences oscillate between the nucleus and the centrosome in a manner identical to native CP190. Fusion
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a molecular marker used in synthetic biology to report gene expression and successful transformation, and in fluorescence confocal microscopy to label or characterise proteins and pathways. Equipment used to measure its expression is usually present in most laboratories, making it an accessible marker to use. Fluorescein, a bright green fluorophore, and its derivatives for example Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC), have high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence and good water solubility, characteristics making them the most common fluorescent reagents for biological research (ThermoFisher Scientific). Together, these markers can be used as powerful tools for synthetic biology measurement and analysis, especially when used in technical standards. Without such standards, it can be difficult to obtain reliable and repeatable results, as cells are inherently complex biological systems that give differing results depending on the methods and machinery used. Absolute ...
Damage to peripheral nerves caused during a surgical intervention often results in function loss. Fluorescence imaging has the potential to improve intraoperative identification and preservation of these structures. However, only very few nerve targeting agents are available. This study describes the in vivo nerve staining capabilities of locally administered fluorescent lectin-analogues. To this end WGA, PNA, PHA-L and LEL were functionalized with Cy5 (λex max 640 nm; λem max 680 nm). Transfer of these imaging agents along the sciatic nerve was evaluated in Thy1-YFP mice (n = 12) after intramuscular injection. Migration from the injection site was assessed in vivo using a laboratory fluorescence scanner and ex vivo via fluorescence confocal microscopy. All four lectins showed retrograde movement and staining of the epineurium with a signal-to-muscle ratio of around two. On average, the longest transfer distance was obtained with WGA-Cy5 (0.95 cm). Since WGA also gave minimal uptake in the lymphatic
AIM: Endothelial glycocalyx (eGLX), the inner lining of glomerular capillaries, regulates glomerular albumin permselectivity and is damaged in diabetes. Recently, it has been shown that the eGLX can be modified and repaired by different substances, in particular angiopoietinl (Angl) and hydrocortisone. We hypothesise that direct restoration of eGLX in the glomerulus will improve glomerular permeability in diabetes. To be able to test this hypothesis Angl and hydrocortisone were tested in vitro, then the best candidate was chosen for further ex vivo studies. To be able to test this compound ex vivo I also designed, characterised and validated a new albumin permeability assay based on quantitative fluorescence confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Angl was found to induce the most significant eGLX changes in vitro. Angl increased the expression of surface glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and significantly increased their release into the media of human conditionally immortalised glomerular endothelial cells ...
The Human Protein Atlas portal is an open-access database supplying protein and RNA expression data for postnatal human tissues and cell lines.. The protein expression data includes millions of high-resolution images showing the spatial distribution of proteins in 46 different postnatal normal human tissues, 20 different cancerous tissues, and 47 different human cell lines. For a large fraction of proteins, a results of a protein array assay and an immunofluorescence-based confocal microscopy image are also provided. In LifeMap database, only data from normal tissues are presented. Additionally, only genes with moderate to strong staining intensity and high confidence level are shown (described as supportive/high reliability; see website for further information about the calculation methods).. This experiment card only contains the protein expression data. See RNA expression data in Large Scale Dataset: Human Protein Atlas - RNA Sequencing Data.. ...
The Human Protein Atlas portal is an open-access database supplying protein and RNA expression data for postnatal human tissues and cell lines.. The protein expression data includes millions of high-resolution images showing the spatial distribution of proteins in 46 different postnatal normal human tissues, 20 different cancerous tissues, and 47 different human cell lines. For a large fraction of proteins, a results of a protein array assay and an immunofluorescence-based confocal microscopy image are also provided. In LifeMap database, only data from normal tissues are presented. Additionally, only genes with moderate to strong staining intensity and high confidence level are shown (described as supportive/high reliability; see website for further information about the calculation methods).. This experiment card only contains the protein expression data. See RNA expression data in Large Scale Dataset: Human Protein Atlas - RNA Sequencing Data.. ...
These are overlaid confocal microscopy images of E-cadherin, Actin and DAPI staining in fibronectin-depleted MCF-10A-Ca1h (Ca1h) breast cancer cells. In the article, beginning on page 1579, Shinde and colleagues demonstrate that wild type Ca1h cells are not metastatic, express high amounts of intracellular fibronectin, and display a very mesenchymal phenotype. In contrast, when fibronectin is depleted from the Ca1h cells they undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (as shown) characterized by a return of junctional E-cadherin expression and an enhanced ability to form pulmonary tumors following tail vein injection. As opposed to the tumor promoting role of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix, this study suggests that when epithelial-derived carcinoma cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, constitutive expression of fibronectin stabilizes their mesenchymal phenotype and inhibits the cell autonomous ability of those cells to complete the final steps of the metastatic process. ...
Expression and localization of proteins in a large variety of normal human tissues, cancer cells and cell lines with the aid of immunohistochemistry (IHC) images and immunofluorescence (IF) confocal microscopy images.. ...
Characterisation of cornerstone adhesions. a Spinning disk images of hPSC plated on vitronectin (VTN) and stained for F-actin, paxillin, DAPI, and the pluripotency marker Nanog. Scale bar 10 μm. b Structured illumination microscopy images of hPSC plated on VTN and stained for filamentous actin (F-actin) and paxillin. Scale bar 10 μm. The white square highlights a region of interest (ROI), which is magnified. c-f Live-cell imaging of endogenously tagged paxillin in hPSC. Images were acquired every minute using a spinning disk microscope. Colonies were recorded for at least 105 min (n = 16 independent colonies from three biologically independent experiments). A representative video is available as supplementary information (Supplementary Movie 1). c A representative image is displayed (ROI highlighted by white square and magnified; size, 30 µm) in addition to a mask image highlighting paxillin-positive adhesions (colony edge FA, green; colony centre FA, magenta) and merged images depicting ...
a) Illustration of the orientation and the dimension of the x-z optical section transverse to the capillary in the mesentery. The mesentery is arranged horizontally on the surface of the coverslip that forms the base of the observation stage. The optical section is composed of multiple line scans of the laser along the x axis, collected as the objective is lowered along the z axis. (b) When the fluorescein-dyed α-lactalbumin is perfused into the vessel lumen, the dye will travel across the vessel wall and accumulate in the tissue space surrounding the vessel. (c) An x-z confocal image after 13s perfusion of FITC-α-lactalbumin. It shows that the fluorescence dye fills the microvessel lumen and spreads in the surrounding tissue [schematic in (b)]. ...
Glutamate induces de novo growth of functional spines in developing cortex Nature 474, 7349 (2011). doi:10.1038/nature09986 Authors: Hyung-Bae Kwon & Bernardo L. Sabatini. Mature cortical pyramidal neurons receive excitatory inputs onto small protrusions emanating from their dendrites called spines. Spines undergo activity-dependent remodelling, stabilization and pruning during development, and similar structural changes can be triggered by learning and changes in sensory experiences. However, the biochemical triggers and mechanisms of de novo spine formation in the developing brain and the functional significance of new spines to neuronal connectivity are largely unknown. Here we develop an approach to induce and monitor de novo spine formation in real time using combined two-photon laser-scanning microscopy and two-photon laser uncaging of glutamate. Our data demonstrate that, in mouse cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons, glutamate is sufficient to trigger de novo spine growth from the ...
METHODS: The experimental animal species were small adult pigs (n=10; body weight 30-35 kg; 4-5 months old) used for their relative physiological and metabolic resemblance to man. The following experimental methods were used for diagnostic verification of gastrointestinal lesions (damage scale: 1 - erosions, red spots, inflammatory infiltration, 2 - single ulcers, 3 - strings of ulcers): endoscopic image for the diagnostics of gastro-duodenal segment (in vivo conditions), confocal laser microscopy (ex vivo imaging) and optical light microscopy (in vitro), small intestinal imaging by means of wireless capsule enteroscopy (in vivo), macroscopic findings and optical light microscopy (after animal sacrifice ...
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides real-time histologic imaging of human tissues at a depth of 60-70 μm during endoscopy. pCLE of the extrahepatic bile duct after fluorescein injection demonstrated a reticular pattern within fluorescein-filled sinuses that had no known anatomical correlate. Freezing biopsy tissue before fixation preserved the anatomy of this structure, demonstrating that it is part of the submucosa and a previously unappreciated fluid-filled interstitial space, draining to lymph nodes and supported by a complex network of thick collagen bundles. These bundles are intermittently lined on one side by fibroblast-like cells that stain with endothelial markers and vimentin, although there is a highly unusual and extensive unlined interface between the matrix proteins of the bundles and the surrounding fluid. We observed similar structures in numerous tissues that are subject to intermittent or rhythmic compression, including the submucosae of the entire gastrointestinal tract and
Hi all,I have a modified RO (reverse osmosis) membrane and I want to check biofilm growth on the membrane surface. For this purpose, Im using two bacterial strains (E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in my system. I want to see and analyze (using confocal microscope) which strain is causing more biofilm on the membrane surface when grown in mixed culture. But, since Im not microbiologist I dont really know which stains I have to use. - Do I have to stain each of the bacteria before mixing and growing them in the system (e.g. red for E.coli and green for P.aeruginosa)? - Are the stains (e.g. SYTO 59) permanent stains? Thanks a lot for your help! Ruth ...
Cell Culture, Drug Treatment, and Cytotoxicity Assay. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and cultured according to a method described previously (Chen et al., 2000). Ketamine was dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (0.14 M NaCl, 2.6 mM KCl, 8 mM Na2HPO4, and 1.5 mM KH2PO4). Concentrations of ketamine (≤100 μM), which correspond to clinical plasma concentrations (Domino et al., 1982; Grant et al., 1983), were chosen as the treated dosages in this study. To avoid drug interaction, when HepG2 cells were exposed to ketamine, the culture medium did not contain serum and antibiotics. Levels of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium were measured to evaluate the cytotoxicity of ketamine to HepG2 cells as described previously (Wu et al., 2007).. Confocal Microscopic Analyses of F-Actin and Microtubular Cytoskeletons. The F-actin and microtubular cytoskeletons in HepG2 cells were visualized as described ...
Many new drugs are being developed that may slow PD progression. Currently, the main way to measure whether these drugs are working is to examine individuals at regular intervals but this examination varies greatly from one day to the next, such that it takes hundreds of participants over several years to find out if a new drug works. We hope to use a simple eye test to measure whether these drugs can slow nerve damage associated with PD. By using a more reliable and accurate measure, we hope to make an earlier diagnosis possible and to improve clinical trials to speed up the approval of new drugs.. Next Steps for Development: ...
A Quick Overview of Cancer Protocols and Upcoming Changes in Tumor Staging by Julie Ann Walby, M.D.. MUSE and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy by Luis Brandi, M.D.. ...
Precision Raman Equipment for Confocal Raman Spectroscopy. Find out about our Raman Spectroscopy Equipment, including Confocal Raman Microscope.
분광기는 기초과학인 물리학과 화학에서는 기본장비로 활용되지만 응용분야인 바이오,나노,환경,재료 등 시험평가 부분에서는 Raman(라만),Photo Luminescence(광발광),Fluorescence(형광발광)시스템으로 핵심적인 역할을 한다. 이에 따라 동우옵트론은 마이크로 라만(Micro Raman) 공촛점 라만(Confocal Raman) PL/Raman mapping 시스템을 개발,이를 국내외에 공급함으로써 여러분야 발전에 이바지 하고 있다.. ...
Raman spectroscopy has long been applied in geoscience, for example for the identification and characterization of minerals, or in the observation of mineral phase transitions in high and ultra-high pressure/temperature experiments. In most cases because measurements have been carried out in a micro-Raman set up very little detail on the spatial distribution and association components or mineral phases, or chemical variation could be observed. In this application note from WITec, by means of Con
The |i|Journal of Biomedical Optics|/i| (JBO) publishes peer-reviewed papers on the use of novel optical systems and techniques for improved health care and biomedical research.
The Zeiss LSM 710 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Laboratories for Molecular Medicine, Room 111. The Zeiss LSM 710 confocal laser scanning microscope is designed for imaging fluorescence, either in fixed or live samples. A pinhole removes the out-of-focus light and allows investigators to acquire thin optical sections at various focal planes. Stacks of images can be acquired for 3D visualization.. The confocal module is mounted on a Zeiss Axio Observer Z1 inverted microscope with high quality objectives (listed below). A heated stage is available for imaging live samples at 37°C. The microscope has multiple lasers for excitation at 405, 458, 488, 514, 561, 594, and 633 nm, and is equipped with a 34-channel QUASAR detector, which can be set to collect emitted light of any wavelength within the visible spectrum. The QUASAR detector is capable of acquiring spectral information and its flexibility allows imaging of a broad range of fluorescent indicators, including the Alexa-Fluors, ...
"Fluorophores for confocal microscopy". In Pawley JB (ed.). Handbook of biological confocal microscopy. New York: Plenum Press. ... For quantum dots, prolonged single-molecule microscopy showed that 20-90% of all particles never emit fluorescence. On the ... Juan Carlos Stockert, Alfonso Blázquez-Castro (2017). "Chapter 3 Dyes and Fluorochromes". Fluorescence Microscopy in Life ... Fluorescence Microscopy in Life Sciences. Bentham Science Publishers. pp. 96-134. ISBN 978-1-68108-519-7. Retrieved 24 December ...
... in the case of confocal microscopy - on the diameter of the confocal aperture. When operated in the visible to near-infrared ... 2018). Confocal Raman Microscopy. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Springer Series in Optical Sciences. 66. Springer. doi: ... Neil J. Everall (2009). "Confocal Raman Microscopy: Performance, Pitfalls, and Best Practice". Applied Spectroscopy. 63 (9): ... can range from 1-6 µm with the smallest confocal pinhole aperture to 10s of micrometers when operated without a confocal ...
686-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Conn PM (23 July 2010). Techniques in Confocal Microscopy. Academic Press. pp. 215-. ISBN 978-0- ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hepler, P. K.; B. E. S. Gunning (1998). "Confocal fluorescence microscopy of plant ... Building on the work of Shinya Inoué and Andrew Bajer using polarized light microscopy, Hepler used electron microscopy to ... Zhang, D. H., P. Wadsworth, and P. K. Hepler (1990). "Microtubule dynamics in living dividing plant cells: Confocal imaging of ... Zhang, D., P. Wadsworth, and P. K. Hepler (1990). "Microtubule dynamics in living dividing cells: Confocal imaging of ...
Pawley, James B. (2006). Handbook of confocal microscopy (3rd ed.). Springer. ISBN 0-387-25921-X. "Optics Course Notes on the ...
"Nikon MicroscopyU - Confocal Microscopy - Spectral Imaging". ... One of the first alternatives is near infrared microscopy (NIR), which combines the advantages of microscopy and NIR. In 2004, ... Different studies have been done to propose alternative tools to the reference method of detection, (classical microscopy). ...
... with active target-locking in real-time confocal microscopy. Lu also wrote the opening chapter, on confocal microscopy and ... "Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Nanotechnology". In Yao, Nan; Wang, Zhong-Lin (eds.). Handbook of Microscopy for ... "Target-locking acquisition with real-time confocal (TARC) microscopy". Optics Express. 15 (14): 8702-8712. Bibcode:2007OExpr.. ... nanotechnology, of the Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by Nan Yao. Girih tiles Penrose tiles Kotok, Alan ( ...
2005). "HIV-1 Gag-RNA interaction occurs at a perinuclear/centrosomal site; analysis by confocal microscopy and FRET". Traffic ...
Equipment and processes available to students include high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy; confocal ... microscopes; flow cytometers and sorters, advanced digital microscopy; DNA sequencers; real-time PCR detection systems; and ...
Nie, S; Chiu, D.; Zare, R. (1994-11-11). "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy". Science. ...
In fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as in molecular biology, FRET is a useful ... "The Contrast Formation in Optical Microscopy". In Pawley JB (ed.). Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). New ... Handbook Of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. pp. 788-808. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_45. ... FRET microscopy tutorial from Olympus Archived 2012-06-29 at Glossary of Terms Used in Photochemistry (3rd ed.). ...
Nie, S; Chiu, D.; Zare, R. (1994). "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy". Science. 266 (5187): ...
In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. By wet-mounting seedlings in ... A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in particular, are ...
ISBN 978-0-486-65957-2. James B. Pawley (1995). Handbook of biological confocal microscopy (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 112. ISBN ... ISBN 0-387-95269-1. Douglas B. Murphy (2002). Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging. Wiley/IEEE. p. 64. ISBN ... Young's Experiment: Two-Slit Interference". Digital microscopy (3rd ed.). Academic Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-12-374025-0. ...
Nie, S; Chiu, DT; Zare, RN (11 November 1994). "Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy". Science. ...
Linear excitation of fluorescence with confocal detection. This method is essentially confocal laser scanning microscopy. It ... Min Gu has examined confocal readout and methods for its enhancement. In addition to the academic research, several companies ... This method usually employs a phase-contrast microscope or confocal reflection microscope. No absorption of light is necessary ... Amistoso, Jose Omar; Gu, Min; Kawata, Satoshi (2002). "Characterization of a Confocal Microscope Readout System in a ...
Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3rd ed.). Berlin: Springer. pp. 189-90. ISBN 0-387-25921-X. Nasse, M. J.; Woehl, J ... "Realistic modeling of the illumination point spread function in confocal scanning optical microscopy". Journal of the Optical ... It is also used in fluorescence microscopy for image restoration, and in fluorescence spectral imaging for spectral separation ... ISBN 0-262-73005-7. Cheng, P. C. (2006). "The Contrast Formation in Optical Microscopy". In Pawley, J. B. (ed.). ...
Keller HE (2006), "Objective Lenses for Confocal Microscopy", Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, Springer US, pp. 145- ... The rise of confocal microscopy is closely correlated with accessibility of high power lasers, which are able to achieve high ... Hibbs AR (2004). Confocal microscopy for biologists. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 978-0306484681. OCLC ... Pawley JB (2006). Handbook of biological confocal microscopy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. ISBN 9780387455242. OCLC ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Scarcelli, G; Yun, SH (2008). "Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional ... His research also contributed to the development of Brillouin microscopy and various implantable optical devices. Yun, SH; Kwok ... 2006). "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo". Nature Medicine. 12: 1429-1433. doi:10.1038/nm1450. PMC 2709216. ...
Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows visualization of Acanthamoeba in vivo in cases in which corneal ... Nakano E, Oliveira M, Portellinha W, de Freitas D, Nakano K (September 2004). "Confocal microscopy in early diagnosis of ...
2010). "Quantitative determination of spatial protein-protein correlations in fluorescence confocal microscopy." Biophys J 98: ... Zinchuk V & Grossenbacher-Zinchuk O (2011). "Quantitative colocalization analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy images." ... Colocalization Fluorescence microscopy Bioimage informatics Biological database Bolte S & Cordelieres FP (2006). "A guided tour ... 1993). "Measurement of colocalization of objects in dual-color confocal images." J Microsc Oxford 169:375-382. Wu Y et al. ( ...
Suzuki T, Fujikura K, Higashiyama T, Takata K (1 January 1997). "DNA staining for fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy". ... or in microscopy to visualize the nucleus and other DNA-containing organelles. Propidium Iodide is not membrane-permeable, ... Journal of Microscopy. 278 (3): 164-181. doi:10.1111/jmi.12895. PMID 32270489. S2CID 215619998.. ...
It generally refers to fluorescence confocal microscopy, although multi-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography have ... Journal of microscopy, 2011. 242: p. 111-6. Glass, Monty; Dabbs, Tim (1992-02-20). "Single-mode fibers used as confocal ... Polglase, A.L., W.J. Mclaren, and S.A. Skinner, A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and ... Gmitro, A.F. and D. Aziz, Confocal microscopy through a fiber-optic imaging bundle. Optics Letters, 1993. 18: p. 565-567. ...
Efron, Nathan; Al-Dossari, Munira; Pritchard, Nicola (2009-05-01). "In vivo confocal microscopy of the bulbar conjunctiva". ... "Dynamics of external ocular blood flow studied by scanning angiographic microscopy". Eye (London, England). 9 (5): 605-614. doi ...
Reflectance confocal microscopy may have better sensitivity and specificity than dermoscopy in diagnosing cutaneous melanoma ... Cochrane Skin Group) (December 2018). "Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults". The ... Following a visual examination and a dermatoscopic exam, or in vivo diagnostic tools such as a confocal microscope, the doctor ...
Tsia, K. K.; Goda, K.; Capewell, D.; Jalali, B. (2009). "Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser ... In microscopy, an endoscope was demonstrated using the two-dimensional spectral disperser. The VIPA has recently been used for ... Antonacci, G.; de Turris, V.; Rosa, A.; Ruocco, G. (2018). "Background-deflection Brillouin microscopy reveals altered ...
This is particularly important in confocal and superresolution microscopy. Photodynamic therapy Anderson, D.M.; Keith, J.; ... Icha, Jaroslav; Weber, Michael; Waters, Jennifer C.; Norden, Caren (2017). "Phototoxicity in live fluorescence microscopy, and ... When performing microscopy on live samples, one needs to be aware that too high light dose can damage or kill the specimens and ...
Calcium-induced calcium release Confocal microscopy Ryanodine receptor Cheng, H.; Lederer, W.J.; Cannell, M.B. (1993). "Calcium ... The discovery was made possible due to improvements in confocal microscopes. This allowed for the detection of the release of ... Software SparkMaster - Automated Ca2+ Spark Analysis with ImageJ - Free software for Ca2+ spark analysis in confocal linescan ... February 1999). "Amplitude distribution of Ca2+ sparks in confocal images: theory and studies with an automatic detection ...
She developed the world's first white light supercontinuum laser that could be used for confocal microscopy, as well as laser ... McConnell, Gail (2004). "Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with a visible continuum source". Optics Express. 12 ( ... McConnell, Gail (2004). "Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with a visible continuum source". Optics Express. 12 ( ... "Multi-photon microscopy without scanning for faster than video-rate fluorescence imaging of live cells". Retrieved ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
Efron, Nathan; Al-Dossari, Munira; Pritchard, Nicola (2009-05-01). "In vivo confocal microscopy of the bulbar conjunctiva". ...
... phase-contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy, confocal microscopy, cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, etc. have ... Advancement in microscopic techniques and technology such as fluorescence microscopy, ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Microscopy.. online. *^ a b c Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And ... Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing ... Foundations of Confocal Scanned Imaging in Light Microscopy". In James Pawley. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3. ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ...
... cyst as imaged at different instrument settings by confocal microscopy.Bar = 10 micrometers.. (A) is the cyst imaged by ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
Recognising the potentialities of laser-scanning confocal microscopy, John built a prototype microscope: with William Bradshaw ... White co-developed confocal microscopy and mapped the complete nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans, consisting of 302 ...
"Assessment of human pancreatic islet architecture and composition by laser scanning confocal microscopy". Journal of ...
Yuste R (Dec 2005). "Fluorescence microscopy today". Nature Methods. 2 (12): 902-4. doi:10.1038/nmeth1205-902. PMID 16299474. ... 3D reconstruction of confocal image of VEGF-overexpressing neural progenitors (red) and GFP-positive control neural progenitor ... The availability of GFP and its derivatives has thoroughly redefined fluorescence microscopy and the way it is used in cell ... This has triggered the development of highly automated live-cell fluorescence microscopy systems, which can be used to observe ...
The figure shows confocal microscopy images from a combined RNA-DNA FISH experiment for Xist in fibroblast cells from adult ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
... with confocal microscopy imaging and computational modelling to expand our knowledge of hearing at the molecular and cellular ...
Absolute fluorescence sensitivity is generally lower in confocal microscopy because out-of-focus signals are rejected by the ... the utmost sensitivity of flow cytometry is unmatched by other fluorescent detection platforms such as confocal microscopy. ... confocal optical system and because the image is built up serially from individual measurements at every location across the ...
May sapat na laki ang mga partikulang koloidal upang makita ng mga tekniks optikal tulad ng confocal microscopy. Maraming mga ...
Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults PMID 30521687 ... Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults PMID 30521681 ...
Quantum microscopy. *Scanning confocal electron microscopy. *Scanning electron microscope (SEM). *Scanning tunneling microscope ... Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)Edit. Main article: Scanning tunneling microscopy. In STM, a conductive tip held at a ... Serial-section electron microscopy (ssEM)Edit. One application of TEM is serial-section electron microscopy (ssEM), for example ... Danilatos, G.D. (1986). "Environmental scanning electron microscopy in colour". Journal of Microscopy. 142: 317-325. doi: ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. *contact thermography. *dynamic ...
"The Reconstruction of a Three-Dimensional Structure from Projections and its Application to Electron Microscopy". Proc. Roy. ... Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
Non-invasive skin cancer detection methods include photography, dermoscopy, sonography, confocal microscopy, Raman spectroscopy ...
Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, ... molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2+ imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level ...
Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
By use of confocal microscopy and microelectrodes, biofilms similar to dental biofilms were shown to be present in the ...
In: Pawley JB (Editor). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy - 3rd edition. SpringerScience+Business Media, New York. ... Microscopy[edit]. A. thaliana is well suited for light microscopy analysis. Young seedlings on the whole, and their roots in ... facilitates live cell imaging using both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.[56] By wet-mounting seedlings in ...
Confocal microscopy is the microscopic procedure of choice for examining neuron structures as it produces sharp images with ... The specific way this microscopy works allows one to look at one confocal plane at a time, which is optimal when viewing ... Virtual microscopy[edit]. Virtual microscopy would allow researchers to obtain images with a decreased amount of imaging ... A variety of techniques have been used to study neuromorphology, including confocal microscopy, design-based stereology, neuron ...
Lee SC, Kim K, Kim J, Lee S, Han Yi J, Kim SW, Ha KS, Cheong C (June 2001). "One micrometer resolution NMR microscopy". Journal ... Mansfield P, Grannell PK (1975). ""Diffraction" and microscopy in solids and liquids by NMR". Physical Review B. 12 (9): 3618- ... Blümich, Bernhard; Kuhn, Winfried (1992). Magnetic Resonance Microscopy: Methods and Applications in Materials Science, ... Confocal microscopy. *Endomicroscopy. *Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Thermography. *non-contact thermography. * ...
In the 1990s and 2000s confocal microscopy enabled three-dimensional reconstruction of the T-tubule network and quantification ... Imaging technology advanced, and with the advent of transmission electron microscopy the structure of T-tubules became more ... using light microscopy to study cardiac muscle injected with India ink. ... of the rabbit transverse tubular system revealed by quantitative analysis of three-dimensional reconstructions from confocal ...
By the 1990s new technology such as confocal microscopy allowed more rapid survey of large areas of tissue. Since the 1970s ... Immunofluorescence microscopy video of connexins being moved along microtubles to the surface of a cell.[54] ... A later study using a combination of microscopy techniques confirmed the early evidence of a probable function for gap ... Later studies using immunofluorescence microscopy of larger areas of tissue clarified diversity in earlier results. Gap ...
In immunofluorescence microscopy, the actin filament network appears as a thick border surrounding the cells,[5] although the ... Confocal image of the stratum spinosum already showing some clusters of basal cells ...
The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Microscopy.. online. *^ a b c Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And ... Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing ... Foundations of Confocal Scanned Imaging in Light Microscopy". In James Pawley. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (3. ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ...
Source for information on Confocal Microscopy: World of Forensic Science dictionary. ... The choice of the microscopy technique can be determined in part by the size of the target. For example, gunshot residue may be ... Confocal Microscopy The examination of samples obtained from an accident or crime scene can be a sophisticated process. Some of ... Confocal Microscopy World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Confocal Microscopy. The examination of samples ...
Play media Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy ... "Confocal Microscopy. The Development of a Modern Microscopy". Imaging & Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy ... Foundations of Confocal Scanned Imaging in Light Microscopy". In James Pawley (ed.). Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy ... Barry R. Masters: Confocal Microscopy And Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy. The Genesis of Live Cell Imaging. SPIE Press, ...
Confocal microscopy Confocal laser scanning microscopy Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscope Scanning transmission ... Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is an electron microscopy technique analogous to scanning confocal optical ... as in other scanning microscopy techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. ... 6: 8. Zaluzec, N.J. (2007). "Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy". Microsc. Microanal. 13: 1560. doi:10.1017/ ...
Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis.. Pfister DR1, Cameron JD, Krachmer JH, Holland EJ. ... Confocal microscopy can be a useful, noninvasive imaging technique helpful in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of ... Tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed on two patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis to provide images detailing ... Although tandem scanning confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba has been described in previous reports, Acanthamoeba keratitis has ...
... deposits by confocal microscopy and to evaluate the correlation between conjunctival histopathology and confocal microscopy ... Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis. Melis Palamar,1 Suzan Guven Yilmaz,1 Taner Akalin,2 Sait Egrilmez,1 and Ayse ... To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and ... Confocal microscopy is a noninvasive tool for in vivo examination of diseases affecting the ocular surface. It provides images ...
The Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-Vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology discusses the principles of confocal in vivo ... Confocal microscopy. BioPhotonics. Feb 2007 The Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-Vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology discusses ... the principles of confocal in vivo microscopy, including slit-scanning techniques, the basics of image formation and confocal ... fluorescence microscopy. Observation of samples using excitation produced fluorescence. A sample is placed within the ...
Intraoperative confocal microscopy is an emerging and practicable technology for the resection of human brain tumors. Our ... Delaney PM, King RG, Lambert JR, Harris MR (1994) Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) for subsurface microscopy of the colon in ... Eschbacher J, Martirosyan NL, Nakaji P, Sanai N, Preul MC, Smith KA et al (2012) In vivo intraoperative confocal microscopy for ... Sanai N, Snyder LA, Honea NJ, Coons SW, Eschbacher JM, Smith KA et al (2011) Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the ...
Our data indicate that confocal microscopy provides information on living tissue that correlates with that obtained with ... Confocal microscopy in corneal dystrophies] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1999 Jan;214(1):12-21. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1034741. ... Background: Confocal microscopy represents a methodology that allows in vivo examination of corneal morphology, particularly of ... In addition, confocal microscopy provided more detailed images particularly of epithelial and stromal changes. ...
... Raktham Wanitchakorn r.wanitchakorn at Wed Aug 19 07:54:25 EST 1998 * ... I need to find a nuclear-specific label/stain so I could locate the nucleus within the cells during confocal microscopy. Could ...
For system specifications, please see the Specs tab.Thorlabs also offers complete single-channel and four-channel confocal ... Products Home / Imaging Systems & Components / Confocal Microscopy / Confocal Microscopy Upgrade. Confocal Microscopy Upgrade. ... Thorlabs Confocal Microscopy System. The photo above shows a confocal system coupled to an Olympus inverted microscope (not ... Thorlabs Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) Microscopy Upgrade consists of compact modules designed to bring powerful confocal ...
... 5 November 2013, United Kingdom ... In the webinar we will discuss best practice for confocal microscopy from sample preparation through to data analysis. Common ... This free interactive webinar will introduce the basic principles of confocal microscopy to a broad audience of biochemists, ... Finally there will be a discussion of the advanced applications which confocal microscopy can be used for. ...
Thanks to this tutorial be able to make a comparison between confocal and widefield microscopy. ... Use laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze only a slice of a sample, even a thick one. ... Confocal versus Widefield Microscopy. Among the most popular tools to conduct optical sectioning is the spot-scanning laser ... In laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), it is possible to exclusively image a thin optical slice out of a thick specimen ...
... atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ... The authors show how Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy outperforms other characterizing techniques for wafer-scale graphene. ... demonstrate the optimized balance of image resolution and acquisition time of non-invasive confocal laser scanning microscopy ( ... Furthermore, CLSM shows excellent correlation with conventional optical microscopy, ...
Optical microscopy is almost non-invasive and allows highly spatially resolved images of organisms, cells, macromolecular ... Fluorescence microscopy is an important and fundamental tool for biomedical research. ... Advanced microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy Methods Mol Biol. 2011;784:169-80. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-289-2_12. ... The development of fluorescence microscopy was revolutionized with the invention of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). ...
Although confocal reflection microscopy has limited applications in biomedical imaging, it can often provide additional ... Figure 1 - Confocal Reflected Microscopy of Cells on Substrata. Confocal reflection microscopy can be utilized to gather ... Figure 3 - Confocal Reflection Microscopy of Silver Grains. As an example, confocal reflection microscopy offers a significant ... Confocal Reflection Microscopy. When many biomedical research think "confocal microscopy", they usually have fluorescence ...
Watch this on-demand webinar to learn sample preparation for confocal microscopy. Discover its advantage over epifluorescent ... Join Dr Ann Wheeler as she reviews the basic principles of confocal microscopy. Review best practice for confocal microscopy: ... but actually when you look in confocal microscopy you can see its quite discrete. So confocal microscopy can actually be used ... So when would one need to use confocal microscopy? Well, there are limits to what a confocal can do, it can be used to ...
... on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at Translate This Blog. Hurry! Limited ... This newly updated second edition details the latest instrumentation and applications of the confocal microscope. This edition ... Huge Savings Item! Save 12% on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at ... Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science). ...
Buy Confocal Microscopy for Biologists by Alan R. Hibbs from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones ... one of the most important of which is confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy has now become an important research tool, with ... Many of the people interested in using confocal microscopy to further their research do not have a background in microscopy or ... Confocal Microscopy for Biologists (Paperback). Alan R. Hibbs (author) Sign in to write a review ...
Confocal Microscopy - Zeiss LSM 510 Meta. The Zeiss LSM 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope is used primarily by ... Non-confocal gray-scale brightfield, darkfield and differential interference contrast (DIC; with 20X and higher objective ... The confocal was funded through a National Science Foundation Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) grant (#0618719). ... However, confocal microscopes are finding increasing use in non-biological applications as well. ...
Confocal microscopy offers several advanages over conventional optical microscopy, including shallow depth of field, ... Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy, ... Confocal Microscopy Web Resources - Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), a tool that has been extensively utilized for ... Basic Concepts in Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (PDF; 2.8 Mb) - Laser scanning confocal microscopy has become an ...
Optical aberrations that cause subtle defects in image quality in widefield microscopy can have devastating effects in confocal ... Aberrations in Confocal Microscopy. Refinements in design have simplified confocal microscopy to the extent that it has become ... Over the past ten years, confocal microscopy has developed from a technique limited to specialists in microscopy into a ... The most common application of confocal microscopy is to compare the distributions or behaviors of multiple probes in the same ...
Confocal fluorescence microscopes are more widely used because they can acquire data in very thin optical sections, allowing ... In standard confocal microscopes, two or three fluorescence emission channels are defined by wavelength. In a FRET experiment ... Spectral confocal microscopes were first used to separate the signals from fluorescent molecules with highly overlapping ... Superresolution Microscopy Poster. Visually stunning poster illustrating methods and fundamental concepts The diffraction limit ...
... and light microscopy (LM) in order to correlate biochemical and molecular data with morphology. Electron... ... biologists have been confined to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ... MDCK Cell Mitotic Spindle Stereo Image Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Cell Height These keywords were added by machine and ... Hell, S., Reiner, G., Cremer, C., and Stelzer, E.H.K., 1993, Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy introduced by ...
... from setups to applications Confocal microscopy is known for its capability to produce ... Confocal microscopy is known for its capability to produce exceptional 3D images, even in living tissue. At the same time, it ... Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus (2014): Advanced confocal microscopy: from setups to applications. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty ... Fluorescence, Microscopy, Spectroscopy, FRET, STED, Correlation Spectroscopy, FCS. Subjects:. 500 Natural sciences and ...
"Efficient confocal microscopy with a dual-wedge scanner." Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition ... Efficient Confocal Microscopy with a Dual-Wedge Scanner. Author(s). Warger, William C., II; Guerrera, Stephen; Eastman, Zachary ... DownloadWarger-2009-Efficient confocal microscopy with a dual-wedge scanner.pdf (2.964Mb) ... Confocal microscopes achieve high spatial resolution by focusing both a light source and a detector to a single point with an ...
Reflectance confocal microscopy in Shiitake dermatitis]. Hautarzt. 2019 May 13;: Authors: Cussigh CS, Fink C, Winkler JK, ... Reflectance confocal microscopy in Shiitake dermatitis]. Hautarzt. 2019 May 13;: Authors: Cussigh CS, Fink C, Winkler JK, ... The results of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) correlated with the histopathological investigations. Therefore, RCM can ...
Confocal Raman microscopy refers to the ability to spatially filter the analysis volume of the sample, in the XY (lateral) and ... 25: Cross section analysis of commercial plastic, showing the capability of confocal Raman microscopy for analysis of μm thick ... There are several methods in use today (for example, true confocal aperture, or pseudo confocal slit-binning techniques) and ... For a true confocal design, the limits of spatial resolution are defined principally by the laser wavelength and quality of the ...
Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy.. Beier BD1, Quivey RG, Berger AJ. ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ... Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010 November-December ...
Welcome to the Center for Advanced Light Microscopy and Nanoscopy * Confocal maximum intensity projection of subiculum region ... provides UR Medical Center and UR River Campus researchers access to high-end confocal microscopy, laser capture ... Confocal maximum intensity projection of mouse carotid artery stained with α-SMA, Sca1, and DAPI. Image courtesy of Weimin Liu ... Confocal live imaging of Candida albicans in mouse ear (in vivo). Image courtesy of Melanie Wellington ...
  • Light travels through the sample under a conventional microscope as far into the specimen as it can penetrate, while a confocal microscope only focuses a smaller beam of light at one narrow depth level at a time. (
  • In contrast, a confocal microscope uses point illumination (see Point Spread Function ) and a pinhole in an optically conjugate plane in front of the detector to eliminate out-of-focus signal - the name "confocal" stems from this configuration. (
  • When a solid sample is examined, the confocal microscope can be equipped with detectors to capture the light that is reflected back off of the surface and the fluorescent light that is emitted. (
  • Recent advances in optical imaging and miniaturization have enabled the production of a hand-held intraoperative confocal microscope. (
  • We present a first-look feasibility analysis of the intraoperative confocal microscope as an adjunct for brain tumor resection. (
  • Using the confocal microscope "ConfoScan Modell P2" epithelial, stromal and endothelial changes were evaluated in 11 patients with corneal dystrophies. (
  • Thorlabs' Confocal Microscopy System mounted on an inverted Nikon microscope. (
  • Among the most popular tools to conduct optical sectioning is the spot-scanning laser confocal microscope where a single spot of focused light is rapidly transitioned along the lateral axes of the specimen to excite fluorescence from labeled components. (
  • The fundamental advantage of the confocal versus a traditional widefield microscope arises due to the restricted manner in which light reaches the photomultiplier through a pinhole. (
  • In this report, we demonstrate that reflection mode CLSM is a superior tool for rapid characterization of large-area graphene and graphene nanostructures on Si/SiO 2 and SiC, compared to conventional optical microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, AFM, conductive AFM (C-AFM), KPFM, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. (
  • With its unique three-dimensional representation and analysis capabilities, this technology gives us a more real view of the world.This chapter introduces the reader to the methodology of setting up basic experiments for use with a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
  • A majority of the common biomedical applications of the confocal microscope have utilized its optical sectioning power, combined with the exquisite specificity of immunofluorescence or fluorescence in-situ hybridization ( FISH ) to produce improved images of multiply-labeled cells and tissues. (
  • Both the laser scanning confocal microscope ( LSCM ) and the Nipkow spinning disk microscope can be utilized in confocal reflection mode. (
  • This surface can be difficult to locate in the confocal microscope, but the highly reflective coverslip can be employed as an aid in focusing. (
  • This newly updated second edition details the latest instrumentation and applications of the confocal microscope. (
  • This edition features 21 new chapters and includes information on preparing living specimens for the confocal microscope. (
  • Many of the people interested in using confocal microscopy to further their research do not have a background in microscopy or even cell biology and so not only do they find considerable difficulty in obtaining satisfactory results with a confocal microscope, but they may be mislead by how data is being presented. (
  • The Zeiss LSM 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope is used primarily by researchers in the biological sciences to image fluorescent probes in cells and tissues. (
  • Unlike conventional fluorescence microscopes, the confocal microscope can collect in-focus fluorescence from thin optical slices within relatively thick specimens (typically at least 100 um for biological). (
  • Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope Simulator - Perhaps the most significant advance in optical microscopy during the past decade has been the refinement of mainstream laser scanning confocal microscope ( LSCM ) techniques using improved synthetic fluorescent probes and genetically engineered proteins, a wider spectrum of laser light sources coupled to highly accurate acousto-optic tunable filter control, and the combination of more advanced software packages with modern high-performance computers. (
  • This interactive tutorial explores multi-laser fluorescence and differential interference contrast ( DIC ) confocal imaging using the Olympus FluoView FV1000 confocal microscope software interface as a model. (
  • In contrast, the method of image formation in a confocal microscope is fundamentally different. (
  • Unfortunately, the exacting optical requirements of confocal microscopy are often hidden by the optical system that guarantees a sharp image, even when the microscope is performing poorly. (
  • Its proliferation of applications results as much from the rapid technological developments in confocal microscopy as from the maturing user interface of commercial confocal microscope systems. (
  • Ironically, the same technical developments that have stimulated the spread of confocal microscopy in experimental biology have also pushed the limits of the optics of confocal microscopes in a way that makes understanding the optical properties of a confocal microscope more important than ever. (
  • The studies discussed here demonstrate that the choice of microscope objective can have profound effects on the results of confocal microscopy experiments. (
  • The images presented in Figures 1 through 3 show how the results of color confocal imaging critically depend on the nature of the microscope objective. (
  • In order to compare results of confocal spectroscopy methods with well-established bulk essays, we successfully ported the standard bulk essay to the confocal microscope, allowing for the first time to follow the decrease of monomer concentration and appear- ance of small filaments. (
  • We have demonstrated a prototype of the scanner in a reflectance confocal microscope. (
  • Raman microscopy couples a Raman spectrometer to a standard optical microscope, allowing high magnification visualization of a sample and Raman analysis with a microscopic laser spot. (
  • Raman microscopy is easy: simply place the sample under the microscope, focus, and make a measurement. (
  • However, it is well established that by using a true confocal Raman microscope, it is possible to analyze individual particles or layers with dimensions as low as 1 µm and below. (
  • For a true confocal design, the limits of spatial resolution are defined principally by the laser wavelength and quality of the laser beam that is used, and the type of microscope objective selected and so on. (
  • Core instrumentation includes: an Abberior STED microscope,A Nikon A1R HD with TIRF, an Olympus FV1000 laser scanning confocal microscope, a Zeiss PALM MicroBeam Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope also used for brightfield and color imaging (H&E), and an image analysis workstation. (
  • This book provides a comprehensive account of the theory of image formation in a confocal fluorescence microscope as well as a practical guideline to the operation of the instrument, its limitations, and the interpretation of confocal microscopy data. (
  • Since its introduction in the late seventies, the confocal fluorescence microscope has advanced rapidly from a complex instrument that could be used by specialists only, to a commercial product, which is part of the standard repertoire of modern biological research. (
  • I would also like to thank Wijnand Takkenberg for technical assistance with the confocal microscope. (
  • Laboratory is equipped with high-end inverted confocal microscope Leica TCS SP2 with AOBS (Acoustio-Optical Beam Splitter) system, which ensure high sensitivity and possibility to combine up to four fluroscence markers. (
  • The most up-to date confocal microscope Zeiss LSM 880 is equipped with set of lasers for one-photon excitation and with tunable Ti:Sa pulsed laser for two-photon excitation. (
  • Microscope Zeiss Elyra PS.1 use a technologies of structured illumination (SIM) and precise localization (PALM/STORM) to overcome so called diffraction barrier, which limits us to resolution of cca 200 nm in conventional light microscopy. (
  • For reservation of the confocal microscope TCS SP2 use Google calendar . (
  • For reservation of the confocal microscope Zeiss LSM 880 use Google calendar . (
  • The confocal is used to obtain clearer images of subcellular details that cannot be imaged with the fluorescent microscope and is especially useful for co-localization studies. (
  • To this end the authors have made use of an analytical instrument finding increasing utility in the field, the confocal raman microscope (CRM). (
  • The 1-D z scanning confocal microscope is described and its performance demonstrated with depth scans across the full thickness of the in vivo rabbit cornea. (
  • Finally, a real-time, scanning slit confocal microscope is described and demonstrated for obtaining 2-D images of the in vivo human cornea. (
  • The unique imaging characteristics of this scanning slit in vivo confocal microscope is illustrated with a series of reflected light images of the normal in vivo human cornea. (
  • Optical Sectioning With The Scanning Slit Confocal Microscope Applications. (
  • In such a microscope, the light-sheet is usually created by means of a cylindrical lens 3 or by rapidly scanning a Gaussian (or a nondiffracting) beam, as in digital scanned laser light-sheet microscopy (DSLM). (
  • Centered in the many biological applications of the confocal microscope, the book makes possible the successful imaging of both fixed and living specimens using primarily the laser scanning confocal microscope. (
  • 3D micromanipulation and imaging of colloids has been achieved by combining optical tweezers and confocal microscopy using two microscope objectives. (
  • The expected participants are academicians, scientists and research scholars in the region who are interested in using a confocal microscope for research purposes. (
  • The department is equipped with a confocal microscope, Nikon Eclipse 80i (costing Rs one crore) donated by Monsanto India Limited. (
  • It has a unique maximized working space underneath the support plate (flange) which provides the best available basis for adding a confocal microscope. (
  • The rheometer and confocal microscope can still also be used separately in stand-alone mode. (
  • Lorsque les microscopes lumineux illuminent et imagent l'ensemble de l'échantillon en vue, un microscope confocal utilise un trou d'épingle entre l'étape de l'échantillon et le détecteur de sorte que seul un petit faisceau lumineux est focalisé à une profondeur étroite à la fois. (
  • Maintenant, utilisons ces principes de microscopie et de résolution d'image pour imager un cerveau de souris à l'aide d'un microscope confocal et optique. (
  • Après avoir examiné les principaux principes de la microscopie, nous allons maintenant effectuer une mesure à l'aide d'un microscope confocal. (
  • The most common type of confocal microscope is the confocal laser scanning microscope in which laser is used as a light source to excite fluorescent markers of the specimen. (
  • Special applications demand special and customized solutions when it comes to the combination of a rheometer with a confocal microscope. (
  • Together with Dr. Petri Turunen, he was responsible for the design and development of a super-resolution confocal-rheometer microscope, by implementing an Anton Paar MCR 502 WESP rheometer. (
  • The correct handling of the microscope and optimising image quality (e.g. contrast, resolution) as well as experimental design according to different applications are crucial to obtain the best results.This course will provide the participants with an overview about the basics of microscopy (light and optics, contrast techniques and imaging). (
  • When confocal microscopes first appeared in the 1980s, they were expensive and beyond the range of many labs. (
  • Confocal microscopes work on the principle of point excitation in the specimen (diffraction limited spot) and point detection of the resulting fluorescent signal. (
  • Four types of confocal microscopes are commercially available: Confocal laser scanning microscopes use multiple mirrors (typically 2 or 3 scanning linearly along the x- and the y- axes) to scan the laser across the sample and "descan" the image across a fixed pinhole and detector. (
  • Spinning-disk (Nipkow disk) confocal microscopes use a series of moving pinholes on a disc to scan spots of light. (
  • Heidelberg Engineering GMBH, Dossenheim, Germany) introduced as an improvement over older confocal microscopes. (
  • Thorlabs' Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) Microscopy Upgrade consists of compact imaging modules specifically designed for infinity-corrected compound microscopes. (
  • This book is intended to teach you the basic concepts ofmicroscopy, fluorescence, digital imaging and the principles of confocal microscopy so that you may take full advantage ofthe excellent confocal microscopes now available. (
  • However, confocal microscopes are finding increasing use in non-biological applications as well. (
  • Basic Concepts - Current instruments are highly evolved from the earliest versions, but the principle of confocal imaging advanced by Marvin Minsky, and patented in 1957, is employed in all modern confocal microscopes. (
  • However, as confocal microscopes have become more powerful, they have also become more demanding of their optical components. (
  • Such studies have been made possible by the development of confocal microscopes that are capable of efficiently collecting multiple colors of fluorescence and developing new dyes that have extended the useful spectrum of fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Confocal fluorescence microscopes are more widely used because they can acquire data in very thin optical sections, allowing the locations of interacting fluorescent probes to be highly resolved axially and laterally. (
  • In standard confocal microscopes, two or three fluorescence emission channels are defined by wavelength. (
  • Confocal microscopes achieve high spatial resolution by focusing both a light source and a detector to a single point with an objective having a high numerical aperture. (
  • Confocal microscopes in particular are powerful because they optically slice through a specimen (even live cells) and allow 3D image reconstruction in up to four different fluorescent channels. (
  • The Tufts Imaging Facility has four confocal microscopes and most are equipped with the standard 405nm, 488nm, 561nm and 633nm laser lines, which is important to know when choosing fluorophores. (
  • The use of fixed slit and scanning slit confocal microscopes is described and illustrated for 1-D and 2-D confocal imaging of the in vivo cornea. (
  • A resonant scanner is a type of galvanometric mirror scanner that allows fast image acquisition with single-point scanning microscopes (true confocal and multiphoton laser scanning). (
  • detector from Leica Microsystems denotes a compound detection unit for point scanning microscopes, in particular confocal microscopes. (
  • MCR 702e Space MultiDrive offers the unique possibility to combine different confocal microscopes with a rheometer. (
  • Building on various successful rheo-confocal projects over the years Anton Paar provides technical support and customized solutions, often in cooperation with the manufacturers of confocal microscopes. (
  • Anton Paar rheometers offer unique specifications and provide solutions for maximum working space and flexibility which enables the combination with different confocal microscopes. (
  • Our state-of-the-art confocal microscopes have tremendous flexibility in terms of excitation laser lines, emission color, automated sampling protocols, and environmental controls. (
  • The Confocal Core offers training and assistance in the use of multiple confocal microscopes housed in our facility. (
  • The facility provides individual instruction on an array of confocal microscopes. (
  • Reflectance confocal microscopy in Shiitake dermatitis. (
  • The results of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) correlated with the histopathological investigations. (
  • Nevomelanocytic atypia detection by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. (
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a promising novel technology for non-invasive early diagnostics of cutaneous melanoma. (
  • This study aimed to define the in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of superficial cutaneous fungal infections and to analyse concordance with microscopic examination. (
  • Change from baseline in the degree of infiltration of the epidermis by inflammatory cells following treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05% as assessed by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) in actinic keratosis (AK) skin.This RCM imaging technique is a relatively new non-invasive, real-time evaluation method to generate horizontal skin sections at a resolution comparable to routine histology. (
  • Change from baseline in the degree of infiltration of the epidermis by inflammatory cells following treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05% as assessed by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) in Sub actinic keratosis (AK) skin. (
  • Evaluation of presurgical tumor margins by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is a potential alternative. (
  • We concluded that reflectance confocal microscopy can be useful in the preoperative definition of basal cell carcinoma margins. (
  • To examine cases of desquamative gingivitis using reflectance confocal microscopy and compare the findings with those of normal gingiva. (
  • Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed the gingival of a healthy person and on gingival lesions. (
  • All lesions were biopsied in order to perform a reflectance confocal microscopy- histopathologic correlation. (
  • Reflectance confocal microscopy exam of the gingival lesions suspected of mucous membrane pemphigoid revealed a separation at the level of dermal-epidermal junction, filled with small bright structures interpreted as blood cells. (
  • For pemphigus vulgaris, reflectance confocal microscopy aspects were of intraepithelial cleft with round detached cells interpreted as acantholytic keratinocytes, similar to the histopathological features. (
  • We propose the use of reflectance confocal microscopy as a useful tool to help distinguish between the three most common causes of desquamative gingivitis. (
  • Save 12% on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at Translate This Blog. (
  • This free interactive webinar will introduce the basic principles of confocal microscopy to a broad audience of biochemists, molecular biologists and biomedical scientists. (
  • My overall impression of this book is that it offers an excellent compilation of high-standard reviews on basic concepts of microscopy and the principles of confocal microscopy. (
  • Furthermore, CLSM shows excellent correlation with conventional optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman mapping. (
  • Currently, Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), are the most widely used methods of characterizing the material quality. (
  • Confocal Raman microscopy refers to the ability to spatially filter the analysis volume of the sample, in the XY (lateral) and Z (depth) axes. (
  • Identification of different bacterial species in biofilms using confocal Raman microscopy. (
  • Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is used to discriminate between different species of bacteria grown in biofilms. (
  • In this paper, we employ in-situ confocal Raman microscopy to probe the partitioning of a model membrane-active compound, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid or ibuprofen, into both hybrid- and supported-phospholipid bilayers deposited on the pore walls of individual chromatographic particles. (
  • Kitt, Jay P., Bryce, David A., Minteer, Shelley D., and Harris, Joel M.. Confocal Raman Microscopy for In-situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles . (
  • article{osti_1437042, title = {Confocal Raman Microscopy for In-situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles}, author = {Kitt, Jay P. and Bryce, David A. and Minteer, Shelley D. and Harris, Joel M.}, abstractNote = {The phospholipid-water partition coefficient is a commonly measured parameter that correlates with drug efficacy, small-molecule toxicity, and accumulation of molecules in biological systems in the environment. (
  • Confocal microscopy , most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy ( CLSM ), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation. (
  • We demonstrate the optimized balance of image resolution and acquisition time of non-invasive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), rendering it an indispensable tool for rapid analysis of mass-produced graphene. (
  • Confocal microscopy (or more precise: confocal laser scanning microscopy, CLSM) has become a standard technology in recent years. (
  • DTAF: an efficient probe to study cyanobacterial-plant interaction using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). (
  • A variety of microscopic techniques have been utilized to study cyanobacterial associations with plant roots, but confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is the least used due to the unavailability of a suitable fluorescent dye. (
  • In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM) prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. (
  • Cervical biopsy specimens of colposcopically normal and abnormal tissues obtained from 15 patients were evaluated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. (
  • The topography imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the another method for determining layer thickness of CVD or exfoliated graphene on various substrates. (
  • These facts have been corroborated by many gravimetric experiments, as well as visualization by electron and atomic force microscopy. (
  • Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. (
  • Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. (
  • This group evaluated corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) quantification of corneal nerve morphology as a novel, non‐invasive, in vivo quantitative imaging biomarker for the severity of neurological manifestations in FRDA. (
  • OBJECTIVE To establish if corneal nerve loss, detected using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM), is symmetrical between right and left eyes and relates to the severity of diabetic neuropathy. (
  • The confocal microscopy workshop will elucidate the basic principle of confocal microscopy including image acquisition and processing. (
  • Confocal microscopy as a technique is there to take high-resolution fluorescent images of your cells, your tissues and anything else that you may be happening to use as a biological specimen, and it does this by eliminating out-of-focus slides. (
  • Confocal microscopy has now become an important research tool, with a large number of new fluorescent dyes becoming available in the past few years, for probing your pet structure or molecule within fixed or living cell or tissue sampies. (
  • DTAF (5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein) is a fluorescent dye that has been widely used for staining various biological samples for fluorescent microscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy can be used to locate fluorescent objects with sub-micron resolution in live or fixed cells, engineered or cultured tissues, plants, materials or devices. (
  • A new fluorescent molecule, when examined using confocal microscopy, can reveal the presence of four-stranded DNA in living cells. (
  • To accomplish this, they have created a fluorescent molecule that, when examined using confocal microscopy , can reveal the presence of these structures in living cells. (
  • In addition, laser scanning confocal microscopy is capable of producing the highest out-of-focus discrimination of all routine optical sectioning techniques. (
  • In laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), it is possible to exclusively image a thin optical slice out of a thick specimen (ranging in physical section thickness up to 100 micrometers), a technique known as optical sectioning. (
  • The development of fluorescence microscopy was revolutionized with the invention of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). (
  • Application of laser scanning confocal microscopy in the analysis of drug-induced lung fibrosis. (
  • With laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), it is possible to simultaneously quantify lung fibrosis and distinguish pathological lesions of intact lung tissue. (
  • The study was aimed at comparing the long-term effects of different antiglaucoma eye drops on conjunctival structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy. (
  • In recent years, the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) has provided a promising method to study the structures of the ocular surface in glaucoma [ 9 - 12 ]. (
  • Results of laser scanning confocal microscopy images and the fluorescence emission spectra from lambda scan mode suggest, in fact, that the intruding of the hydrophobic moiety of the probe within the cationic surfactants bilayer film coating GNPs results in a Förster resonance energy transfer. (
  • Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. (
  • The module consists of a monochrome laser radiation source which avoids chromatic aberrations and provides extremely sharp images and a high-powered lens that allows the operator to change the confocal plane within the cornea to capture images at different depths without losing sharpness [ 4 ]. (
  • Confocal reflection microscopy works especially well for imaging the cornea and lens of the eye because they are transparent. (
  • Confocal microscopy allows an in vivo ultrastructural analysis of the cornea. (
  • To characterize the cornea of individuals with Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) at the cellular level by laser confocal biomicroscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy provides the capacity for direct, noninvasive, serial optical sectioning of intact, thick, living specimens with a minimum of sample preparation as well as a marginal improvement in lateral resolution. (
  • Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around a sample to reconstruct an image in a point-by-point manner. (
  • In ideal diffraction-limited optical microscopy imaging depth is limited by the multiply scattered wave. (
  • Confocal microscopy provides the capacity for direct, noninvasive, serial optical sectioning of intact, thick, living specimens with a minimum of sample preparation as well as a marginal improvement in lateral resolution compared to wide-field microscopy. (
  • This interactive tutorial explores optical sectioning with confocal microscopy and compares these sections to the results obtained with widefield fluorescence. (
  • Previously, optical microscopy was demonstrated to be a useful tool for rapid identification of layer inhomogeneities in EG over hundreds of micrometers 23 . (
  • Optical microscopy is almost non-invasive and allows highly spatially resolved images of organisms, cells, macromolecular complexes, and biomolecules to be obtained. (
  • Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional optical microscopy, including controllable depth of field, the elimination of image degrading out-of-focus information, and the ability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens. (
  • There has been a tremendous explosion in the popularity of confocal microscopy in recent years, due in part to the relative ease with which extremely high-quality images can be obtained from specimens prepared for conventional optical microscopy, and in its great number of applications in many areas of current research interest. (
  • Introduction to Confocal Microscopy - Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over conventional widefield optical microscopy, including the ability to control depth of field, elimination or reduction of background information away from the focal plane (that leads to image degradation), and the capability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens. (
  • In fact, confocal technology is proving to be one of the most important advances ever achieved in optical microscopy. (
  • In fact, optical aberrations that cause subtle defects in image quality in widefield microscopy can have devastating effects in confocal microscopy. (
  • Confocal imaging involves scanning the specimen to create computer-generated optical sections down to 250 nm thickness using visible light. (
  • The appendices provide a quick reference to optical theory, microscopy-related formulas and definitions, and Fourier theory. (
  • Its unique feature is that it combines optical techniques -- which are noninvasive, and can be used inside (intact) watery structures -- with high resolution 3D microscopy. (
  • The goal of this course was to introduce students with a biology background to some of the fundamental concepts of image formation in confocal fluorescence microscopy and to make them aware of experiment related issues, such as optical aberrations, bleaching, point spread function measurement and digitization. (
  • In addition to this, the text was used to compile, over the years, optical formulas and relations that are used in microscopy related from a multitude of sources. (
  • In this way the book also serves as a quick reference to optical theory in general and its application to confocal fluorescence microscopy in particular. (
  • In light sheet fluorescence microscopy optical sectioning is achieved by illuminating the sample orthogonally to the detection pathway with a thin, focused sheet of light. (
  • A. Horst, D.L.J. Vossen, K. Visscher, M. Dogterom and A. Blaaderen, Manipulation and imaging of particles with optical tweezers and confocal microscopy , Microsc. (
  • Confocal microscopy provides a significant improvement over conventional widefield optical microscopy imaging, including the ability to control the depth of field, elimination of background information and the capability to collect serial optical sections from thick specimens to reconstruct the 3-D image of a specimen, improved immunofluorescence studies, observation of subcellular organelles etc. (
  • Microscopy-optimized laser sources reduce investment costs and optical system complexity. (
  • Allen, R.D., 1985, New observations on cell architecture and dynamics by video-enhanced contrast optical microscopy. (
  • The present study evaluates the potential of en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a possible non-invasive high resolution imaging method in supplying the necessary information on the quality of dental hard tissues and defects of dental restorative materials. (
  • 000216422 001__ 216422 000216422 005__ 20180318102530.0 000216422 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1364/Ol.40.005754 000216422 022__ $$a0146-9592 000216422 02470 $$2ISI$$a000366681600015 000216422 037__ $$aARTICLE 000216422 245__ $$aConfocal microscopy through a multimode fiber using optical correlation 000216422 260__ $$aWashington$$bOptical Soc Amer$$c2015 000216422 269__ $$a2015 000216422 300__ $$a4 000216422 336__ $$aJournal Articles 000216422 520__ $$aWe report on a method to obtain confocal imaging through multimode fibers using optical correlation. (
  • Widefield microscopy is a powerful tool that has been utilized to investigate cellular and molecular processes involved in cell signaling. (
  • There are practical guidelines about sample preparation for both fixed and living specimens, as well as examples of some of the applications of confocal microscopy. (
  • Imaging unstained specimens with confocal reflection microscopy was very common for designers of early confocal instruments prior to the emergence of epifluorescence techniques. (
  • The key to the confocal approach is the use of spatial filtering to eliminate out-of-focus light or flare in specimens that are thicker than the plane of focus. (
  • The basic key to the confocal approach is the use of spatial filtering techniques to eliminate out-of-focus light or glare in specimens whose thickness exceeds the immediate plane of focus. (
  • There has been a tremendous explosion in the popularity of confocal microscopy in recent years, due in part to the relative ease with which extremely high-quality images can be obtained from specimens prepared for conventional fluorescence microscopy, and the growing number of applications in cell biology that rely on imaging both fixed and living cells and tissues. (
  • Electron microscopy (EM) provides fine ultrastructural detail but is limited to the study of cellular structures that react with electron-dense stains deposited in fixed specimens. (
  • Confocal images could be correlated to conventional (slitlamp) biomicroscopic findings in all patients with corneal dystrophies. (
  • Our data indicate that confocal microscopy provides information on living tissue that correlates with that obtained with conventional techniques on fixed and sectioned tissue. (
  • The URMC Center for Advanced Light Microscopy and Nanoscopy (CALMN) provides UR Medical Center and UR River Campus researchers access to high-end confocal microscopy, laser capture microdissection, as well as more conventional brightfield and immunofluorescence microscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy has the advantage over conventional light microscopy of being able, through means of an adjustable slit, to discard light from above and below the focal plane, to makes it possible to observe a precise point within a transparent film. (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of pCLE (probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy) compared with conventional chromoendoscopy (CE) for delineating the margin of early gastric cancer (EGC) with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). (
  • Moreover, confocal microscopy findings in desquamative gingivitis were compared to conventional histopathology of the biopsied lesions, in order to establish criteria for this non-invasive diagnostic technique. (
  • Fluorescence emission gathered from the specimen is filtered through a confocal pinhole aperture to reject light that originates from regions removed from the focal plane. (
  • Confocal reflection microscopy can be utilized to gather additional information from a specimen with relatively little extra effort, since the technique requires minimum specimen preparation and instrument re-configuration. (
  • Imaging Modes - A number of different imaging modes are used in the application of confocal microscopy to a vast variety of specimen types. (
  • The combination of image scanning microscopy and quantum imaging improves resolution up to fourfold compared with the classical diffraction barrier. (
  • Quantum correlations from photon antibunching enhance the resolution of image scanning microscopy in biological imaging by twofold, four times beyond the diffraction limit. (
  • Confocal microscopy can be a useful, noninvasive imaging technique helpful in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (
  • Bussau LJ, Vo LT, Delaney PM, Papworth GD, Barkla DH, King RG (1998) Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo. (
  • Delaney PM, King RG, Lambert JR, Harris MR (1994) Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) for subsurface microscopy of the colon in vivo. (
  • Eschbacher J, Martirosyan NL, Nakaji P, Sanai N, Preul MC, Smith KA et al (2012) In vivo intraoperative confocal microscopy for real-time histopathological imaging of brain tumors. (
  • Thorlabs' Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) Microscopy Upgrade consists of compact modules designed to bring powerful confocal imaging tools within the reach of any research lab. (
  • Thorlabs also offers complete single-channel and four-channel confocal systems based on our Cerna ® microscopy platform, allowing users to combine confocal imaging capability with our Cerna widefield imaging accessories. (
  • When many biomedical research think "confocal microscopy", they usually have fluorescence imaging in mind. (
  • A major attraction of confocal reflection microscopy for biomedical imaging is the ability to image unlabeled living tissue. (
  • A traditional biological application of widefield reflected light imaging is for observing the interactions between cells growing in tissue culture on glass coverslips using a technique termed interference reflection microscopy. (
  • The requirements for accurate color imaging have been further increased by the development of colorimetric methods of quantitative microscopy, such as fluorescence ratio measurements of ion concentrations. (
  • When imaging a sample in color confocal microscopy, this defect results in different colors of excitation illumination being focused to different points in the sample and different colors of emission being collected from different points in the sample. (
  • Confocal live imaging of Candida albicans in mouse ear ( in vivo ). (
  • The URMC Center for Advanced Light Microscopy and Nanoscopy (CALMN) provides UR researchers the ability to obtain high quality imaging data using state-of-the-art microscopy instruments. (
  • 2. The confocal interferometry system of claim 1 further comprising a second imaging system that images the array of pinholes onto the array of detector elements. (
  • 5. The confocal interferometry system of claim 4 , wherein the first imaging system further comprises a refracting surface positioned between the object and the beam splitter to receive light rays from the object. (
  • The DeltaVision OMX offers super-resolution imaging using 3D structured illumination (3D-SIM) and/or localization microscopy techniques. (
  • It is possible to do one channel FLIM (Fluorescence Life-time IMaging), FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy) and RICS (Raster Image Correlation Microscopy) measurents which allow us uncover molecular relationships and functions. (
  • A new, high power, ultra-compact, violet laser from Coherent, Inc. will provide improved performance for numerous short wavelength applications, including examples in life sciences, where it will enable brighter confocal imaging and faster flow cytometry throughput rates. (
  • What facilities does Tufts have for confocal microscopy and other imaging techniques? (
  • The Nikon A1R inverted confocal has a resonant scanner capable of high speed imaging (500 frames/sec at 512×512 pixel resolution) suitable for ion imaging and is being used for calcium imaging in cardiomyocytes. (
  • The Leica SP8 inverted confocal has a HyD sensitive detector and can be used with very low laser powers allowing longer imaging of easily bleached samples. (
  • Her research interests are focused on the use of imaging instruments such as dermoscopy, and confocal laser microscopy to recognize skin cancer early in its development. (
  • We also present the experimental combination of a depth-resolved confocal imaging system with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter. (
  • We show that the doubling of the imaging speed does not affect the confocal detection high contrast. (
  • 1 , 2 In particular, light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has become one of the fastest growing techniques for imaging of three-dimensional (3-D) thick samples. (
  • These optics allow Biomedical researchers to push the boundaries of microscopy, imaging deeper into tissue samples to determine their nature and structure. (
  • But because there is no gold standard for evaluating the post-CXL demarcation line in vivo , this prospective case series investigated the utility of 3 imaging modalities: confocal microscopy, OCT and Scheimpflug imaging. (
  • The authors examined two methods each of confocal microscopy and Scheimpflug imaging. (
  • Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy (RCM) offers noninvasive high-resolution imaging of human skin in vivo. (
  • Based on a previous study, a set of 5 histologically correlated confocal imaging criteria for diagnosing BCC was established, eg, the presence of elongated monomorphic nuclei. (
  • In Confocal Microscopy Methods and Protocols, Stephen Paddock and a highly skilled panel of experts lead the researcher using confocal techniques from the bench top, through the imaging process, to the journal page. (
  • They concisely describe all the key stages of confocal imaging-from tissue sampling methods, through the staining process, to the manipulation, presentation, and publication of the realized image. (
  • Found at the core of the STELLARIS confocal platform, it will revolutionize your imaging experiments. (
  • Nowadays diode lasers, fiber lasers and solid state lasers play the major role in modern confocal imaging instruments and have taken the part of formerly used gas lasers almost completely. (
  • The ImageXpress ® Confocal High-Content Imaging System combines premium hardware technology with IN Carta Image Analysis Software , a self-learning software analysis workflow for increased signal and ultra-fast 3D organoid screening. (
  • It uniquely combines the resolution of traditional confocal systems with the speed typically associated with wide-field imaging. (
  • Confocal Rheo-imaging is a powerful tool for the detailed characterization of the microstructure of complex fluids and soft materials like biomimetic hydroels or colloidal suspensions. (
  • Though fluorescence is the primary imaging mode, reflected light confocal microscopy can be used to image collagen fibrils or other material properties. (
  • 19 Jun - 23 Jun 2017 EMBL Course: Fundamentals of Widefield and Confocal Microscopy and Imaging F. Eich, J. Marquardt, S. Terjung Light microscopy is the most widely used form of microscopy for life science research. (
  • The confocal part will include multicolor, 3D- and time lapse imaging as well as spectral imaging, photobleaching (FRAP, FLIP, FLAP) and photoactivation techniques. (
  • The Confocal Core's mission is to provide researchers with a wide array of state-of-the-art confocal imaging equipment to enable acquisition of high resolution images (both in vivo and in vitro). (
  • Becker DE, Ancin H, Szarowski DH, Turner JN, Roysam B (1996) Automated 3-D montage synthesis from laser-scanning confocal images: application to quantitative tissue-level cytological analysis. (
  • Confocal microscopy is known for its capability to produce exceptional 3D images, even in living tissue. (
  • We examined and established the potential of ex-vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy for differentiating between normal cervical tissue, low grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN1), and high grade CIN (CIN2 and CIN3). (
  • Our objectives were to i) use Quantitative Tissue Phenotype (QTP) analysis to quantify nuclear and cellular morphology and tissue architecture in confocal microscopic images of fresh cervical biopsies and ii) determine the accuracy of high grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy. (
  • Confocal images were analyzed and about 200 morphological and architectural features were calculated at the nuclear, cellular, and tissue level. (
  • Confocal microscopy is performed on tissue sections on fixed cultured cells or even with living cells containing an appropriate fluorescence label. (
  • Fiber coupled non descanned 4Pi detection with a commercial confocal. (
  • Confocal detection in digital scanned laser light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (DSLM) has been established as a gold standard method to improve image quality. (
  • Eugen Baumgart and Ulrich Kubitscheck, "Scanned light sheet microscopy with confocal slit detection," Opt. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that contrast and degree of confocality can greatly be increased by combining scanned light sheet fluorescence excitation and confocal slit detection. (
  • Synchronizing the "rolling shutter" with the scanned illumination beam results in confocal line detection. (
  • A confocal epifluorescence detection scheme, optimized to give sub-picomolar detection within planar glass substrates etched to a 30 µm depth, is described. (
  • Here, we present depth-resolved confocal reflectance interferometric microscopy as the next generation QPM to study nuclear and plasma membrane biomechanics. (
  • In addition, information from unstained tissues is readily available with confocal reflection microscopy, as is data from tissues labeled with probes that reflect light. (
  • QTP analysis of fluorescence confocal images shows the potential to discriminate high grade CIN from low grade CIN and normal tissues. (
  • The combination of confocal microscopy and rheology is a powerful tool for the detailed characterization of the microstructure of complex fluids and soft materials like biomimetic hydrogels or colloidal suspensions. (
  • There are several methods in use today (for example, true confocal aperture, or pseudo confocal slit-binning techniques) and some are better than others. (
  • The powerful hands-on methods collected in Confocal Microscopy Methods and Protocols will help even the novice to produce first-class cover-quality confocal images. (
  • All Confocal Upgrades include a computer, DAQ, and ThorImage ® LS Data Acquisition Software. (
  • We report on the capability to recover the full image acquisition rate via dual confocal DSLM by using an acousto-optic deflector. (
  • The Digital Confocal Option* enhances contrast of images during acquisition, allowing you to decrease exposure time more than two fold and increase throughput while maintaining assay quality. (
  • Confocal microscopy enables acquisition of three-dimensionally resolved fluorescence images by collecting emissions only from the focus of a scanned laser beam. (
  • The proteins associated with the focal contacts are analyzed utilizing immunofluorescence, and the contacts themselves can be viewed using interference reflection microscopy. (
  • e) Highly reflective punctiform deposits in the stroma demonstrated with confocal microscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy represents a methodology that allows in vivo examination of corneal morphology, particularly of the epithelium and stroma. (
  • Nanoscopy allow us observe structures with 2-3x higher resolution with SIM and up to 5 nm with localization microscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (
  • Tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed on two patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis to provide images detailing characteristic findings of the disease. (
  • To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. (
  • The aim of this study is to demonstrate the location of conjunctival and corneal silver deposits by confocal microscopy and to evaluate the correlation between conjunctival histopathology and confocal microscopy findings in a case of occupational argyrosis. (
  • Confocal microscopy not only supports diagnosis in ocular argyrosis, but also demonstrates the intensity of the deposition in these patients. (
  • Sensitivity and specificity of reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for in vivo diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter study. (
  • Patients undergoing a reno-ureteroscopy for diagnosis or treatment indication will follow a laser confocal microscopy procedure. (
  • Patients undergoing a reno-ureteroscopy for diagnosis or treatment indication will receive an intra-vesical instillation of fluorescein (0.1%) for 5 minutes, followed by the laser confocal microscopy procedure. (
  • In Vivo Confocal Microscopy: A New Possibility to Confirm the Diagnosis of Borrelia Keratitis? (
  • In confocal microscopy, the source of illumination is laser light. (
  • Advanced microscopy makes use of multi color laser illumination. (
  • The Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-Vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology discusses the principles of confocal in vivo microscopy, including slit-scanning techniques, the basics of image formation and confocal fluorescence microscopy . (
  • Refinements in design have simplified confocal microscopy to the extent that it has become a standard research tool in cell biology. (
  • Reading and thinking about cell biology is very interesting no doubt, but I find that to be able to see biological processes by live microscopy just amplifies the questions at hand so much! (
  • Fluorescence microscopy, due to its combination of molecular specificity and high contrast, has broad application in a wide range of research areas, from cell biology to neuroscience. (
  • Computer controlled quantitative scanning confocal microscopy may be used to carry out precise measurements of depth profiles of entrapped particulates by scanning a vertical series of 2D planes into the membrane. (
  • Interferometric microscopy, also known as quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), is a powerful tool for studying red blood cell biomechanics. (
  • Spectral phasor analysis allows unmixing fluorescence microscopy images, but it requires user involvement and has a limited number of labels that can be analyzed and displayed. (
  • Confocal microscopy provides high-resolution, high-contrast in vivo images and is a powerful tool for studying the ultrastructure of the cell, its molecular components, and their functions. (
  • In addition, confocal microscopy provided more detailed images particularly of epithelial and stromal changes. (
  • By eliminating signals that originate from outside the focal plane, confocal microscopy provides the ability to acquire high-resolution, optically sectioned images from within a thick sample or to reduce background fluorescence from thin cultures. (
  • Our lasers provide a diffraction-limited beam with an excellent wavefront being the base for excellent resolution of confocal images. (
  • The environmental scanning electron microscopy images show that DNA molecules act as template to assemble GNPs into three-dimensional structures which are reminiscent of the DNA helix. (
  • C-scan and B-scan OCT images as well as confocal images are acquired from a large range of samples. (
  • We selected 12 basal cell carcinoma lesions that were analyzed by confocal microscopy to define margins. (
  • This protocol describes how to visualize and quantify translation of individual mRNAs in live cells by fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Due to the limited knowledge of the physiology of these cells, I need to find a nuclear-specific label/stain so I could locate the nucleus within the cells during confocal microscopy. (
  • The most common application of confocal microscopy is to compare the distributions or behaviors of multiple probes in the same cells. (
  • The FemtoFiber family lasers have proven their outstanding performance and suitability already in various microscopy applications ranging from broadband CARS to in-situ measurements of living cells via STED microscopy. (
  • I have been doing some work on CACO2 and MDCK cells, looking at the localisation of a protein relative to tight junctions in these polarised cells using confocal microscopy. (
  • Confocal microscopy is a well-established tool for studying nanoscopic features and processes in cells and materials. (
  • Confocal microscopy image of the new probe inside human bone cancer cells. (
  • To address this question, two different real-time single-cell hexose uptake assays were applied to cultured hippocampal astrocytes using confocal epifluorescence microscopy. (
  • We applied confocal laser-scanning microscopy to the measurement of contact angles between the permanent adhesive of barnacle cyprid larvae and self-assembled monolayers of OH- and CH 3 -terminated thiols. (
  • For time resolved- and multiphoton- microscopy applications TOPTICA offers a broad variety of modelocked fiber lasers emitting pulses in the femto-and picosecond regime at various pulse energies. (
  • Finally there will be a discussion of the advanced applications which confocal microscopy can be used for. (
  • Review best practice for confocal microscopy: from sample preparation through to data analysis, common pitfalls and problems, optimizing instrument set up and the advanced applications for which confocal microscopy can be used. (
  • Confocal microscopy has a range of applications, and this is just a small summary, but there are many more ways to do a confocal experiment. (
  • Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus (2014): Advanced confocal microscopy: from setups to applications. (
  • The contents of this book started out as material for a text that I wrote for the Ph.D. course Confocal Light Microscopy: Fundamentals and Biological Applications, which was first given by me in 1996 at the University of Amsterdam. (
  • The superior beam quality of OBIS 405 LX makes it ideal for use in confocal microscopy and both multi-laser and single laser applications of flow cytometry. (
  • In this webinar, we show technical challenges and solutions for rheo-confocal combinations and examples for practical applications. (